WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicycle town project

  1. Statewide analysis of bicycle crashes : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An extensive literature review was conducted to locate existing studies in four areas: (1) risk factors that affect the frequency and severity of bicycle crashes; (2) bicycle crash causes, patterns, and contributing factors; (3) network screening met...

  2. Bicycle Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving bicyclists in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  3. Usage Patterns of Electric Bicycles: An Analysis of the WeBike Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gorenflo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of data collected through the Waterloo WeBike project: a field trial in which over 30 sensor-equipped electric bicycles (e-bikes were given to members of the University of Waterloo for personal use. Our dataset includes e-bike trips and battery charging sessions spanning nearly three years, from summer 2014 until spring 2017. We also conducted three surveys both before and during the trial. Our main findings were that the primary purpose of the e-bikes in our trial was for commuting, with most trips lasting less than 20 minutes and most trips taking place in the summer months. Our battery charging analysis revealed no evidence of range anxiety, and our analysis of survey results showed little correlation between anticipated and actual use. Furthermore, when asked about their opinions about various modes of transportation, our participants rated regular bicycles higher than e-bikes even after becoming familiar with e-bikes through the field trial. Based on our analysis, we draw several conclusions, including the fact that the general population in Canada is still unaware of e-bikes and their potential. Moreover, e-bike manufacturers should target sales to nonbike users, such as seniors, rather than trying to displace sales of regular bicycles.

  4. 76 FR 9340 - Mill Town Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13995-000] Mill Town Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 4, 2011, Mill Town Power Project filed an application for a...

  5. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County, with majority funding provided by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified

  6. The Acquarossa Memory Project : Reconstructing an Etruscan Town

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lulof, P.S.; Sepers, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Digital techniques and cultural heritage connect, in an innovative way, new and old within the Humanities. In this new project, an Etruscan townscape will be recreated; modelled results created by the 4D Research Lab will be integrated in an Archaeological Park and Museum in such a way that

  7. Design and analysis of sustainable paper bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik; Nasution, Januar

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design of sustainable paper bicycle which describes the stage by stage in the production of paper bicycle. The objective of this project is to design a sustainable paper bicycles to be used for children under five years old. The design analysis emphasizes in screening method to ensure the design fulfil the safety purposes. The evaluation concept is presented in designing a sustainable paper bicycle to determine highest rating. Project methodology is proposed for developing a sustainable paper bicycle. Design analysis of pedal, front and rear wheel, seat, and handle were presented using AutoCAD software. The design optimization was performed to fulfil the safety factors by modifying the material size and dimension. Based on the design analysis results, it is found that the optimization results met the factor safety. As a result, a sustainable paper bicycle was proposed for children under five years old.

  8. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, Vera Elisabeth; Beusenberg, Mark; Dubbeldam, Rosemary; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Poelman, Wim; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced

  9. (Boda boda) riders in Bungoma Town, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even stationary bikes can cause trauma to the blood supply to the penis, resulting in Erectile Dysfunction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of long term bicycle riding on erectile function among bicycle taxi (bodaboda) riders in Bungoma town. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study. Setting: Bungoma County, Kenya.

  10. Evaluation electric bicycles; Evaluation velos electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Leovelo service is the first measure in favor of the bicycle to control the air pollution and to conserve energy. It provides in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) a service of bicycle hiring. This document evaluates the project after two years of operating. It provides a technical evaluation (maintenance, equipment, financing) and also the socio-economic impacts. (A.L.B.)

  11. Report on the project of drawing energy-saving visions for the Town of Sayo district; Sayomachi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey/study is conducted to draw the district energy visions for Town of Sayo, Hyogo Pref. The town as a whole consumes energy at 1,269,040GJ/y, or 140,817MJ/y per capita, which is about 1.2 times larger than the nationwide average. By energy source, electric power accounts for 43%, and oil products 53%. The town as a whole emits carbon dioxide at 18,900,403kg-C/y, or 2,097kg-C/y per capita, which is lower than the nationwide average. The short-term (1 year or less), medium-term (3 year or less) and long-term (5 years or less) targets are drawn by employees of the town offices, citizens and entrepreneurs for energy-saving directions (saving of power for air conditioning by adjusting clothes, wider use of bicycles and public trains). Those facilities investigated for promoting energy saving include those for the town office buildings, solar energy system for producing hot water for town-operated swimming pool, and solar energy system and photovoltaic system for Harima Observatory Park. (NEDO)

  12. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  13. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  14. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) Town Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Kyle, Page; Basso, Bruno; Winter, Jonathan; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    AgMIP (www.agmip.org) is an international community of climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts working to further the development and application of multi-model, multi-scale, multi-disciplinary agricultural models that can inform policy and decision makers around the world. This meeting will engage the AGU community by providing a brief overview of AgMIP, in particular its new plans for a Coordinated Global and Regional Assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security for AR6. This Town Hall will help identify opportunities for participants to become involved in AgMIP and its 30+ activities.

  15. New energy vision for Nomura town. Fiscal 2000 survey report on regional new energy vision formulation project for Nomura town, Ehime Prefecture; Nomuracho shin energy vision. 2000 nendo Nomuracho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    An effort is being exerted to build a town which will generate but a little environmental impact, with symbiosis with nature established as the highest priority target of the town administrative activities. Under the Nomura town new energy vision, a basic policy and measures are established toward the promotion of new energy introduction, with local features, existence of new energy resources, and the feasibility of new energy adoption taken into consideration. Surveys were made and the results are compiled into seven chapters, which involve (1) the trend of new energy, (2) local features, (3) existing amount and available amount of new energy, (4) basic policy toward the introduction of new energy, (5) main projects for the introduction of new energy, (6) details of the basic policy toward the introduction of new energy, and (7) the Nomura Town Deliberation Committee on New Energy Vision Formulation. Chapter (6) covers the assessment of new energy introduction feasibility, promotion of concretized introduction projects, public relations/enlightening/popularizing activities, and assistance for new energy introduction. Studied for introduction are photovoltaic power generation, solar heat utilization, wind power generation, biomass power generation, and the like. (NEDO)

  16. Urban Lighting Project for a Small Town: Comparing Citizens and Authority Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cellucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The smart and resilient city evolves by slow procedures of mutation without radical changes, increasing the livability of its territory. The value of the city center in a Smart City can increase through urban lighting systems: its elements on the territory can collect and convey data to increase services to city users; the electrical system becomes the so-called Smart Grid. This paper presents a study of smart lighting for a small town, a touristic location inside a nature reserve on the Italian coast. Three different approaches have been proposed, from minimal to more invasive interventions, and their effect on the territory has been investigated. Based on street typology and its surroundings, the work analyzes the opportunity to introduce smart and useful services for the citizens starting from a retrofitting intervention. Smart city capabilities are examined, showing how it is possible to provide new services to the cities through ICT (Information and Communication Technology without deep changes and simplifying the control of basic city functions. The results evidence an important impact on annual energy costs, suggesting smart grid planning not only for metropolis applications, but also in smaller towns, such as the examined one.

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on regional new energy vision formulation project for Yunomae town, Kumamoto prefecture; 2000 nendo Yunomaecho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A regional new energy vision has been formulated for Yunomae town, Kumamoto Prefecture, from the standpoint that local autonomies are required to work out measures compatible with Government energy policies and thereby to wrestle with environmental measures being undertaken across the world. The results of activities conducted for this purposed are stated in six chapters, which cover (1) the meaning of regional new energy vision formulation and its position, (2) outline of Yunomae town, (3) energy and environments, (4) energy situation in Yunomae town, (5) Yunomae town's regional new energy vision, and (6) plans for promoting the embodiment of the vision. In chapter (5), basic policies toward new energy utilization, overall plan, leading projects, and energy conservation measures are stated. The types of new energy taken up for discussion are photovoltaic power, wind power, biomass power, refuse-derived energy, and hydraulic energy. Projects are subjected to study, which relate to photovoltaic power generation, solar heat utilization, small scale hydroelectric power, small scale wind power, and the introduction of clean energy vehicles. It is expected that these projects when carried out will cover approximately 10% of the current energy consumption of the town. (NEDO)

  18. The Historical Town’s Atlas of the Czech Republic – as a part of the European project of historical atlases for comparative history of towns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semotanová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 215-222 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : towns * historical geography * atlas * history Subject RIV: AB - History

  19. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design......, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educated individuals who were very interested in aesthetics. Furthermore, Wagener was convinced that trikes were...... between order and delivery. From a marketing perspective, one of the differentiating factors of Morten’s product is the quality of the ride (compared to competing products) and so his marketing team coined the slogan “Built-to-Tilt” because even though it’s a trike it feels like riding a two...

  20. Regional new energy vision formulation project for Ukiha Town. Fiscal 2001 report (Summary); 2001 nendo Ukiha machi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo hokokusho (Gaiyo ban)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For contributing to the preservation of the global environment through new energy application and energy conservation, efforts were made to work out a new energy vision for Ukiha Town, Fukuoka Prefecture. Town's population was 17,482 in fiscal 2000, which showed a tendency to decline slowly. The town demands 158,886 drums/year in terms of crude oil - 56.2% in electric power, 19.5% in gasoline, and 10.5% in gas oil. As for the presence of new energy resources, wind power comes in first in terms of magnitude, and woody biomass energy is also found in abundance since lumbering prospers in the town. Named as candidate projects in the efforts to introduce new energies were the embodiment of practical size wind power systems in the hilly part; heat utilization and power generation using biomass such as scrap wood from lumber mills; introduction of photovoltaic power into public facilities; use of clean energy vehicles by the town office; photovoltaic power generation and solar heat utilization at welfare facilities and public gymnastic halls; street lamps lighted by hybrid power systems in the shopping area and at the Michinoeki roadside service spot; use of new energies in agriculture; financial aids to encourage photovoltaic power into general residences; etc. (NEDO)

  1. Uncertainties in Navigation of Elderly People in Towns - the Assistant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, W.; Kalian, K.

    2013-05-01

    The ASSISTANT project contributes to maintaining the mobility of older people in Europe, in order to safeguard their social and economic participation in an increasingly ageing society. It does this by helping them to travel safely and independently by public transport. This three-year project develops an application for the home PC and smartphone that designed to help older travelers to plan their public transport journeys and then receive guidance during their journey. This guidance will help them to find the vehicle they need, warn them when to get off, when and where to change to another route, and will provide assistance if something goes wrong. There are several stages in the guidance where uncertainties play a major role and have an effect on the quality of the trip. The major uncertainty is with the location services when GPS reception in poor or impossible due to urban canyons or the user being under ground or in a tunnel. In addition, when waiting at a stop where for instance several buses might arrive at the same time, it could be difficult to identify the correct bus to board. This paper explains the overall design of the ASSISTANT project and addresses some of the issues related to positional uncertainties.

  2. Regional new energy vision formulation project for Takarabe Town. Report; 2001 nendo Takarabe cho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for elevating people's consciousness of such in Takarabe Town, Kagoshima Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted concerning the energy consumption profile of the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction plans, and then a vision was formulated. The town's energy consumption is estimated at 879.350-million MJ/year, with the transportation sector responsible for 46.6%, the industrial sector for 23.0%, the residential sector for 18.7%, and the people's livelihood-related business sector for 11.7%. Oil-based fuels occupy 70.4%, electric power 18.9%, and LP gas 8.4%. New energy introduction projects were studied, which included the introduction of photovoltaic power into the town office; photovoltaic power and hybrid power-lighted light for an oasis-on-the-road project and school facilities; introduction of cogeneration, wind power, and photovoltaic power into a hot spa health center and a water-friendly park; small-scale hydropower in the Okawara valley; wind power generation on Mount Shiraga and Jingaoka; introduction of clean energy vehicles for official use; and compost manufacturing and power generation using livestock waste. (NEDO)

  3. Regional new energy vision formulation project for Kanai Town. Fiscal 2001 report; 2001 nendo Kanai machi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Kanai Town, Niigata Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving energy demand of the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. The town demands 541,062 GJ/year in energy, with the residential/commercial sector requiring approximately 46%, the industrial sector approximately 30%, and the transportation sector approximately 25%. The energy types are kerosene, heavy oils, gas oil, electric power, gasoline, and LPG, mentioned in the descending order in terms of magnitude of requirement. The resultant amount of carbon dioxide is estimated at 11,449 t-C. New energy introduction projects were discussed, which included photovoltaic power generation for primary and junior high schools, the town office, and the Dorin stock farm; a solar heat utilization system for the school meal center; wind power generation for Hometown Kimpoku, primary schools, and the Dorin stock farm; mini-scale hydroelectric power generation on the Shimpo river; use of forestry biomass (pellet stoves) at nursery schools; introduction of clean-energy automobiles for public use; and the introduction of cogeneration into Sado Hospital. (NEDO)

  4. [Fighting cholera in shanty-town. Successful experience of a Quebec project adapted to Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, L; Peralta, M

    1994-12-01

    Originally designed in Quebec, the MOI project was a collaboration between two professors of social work from Quebec and two members of the Peruvian NGO called SUR in Villa de Salvador, one of poorest slum areas on the outskirts of Lima. The approach is founded on the notion that the body is the primary instrument through which a person can interact with the world around him or her, and that the physical and mental health of an individual exists within the context of healthy conditions of life that must include at least a basic social and health infrastructure as well as healthy hygiene practices on the part of individuals, families and the local community. Preschool children (ages 4-6), study a different part of the body and its proper care each week through classroom observation games. Parents' help is requested to modify unhealthy conditions, at the same time to enrich the children's experience and to mobilize the community to improve health conditions. During the 1991 cholera epidemic, not a single case was counted in the experimental district, despite its clearly socio-economically impoverished status, and despite the fact that the Ministry of Health recorded 86,650 cases in the Lima-Callao district, accounting for about 40% of the total number of cases in the Peru. The prior work made it easier to explain how cholera is spread and what special new measures needed to be taken in addition to the hygiene habits already taught.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS VERSUS TERRITORIAL COMPETITIVENESS: PROJECT TAONABA CASE STUDY - TOWN OF ABYMES, GUADELOUPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neffati Houda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial intelligence can be defined as the ability of a territory to anticipate socio-economic changes and the resulting knowledge management as well as to generate policies, know-how and innovations that will ultimately create a polycentric area of expertise and service capabilities to enhance the competitiveness of companies located there. It is created by setting up a sustainable development process to review business competitiveness with all the inherent consequences in managing, making, planning and implementing decisions. Territorial competitiveness is an integrated and proactive approach to shaping the future of territories, regions and larger geographies – . to some degree it can also be referred to as spatial planning. It goes beyond traditional regional policy as it brings together economic, social and environment opportunities and in addition to other factors which influence where activities takes place, concerns how different places function and are connected, and what social and business conditions are available Territorial competitiveness strategies can help in exploring the potential for economic growth and job creation and at the same time support an enhanced quality of life by helping to meet the challenge of sustainable development. The article reports on an action research to support the urban community of Cap Excellence in Guadeloupe in its local sustainable development project. After summarizing the terms of the debate surrounding sustainable development and presenting the region, the research is placed back in the context of a more general approach of territorial intelligence.. The limits of developing a local Agenda 21 in the form of a "programmed action plan" give the opportunity to improve territorial intelligence with the concept of agency arising from Foucault's 'dispositif' or apparatus, Deleuze's theory of agency and the actor-network. A discussion on this ontology social will be initiated. We will give

  6. Regional new energy vision formulation project for Ukiha Town. Fiscal 2001 report; 2001 nendo Ukiha machi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such in Ukiha Town, Fukuoka Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the amount of energy needed by the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. The energy consumption of the town is estimated at 158,886 drums/year in terms of crude oil - 56.2% in electric power, 19.5% in gasoline, 10.5% in gas oil, 6.9% in kerosene, 4.2% in fuel oil A, and so forth. Projects for introducing new energies were studied, which included the introduction of photovoltaic power systems into public facilities, gymnastic halls, and comprehensive welfare centers; introduction of a large wind power system (1,500 kW) in the vicinity of the Michinoeki roadside service spot; installation of a power plant fueled by woody biomass (scrap wood, saw dust, and the like); introduction of clean energy vehicles for official use; installation of photovoltaic/wind hybrid power-lighted street lamps in the shopping area; installation of light traps for agriculture burned by photovoltaic power; and financial aids for encouraging the installation of photovoltaic power generation systems in general residences. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 2000 report on regional new energy vision formulation project for Yoron town; 2000 nendo Yoroncho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A regional new energy vision has been formulated for Yoron town, Kagoshima Prefecture, which will serve as guidelines for building an Environmentally Friendly Island. Yoron town is a town of approximately 6,000 inhabitants as of fiscal 2000, its energy consumption is equivalent to 61,427 drums in terms of crude oil, and it receives electric power from Yoron Power Plant of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. The results of activities conducted in this connection are summarized in seven chapters, which are (1) coping with new energy vision formulation (2), energy supply and demand, (3) estimation of existing amount of new energy, (4) basic policy toward new energy introduction, (5) projects for introducing new energy, (6) existing energy systems, and (7) reference materials. Named as projects are the construction of a water supply power source (for storage pump) for the Furusato district; power source for farmland irrigation pumps; power sources for the integrated sports park and municipal library; power source for a farmyard compost center; wind power, photovoltaic power, and combined power generation facilities for streetlights; and the utilization of bagasse. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the project for working out the new energy vision of the Genkai town area; 2001 nendo Genkai machi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Genkai Town, Fukuoka Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the estimated amount of energy demand of the town, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. The energy consumption amount of the town in FY 1999 was estimated at 834 TJ/y. By sector, it consisted of 299.31 TJ in the industrial sector, 282.08 TJ in the transportation sector and 252.78 TJ in the commercial/residential sector. By energy source, the rate of light oil was the highest, followed in order by gasoline, electric power, kerosene, LPG, etc. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: preparation of disaster-prevention type photovoltaic power generation at shelter, etc.; introduction of photovoltaic power generation to kindergarten, elementary school, etc.; introduction of photovoltaic power generation to street light, tourist information center, etc.; introduction of wind power generation to public facilities; use of the waste cooking oil made into diesel fuel for official vehicle; introduction of cogeneration to the health welfare hall; solar light/heat utilization system for residential/industrial use; wind power generation business for business establishment. (NEDO)

  9. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  10. Terrace Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The "Terrace Town" program brings architecture and city planning curriculum to elementary schools in Madison, Wisconsin, and surrounding areas. Over eight weeks, classrooms discuss what makes a community livable, sustainable, and kid-friendly. Throughout the process, students gain a better understanding of their own city environments and…

  11. Evaluating Bicycle, Pedestrian, Transit and Economic Data Collection Needs and Measures of Effectiveness in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the current data collection procedures for bicycle and pedestrian projects utilized by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and Pennsylvania's Metropolitan Planning Organizations...

  12. Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Mordaka, J.K.; Versmissen, A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Much attention is being paid to pedestrian safety by international working groups such as EEVC WG17, in research projects such as APROSYS (www.aprosys.com) and consumer organisations like Euro NCAP (www.euroncap.com). In addition legal requirements are in place, like the EU directive 2003/102/EC.

  13. Reduced Dynamics of the Non-holonomic Whipple Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu; Mauny, Johan

    2018-06-01

    Though the bicycle is a familiar object of everyday life, modeling its full nonlinear three-dimensional dynamics in a closed symbolic form is a difficult issue for classical mechanics. In this article, we address this issue without resorting to the usual simplifications on the bicycle kinematics nor its dynamics. To derive this model, we use a general reduction-based approach in the principal fiber bundle of configurations of the three-dimensional bicycle. This includes a geometrically exact model of the contacts between the wheels and the ground, the explicit calculation of the kernel of constraints, along with the dynamics of the system free of any external forces, and its projection onto the kernel of admissible velocities. The approach takes benefits of the intrinsic formulation of geometric mechanics. Along the path toward the final equations, we show that the exact model of the bicycle dynamics requires to cope with a set of non-symmetric constraints with respect to the structural group of its configuration fiber bundle. The final reduced dynamics are simulated on several examples representative of the bicycle. As expected the constraints imposed by the ground contacts, as well as the energy conservation, are satisfied, while the dynamics can be numerically integrated in real time.

  14. An integrated approach to bicycle safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The advantages of cycling are outlined, as well as the conditions under which use of the bicycle and the safety of cycling can he promoted. Bicycles are an attractive product. The potential to use a bicycle for trips shorter than 5 km is high and it's use can also be substantial for longer

  15. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldissera, Paolo; Delprete, Cristiana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  16. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  17. Bicycle Safety: Sport Education Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.; Cole, Amy; Schneulle, Deanna

    2005-01-01

    Although the benefits of regular physical activity are well-documented and very well known, Americans are still becoming more sedentary and obese. As some experts envision the potential of nonmotorized transport in the future, especially in urban settings, it is not surprising that diverse groups view walking and bicycling as a solution to an…

  18. Report on the project for working out the new energy vision of the Shime town area; 2001 nendo Shime cho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Shime Town, Fukuoka Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the state of energy consumption of the town, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. The rate of electric power demand of the town consisted of 44% of the residential sector such as general household, the highest, 30% of the business sector such as business office and 21% of the industrial sector such as plant. The demand from the industrial sector was on the decrease. The sales amount of domestic use gas almost leveled off. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power system to the Shime town office/townspeople center/elementary school/junior high school; introduction of solar heat utilization system to the welfare center for old people; introduction of wind power/photovoltaic power hybrid street light to school road/cycling road/playground; heat pump space heating/cooling using temperature different energy of the water of mine roadway; introduction of clean energy vehicle to the town office; introduction of photovoltaic power generation/solar heat utilization/hybrid car to general houses. (NEDO)

  19. Bicycle urbanism as competitive advantage in the neoliberal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Mikkel Elkær; Olesen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    In the light of the emergent ‘bicycle renaissance’ in the US, this paper analyses the rationale basis of bicycle role model, Portland’s promotion of bicycling. By conceptualizing bicycle promotion as a ‘travelling idea’, the paper discusses the key rationales and discourses structuring how bicycl...

  20. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  1. Identification of the mechanical properties of bicycle tyres for modelling of bicycle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Alberto; Tognazzo, Mauro; Cusimano, Gianmaria; Bulsink, Vera; Cooke, Adrian; Koopman, Bart

    2013-03-01

    Advanced simulation of the stability and handling properties of bicycles requires detailed road-tyre contact models. In order to develop these models, in this study, four bicycle tyres are tested by means of a rotating disc machine with the aim of measuring the components of tyre forces and torques that influence the safety and handling of bicycles. The effect of inflation pressure and tyre load is analysed. The measured properties of bicycle tyres are compared with those of motorcycle tyres.

  2. Project report on drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Nishi Senboku; Nishi Senboku machi sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studied in this project are concrete energy-saving procedures, and potentially saved energy and abated CO2 emissions in Town of Nishi Senboku, to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The energy-saving procedures studied include co-generation, utilization of waste heat, wind power generation, utilization of low-temperature heat by snow, fuel-efficient vehicles, use of insulators for houses, energy-saving type electric appliances, energy-saving activities, and eco-driving. The results indicate that the energy-saving activities and eco-driving can potentially more contribute to energy saving than the others. The study on introduction of energy-saving facilities in the 'Nukumori Hot Spring/Umeria' project indicates that the heat pump plus co-generation case is the most advantageous, because it can potentially reduce primary energy by 2,845,215MJ/y and CO2 emissions by 22,688kg-C/y. Introduction of energy-saving facilities is also studied for an information center in the Nishi-Senboku service area for the Akita Highway. The results indicate that the introduction can potentially reduce primary energy and CO2 emissions by 25 and 13%, respectively. (NEDO)

  3. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  4. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Baten, C.; Buurke, J. H.; Rietman, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied

  5. The environmental benefits of bicycling and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Bicycling and walking are the two major non-fuel-consuming, non-polluting : forms of transportation in the United States. Millions of Americans ride : bicycles and/or walk for a wide variety of purposes --- commuting to work, as : part of their job, ...

  6. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  7. Towards the making of a town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlström, Hanna Sofia Strandmark

    , that is just to set the scene for town life. What happens in the many encounters and relations between people living in the town, or visiting the town, I believe is a central aspect of urban life and something which deserves more attention. These ideas are key components in my PhD-project, which is a part......What makes the town a town is partly the diversity of activities taking place there – and with that comes a diversity of social roles among the people in the town. Trade, craft, clerical institutions and fortifications may be important functional and iconic trademarks of towns, but in some ways...... of the Urban Encounters project. My project deals with exploring the early urban development of Copenhagen, c. 1050-1300, with the material from recent year’s excavation at Rådhuspladsen as the main focus. By analyzing the material traces of daily practices related to the people active in this area, I want...

  8. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is

  9. in-town tour optimization town tour optimization town tour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    operation was formulated as a Traveling Salesman Problem on Excel spreadsheet. The results ... 19.27 %, tour time by 0.33-22.80 %, and fuel consumption. 22.80 %, and fuel ..... solving TSPs and reports a real world in-town tour improvement ...

  10. Policies in favor of the bicycle development.; Politiques en faveur du developpement du velo. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Kerveillan, A.

    2001-07-01

    This study presents, ten cases of european towns which realized a policy in favor of the bicycle development. With the incitation to the displacement on foot and the public transportation, it is a good and efficient way of environmental quality. For each case, the following points are presented: global policy of the local government, technical aspects and organization, economic, environmental aspects and behavior, future orientations and contacts. (A.L.B.)

  11. Low-stress bicycling and network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    For a bicycling network to attract the widest possible segment of the population, its most fundamental attribute should be low-stress connectivity, that is, providing routes between peoples origins and destinations that do not require cyclists to ...

  12. 36 CFR 1004.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1001.5 and 1001.7 of this... consistent with the protection of natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations and management...

  13. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  14. Bicycle-bus conflict area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Increasing bicycle use and bus ridership are both desirable policy goals : from a sustainability standpoint, but on city streets these two modes of : transport are often in conflict. While occupying opposite ends of the size : and weight spectrum, th...

  15. Bicycles, transportation sustainability, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this report focuses on the exploration of a variety of objective and subjective quality of life indicators and approaches for bicycle transportation using a mixed methods approach. The authors have created a conceptual frame...

  16. VT Boundaries - town polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  17. Study on the natural and humanistic environment of runcheng town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Nie; Jinping, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Runcheng town is one of the first Chinese characteristic towns to be selected in Shanxi province. It is 38 kilometers from the Jin city and 7 kilometers from Yangcheng County. It’s also an important undertaking place for the project “Industrial Westward Move of Jincheng City” and an important tourist town of Qin Castle Valley. The Runcheng town has a history of thousands of years, with a deep cultural background and unique natural landscape. This paper studies the history and cultural resources and makes a preliminary study on the natural and humanistic environment of the Runcheng town.

  18. Report on the project for working out the new energy vision of the Kamoto Town area. Feasibility study; 2001 nendo Kamoto machi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo fijibiriti hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the realization of 'the introduction of biomass of animal manure/garbage,' an important item in 'the new energy vision of the Kamoto Town area (Kumamoto Prefecture),' a feasibility study was conducted. For the resource retrieval of animal manure, etc., only composting is generally conducted. In this project, however, two projects are combinedly conducted: project for producing biogas (main component: methane gas) and liquid fertilizer and project for producing compost. The project pursues the reduction in running cost by self-sufficiency of energy and the environmental preservation by recovery of methane gas. The plant for producing biogas and liquid fertilizer consists of garbage crusher, storage tank, anaerobic fermentation tank and generator. The plant for producing compost consists of solid liquid separator, fermentation tank, agitator and smell remover. In the feasibility study, the following were carried out: study of the establishment of specifications/selection of the necessary conditions for a plant tentatively named the Kamoto Town Biomass Center, study of the proposed site for plant, survey of the financial plan, survey of the operational system, study of the project promotion system, etc. (NEDO)

  19. Company Town Shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Martha A.

    Saltville, Virginia, is a former company town whose main employer, a soda ash plant, shut down on July 1, 1971. The closure of the chemical plant displaced 700 workers, and created a crisis that threatened not only the existence of the town, but of the entire region. In response, Virginia Highlands Community College (VHCC), in cooperation with the…

  20. Survey report. New energy vision formulation project for Osa Town, Okayama Prefecture; 2001 nendo Osa cho shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo chosa hokokusho. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    A New Energy Vision was formulated for Osa Town after investigations about energy demand, new energy reserves, and their available amounts. The town consumes approximately 50.6-billion kcal in total, with automobiles consuming a half thereof as fuel. Studies were made about new energy reserves and recoverable amounts in the town, and then an estimation was made that 16.2 times 10{sup 5} kWh/year would be recoverable from photovoltaic energy, 1.58 times 10{sup 5} kWh from small-scale hydropower, 8.79 times 10{sup 6} kWh from ligneous biomass, and 1.96 times 10{sup 5} kWh from livestock biomass, and that 40 MW, for example, would come from wind power, subject to change depending on the wind power generator system to be built. Projects for new energy introduction were discussed, which involved the use of biodiesel fuel for official vehicles, installation of solar hot water showers in primary and junior high schools, application of photovoltaic/wind power to crime prevention lights and street lamps, snow melting systems for roads utilizing geothermal energy, use of heat from thinnings and ligneous waste, wind power facilities, small-scale hydropower facilities, introduction of new energy appliances into sightseeing facilities, and the introduction of photovoltaic power or the like into public facilities. (NEDO)

  1. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  2. Using crowdsourcing to prioritize bicycle network improvements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Effort to improve the bicycle route network using crowdsourced data is a powerful means : of incorporating citizens in infrastructure improvement decisions, which will improve : livability by maximizing the benefit of the bicycle infrastructure fundi...

  3. Regional new energy vision formulation project for Yobuko Town. Fiscal 2001 report; 2001 nendo Yobuko cho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for elevating people's consciousness of such at Yobuko Town, Saga Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the amount of energy needed by the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction programs, and a vision was formulated. The demand for energy of the town is estimated at 105,040 drums/year in terms of crude oil - 37% in electric power, 34% in fuel oil A, 13% in gas oil, and 8.1% in gasoline. As for the presence of new energy resources, it is deemed that wind and solar energies will be richly available. Studies were conducted for new energy introduction programs, which included the introduction of photovoltaic power into a nursing home for aged people, primary and junior high schools, and a water reservoir; street lamps lighted by a hybrid power system and a solar cell clock for the plaza in front of the harbor; introduction of wind power into the little islands of Ogawa and Kabe; installation of a solar energy collector for the nursing home for aged people; and the use of clean energy vehicles for official business. It is estimated that the efforts will bring about a 1,256.6 t-C reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. (NEDO)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRIC BICYCLE FOR A SHARING SYSTEM IN PRAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deleenheer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By means of a development of an e-bike sharing system the Electromobility Project wants to provide an alternative way of comfortable transportation for students and staff of the CTU, primarily to commute between different campuses. The research for this project contains at least three different fields of study, namely electric vehicle and docking station development, intelligent transport systems and management and economics of transportation and telecommunication. After briefly stating general requirements for the sharing system, this paper focuses on the development of the electric bicycle. First an ideal bike design is defined. Then necessary motor power and battery capacity are calculated by estimating characteristics of cycling in Prague. A prototype was developed by converting a normal bicycle to an electric bicycle. Being equipped with devices for e-bike monitoring, controlling and data recording for a post trip analysis, this prototype is also intended to have an educational value for future students in the project. Results consist of an electrical bicycle configuration that matches the requirements and a sketch of an ideal e-bike for this project.

  5. Indiana Bat (Towns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...

  6. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  7. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  8. Low-stress bicycling and network connectivity : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In one sense, a citys or regions bicycling network includes all of its roads and paths on which bicycling is permitted. However, some streets provide such a poor level of safety and comfort for bicycling that the majority of the population cons...

  9. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes

  10. Hydraulic brake-system for a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Frankenhuyzen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydraulic brake system for a bicycle which may or may not be provided with an auxiliary motor, comprising a brake disc and brake claws cooperating with the brake disc, as well as fluid-containing channels (4,6) that extend between an operating organ (1) and the brake

  11. 36 CFR 4.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road or parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1.5 and 1.7 of this... consistent with the protection of a park area's natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations...

  12. The historical town core and traffic in Novo mesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Jankovič

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical town core of Novo mesto is subject to intolerable traffic conditions. Individual car use is suffocating the town core, but simultaneously good access is essential for shopkeepers and other inhabitants since buses don’t go there. The project proposes changes to the traffic regime, its basic goals are to redesign the town square into a pedestrian place and to eliminate transitory traffic by rerouting vehicles to less burdened side roads. It introduces short-term parking, smaller parking garages in the core and larger parking spaces on the edge and routes the buses through the town core.

  13. Report on regional new energy vision formulation project for Kahoku town, Kumamoto Prefecture; Kahokucho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A regional new energy vision has been formulated for Kahoku town, Kumamoto Prefecture, for the realization of an energy resource circulation type regional community in which people earnestly strive to be symbiotic with nature. The results of related activities are shown in six chapters, which are (1) the prerequisites to the plan, (2) outline of the Kahoku town region, (3) surveys of the existing amount and expectedly available amount of new energy, (4) feasibility of new energy introduction, (5) assessment of new energy introduction plans and their effect, and (6) tasks to discharge, and policies to follow, for new energy introduction. In chapter (5), new energy introduction plans and introduction policies are shown. Plans are made for the incorporation of photovoltaic power facilities, small hydroelectric power facilities, and bamboo chip boilers into public facilities; the installation of 750 kW class wind power facilities; and the adoption of hybrid vehicles to serve as official special vehicles. It is expected that these plans when implemented will bring about a 1,400 t-c/year reduction in CO2 emissions. As for the introduction of wind power generation, the dimensions are determined by taking into consideration the prerequisites to a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) grant. (NEDO)

  14. George A. Towns Elementary School. Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Ralph H.

    1976-01-01

    A project testing solar heating and cooling in an existing building, the George A. Towns Elementary School, is intended to provide information on system design and performance, allow the identification and correction of problems encountered in installing large units, and gauge community/user reaction to solar equipment. (Author/MLF)

  15. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Soyo Town (wind characteristics investigation); Soyomachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Soyo Town, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 5.9m/s and 5.6m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, satisfying the reference values of 5.6m/s and 5.0m/s. The prevalent wind direction is WNW (occurrence rate: 32.8%). The wind from the directions with WNW at their middle occupies 75%, stable and satisfying the reference value of 60%. Strong winds come frequently from the direction of high occurrence, which is advantageous in arranging plural wind turbine systems. The exponential index in the wind speed vertical distribution is 13.3, but wind distribution is not simple at a mountain top site like the observation station in this report. Wind characteristics are similar to those at places with mild inundations, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed of 40.8m/s will not pose a problem. The wind energy density is 205W/m{sup 2}, satisfying the reference value of 150. Wind power systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are assumed. When the exponential index is 13.3, their annual operation rates will be 70%, 71%, and 82%; and their capacity ratios are 22.6%, 23.9%, and 22.9%, all satisfying the reference values. They will collect 297MWh, 629MWh, and 1507MWh of wind energy per year. It is concluded that Soyo Town is fully qualified as a site for wind power development. (NEDO)

  16. An agrarian town?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Kirstine

    This paper will discuss how to understand the early development of Odense seen through the archaeological record. Is it possible to see if, how and when the town transformed from agrarian to urban during the 11th to 16th Century? Untill now the evidence of the earliest history of Odense has mainl...... these features change over time....

  17. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2011-04-15

    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Business Process Reengineering within the bicycle industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé Rodriguez, David

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle leader brands have shift production overseas to reduce the cost of labor and to implement new technologies at lower cost. Bike manufacturer both in Asia and Europe employ a traditional way of production  based on economics of scale that aims cost per unit reduction. Where MRP systems and forecasting are part of their day basis operations. This traditional way of operation offers room for innovation that must be seen as a business opportunity. Thus, alternative management approaches ca...

  19. Town Meeting and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uline, Cynthia L.

    1998-01-01

    Draws upon the history of the American town meeting as a vehicle for understanding this institution. Considers how a New England public school district has used town meetings effectively as a reform vehicle. Town meetings should be considered an honorable, truly democratic forum, not a symbolic gesture to improve public relations. (24 references)…

  20. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  1. Solar building construction. Town planning - construction planning. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, D.; Krampen, M.; Moellring, F.

    1994-01-01

    The book discusses the problems of solar energy use under the following aspects: Town planing; Typology of green solar architecture; Typologie of solar architecture; Vegetation in green solar architecture; Planning and simulation; Building materials; Ventilation, illumination; Research projects. (HW) [de

  2. Cable Television: Applied Anthropology in a New Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Martin D.; Wilson, W. Leigh

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist's role in using cable television as a tool of applied anthropology in a new town was examined. The project's purpose was to give a group of people a new usage for a communications medium. (Author/NQ)

  3. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  4. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGioia, Jonathan; Watkins, Kari Edison; Xu, Yanzhi; Rodgers, Michael; Guensler, Randall

    2017-06-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies. Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  5. Bilateral tension pneumothorax resulting from a bicycle-to-bicycle collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Frank; Sereboe, Lawrence; Tettey, Mark Mawutor; Aniteye, Ernest; Bankah, Patrick; Frimpong-Boateng, Kwabena

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral tension pneumothorax occurring as a result of recreational activity is exceedingly rare. A 10-year-old boy with no previous respiratory symptoms was involved in a bicycle-to-bicycle collision during play. He was the only one hurt. A few hours later, he was rushed to the general casualty unit of the emergency department of our institution with respiratory distress, diminished bilateral chest excursions and diminished breath sounds. The correct diagnosis was made after a chest radiograph was obtained in the course of resuscitation at the casualty unit. Pleural space needle decompression was suggestive of tension only on the right. Bilateral tube thoracostomies provided effective relief. He was discharged from hospital after a week in excellent health. This case illustrates the need for children to have safety instruction to reduce the risks of recreational bicycling. Chest radiography may be needed to establish the diagnosis of bilateral tension pneumothorax. Needle thoracostomy decompression is not always effective.

  6. Characterizing the speed and paths of shared bicycles in Lyon

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen , Pablo; Rouquier , Jean-Baptiste; Ovtracht , Nicolas; Robardet , Céline

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to numerical data gathered by Lyon's shared bicycling system V\\'elo'v, we are able to analyze 11.6 millions bicycle trips, leading to the first robust characterization of urban bikers' behaviors. We show that bicycles outstrip cars in downtown Lyon, by combining high speed and short paths.These data also allows us to calculate V\\'elo'v fluxes on all streets, pointing to interesting locations for bike paths.

  7. I margini ruvidi della città in estensione. Tra Palermo e Partinico, ipotesi alternative / The rough edges of the "expanding town". Projects between Palermo and Partinico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sciascia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca dell’Unità di Palermo, di cui è responsabile il Prof. Andrea Sciascia, si è interessata a quel territorio, ad ovest di Palermo, incluso fra Isola delle Femmine e Partinico. In questo ambito esercitano una speciale azione attrattiva e contrapposta Palermo e l’aeroporto Falcone e Borsellino. L’effetto di tale azione si registra su quelle aree “verdi”, agricole o residuali, che costituiscono spesso i margini fra i nuclei densi inclusi nel territorio di studio (Isola delle Femmine, Capaci, Carini, Cinisi, Terrasini e Partinico. Alla luce del testo La città in estensione di Giuseppe Samonà, su alcune di queste aree di margine, opportunamente selezionate, sono state raccolte alcune ipotesi di progetto che prefigurano una possibile alternativa alla campagna urbanizzata. / Research Unit of Palermo, where Prof. Andrea Sciascia is responsible, focused on the territory west of Palermo between Isola delle Femmine and Partinico. In this context, Palermo and Falcone-Borsellino Airport exert a special and contrasted action. This effect manifests itself on "green" agricultural or residual areas, which are often the margins between the dense cores included in the study area (Isola delle Femmine, Capaci, Carini, Cinisi Terrasini and Partinico. According to the text by Giuseppe Samona about the Expanding Town, some of these fringe areas, appropriately selected, have been redesigned to envisage a possible alternative to the urbanized countryside.

  8. Bicycle: a bioinformatics pipeline to analyze bisulfite sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, Osvaldo; López-Fernández, Hugo; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; González Pisano, David; Glez-Peña, Daniel

    2018-04-15

    High-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA is a technique used to measure DNA methylation levels. Although a considerable number of computational pipelines have been developed to analyze such data, none of them tackles all the peculiarities of the analysis together, revealing limitations that can force the user to manually perform additional steps needed for a complete processing of the data. This article presents bicycle, an integrated, flexible analysis pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data. Bicycle analyzes whole genome bisulfite sequencing data, targeted bisulfite sequencing data and hydroxymethylation data. To show how bicycle overtakes other available pipelines, we compared them on a defined number of features that are summarized in a table. We also tested bicycle with both simulated and real datasets, to show its level of performance, and compared it to different state-of-the-art methylation analysis pipelines. Bicycle is publicly available under GNU LGPL v3.0 license at http://www.sing-group.org/bicycle. Users can also download a customized Ubuntu LiveCD including bicycle and other bisulfite sequencing data pipelines compared here. In addition, a docker image with bicycle and its dependencies, which allows a straightforward use of bicycle in any platform (e.g. Linux, OS X or Windows), is also available. ograna@cnio.es or dgpena@uvigo.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  10. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  11. Bicycle safety education for children from a developmental and learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When children ride bicycles in and near traffic, they engage in a complicated task of combining motor skills and cognitive skills. In addition to developing bicycle-handling skills, bicycle safety education programs teach children how to ride safely ...

  12. Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the "town dislocation effect." When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

  13. Freight transport in towns. [Denmark]. Godstransport i byer; Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate a number of possibilities for reducing energy consumption and thus air pollution caused by freight transport in urban areas. The Danish towns of Vejle and Roskilde were taken as examples and the two towns were compared with regard to the town plan, use of land area, the road network, amount of traffic and commercial structure. Economical aspects and the most important initiatives for improvements, including a decrease in traffic accidents, are discussed. These initiatives are coordination of transportation by firms, more drivers using the same vehicles, less frequent deliveries, optimazation of route planning, car sharing, special routes for lorries, traffic and speed control, better siting of new transport functions, re-siting of firms dependent on freight transport, the use of smaller vehicles where possible, no transport of people in trucks or vans, less use of bicycles for transporting messages, more use of underground pipes for transport of materials, lifting equipment for smaller vans and trucks, lifting equipment that is more flexible, motors turned off when loading and loading, reduction of emballage volume, and a more careful way of driving which can help to reduce energy consumption. A computer programme was constructed in order to calculate energy consumption in these relations, emission of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particles, transportation costs and number of traffic accidents. Results are presented in detail and discussed. (AB) (78 refs.).

  14. Freight transport in towns. Main report; Godstransport i byer. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate a number of possibilities for reducing energy consumption and thus air pollution caused by freight transport in urban areas. The Danish towns of Vejle and Roskilde were taken as examples and the two towns were compared with regard to the town plan, use of land area, the road network, amount of traffic and commercial structure. Economical aspects and the most important initiatives for improvements, including a decrease in traffic accidents, are discussed. These initiatives are coordination of transportation by firms, more drivers using the same vehicles, less frequent deliveries, optimazation of route planning, car sharing, special routes for lorries, traffic and speed control, better siting of new transport functions, re-siting of firms dependent on freight transport, the use of smaller vehicles where possible, no transport of people in trucks or vans, less use of bicycles for transporting messages, more use of underground pipes for transport of materials, lifting equipment for smaller vans and trucks, lifting equipment that is more flexible, motors turned off when loading and loading, reduction of emballage volume, and a more careful way of driving which can help to reduce energy consumption. A computer programme was constructed in order to calculate energy consumption in these relations, emission of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particles, transportation costs and number of traffic accidents. Results are presented in detail and discussed. (AB) (78 refs.).

  15. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Town of Arnaudville, LA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the United Water Systems’ facility in Arnaudville, LA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of K...

  16. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  17. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yugawara Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yugawaramachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed in the period November 1997 through October 1998 at Yugawara Town, Kanagawa Prefecture. The average wind speed is 5.1m/s and 5.0m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, suggesting that the difference in altitude causes but a very small difference in wind speed and that a large wind speed component exists in the vertical direction. Under the 16 compass point system, the wind direction occurrence rate is the highest in the NE direction and the second highest in the W direction. The two directions are prevalent, and their occurrence rates on the wind axes total 62.6%. The occurrence rate of wind speeds of not less than 5m/s is 40%. Turbulence intensity is 0.23 and 0.17 for the average wind speed of not less than 2m/s and for the average wind speed of not less than 4m/s, respectively, suggesting but a little impact of air current turbulence. The amounts of energy to be acquired by wind turbine systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are estimated at 301,363kWh, 651,593kWh, and 1,668,825kWh, respectively. Their annual capacity ratios are 22.9%, 24.8%, and 25.4%, respectively. Since difference in wind speed due to difference in altitude is small, it is supposed that the wind speed at the hub altitude is not so high. It is inferred consequently that service operation will be quite difficult to realize. Difficulties will be also encountered in relation to the route of turbine system transportation, power distribution line, and the distance to a transformation station. (NEDO)

  18. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yakumachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Yakushima Young Travellers' Village of the above-named town, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is between 1.6 and 4.7, or 3.5 on the average, relatively small due probably to the peculiar terrain and causing no trouble in the development. Turbulence intensity is 0.16 at when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, low enough to meet the reference value (0.30 or less). The total occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis (SSE-NNW) is 48%, falling short of the reference value (60% or more). The average wind speed in the prevalent wind direction is high and the wind energy density concentrates on the prevalent wind axis, this showing that the site is good for wind power development. The annual average wind speed is 5.6m/s, slightly lower than the reference value (5.8m/s or more). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining the wind endurance level for the wind turbine design. The annual wind energy density is 325W/m{sup 2}, fully meeting the reference value (215W/m{sup 2} or more). The annual operation rates of the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 61/65/80%, and these meet the reference value (45% or more). Their annual capacity ratios are 24.5/26.6/27.7%, and these again meet the reference value (17% or more). (NEDO)

  19. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  20. [Medical coverage of a road bicycle race].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Harding, Ulf; Schüler, Christine; Thoms, Jürgen; Püschel, Klaus; Kappus, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Major sport events require adequate expertise and experience concerning medical coverage and support. Medical and ambulance services need to cover both participants and spectators. Likewise, residents at the venue need to be provided for. Concepts have to include the possibility of major incidents related to the event. Using the example of the Hamburg Cyclassics, a road bicycle race and major event for professional and amateur cyclists, this article describes the medical coverage, number of patients, types of injuries and emergencies. Objectives regarding the planning of future events and essential medical coverage are consequently discussed. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1162 - Regulation for bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety education for bicyclists, motorists, children, students, street maintenance personnel and... as for a program of bicycle safety education including the motor vehicle operators license... bicycles share road space with motorized vehicles. (5) Bikeway means bike paths, bike lanes and bike routes...

  2. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, ...

  3. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  4. An Operator's Guide to Safe and Enjoyable Bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose Dept. of Public Works, CA.

    Addressed to young persons and adults, this booklet delineates the duties and rights applicable to bicyclists as drivers of vehicles. The following topics are discussed: Rules of the road, defensive bicycling techniques, the bicycle as a machine, registration and theft prevention, walking the bike, bike routes, and recreational and group rides.…

  5. County town -- jian-zhi town differentials and migration to towns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R

    1993-07-01

    China's urbanization process is unique in having been due to economic systems and migration policies. Towns and townships in rural areas are different from cities in their social and economic characteristics and their structure and function. The urban system in China is initially described with the distinction drawn between cities, "jian-zhi towns", (organic town) which are officially recognized, and rural areas. Analysis is provided f the economic and residential registration status of town residents and migration in northern China. Data were obtained from a 1987 survey of 1314 households in Wongnioute Banner in Inner Mongolia, and a 1985 migration survey of 2089 rural households in 41 villages. The study area was selected because jian-zhi town status was easily obtained and the are needed more towns for local administration and trade; the area was similar in geographic, social, economic, and cultural characteristics to other northern and northwestern regions. The Wongnioute Banner comprises 5 towns (Qiaotou, Wufendi, Hairesu, Wuduentaohai, and Wutonghua) and 1 country town (Wudan). All citizens from birth have an agricultural or nonagricultural status, which can be changed by passing national exams or completing a university education, joining the military and becoming an officer, marrying someone with a nonagricultural status, reunifying the family, or holding a special program. Quotas are set annually for status changes, e.g. in Tibet Autonomous Region the annual quota was 3%. Town residents may have either status. In the sample, 56.6% lived in town and had a nonagricultural status; 17.7% of heads of household town residents had an agricultural status and had stronger ties to villages because of family connections. Commuters are a third group and comprise 8.9%. County towns and jian-zhi towns are grouped the same, but are quite different in population size. Wudan had a population of 27,600 spread over an area of 480 hectares. The jian-zhi towns each had an

  6. Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    After many years of urban growth Danish downtowns are facing some important choices. Shall the stake one-sidedly be on the town centres as driving forces for growth and 'city marketing', or do they still have a role to play in a broader socio-economic context? In the paper we look back on eight...... as slum clearence and urban renewal. To a certain extent parallels are drawn to international experiences, especially where these are of such a nature that they can be assumed transferred to Danish connctions. Conclusively, the strategies are discussed in the light of the turn of Danish urban planning...

  7. In-depth analysis of bicycle hydraulic disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Györfi, Benedikt; Wrede, Jürgen; Arnold, Timo; Moia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Hydraulic Disc Brakes (HDBs) represent the most recent and innovative bicycle braking system. Especially Electric Bicycles (EBs), which are becoming more and more popular, are equipped with this powerful, unaffected by environmental influences, and low-wear type of brakes. As a consequence of the high braking performance, typical bicycle braking errors lead to more serious accidents. This is the starting point for the development of a Braking Dynamics Assistance system (BDA) to prevent front wheel lockup and nose-over (falling over the handlebars). One of the essential prerequisites for the system design is a better understanding of bicycle HDBs' characteristics. A physical simulation model and a test bench have been built for this purpose. The results of the virtual and real experiments conducted show a high correlation and allow valuable insights into HDBs on bicycles, which have not been studied scientifically in any depth so far.

  8. Anaerobic Degradation of Bicyclic Monoterpenes in Castellaniella defragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Puentes-Cala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial degradation pathways of bicyclic monoterpenes contain unknown enzymes for carbon–carbon cleavages. Such enzymes may also be present in the betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans, a model organism to study the anaerobic monoterpene degradation. In this study, a deletion mutant strain missing the first enzyme of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway transformed cometabolically the bicyclics sabinene, 3-carene and α-pinene into several monocyclic monoterpenes and traces of cyclic monoterpene alcohols. Proteomes of cells grown on bicyclic monoterpenes resembled the proteomes of cells grown on monocyclic monoterpenes. Many transposon mutants unable to grow on bicyclic monoterpenes contained inactivated genes of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway. These observations suggest that the monocyclic degradation pathway is used to metabolize bicyclic monoterpenes. The initial step in the degradation is a decyclization (ring-opening reaction yielding monocyclic monoterpenes, which can be considered as a reverse reaction of the olefin cyclization of polyenes.

  9. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    , including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle......Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...

  10. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...... are revealed by collection and analysis of historical material and interviews with key stakeholders. The historical material is obtained from libraries, online resources, and reports from professionals including urban designers, transportation engineers, research centres and politicians of the Beijing...

  11. Finding the Speed of a Bicycle in Circular Motion by Measuring the Lean Angle of the Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abu, Yuval; Wolfson, Ira; Yizhaq, Hezi

    2018-01-01

    We suggest an activity for measuring the speed of a bicycle going in circular motion by measuring the bicycle's lean angle. In this activity students will be able to feel the strength that is being activated on their bodies while they are moving in circular motion. They will also understand that it is impossible to ride in a circle without the…

  12. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  13. Archives: Town and Regional Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... Archives: Town and Regional Planning. Journal Home > Archives: Town and Regional Planning. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 12 of 12 ...

  14. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  15. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...... relevant in a new context – that of the Chinese mainland society in the 21st century. Doreen Massey (2005: 9) defines space as “a simultaneity of stories-so-far”, a space that is constantly exploding and imploding with the influx of new and old stories. Within this theoretical framework Wang Xiaoshuai...

  16. Associations between a walkability index and bicycle use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Christiansen, L.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    /day, and important health benefits can accrue from regular commuting cycling. Studies have shown a positive correlation between walkability attributes of neighborhood environments (street connectivity, and use mix, residential density, retail floor area ratio) and cycling. Results from Australia/Belgium show...... associations between measures of walkability and bicycle use for transport and the present study focuses on exploring whether these findings can be applied to a Danish setting where cycling culture differs and bicycle share is much higher (17% of all trips are by bicycle)...

  17. Bicyclic peptide inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Jensen, Berit Paaske; Jiang, Longguang

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptide-based inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... investigated the solution structures of the bicyclic peptide by NMR spectroscopy to map possible conformations. An X-ray structure of the bicyclic-peptide-uPA complex confirmed an interaction similar to that for the previous upain-1/upain-2-uPA complexes. These physical studies of the peptide...

  18. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  19. Report on the wind power development field test project in the off-shore park in Daitocho Town in fiscal 1997. System design; 1997 nendo Daitocho kaiyo koen nado ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo hokokusho. System sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper reports the wind power development field test project in the off-shore park in Daitocho Town in Shizuoka Prefecture. The annual average wind velocity was 4.2 m/s (at height of 20 m above the ground), where the facility utilization rates for 300 and 500 kW class plants were 15.1 and 16.7%, respectively. Both of the annual average wind velocity and the facility utilization rate do not meet the criteria established by NEDO. Although the location is adjacent to the Natural Park, there is no restricting condition for installation. The substation to which system linkage is to be performed is the Daito substation 3 km north of the planned location. The major load is the Daito Spa in the park facility. Ground bed at depth of 5 m will be used as the windmill foundation supporting bed. There is little electromagnetic wave hazard. The location is 380 m away from the nearest residential house, presenting no windmill noise problem. The amount of power to be generated was assumed 281,000 kWh. Specifications for nine models of 300-kW class windmills that can be introduced into Japan were discussed to select a model. The project cost was calculated to be 128.5 million yen. The construction cost will be 428,000 yen and the power generation cost 38.1 yen/kWh. Its economy is poor when the current unit price for surplus power purchase is considered, but the effect of enlightenment may be expected. (NEDO)

  20. Street Intersection Characteristics and Their Impacts on Perceived Bicycling Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Safety concern is one of the core issues that deter people from bicycling in the US. Earlier studies have explored the associations between intersection design characteristics and bicyclist safety perceptions. Research shows that there are significan...

  1. Using Smartphones to Collect Bicycle Travel Data in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    Researchers believed that if smartphones could prove to be an effective tool for collecting bicycle travel data, the information could be used for aiding decision making as to what types of facilities users prefer and guiding decisions about future f...

  2. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys......The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic...

  3. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...... and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate...

  4. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  5. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the

  7. Finding the speed of a bicycle in circular motion by measuring the lean angle of the bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abu, Yuval; Wolfson, Ira; Yizhaq, Hezi

    2018-05-01

    We suggest an activity for measuring the speed of a bicycle going in circular motion by measuring the bicycle’s lean angle. In this activity students will be able to feel the strength that is being activated on their bodies while they are moving in circular motion. They will also understand that it is impossible to ride in a circle without the bicycle leaning at an angle, an action that is performed intuitively.

  8. 75 FR 10241 - Town of Dexter; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. DI10-7-000] Town of Dexter.... Date Filed: February 16, 2010. d. Applicant: Town of Dexter. e. Name of Project: Dexter Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Dexter Hydroelectric Project will be located on the East Branch...

  9. Reviving a ghost in the history of technology: the social construction of the recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassaan; Qureshi, Omer Masood; Khan, Abid Ali

    2015-02-01

    Recumbent bicycles have never truly been associated with international cycling. Conventional safety (upright) bicycles have long been at the center of the cycling world, for both sport and transportation. This is despite the fact that recumbent bicycles are faster, more comfortable, and more efficient than the upright bicycles. The aim of this article is to explain the historical and social perspectives that led to the rejection of the recumbent bicycle by utilizing the theory of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Bijker's two power theory, providing a contrast with the adoption of the safety bicycle.

  10. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Making eco-friendly transportation safer: developing computer-based simulations to assess of the impacts of bicycle accident prevention interventions on healthcare utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhra, Christian; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W; Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based modeling and simulations are becoming increasingly used for applications in health and safety. In this paper we describe a multi-phase project aimed at modeling bicycle accidents in Munster, Germany. The work involved a first phase of collecting empirical data on accident rates and severity. In the second phase a computer-based simulation model of bicycle accidents was created, using data from phase one to identify relevant parameters in the model. Finally, initial results from running the model are described that will be used to inform decision making regarding safety initiatives.

  12. The Bicycle Compatibility Index : a level of service concept, implementation manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Currently, no methodology is widely accepted by engineers, planners, or bicycle coordinators that will allow them to determine how compatible a roadway is for allowing efficient operation of both bicycles and motor vehicles. Determining how existing ...

  13. Daily Bicycling in Older Adults May Be Effective to Reduce Fall Risks - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcir, Shani; Melzer, Itshak

    2018-01-18

    Older adults gain many health benefits from riding bicycles regularly. We aimed to explore whether older persons who ride bicycles regularly have better balance than controls. Balance control and voluntary stepping were assessed in 20 older adults aged 65 to 85 who live in an agricultural community village who regularly ride bicycles (BR), and 30 age- and gender-matched non-bicycle riders (NBR). Self-reported function and fear of fall were also assessed. Bicycle riders showed significantly better balance, faster voluntary stepping, and better self-reported advanced lower extremity function compared with NBR. The results might suggest that bicycling regularly preserves balance control and speed of voluntary stepping in older adults because bicycling might maintain specific balance coordination patterns. The results should be treated with caution since BR were older adults who selected an active life style (i.e., bicycling as well as living in an agricultural village) that may bias the results.

  14. Identification of the main processes in new towns Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of the main processes in new towns Development Company in Iran and provision of the model of ideal processes for optimal management of ... The most important result of this project is that after identifying the status quo, mapping the processes, revising the processes and applying revised processes, the ...

  15. A town in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlström, Hanna Sofia Strandmark

    on the site of Town Hall Square c. AD 1050-1300. This paper will discuss the two questions: What can the study of social practices connected to the iron processing activities, in combination with technical analyses, reveal of urban development, of people and networks involved in the iron handling? And what...... new aspects to this problem by studying urbanity through social practices in the first phases of the developing town of Copenhagen, Denmark. One of these areas concerns crafting, specifically iron processing. Through four areas of study, I analyse the material remains of social practices undertaken...

  16. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of interventions in bicycle infrastructure on travel choices, safety, design appreciation, and other factors. These clarify under which conditions certain measures are effective or not and inform about the effectiveness of improving a single route versus upgrading a whole network. The information from the studies...... to be still generally valid. In addition to studies that traditionally focus on dedicated bicycle infrastructure, two cases of shared space are discussed, a rather new type of intervention that assumes mixed use of infrastructure. One case is from Denmark, the other from the Netherlands. The paper will so...... uncover the valuable results of the possibly largest evaluations of interventions in bicycle infrastructure ever made, verify these by examining more recent studies, and contribute to the discussion of shared space....

  17. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  18. Using magnetorheological fluids in an innovative hybrid bicycle damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Y J; Nguyen, T S

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorheological fluids are capable of changing their viscosity quickly. This can provide good controllability and fast dynamic response. A conventional passive suspension system with air spring or hydraulic damper has simple design and financial benefit for bicycles, but its operation is uncontrollable and non-adaptive. This paper presented a semi-active hybrid bicycle suspension system which combines conventional air spring and a new magnetorheological damping brake together to reduce vibration of a bicycle. A multi-layer magnetorheological brake and linkage mechanism are connected to bike fork to form the adaptive damping part of the innovative hybrid suspension system. The simulation results proved that the semi-active suspension system can reduce bike vibration effectively. (paper)

  19. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  20. Thirty years history of Daeduk Science Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This book records the history of Daeduk science town for 30 years, which includes plan of construction and selection of location like background of construction and general idea of construction, transition of basic plan to construct Daeduk science town such as change of promotion organization and plan, and establishment of construction general planning, building base for town like land, infrastructure, and measures to control speculative investment, construction and present situation of moving into the science town, management of Daeduk science town, public welfare for researchers, and fruit and image of the future of the town.

  1. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...... risk factors among middle-aged men and women....

  2. Wireless controller and smartphone based interaction system for electric bicycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge REVUELTA HERRERO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last years, great improvements have been made in the automotive industry, a sector with a high impact in both economics and social environments. Many development efforts have targeted on satisfying the need of providing smart environments to the end user in vehicles, such as cars. This paper proposes a brand-new solution in the automotive field, consisting of a new product family which aims to transform the traditional bicycle to an electric bicycle using an architecture that provides an adaptive environment to the user, improving the driving experience enabling value-added services.

  3. Town and Citadel of Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée Louis-Prudent, 1837-1905, photographer

    2003-01-01

    230 x 176 mm. A view looking across the St. Lawrence towards the town and Citadel of Quebec, with shipping at anchor in the river. A photograph taken from the Grand Trunk Railway Depot, Point Lewis, probably in 1870. In the foreground railway lines run down to wharves beside the terminal.

  4. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  5. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  6. Nerdfighters, "Paper Towns," and heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wilkinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Socially and politically controlled teenagers find emancipatory spaces in young adult (YA literature, spaces where institutions can be challenged and individuals can gain agency and empowerment. Drawing on Foucault's theory of heterotopia, I examine the literary spaces in John Green's YA novel Paper Towns and examine how Green's online social networking community Nerdfighters shares an ideological common ground with the novel.

  7. Shrinking, ageing, disconnecting? The resilience of (some) Danish small towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2013-01-01

    , even if they are located peripheral to the big labour markets. We will discuss how far these approaches can enable a development which can withstand the general urban dynamics in Denmark. Reference: Groth, N. B. (ed.) 2013. Stationsbyernes situation, udfordringer og potentialer. En hvidbog (White book......This paper is based on findings of a project investigating the challenges and prospects of Danish service towns with 1000 to 5000 inhabitants (Groth and Fertner 2013). Small towns in general are often associated with being losers of globalisation and suffering under urban and economic decline...... play an important part in more development oriented issues as it is them that communicate with larger municipalities on issues of local concern and they fundraise through holding events for local activities and also for actual physical changes to take place in the towns. The current socio-economic...

  8. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  9. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  10. preparation of bicyclic lactones using lewis acids catalyzed ene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The synthesis of the cis-fused bicyclic lactones relies extensively on the Lewis acid ... having an allylic hydrogen (an"ene") and a compound containing an electron .... observed that the lithium enolate obtained from 3-methyl-2(5H)- furanone ...

  11. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  12. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    and bicycling. The study shows that instruments that improve the cyclists’ speed and increase the car drivers’ time consumption and costs will influence the competition conditions significantly. The total transfer potential will be between 12 and 16 % of the car trips in case of short tours, equivalent to 1...

  13. A strategic approach to [6,6]-bicyclic lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Glibstrup, Emil; Crestey, Francois Louis Jean

    2017-01-01

    We report an effective synthetic protocol to access [6,6]-bicyclic lactone moieties through a regio- and stereoselective intramolecular Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction followed by a 6π-electrocyclization. This method enabled the first synthesis of the elusive CD fragment of the Erythrina...

  14. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  15. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  16. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    for scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  17. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  18. Costs and benefits of bicycling investments in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Promoting bicycling has great potential to increase overall physical activity; however, significant uncertainty exists with regard to the amount and effectiveness of investment needed for infrastructure. The objective of this study is to assess how costs of Portland's past and planned investments in bicycling relate to health and other benefits. Costs of investment plans are compared with 2 types of monetized health benefits, health care cost savings and value of statistical life savings. Levels of bicycling are estimated using past trends, future mode share goals, and a traffic demand model. By 2040, investments in the range of $138 to $605 million will result in health care cost savings of $388 to $594 million, fuel savings of $143 to $218 million, and savings in value of statistical lives of $7 to $12 billion. The benefit-cost ratios for health care and fuel savings are between 3.8 and 1.2 to 1, and an order of magnitude larger when value of statistical lives is used. This first of its kind cost-benefit analysis of investments in bicycling in a US city shows that such efforts are cost-effective, even when only a limited selection of benefits is considered.

  19. Bicycle Trains, Cycling, and Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; Jacobs, Maya; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Miller, Josh; Salls, Deb; Todd, Winifred; Madding, Rachel; Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    Increasing children's cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students' school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Fourth-fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015-2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3-5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4-6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02006186. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Trauma is the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1-4 years and leading cause of death in children older than 4 years. Thoracic injury is the second most leading cause of death in traumatized children. Multisystemic injury is found in more than 50% of children with thoracic injuries most of which are secondary to blunt traumas. We planned this study to evaluate thorax trauma cases secondary to bicycle driving in childhood and to draw attention to the importance of the regulation of traffic rules, the education of bicycle drivers.Material and Methods:  A retrospective evaluation was performed in 17 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2010 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to bicycle driving. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS. Results; Eleven (64.70% cases were injured due to the tricycle accidents and six cases 6 (35.29% were injured due to the two-wheeled bicycle accidents. The most frequent thoracic pathologies included pulmonary contusion (41.2% and chest wall contusion (29.41%. Extrathoracic injuries were seen in 35.29%, the extremities (17.64% and abdomino pelvic (11.76% being the most commonly involved. Treatment consisted of symptomatic treatment in 12 patients (70.58%, tube thoracostomy in 2 patients (11.76%, and thoracotomy in 1 patient (5.9%. The morbidity was seen in 3 patients (17.64%. The mortality rate was 5.9% (n:1. The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas Conclusions: The pediatric thorax has a greater cartilage content and incomplete ossification of the ribs. Due to the pliability of the pediatric rib cage and mediastinal mobility, significant intrathoracic injury may exist in the

  1. Regional new energy vision for Kobuchizawa Town. Eco-energy town - Kobuchizawa; 2001 nendo Kobuchisawa cho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho. Eco energy town Kobuchisawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Kobuchizawa Town, Yamanashi Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted on the trend of energy consumption in the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. The town consumes 635,021 GJ/year in energy, with the industrial sector consuming 34.6%, the transportation sector 24.8%, the residential sector 21.8%, and the commercial sector 18.7%. The energy sources are electric power, kerosene, LPG, gasoline, gas oil, and heavy oil, as named in the descending order in terms of amount. Studies were made about new energy introduction projects, which included the use of photovoltaic power for outdoor lights, primary schools, nursery schools, the flower park (Fiore Kobuchizawa), mountain huts, and for the Kannondaira sightseeing spot; mini-scale hydroelectric power generation for the maintenance of the Otaki spa and existing water channel utilities; wind power generation for improvement on mountain huts; introduction of clean-energy vehicles; introduction of cogeneration (natural gas); and a business for effectively utilizing biomass. (NEDO)

  2. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  4. Pseudoaneurysm of the Radial Artery After a Bicycle Fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschiller, Thomas; Müller, Hannes; Schachner, Thomas; Zierer, Andreas

    2018-07-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old man who developed a painful pulsatile mass in the distal forearm after a bicycle fall with fracture of the wrist. Ultrasonography confirmed a 2.5-cm large pseudoaneurysm of the radial artery. The patient underwent surgical exploration. The pseudoaneurysm was resected and the defect in the arterial wall was reconstructed with an autologous saphenous vein patch. We suggest that the double arterial supply of the hand should be preserved whenever possible.

  5. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  6. The problems of Visaginas town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiurov, V.

    1998-01-01

    The problems of Visaginas are specific and, first of all, connected with the operation of the Ignalina nuclear power plant and cultural development of Visaginas ethnic minorities, lack of skilled specialists employed in different spheres. Some difficulties we have with the learning of the official language. A strong well-reasoned opinion of the scientists corresponds to our practical directions: the problems of the town of Visaginas are not only the problems of its inhabitants but also a composite part of the problems of the Ignalina nuclear power plant region. (author)

  7. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  8. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  9. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  10. Cycling as a mode of transport for people over 30 years old on a mountainous town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, L.

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between active transportation and its role in health of population motivated the continuation of a pilot study evaluating the use of bicycles in a mountain town. The objective was to evaluate people over 30 years old, with different physical abilities, in a predefined route and check if the relief was impediment. The studied divided the riders into 2 groups: active and sedentary. It was performed a comparison of the physiological impact (heart rate, blood pressure) and a subjective perception (modified Borg's scale), ranking the degrees of difficulty during route stretches. The participants filled in a form before and after the course. Most sedentary participants, despite having greater difficulty and reaching higher heart rates on certain stretches, managed to make the trip. It suggests that the current technology of the bike allows people less physically conditioned to be able to use the bike in mountain cities. (Author)

  11. The "Digital Turn" of the European Historic Towns Atlas: Comparing Solutions for Digital Atlas Production and online Presentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodějovská, Eva; Gearty, S.; Stracke, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 89-121 ISSN 1828-6364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11425S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Historic Towns Atlas * International Commission for the History of Towns * urban history * cartography Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. The Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of Take Shared Bicycles as Connecting to Public Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Sun, H.; Li, P. F.; Li, C. C.

    2017-10-01

    Shared bicycles as an important way of connecting public transport, have few literature to evaluate its effectiveness.This paper taking Beijing city as an example, make anevaluationfor the six types of travel combinations which are commonly used by the citizens. The author selects four quantitative indicators: fuel consumption, economic cost, total time spent, and CO2 emission. And two qualitative indicators: degree of comfort and convenience. The relative efficiency of quantitative indicators is obtained by data envelopment analysis (DEA) and fuzzification and then take fuzzy synthetic evaluation with qualitative indicators.It was found that the choice of shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles and shared bicycles has good comprehensive benefits in medium distance travel. The findings also suggest that shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles is the best choice in the utilitarian trips. The conclusions not only provide suggestions for the travellers to select travel modes, but also can adjust the relevant factors to increase the proportion of green travel.

  13. VT Designated New Town Center Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Municipalities that lack a historic downtown may obtain New Town Center designation, meeting requirements for planning, capital expenditures, and regulatory tools...

  14. A Paradox of Town Spatial Development: The Growing Real Estate and Shrinking Town - a Case Study of Hsinchu County, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Tung; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Lin, Wen-Yen

    2017-04-01

    The key factors of many discussions on shrinking towns are focusing at decreasing population and declining industries. Our study, using Hsinchu County as an example, has found that part of the county (Guanxi township) is following a typical and traditional town development pattern, while somewhere else of this county (Zhubei township) shows rapid growth in real estate but with a high vacancy rate. Even though the distance between Guanxi and Zhubei is less than 20 kilometers, the spatial development phenomenon of the two townships are both "shrinking" in the same county but very different in their developing paths. This study used GIS to overlay the maps from field survey and archive data, such as real estate prices of different years, environmental hazards and disaster records, local area power consumptions, and vulnerable population data, to clarify the causes and systems behind the shrinking phenomena of the two townships and to construct a theory of "shrinking town" in Taiwan. The contribution of this study is the findings of the tangling relations of the vulnerability from land-enclosure policy, the system design of local industrial development and urban planning, and structural factors of environmental hazards. Note: This study is part of the results from the Ministry of Science and Technology funding project (MOST 105-2621-M-120-002) KEYWORDS: shrinking town, environmental hazards, urban planning, spatial disasters, real estate development

  15. Improvement of Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease by Imagining Bicycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kikuchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is one of the factors that reduce the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Imagining bicycling before gait start provided improvement in FOG in 2 PD patients. Imagining and mimicking bicycling after the initiation of gait allowed the rhythmic gait to continue without interruption. We suggest that imagining and mimicking bicycling, which are nonexternal cues, could serve as a helpful therapeutic approach for the intractable freezing and interruption of gait of PD patients.

  16. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen P; Lee, David C; Frangos, Spiros G; Sethi, Monica; Heyer, Jessica H; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; DiMaggio, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS) into none/mild (0-8) versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8) and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars), painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.33). Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-4.15). Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85-2.71) and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85-3.22) times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  17. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  18. Micro Climate Simulation in new Town 'Hashtgerd'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in streets will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by

  19. Injury rates from walking, gardening, weightlifting, outdoor bicycling, and aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.

  20. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  1. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... travelling information with GPS loggers, compared to self-reported RP data, is more accurate geographic locations and routes. Also, the GPS traces give more reliable information on times and prevent trip underreporting, and it is possible to collect information on many trips by the same person without...

  2. Injuries to Cyclists due to a Dog-Bicycle Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Yaacoub, Alan P

    2018-05-01

     Both dogs and bicycles are common in our society and thus a dog-bicycle interaction resulting in an injury to a cyclist is possible. It was the purpose of this study to investigate such injuries.  The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data for the 10-year period from 2006 through 2015 associated with bicycles were accessed. Injuries involving dogs were identified and the mechanism of injury determined. Due to the stratified and weighted nature of the NEISS data, statistical analyses were performed with SUDAAN 10 software (RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States). A p  dogs were involved in 35,254 (0.67%) cases. The average age for those involved with a dog was 33.2 years and it was 25.5 years for those in which dogs were not involved. There were more females in the dog group (34.1 vs. 27.6%). Dog involvement increased from ages 0 to 14 years, then decreased until the age of 20 years and then progressively increased. Dog-associated injuries most frequently occurred away from home, involved the knee and distal lower extremity, 49.1% sustaining dog bites. Dog bites were more common in younger individuals. Four injury mechanisms (chased by a dog, hit/collided with a dog, swerved/tried to avoid a dog or riding with a dog) accounted for 97.5% of the injuries. Those chased by a dog were younger, more commonly released from the emergency department, had an injury involving the lower extremity and frequently sustained a bite. The most severe injuries were in those who swerved/tried to avoid a dog or hit a dog.  Approximately 1% of injuries to bicyclists are associated with dogs; one-half sustained a bite. Potential/proposed prevention strategies could be educational materials regarding bicycles and dogs to owners, dog restraint, student/parent education and educational materials in waiting rooms of veterinarians, paediatricians, family practice physicians and emergency rooms. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  3. How the Netherlands became a bicycle nation : users, firms and intermediaries, 1860-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, S.E.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Davids, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1925, the Netherlands was a country of cyclists and cycle producers, as all classes cycled and almost all cycles were produced domestically. The bicycle was not a Dutch invention and the country had an open economy, and this raises the question ‘how did the Netherlands become a bicycle nation?’

  4. Children's Perception of Gap Affordances: Bicycling Across Traffic-Filled Intersections in an Immersive Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gap choices and crossing behavior in children and adults using an immersive, interactive bicycling simulator. Ten- and 12-year-olds and adults rode a bicycle mounted on a stationary trainer through a virtual environment consisting of a street with 6 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic traveling at 25mph…

  5. The different ways to get on and off a bicycle for young and old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Baten, C. T.M.; Straathof, P.T.C.; Buurke, J. H.; Rietman, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year 12,000 older cyclists require medical attention due to a single-bicycle accident where no other party is directly involved. Most of these accidents occur at low cycling velocities and 20% occur during (dis)mounting the bicycle. Little is known about the strategies and

  6. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix

    2001-01-01

    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has ...... varied quite a lot....

  7. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing

  8. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  9. Bicycle Design : A different approach to improving on the world human powered speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, H.K.; Van den Brand, S.; Gregoor, W.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Pereboom, H.P.; Wielemaker, D.C.; Van der Zweep, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    The current International Human Powered Vehicle Association world records for faired bicycles stand at 133.284km/h for the 200m flying start speed record and 91.562 km for the hour record. Traditionally the recumbent bicycles that have been developed for breaking one of either of these records have

  10. On the influence of tyre and structural properties on the stability of bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Alberto; Roa Melo, Sergio Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In recent years the Whipple Carvallo Bicycle Model has been extended to analyse high speed stability of bicycles. Various researchers have developed models taking into account the effects of front frame compliance and tyre properties, nonetheless, a systematic analysis has not been yet carried out. This paper aims at analysing parametrically the influence of front frame compliance and tyre properties on the open loop stability of bicycles. Some indexes based on the eigenvalues of the dynamic system are defined to evaluate quantitatively bicycle stability. The parametric analysis is carried out with a factorial design approach to determine the most influential parameters. A commuting and a racing bicycle are considered and numerical results show different effects of the various parameters on each bicycle. In the commuting bicycle, the tyre properties have greater influence than front frame compliance, and the weave mode has the main effect on stability. Conversely, in the racing bicycle, the front frame compliance parameters have greater influence than tyre properties, and the wobble mode has the main effect on stability.

  11. Comparison of five bicycle facility designs in signalized intersections using traffic conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Traffic conflict study comparing cyclists’ relative risk for five bicycle layouts. •Watchdog video analysis software applied to reduce video data. •Video analysis software necessary to conduct larger conflict studies. •Recessed bicycle track seems to provide the highest safety level...

  12. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  13. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Pu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  14. Adapting adaptation: the English eco-town initiative as governance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tomozeiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation and mitigation have become key policy drivers in the UK under its Climate Change Act of 2008. At the same time, urbanization has been high on the agenda, given the pressing need for substantial additional housing, particularly in southeast England. These twin policy objectives were brought together in the UK government's 'eco-town' initiative for England launched in 2007, which has since resulted in four eco-town projects currently under development. We critically analyze the eco-town initiative's policy evolution and early planning phase from a multilevel governance perspective by focusing on the following two interrelated aspects: (1 the evolving governance structures and resulting dynamics arising from the development of the eco-town initiative at UK governmental level, and the subsequent partial devolution to local stakeholders, including local authorities and nongovernmental actors, under the new 'localism' agenda; and (2 the effect of these governance dynamics on the conceptual and practical approach to adaptation through the emerging eco-town projects. As such, we problematize the impact of multilevel governance relations, and competing governance strategies and leadership, on shaping eco-town and related adaptation strategies and practice.

  15. The relationship between bicycle commuting and perceived stress: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Palencia, Ione; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Jerrett, Michael; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-06-23

    Active commuting - walking and bicycling for travel to and/or from work or educational addresses - may facilitate daily, routine physical activity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between active commuting and commuting stress; however, there are no studies examining the relationship between solely bicycle commuting and perceived stress, or studies that account for environmental determinants of bicycle commuting and stress. The current study evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting, among working or studying adults in a dense urban setting, and perceived stress. A cross-sectional study was performed with 788 adults who regularly travelled to work or study locations (excluding those who only commuted on foot) in Barcelona, Spain. Participants responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour from June 2011 through to May 2012. Participants were categorised as either bicycle commuters or non-bicycle commuters, and (based on the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) as either stressed or non-stressed. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance models of stress status based on exposures with bicycle commuting were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. Bicycle commuters had significantly lower risk of being stressed than non-bicycle commuters (Relative Risk; RR (95% CI)=0.73 (0.60 to 0.89), p=0.001). Bicycle commuters who bicycled 4 days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.42 (0.24 to 0.73), p=0.002) and those who bicycled 5 or more days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.57 (0.42 to 0.77), pstressed than those who bicycled less than 4 days. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual and environmental confounders and when using different cut-offs of perceived stress. Stress reduction may be an important consequence of routine bicycle use and should be considered by decision makers as another potential benefit of its promotion. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  16. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen......’s bicycle infrastructure and explores how the development corresponds to other processes of urban transformation. The study builds on historical maps of bicycle infrastructure that are digitised into geographical information, which allows for a comprehensive analysis of the formation of the network....... In search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  17. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  18. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Waruguru Mburu

    Full Text Available Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  19. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  20. A multi-modal network approach to model public transport accessibility impacts of bicycle-train integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; van Weperen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the bicycle plays an important in station access and, to a lesser extent, in station egress. There is however fairly little knowledge in the potential effects of bicycle-train integration policies. The aim of this paper is to examine the impacts of bicycle-train integration

  1. Hydrolysis of strained bridgehead bicyclic vinyl ethers and sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwang, W.K.; Kresge, A.J.; Wiseman, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Rates of hydrolysis of the bridgehead bicyclic vinyl ether 9-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-1-ene(6) and its vinyl sulfide counterpart 9-thiabicyclo[3.3.1]non-1-ene(7), catalyzed by the hydronium ion, were measured in H 2 O and in D 2 O solution. These data give isotope effects, k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 2.4 and 1.9 respectively, which show that these reactions occur by the normal, rate-determining carbon protonation, mechanism. The vinyl ether 6 is less reactive than its olefin analogue, bicyclo[3.3.1]non-1-ene (relative rate 1:1/1400), as may have been expected for a constrained bicyclic system such as this, where stabilization of the bridgehead carbocation intermediate by conjugation with oxygen is severely impaired. The vinyl sulfide 7, however, is even less reactive than the vinyl ether (relative rates 1:1/140); this is a remarkable result in view of the fact that conjugation between the sulfur atom and the cationic center is presumably also strongly inhibited. 1 figure, 3 tables

  2. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  3. The Intermodal Bike: multi-modal integration of cycling mobility through product and process innovations in bicycle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Francesca; Belli, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Tucci, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the early results of the UE-FP7 project "The Intermodal Bike". The research aim is to provide a super-compactable, super-lightweight folding bicycle as a realistic solution to graft the cycling mode onto the root of the public or private transportation systems. The folding bikes now on the international market reach weighs between 12-15 kg, with a variable footprint but occupying -when compacted- an average volume of about 100 liters. To encourage the use of this vehicle and to extend it to a larger number of users with different characteristics, the research project has set its goal in increasing as possible compactness and light weight, creating a bicycle with a volume when compacted of 20 liters (reduction factor =5), with a shape of 48 × 36 × 12 cm and a weight of 5 kg. max., ensuring stability and improving vehicle usability and efficiency, during the ride and in the phase of bike folding. To achieve this goal ergonomic and usability tests have been carried out. The tests allowed to find a posture that would ensure efficiency and comfort in the ride to as many users as possible. Parallel tests were made on the vehicle usability in the urban transport system and intermodal. The need for light weight has required special studies on the optimization of the vehicle's architecture and research on super-lightweight materials.

  4. A low energy solar town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  5. A low energy solar town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m 2 /year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs

  6. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  7. TOWN AND GOWN INTERFACE: ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    TOWN AND GOWN INTERFACE: ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN FEDERAL. UNIVERSITIES AND .... Descriptive statistical tools were used in the analysis of the data collected. In terms of ... Response. Frequency. % ... This disparity in response.

  8. RECURRENT CONVULSIONS IN CAPE TOWN CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-11-03

    Nov 3, 1970 ... Child Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town studied and the .... Sex Distribution (Table III) ... family history in children with brain damage is surprisingly high. .... nized that more male infants develop the respiratory.

  9. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  10. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)

    2015-10-16

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  11. Sociodemographic Factors, Population Density, and Bicycling for Transportation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Transportation bicycling is a behavior with demonstrated health benefits. Population-representative studies of transportation bicycling in United States are lacking. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors, population density, and transportation bicycling and described transportation bicyclists by trip purposes, using a US-representative sample. This cross-sectional study used 2009 National Household Travel Survey datasets. Associations among study variables were assessed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. On a typical day in 2009, 1% of Americans older than 5 years of age reported a transportation bicycling trip. Transportation cycling was inversely associated with age and directly with being male, with being white, and with population density (≥ 10,000 vs transportation. Twenty-one percent of transportation bicyclists reported trips to work, whereas 67% reported trips to social or other activities. Transportation bicycling in the United States is associated with sociodemographic characteristics and population density. Bicycles are used for a variety of trip purposes, which has implications for transportation bicycling research based on commuter data and for developing interventions to promote this behavior.

  12. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai

    2015-01-01

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated

  13. Revitalisation as a Method of Planning Sustainable Development of Old Town Complexes in Historic Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Gawryluk, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Old towns in spatial structures of historic towns are the areas which - same as centuries before - serve as the town centres. This is almost invariably true about small towns especially, as the inner town district is more frequently the site where a town was originally located and is often the manifestation of its historic identity. However, functional and spatial problems of many small historic towns arise from the above trend, mostly because of the frequently high density of buildings in the oldest part of a town. The intricate nature of elements creating the structure of a town’s historic centre often calls for certain steps to be taken, which will ensure better exposure of an old town complex against the backdrop of the town’s other areas. Numerous problems need to be solved, not only spatial but also economic and social ones. A town is a living organism, inhabited by people. The key to tackling these issues successfully lies in the creation of such revitalisation programmes that will improve the quality of space and help achieve the sustainable development of inner-town areas in historic towns. The historic centres in the medieval towns of Warmia, a region rich in history and situated in north-eastern Poland, can serve as an example and has been investigated in the following study. All the towns in Warmia located in the Middle Ages, except the capital of the region Olsztyn, can be classified as small urban developments. This group of eleven towns is dominated by the ones whose territorial coverage has not changed considerably since the location and the population ranges from a few thousand to less than twenty thousand. To this day, the historic quarters of these towns have remained the central ones in each town, and their urban structures to a various extent reveal the features characteristic for the period when they were created. The differences are due to the war damage the towns suffered at the end of World War Two and because of the different ways in

  14. Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranky, Richard G; Sivak, Mark L; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2014-06-05

    Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. In this paper a mechatronic rehabilitation bicycling system with an interactive virtual environment, called Virtual Reality Augmented Cycling Kit (VRACK), is presented. Novel hardware components embedded with sensors were implemented on a stationary exercise bicycle to monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants while immersing them in an augmented reality simulation providing the user with visual, auditory and haptic feedback. This modular and adaptable system attaches to commercially-available stationary bicycle systems and interfaces with a personal computer for simulation and data acquisition processes. The complete bicycle system includes: a) handle bars based on hydraulic pressure sensors; b) pedals that monitor pedal kinematics with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and forces on the pedals while providing vibratory feedback; c) off the shelf electronics to monitor heart rate and d) customized software for rehabilitation. Bench testing for the handle and pedal systems is presented for calibration of the sensors detecting force and angle. The modular mechatronic kit for exercise bicycles was tested in bench testing and human tests. Bench tests performed on the sensorized handle bars and the instrumented pedals validated the measurement accuracy of these components. Rider tests with the VRACK system focused on the pedal system and successfully monitored kinetic and kinematic parameters of the rider's lower extremities. The VRACK system, a virtual reality mechatronic bicycle

  15. Development Track of Different County-Level Towns

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Haijiao; ZHANG, Zhenghe

    2015-01-01

    County-level town is important space carrier of China’s urbanization and the emphasis and key of strategic distribution for urbanization. Backwardness of county-level towns limits nearby transfer of surplus labor. To promote development of county-level towns, on the basis of classifying county-level towns, this paper analyzed motive and resistance factors of evolution of different county-level towns using historical data collection and statistical method, comparative approach, typical case ...

  16. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  17. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... or by reduction using lithium aluminum hydride. The piperidines were subjected to hydrogenation to remove the N-benzyl group. The compounds were tested for hypoglycaemic activity by Novo Nordisk, but no activity was observed.Another approach towards a synthetic piperidine monoterpene was attempted. The strategy...... involved preparation of a diol, which through treatment of its ditosyl derivative with an amine would afford a piperidine monoterpene. Antirrhinoside was protected as its 5,6-O-monoacetonide via its 5,6:4',6'-O-diacetonide. The 5,6-O-isopropylidene-derivative was hydrogenated to give the 3,4-dihydro...

  18. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  19. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of novel bicyclic heterocycle derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Perlovich, German L.; Proshin, Alexey N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressures of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • Thermodynamic functions of sublimation were calculated. • The influence of substituent structure and chemical nature on the vapor pressure was studied. -- Abstract: The vapor pressures of five novel bicyclic heterocycle derivatives were measured over the temperature 341.15 to 396.15 K using the transpiration method by means of an inert gas carrier. From these results the standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation at the temperature 298.15 K were calculated. The effects of alkyl- and chloro-substitutions on changes in the thermodynamic functions have been investigated. Quantitative structure–property relationship on the basis HYBOT physico-chemical descriptors for biologically active compounds have been developed to predict the sublimation enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of the compounds studied

  20. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    In lignocellulosic biorefinery processes involving enzyme catalysed reactions it is a challenge that enzyme inhibiting compounds are generated and liberated during pretreatment of the biomass. In this study the contribution to cellulase inhibition from xylooligosaccharides and newly discovered...... oligophenolic compounds from pilot scale pretreated wheat straw was assessed at two different pretreatment severities. An increase in severity of the pretreatment led to more oligophenol compounds and in turn the total overall cellulase inhibition increased. When the xylooligosaccharides were enzymatically...... degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC...

  1. Continuous variable transmission and regenerative braking devices in bicycles utilizing magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2013-04-01

    The use of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its controllable nature, which gives automotive designers more dimensions of freedom in functional designs. However, not much attention has been paid to apply it to bicycles. This paper is aimed to study the feasibility of applying MR fluids in different dynamic parts of a bicycle such as the transmission and braking systems. MR continuous variable transmission (CVT) and power generator assisted in braking systems were designed and analyzed. Both prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate their performances. Experimental results showed that the proposed designs are promising to be used in bicycles.

  2. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  3. The use of an axial flux permanent magnet in-wheel direct drive in an electric bicycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, P.R. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering; Patterson, D.; O' Keefe, C.; Swenson, J. [Northern Territory University, Darwin (Australia). NT Centre for Energy Research

    2001-03-01

    The research described in this paper concentrates on the development of an electronic converter. Successful completion of this converter provides the final component for the larger electric bicycle project. The controller developed for the bicycle is rated at 400 W and is hard-switched. It uses MOSFETs as power switching devices. There are three Hall effect sensors placed 120 electrical degrees apart from each other in the motor for velocity and position sensing. The torque generated by the machine is controlled by hysteresis band current control. In order for the motor/controller to be commercially viable, particular attention was paid to the costs of the controller. The result, an efficient yet cheap controller. Measurement of efficiency is difficult in high performance power electronic controllers (Patterson DJA very high efficiency controller for an axial flux permanent magnet wheel drive in a solar powered vehicle. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth, IEEE PEDES '98, Perth, 30th November-3rd December, 1998). The paper includes discussion of a calorimetric method for measurement. (author)

  4. Report on new energy vision in Koushida Town area; Koushidacho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new energy vision was established in the Koushida Town area in Miyagi Prefecture. The population of Koushida Town has leveled off in recent years at 20,245 persons in fiscal 2000. However, number of people working outside the town is increasing, and the ratio of the daytime population is decreasing slowly. Agriculture in this town depends mainly on production rice of such brands as 'Hitomebore' and 'Sasanishiki', wherein the agricultural production amount is 3 billion 260 million yen in fiscal 1998. Commercial activities are decreasing its power with the annual retail sales amount of 17 billion 800 million yen, while the product shipping amount from the attracted factories is on the increasing trend, at 25 billion 700 million yen in 1998. The energy consumption is 526 times 10{sup 9} kcal in total, accounted for by the business department at 42.0%, the transportation department at 32.3%, and the consumer department at 25.7%. The annual utilizable quantity of new energies amounts to 28,816 times 10{sup 6} kcal, made available from solar power, wind power, bio-mass, and refuses, which is about 5.5% of the final energy consumption of the town. The new energy introducing project includes introduction of photovoltaic power generation into the town office building, facilities for interchange of citizens and schools, conversion of the automobiles used in the official organizations into clean energy fueled automobiles, the Eco-town Plan for the east side of Koushida Station, and the project of utilizing bio-mass supplied from the livestock market. (NEDO)

  5. Report on new energy vision in Koushida Town area; Koushidacho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new energy vision was established in the Koushida Town area in Miyagi Prefecture. The population of Koushida Town has leveled off in recent years at 20,245 persons in fiscal 2000. However, number of people working outside the town is increasing, and the ratio of the daytime population is decreasing slowly. Agriculture in this town depends mainly on production rice of such brands as 'Hitomebore' and 'Sasanishiki', wherein the agricultural production amount is 3 billion 260 million yen in fiscal 1998. Commercial activities are decreasing its power with the annual retail sales amount of 17 billion 800 million yen, while the product shipping amount from the attracted factories is on the increasing trend, at 25 billion 700 million yen in 1998. The energy consumption is 526 times 10{sup 9} kcal in total, accounted for by the business department at 42.0%, the transportation department at 32.3%, and the consumer department at 25.7%. The annual utilizable quantity of new energies amounts to 28,816 times 10{sup 6} kcal, made available from solar power, wind power, bio-mass, and refuses, which is about 5.5% of the final energy consumption of the town. The new energy introducing project includes introduction of photovoltaic power generation into the town office building, facilities for interchange of citizens and schools, conversion of the automobiles used in the official organizations into clean energy fueled automobiles, the Eco-town Plan for the east side of Koushida Station, and the project of utilizing bio-mass supplied from the livestock market. (NEDO)

  6. Small Town Energy Program (STEP) Final Report revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles (Chuck) T.

    2014-01-02

    University Park, Maryland (“UP”) is a small town of 2,540 residents, 919 homes, 2 churches, 1 school, 1 town hall, and 1 breakthrough community energy efficiency initiative: the Small Town Energy Program (“STEP”). STEP was developed with a mission to “create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S.” STEP first launched in January 2011 in UP and expanded in July 2012 to the neighboring communities of Hyattsville, Riverdale Park, and College Heights Estates, MD. STEP, which concluded in July 2013, was generously supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The STEP model was designed for replication in other resource-constrained small towns similar to University Park - a sector largely neglected to date in federal and state energy efficiency programs. STEP provided a full suite of activities for replication, including: energy audits and retrofits for residential buildings, financial incentives, a community-based social marketing backbone and local community delivery partners. STEP also included the highly innovative use of an “Energy Coach” who worked one-on-one with clients throughout the program. Please see www.smalltownenergy.org for more information. In less than three years, STEP achieved the following results in University Park: • 30% of community households participated voluntarily in STEP; • 25% of homes received a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR assessment; • 16% of households made energy efficiency improvements to their home; • 64% of households proceeded with an upgrade after their assessment; • 9 Full Time Equivalent jobs were created or retained, and 39 contractors worked on STEP over the course of the project. Estimated Energy Savings - Program Totals kWh Electricity 204,407 Therms Natural Gas 24,800 Gallons of Oil 2,581 Total Estimated MMBTU Saved (Source Energy) 5,474 Total Estimated Annual Energy Cost Savings $61,343 STEP clients who

  7. New DHC system of international business district in Makuhari new town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Shohei (Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-08-05

    Chiba prefectural government is promoting to create the 21st Century New Town which is named Makuhari New Town project. This new town is one of biggest projects in Japan, and have a land area of 440 hectare. At International Business District (the land area of 61.6 hectare) in Makuhari New Town, the new District Heating and Cooling (DHC) system which is scheduled to introduce a cogeneration system, has been constructing. The customer's buildings supplied with the Thermal energy are expected to be about 25 buildings including a super high building, of which total floor space will be 1.2 million m{sup 2}. The final plant capacity of DHC using town gas will be refrigerating capacity of 32000 USRt, boiler capacity of 190ton/h and gas turbine cogeneration with 3000 KW. The distribution pipe line for DHC counts for 2000 m in total length, which will be installed through the culvert. The heat supply will be started in October of 1989. Through DHC by use of clean energy natural gas, the effect of air pollution control and energy conservation is expected to be achieved and the realization of a harmonized and comfortable city life is intended. 2 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  9. Revealed Preference Methods for Studying Bicycle Route Choice—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pritchard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists. Two electronic databases were systematically searched for a selection of keywords pertaining to bicycle and route choice. In total seven families of methods are identified: GPS devices, smartphone applications, crowdsourcing, participant-recalled routes, accompanied journeys, egocentric cameras and virtual reality. The study illustrates a trade-off in the quality of data obtainable and the average number of participants. Future additional methods could include dockless bikeshare, multiple camera solutions using computer vision and immersive bicycle simulator environments.

  10. Physiological responses and exercise preference between the Trikke and the bicycle ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T.C. Lam

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Participants were more efficient in using the Trikke than the bicycle ergometer. The Trikke may be an enjoyable alternative for those individuals, particularly women, who have lost interest in traditional forms of exercise.

  11. Integration of bicycling and walking facilities into the infrastructure of urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Several manuals, handbooks and web resources exist to provide varied guidance on planning for and designing bicycle and pedestrian facilities, yet there are no specific indications about which of the varied treatments in these guides work well for us...

  12. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  13. Associations Between Bicycling and Fall Related Physical Performance in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Falls among older adults remains a significant public health issue. Bicycling positively influences falls risk factors including reduced balance, muscle weakness, and low self-perceived confidence in maintaining balance. However, this association has not been systematically examined. We recruited

  14. 2002 bicycle transportation user survey ; developing intermodal connections for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Rhode Island Department of Transportation (RIDOT) has been on the forefront in recognizing the potential for bicycle travel to provide mobility, reduce congestion, improve environmental quality, and promote healthy lifestyles. An important compon...

  15. Aging road user, bicyclist, and pedestrian safety : effective bicycling signs and preventing left-turn crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in version...

  16. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  17. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  18. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION OF A DEFUNCT IRAQI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šedina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  19. Supercritical water decontamination of town gas soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Town gas sites represent a large environmental problem that exists in more than 2,000 sites across North America alone. The major contaminants in town gas sods are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These are stable compounds that migrate deep into the soil and are traditionally very difficult to remove by conventional remediation processes. Supercritical fluids offer enhanced solvating properties along with reduced mass transfer resistances that make them ideal for removing compounds that are difficult or impossible to remove by conventional processes. Supercritical water is ideal for removing PAHs and other hydrocarbons from soil due to its high solvating power towards most hydrocarbon species. Supercritical water was investigated for its ability to remediate two different town gas sods containing from 3--20 wt% contamination. The sod was remediated in a 300-cc semi-continuous system to a more environmentally acceptable level

  20. Teaching children about bicycle safety: an evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Noland, Robert B; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple health and environmental benefits associated with increasing bicycling among children. However, the use of bicycles is also associated with severe injuries and fatalities. In order to reduce bicycle crashes, a bicycling education program was implemented in selected New Jersey schools and summer camps as part of the New Jersey Safe Routes to School Program. Using a convenience sample of participants to the program, an opportunistic study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two bicycle education programs, the first a more-structured program delivered in a school setting, with no on-road component, and the other a less structured program delivered in a summer camp setting that included an on-road component. Tests administered before and after training were designed to assess knowledge acquired during the training. Questions assessed children's existing knowledge of helmet use and other equipment, bicycle safety, as well as their ability to discriminate hazards and understand rules of the road. Participating children (n=699) also completed a travel survey that assessed their bicycling behavior and their perception of safety issues. Response to individual questions, overall pre- and post-training test scores, and changes in test scores were compared using comparison of proportion, t-tests, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Improvements between the pre-training and post-training test are apparent from the frequency distribution of test results and from t-tests. Both summer camps and school-based programs recorded similar improvements in test results. Children who bicycled with their parents scored higher on the pre-training test but did not improve as much on the post-training test. Without evaluating long-term changes in behavior, it is difficult to ascertain how successful the program is on eventual behavioral and safety outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Traumatic Globe Subluxation and Intracranial Injury Caused by Bicycle Brake Handle

    OpenAIRE

    Poroy; Cibik; Yazici

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Penetration of a bicycle brake handle into the orbit is a rare and serious type of trauma. Globe subluxation due to such trauma has not been previously reported. Case Presentation A 10-year-old girl presented after falling from a bicycle, which resulted in the handbrake penetrating her right upper eyelid. On examination, the globe was subluxated anteriorly, there was no light perception, and the pupilla was fixed and ...

  2. Stereocontrolled synthesis of polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidines as a new class of iminosugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Maciej; Hensienne, Raphaël; Kern, Nicolas; Tardieu, Damien; Bodlenner, Anne; Hazelard, Damien; Compain, Philippe

    2018-06-12

    We report herein the development of a stereodivergent route towards polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidine scaffolds, namely 6-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane derivatives. The strategy hinges on a common bicyclic β-lactam precursor, which is forged by way of a rare example of a cationic Dieckmann-type reaction, followed by IBX-mediated desaturation. Substrate-controlled diastereoselective oxidations then allow the divergent preparation of novel iminosugar mimics.

  3. Hope-filled, energy-conscious town of Itakura. Regional new energy vision for Itakura Town; 2001 nendo Itakura machi shin energy vision. Yume ippai enetown Itakura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Itakura Town, Niigata Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving energy demand of the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. In fiscal 2000 the town consumed 549,973 GJ/year in energy, with the industrial sector consuming 202,014 GJ, the residential/commercial sector 194,233 GJ, and the transportation sector 153,725 GJ. The energy types were gasoline, kerosene, electricity, gas oil, heavy oil, and LPG, as named in the descending order in terms of consumed amount. It is estimated that the energy consumption resulted in the emission of carbon dioxide of 11,839 t-C/year. New energy introduction projects were discussed, which involved wind power generation for the Itakura sewage purification center; snow-aided cooling systems for a Yasuragi rest house and the special nursing home for elderly people; snow-aided refrigeration for a unhusked rice silo; photovoltaic power generation and cogeneration for the town office; photovoltaic/wind power-driven hybrid street lamps; use of biomass solid fuel for heating public facilities; use of clean-energy vehicles as official vehicles; and the like. (NEDO)

  4. The perception of the next Bouin wind farm by the border towns people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document provides statistical results (questions and answers) of the inquiry realized in january 2003 in the border towns of a next wind farm in Bouin (Vendee). It also includes the analysis of the results showing the good public information and the favorable opinion concerning the project. (A.L.B.)

  5. use of telecommunication and information technologies by inhabitants of small Moravian towns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kallabová, Eva; Frantál, Bohumil

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2005), s. 25-37 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3086301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : small towns * ICT * telecommunication * regional development Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  6. Suburbanization in small towns - case study Modřice near Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2007), s. 112-116 ISSN 1224-4112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Suburbanization * small towns Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  7. The forced dislocation of gypsy people from the town of Bayramic, Canakkale in 1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özateşler, Gül

    2012-01-01

    This oral project draws upon Gypsies’ and non-Gypsies’ narratives of forced dislocation from the town of Bayramic in 1970 with a focus on the recruitment of categories of Gypsyness and Turkishness. It reveals different perspectives and memory constructions along with the positions taken in the

  8. Raising the Bar: Standards and Tests in California's High Schools. A Town Hall Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstine, Barbara; Futernick, Ken; Hodson, Timothy A.; Ostgaard, Kolleen

    In 1999, the LegiSchool Project planned to conduct the 12th in its series of televised Town Hall Meetings to provide a forum in which California high school students, educators, and legislators can engage in face-to-face dialogue about problems of mutual interest. For 1999, the topic is standards and tests in California high schools. This guide…

  9. Demographic changes of the Visaginas town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavaliauskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The youngest Lithuanian town surrounded by pine forest is situated at the shore of a picturesque lake of Visaginas. The level of radiation of the town and its suburbs doesn't prevail the standards due to the data given by the Lithuanian Department of Environmental Protection. A relatively small, hilly, green, full of lakes areas have all facilities for tourism and recreation. The town's birth is directly linked with the construction of the nuclear power plant. Great number of nuclear energy specialists came here with their families from the East. The specific character of the town determined the ethnic composition of its population. In 1994-1995 there were Russians (59%), Lithuanians (14%), Byelorussian s (11%), Poles (6%), other nationalities (10%). The number of the residents in Visaginas is stable now with a slight tendency of increasing on the number of women. In 1990 the population of Visaginas was 33192, the women comprised 566 more in number than the men, in 1997 of its 33508 people were 1172 more women than the men. Recent Lithuanian social-economic changes greatly influenced the number of inhabitants of the town. In 1987, 3567 new inhabitants arrived to Visaginas and 1588 moved out. The inhabitants who had arrived to Visaginas in 1987 -1996 were 5,5 times less than in 1987, and moved out 5,4 times less also. One half of the inhabitants who moved from Visaginas went abroad. It shows that the mechanic and social mobility of the town's population decreased too. From 1989 to 1996 the main factor in changing the population number was not the natural increase of it but its migration. Then the natural increase lowered 4,8 times. The economic situation of the town is complex and becoming worse. The town was built as a satellite of the power plant. When the construction of the third block was stopped, the building of many objects was not completed. Other industries didn't develop in Visaginas. Most unemployed are the inhabitants at the age of 19-49 (87,9%). The

  10. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the CA model using the genetic algorithm. Traffic flow features between simulations of several CA models and field observations were compared. The results showed that our modified CA model produced more accurate simulation for the fundamental diagram and the passing events in mixed bicycle traffic flow. Based on our model, the bicycle traffic flow features, including the fundamental diagram, the number of passing events, and the number of lane changes, were analyzed. We also analyzed the traffic flow features with different traffic densities, traffic components on different travel lanes. Results of the study can provide important information for understanding and simulating the operations of mixed bicycle traffic flow.

  11. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  12. Evaluation of the dispersion effect in through movement bicycles at signalized intersection via cellular automata simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Ma, Yongjian; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Guozhou; Wang, Dongwei

    2018-05-01

    At signalized intersection areas, bicycle traffic presents a dispersion feature which may influence the movements of vehicles during peak period. The primary objective of this study is to simulate the dispersion effect in through-movement bicycle traffic at intersection areas and evaluate its influence on through-movement traffic. A cellular automata (CA) model is developed and validated to simulate the operations of through-movement bicycle traffic departing from two types of intersection approaches. Simulation results show that bicycles benefit from the dispersion effect when they depart from the approach with an exclusive right-turn vehicle lane. But when bicycles travel from the approach with a shared right-turn and through vehicle lane, the dispersion effect will result in friction interference and block interference on through-movement vehicles. Bicycle interferences reduce the vehicle speed and increase the delay of through-movement vehicles. The policy implications in regard to the dispersion effect from two types of approaches are discussed to improve the performance of through-movement traffic operations at signalized intersections.

  13. Risks of a town-forming enterprise in the risk system of a company town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk V.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to review of risks of a town-forming enterprise in the risk system of the company town counterparties (infrastructure, population, small and medium business, local self-government authorities. It contains an algorithm of stepwise study of risks of a town-forming enterprise from the perspective of their interconnection with the risk system of the company town counterparties. Approbation of theoretical and methodical provisions by the example of town-forming enterprise Asha Metallurgical Plant OJSC, Asha, Chelyabinsk region, with the help of the graph theory allowed to analyze interconnections and dependence of risks of the town-forming enterprise and to make a conclusion on its negative role in creation of a crisis situation in the economy of the company town. The article is completed with a complex of lines for neutralization of risks of AMP OJSC: TFE’s infrastructural and technological risk management; personnel risk management policy; mitigation of consumer, product and supply risks; competitive struggle risk management and advertising risk management.

  14. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  15. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  16. The search for a storage site for low-level and long-life wastes. A national project and a development opportunity for your town. A dossier for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a review of the program schedule, this document presents the project of a storage site for low-level and long life radioactive wastes as an opportunity for a district: it outlines the benefits of such a realisation for the dynamics of the local activity, specifies the main economical and financial characteristics associated with such a facility, and evokes the elements which are taken into account for the selection of the site. It describes the storage centre as a place of industrial activity, a monitored and controlled facility, an installation opened to the public. It describes the different stages of the life cycle of this future storage centre: pre-selection, on-site investigations, additional studies and administrative process for the selected site, building and starting, operation, shutting down, surveillance. The document indicates the legal frame related to this activity, specifies what are the different concerned wastes, and their present warehousing locations. It gives some details on the different safety principles for such a storage: environment and health protection, geological layer, public works engineering solutions, waste packages

  17. Development of Government Schools in Orangi Town, Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Zafar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary school system in Pakistan needs improvement in order to provide the basic right of education to all. Government schools are not enough to cater the needs of increasing population of the country. The main goal of this study was to present a methodology for the development of government schools based on geographical information system (GIS through a case study of Orangi Town in Karachi. In this study, first the adequacy of government schools in the study area was evaluated and then the need for additional schools with their suitable locations were identified.  Data regarding school locations and students enrollments were collected from Sindh Basic Education Program of a non-profit NGO iMMAP. School building footprints were digitized from 2001 and 2013 Google Earth archived images. Population in 2013 was estimated by projecting 1998 census data downloaded from the website of the Census Bureau of Pakistan. An educated assumption of 20 % of the total population of Orangi Town was used to calculate number of primary school-aged children. Study results showed that schools existed in 2013 were not sufficient to serve all these children. This study also revealed that new schools were built during this time period, but the population growth rate was much higher than the growth rate of schools that created a big supply-demand gap. The most progressive Union Council (UC of Orangi Town was Haryana Colony where 17 new schools were constructed between 2001 and 2013 though the required number of schools still fall short. New sites for schools were also proposed to optimally serve Orangi Town’s residents using GIS proximity analysis.

  18. PLANNING STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF SMALL TOWNS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kashiripoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning structure of cities plays an important role in shaping their sustainable development while elaborating urban planning documentation (master plans and detailed plan projects. The existing studies of small towns in Iran reveal issues of architectural heritage and do not touch upon such peculiar features of small town planning as shape of their plan, network of streets, their configuration. It has not been established how a planning structure of a small city influences on its sustainable development.An inspection of 16 small towns of Iran has shown that the majority of the cities have a compact planning form which is due to flat relief, as well as the need for efficient use of valuable agricultural land. At the same time the paper demonstrates that territory development for building construction within city boundaries has unequal character. It has been determined that cities have very few green areas. Undeveloped wastelands owned by private individuals are often located close to densely developed areas. Such situation is due to specific features of the Iranian legislation that does not specify time terms for territory development. Parameters of urban road-street networks (width in red lines, presence of such transverse profile elements as landscaping along roadways do not correspond to the existing recommendations in Iran. Mixed or free system of streets is considered as the most common one and it is due to changes in urban conditions during the long process of development. Frequent network of narrow streets forms a system of small blocks of various shapes and needs to be improved. The majority of the inspected cities do not have bypass roads for freight transport, and there is also a transit transport through their historic centers.

  19. Town and Regional Planning - Vol 59 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land quality, urban development and urban agriculture within the Cape Town urban edge · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Geyer, B Schloms, D du Plessis, A van Eeden, 41-52 ...

  20. Methods of Services Provision in Slovak Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Sičáková-Beblavá

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of services provision in Slovak towns.  It addresses decision-making concerning selected services provision, based on a transaction cost economic model. The article looks at five types of services from that point of view. These are core services, i.e., services that are provided in most Slovak towns, thereby allowing outcomes of decision-making to be compared, and services which can be outsourced according to transaction cost theory. Findings partially confirm the hypothesis: Slovak towns do outsource, though “insourcing” moderately prevails. However, a comparison of several research studies in the area indicates a trend towards higher outsourcing of such local services provision.  The findings show that public bodies do not always select the most suitable methods of services provision, as suggested by the transaction costs theory (the Brown-Potoski model. This indicates that it is not only economic models that influence decision-making concerning the organization of services provision in the Slovak towns.

  1. Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, Sajid; Zhu, S.-Y.; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2003-01-01

    Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly

  2. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  3. Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Sajid [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Zhu, S.-Y. [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Zubairy, M Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly.

  4. Urbanization and Effective Town Planning in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Aluko, Ola E. - Dept. of Urban & Regional Planning, Faculty of ... studies and management is essentially for all town and country planning activities and ... In this case, most of the inhabitants are not in any way connected with the ... The impact of rapid population growth on urban development and conditions.

  5. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  6. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  7. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  8. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  9. The Bicycle as a Tool of Ecological Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Ploštajner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development and ecological politics too often act as a mechanism for strengthening alienated state institutions or as a way for developing new market niches for the accumulation of capital. The article tries to offer a critique of technocratic visions of sustainable development by using the bike as a tool of emancipatory politics, and think about political ecology as means for building a community. The bicycle can be seen as an autonomous means of transportation stimulating the construction of ecological urban landscape, which is oriented towards users and community. It stimulates compressed and rationally used urban space, enforces heterogeneous urban plans, increases mixing of diverse practices and needs, liberates public space, which is now subordinated to parking spots and roads, and promotes rights and powers of the users, their autonomy and spontaneity, by enabling the development of open public streets, which are more than just a movement channel. The city, at present subordinated to ecological and social devastation of automobility, is—through extensive usage of bike—re-created as a space for the construction of social, autonomous and ecological community.

  10. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. On the Implications of Sense of Control over Bicycling : Design of a Physical Stamina-Aware Bike

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chao-Lung; Lee, Da; Cheng, Yun-Maw; Sandnes, Frode Eika; Chen, Li-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Chia

    2010-01-01

    Bicycling has become a mainstream activity among the environmental aware generation. Bicycling communities have gradually shown interests in quantitative data of the bicycling experiences such as road roughness, inclination, pollution, etc. Bikers utilize these data to infer the possible stamina cost and quality of surroundings. This supports them to make a better decision. This study assumes that fitness level indexed by stamina cost could enhance a biker's sense of c...

  12. Regional new energy vision for Tadami Town; 2001 nendo Tadami machi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Tadami Town, Fukushima Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the energy demand characteristics of the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. Though there is not a great change through the year in town's demand for power, more power is necessary in winter for heating and lighting. As for demand for gas and oil, demand for heating oil reaches its peak in winter. New energy introduction projects were discussed, which would utilize snow for the dynamization of industries, and studies were conducted about the selection of items to be stored in snow rooms, selection of proper cold heat utilization systems, care to be taken in the designing of facilities, installation of snow rooms, development of specialty goods proper to the town, and so forth. Eco-school development was also studied as an environmental education project harmonizing with the local circumstances. Discussed for the fostering of welfare were an energy business for a Welfare House, snow handling measures linked to new energy utilization systems, and the like. (NEDO)

  13. Going to Town: Where Is the Nearest Steakhouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Growing up in Loretto, Tennessee, population 1,700, people called it "going to town" when they went to any city big enough to have a McDonald's, Walmart, or a movie theater. If someone is not from a small town, they may not know what type of economic activities a small town can support. Will the town have a police department? Will there…

  14. Applied gis software for improving pedestrian & bicycle safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available People are important in towns. They are the foundation of the social and economic processes that drive the urban system and sustain the urban fabric. While people spend much of their time inside buildings – at home, at work, and at play – it is the movement of people, whether in vehicles or on foot, that is indicative of the vibrancy of the town. Comfort and safety are important for people movement. The crash data in cities, provinces started with the Traffic Organization of Inner Ministry looking at access management controls on functionally classified streets. Safety is a driving factor in access management and the crash reports are the best indicator of the lack of safe roads. This paper presents the development and findings of crash data from police reports and how they are being used in Geographic Information System (GIS. This tool generates a contour map identifying areas of high crash occurrence determined by crash density and clusters of crashes involving pedestrians or bicyclists. Summary statistics of the selected zones can be generated and displayed in a table or chart form.

  15. Bicycle-friendly infrastructure planning in Beijing and Copenhagen - between adapting design solutions and learning local planning cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Cities around the world are constructing bicycle infrastructure to increase cycling. However, identifying efficient design solutions and determining how bicycle infrastructure planning knowledge can be integrated into comprehensive policy remains a challenge. The objective of this paper...... is to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of current bicycle infrastructure planning in both an experienced city, Copenhagen, and in a less experienced city, Beijing. The paper examines how local design solutions are identified, how efficient they are and to what extent bicycle infrastructure planning...

  16. The use of bicycle workstations to increase physical activity in secondary classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fedewa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background To date, the majority of interventions have implemented classroom-based physical activity (PA at the elementary level; however, there is both the potential and need to explore student outcomes at high-school level as well, given that very few studies have incorporated classroom-based PA interventions for adolescents. One exception has been the use of bicycle workstations within secondary classrooms. Using bicycle workstations in lieu of traditional chairs in a high school setting shows promise for enhancing adolescents’ physical activity during the school day. Participants and procedure The present study explored the effects of integrating bicycle workstations into a secondary classroom setting for four months in a sample of 115 adolescents using an A-B-A-B withdrawal design. The study took place in one Advanced Placement English classroom across five groups of students. Physical activity outcomes included average heart rate, and caloric expenditure. Behavioural outcomes included percentage of on-task/off-task behaviour and number of teacher prompts in redirecting off-task behaviour. Feasibility and acceptability data of using the bicycle workstations were also collected. Results Findings showed significant improvements in physical activity as measured by heart rate and caloric expenditure, although heart rate percentage remained in the low intensity range when students were on the bicycle workstations. No effects were found on students’ on-task behaviour when using the bicycle workstations. Overall, students found the bikes acceptable to use but noted disadvantages of them as well. Conclusions Using bicycle workstations in high-school settings appears promising for enhancing low-intensity physical activity among adolescents. The limitations of the present study and implications for physical activity interventions in secondary schools are discussed.

  17. LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED. PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN. Lt-Cdr W. M. Bisset*. In 1975 Mr H. C. Willis suggested to the present writer that the SA Navy should mount a bronze plaque similar to those commissioned by the. Simon's Town Historical Society and displayed on certain historical buildings in the town at ...

  18. TINGKAT KEPUASAN PELANGGAN TERHADAP PELAYANAN DI KFC MAKASSAR TOWN SQUARE

    OpenAIRE

    RAMADHANI, IRMA

    2017-01-01

    2017 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kepuasan pelanggan terhadap pelayanan di KFC Makassar Town Square. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan terhadap pelanggan KFC Makassar Town Square yang telah bertransaksi lebih dari satu kali. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif deskriptif dengan mendeskripsikan atau menggambarkan tentang tingkat kepuasan pelanggan terhadap pelayanan. Jumlah sampel penelitian 83 pelanggan KFC Makassar Town. Analisis data menggunak...

  19. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  20. Urban Vitality in Dutch and Chinese New Towns. A comparative study between Almere and Tongzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building new towns seems to be a rational regionalization approach that releases pressure from overly burdened large cities. This strategy was developed in Western Europe in the middle of twentieth century. Since the 1990s, the European new town model has been widely implemented in China. However, the author questions the feasibility of the large-scale, hasty new town developments. The study of worldwide new town experiences, especially European and Chinese cases, demonstrates that many new towns in fact have difficulty in achieving a real sense of urban quality and vitality. So far, few research projects have been conducted to evaluate and develop solutions for this problem. The purpose of this research project is therefore to identify the spatial and non-spatial factors and conditions that facilitate the development of urban vitality in new towns. It is aimed to reveal the impacts of spatial design, urban planning and governance approaches on the degree and patterns of local urban life of new towns in China and in the Netherlands. The generated knowledge of this research project helps develop not only a better understanding of the main problems of new towns, but also spatial strategies with the aim to enliven new towns and other types of (suburban areas as well. The central research question is approached through literature review and case studies. The literature review provides a critical re-evaluation of the scientific validation of the new town model, especially the notion of town self-containment in economic terms. The relevant theories under study mainly include regional science and economic geography. The literature review also clarifies the general definition of urban vitality and its distinct meanings in different socio-economic and political backgrounds of the two societies, sets up the quantitative measurements methodology, and identifies a preliminary framework of spatial factors and conditions. As it turns out, the key indicators

  1. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County, Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tian-zhao; Yang, Zai-tian; Liu Pei-lin

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town, have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture, where mountains, waters, shoals, towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously, the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns, old temples, ancient forests, ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in...

  2. Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. Methods In this paper a mechatronic rehabilitation bicycling system with an interactive virtual environment, called Virtual Reality Augmented Cycling Kit (VRACK), is presented. Novel hardware components embedded with sensors were implemented on a stationary exercise bicycle to monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants while immersing them in an augmented reality simulation providing the user with visual, auditory and haptic feedback. This modular and adaptable system attaches to commercially-available stationary bicycle systems and interfaces with a personal computer for simulation and data acquisition processes. The complete bicycle system includes: a) handle bars based on hydraulic pressure sensors; b) pedals that monitor pedal kinematics with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and forces on the pedals while providing vibratory feedback; c) off the shelf electronics to monitor heart rate and d) customized software for rehabilitation. Bench testing for the handle and pedal systems is presented for calibration of the sensors detecting force and angle. Results The modular mechatronic kit for exercise bicycles was tested in bench testing and human tests. Bench tests performed on the sensorized handle bars and the instrumented pedals validated the measurement accuracy of these components. Rider tests with the VRACK system focused on the pedal system and successfully monitored kinetic and kinematic parameters of the rider’s lower extremities. Conclusions The VRACK

  3. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  4. Investigation of Bicycle Travel Time Estimation Using Bluetooth Sensors for Low Sampling Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Filtering the data for bicycle travel time using Bluetooth sensors is crucial to the estimation of link travel times on a corridor. The current paper describes an adaptive filtering algorithm for estimating bicycle travel times using Bluetooth data, with consideration of low sampling rates. The data for bicycle travel time using Bluetooth sensors has two characteristics. First, the bicycle flow contains stable and unstable conditions. Second, the collected data have low sampling rates (less than 1%. To avoid erroneous inference, filters are introduced to “purify” multiple time series. The valid data are identified within a dynamically varying validity window with the use of a robust data-filtering procedure. The size of the validity window varies based on the number of preceding sampling intervals without a Bluetooth record. Applications of the proposed algorithm to the dataset from Genshan East Road and Moganshan Road in Hangzhou demonstrate its ability to track typical variations in bicycle travel time efficiently, while suppressing high frequency noise signals.

  5. Assessing the Bicycle Network in St. Louis: A PlaceBased User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Boettge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To transition towards sustainability and increase low-impact transportation, city planners are integrating bicycle infrastructure in urban landscapes. Yet, this infrastructure only promotes cycling according to how well it is sited within a specific city. How to best site bicycle facilities is essential for sustainability planning. We review approaches to assessing and siting new bicycle facilities. Following sustainability science, we argue that active cyclists should be consulted to incorporate users’ site-specific knowledge into bicycle infrastructure assessments. We then pilot an approach that surveys cyclists concerning level of stress along routes ridden in St. Louis, MO, USA. Among the active cyclists surveyed (n = 89, we found stress correlates with speed limit, roadway classification, and number of lanes. Although cyclists surveyed in St. Louis prefer roads with bike lanes over roads with sharrows or no infrastructure, the presence of bicycle infrastructure had no correlation with reported levels of stress. The piloted survey and spatial analytic tool are transferable to other localities. For planners, the maps generated by this participant data approach identify high-stress routes as targets of new infrastructure or information to direct cyclists to safer routes. For bicyclists, the maps generated identify low-stress routes for recreation and commuting.

  6. Towns want tourists not miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Will Slovakia become one of the biggest uranium producers? Kosice is currently looking for an answer to this question. The biggest known uranium reserves in Central Europe at Jahodna close to Kosice have caused a dispute between the private investors, the municipality and civic societies. The intention of the Canadian company, Tournigan Gold, or rather its Slovak subsidiary, Kremnica Gold, to start a geological survey raised objections from activists and local officials. The aim of the Canadian company is, at least at first glance, obvious: to benefit from international uranium prices. Over the last few years prices have risen by 1600% and the prices of privately owned mining companies has increased up by hundreds of percent. But the reasons behind the objections are also easy to guess: prevent potential environment devastation. There is not much information available on the Jahodna project. Not even Tournigan has it. Executive director Mike Mracek does not yet know the answers to the questions the locals and the municipality are concerned about the most. And so we can only speculate about how the mining waste will be disposed of and what impact mining would have on the city's recreational area. The only thing that is certain is that about 3.6 million tons of uranium-molybdenum metal with a high uranium concentration are present underground. The uranium concentration is about twice as high as in the Czech Republic and four-times higher than a level considered to be profitable. Although Jahodna is a common topic of discussions, realisation is still far away. Kremnica Gold has a permit for a geological survey and a pre-emotive right to mine. Even if it managed to get all the necessary documents to start mining in Kosice mining could not start earlier than in 6 years' time. Kremnica Gold has not yet prepared the relevant economic calculations. But it is certain that under current price conditions it would be profitable to start mining even given the high technology

  7. Accident rates amongst regular bicycle riders in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew J; Si, Lei; Gordon, Jared M; Saul, Tim; Curry, Beverley A; Otahal, Petr; Hitchens, Peta L

    2014-11-01

    To characterise the demographics, cycling habits and accident rates of adult cyclists in Tasmania. Volunteers ≥18 years of age who had cycled at least once/week over the previous month provided information on demographics; cycling experience; bicycles owned; hours/km/trips cycled per week; cycling purpose; protective equipment used; and major (required third-party medical treatment or resulted ≥1 day off work) or minor (interfered with individuals' regular daily activities and/or caused financial costs) accidents while cycling. Over 8-months, 136 cyclists (70.6% male) completed the telephone survey. Mean (standard deviation) age was 45.4 (12.1) years with 17.1 (11.4) years of cycling experience. In the week prior to interview, cyclists averaged 6.6 trips/week (totalling 105.7km or 5.0h). The most common reason for cycling was commuting/transport (34% of trips), followed by training/health/fitness (28%). The incidence of major and minor cycling accidents was 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.0) and 3.7 (2.3-5.0) per 100,000km, respectively. Male sex was associated with a significantly lower minor accident risk (incidence rate ratio=0.34, p=0.01). Mountain biking was associated with a significantly higher risk of minor accident compared with road or racing, touring, and city or commuting biking (phealth and wellbeing; cyclists also contributed substantially to the local economy. Accident rates are higher in this sample than previously reported in Tasmania and internationally. Mountain biking was associated with higher risks of both major and minor accidents compared to road/racing bike riding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding bicycling in cities using system dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Woodcock, James

    2017-12-01

    Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) of cycling in three contrasting contexts: Auckland, London and Nijmegen. We combined qualitative interviews and workshops to develop the CLDs. We used the three CLDs to compare and contrast influences on cycling at different points on a "cycling trajectory" and drew out policy insights. The three CLDs consisted of feedback loops dynamically influencing cycling, with significant overlap between the three diagrams. Common reinforcing patterns emerged: growing numbers of people cycling lifts political will to improve the environment; cycling safety in numbers drives further growth; and more cycling can lead to normalisation across the population. By contrast, limits to growth varied as cycling increases. In Auckland and London, real and perceived danger was considered the main limit, with added barriers to normalisation in London. Cycling congestion and "market saturation" were important in the Netherlands. A generalisable, dynamic causal theory for urban cycling enables a more ordered set of policy recommendations for different cities on a cycling trajectory. Participation meant the collective knowledge of cycling stakeholders was represented and triangulated with research evidence. Extending this research to further cities, especially in low

  9. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  10. Health priorities in an Australian mining town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In developed countries men's health is poorer than women's for a range of key indicators, and being an Indigenous man in Australia widens the gap substantially. Establishing the rates of mortality and health inequality between the sexes is useful for identifying that men's health...... with the aim of targeting health promotion activities more effectively. Methods: An intercept survey was conducted of residents of the Pilbara region towns Port Hedland and South Hedland in 2010. Settings included the main shopping centres and precincts in the towns and at community event venues. Interviewers...... recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national...

  11. Being young in a boom town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Christopher

    2011-08-15

    Fort McMurray is a booming town, having grown from small town to big city in a short time. A study was conducted to determine how this change affected young people. Results show they felt the changing environment required them to adapt all the time, which was a challenge but also a source of opportunities. Fort McMurray, with a labour shortage, afforded young people a lot of well-paid, flexible part time jobs during high school. These jobs were important to fund their post-secondary education. Although most of the young people saw themselves living elsewhere in 10 years, they could possibly stay if local challenges in the city were addressed.

  12. New energy vision of the Kosaka town area; 2001 nendo Kosaka machi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Kosaka Town, Akita Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy demand of the town, existence amount of new energy, project on new energy introduction, etc., and a new energy vision was worked out. The amount of energy demand of the town was 2,442,464 GJ/y. The energy demand consists of C heavy oil (about 1/3) and electric power (about 1/3) in the industrial sector, which are outstanding, and others including kerosene (about 12%) in the commercial/residential sector and light oil (about 10%) and gasoline (about 7%) in the transportation sector. The CO2 emissions from these are 60,000 t-C/y. As the project on the new energy introduction, study was made on the introduction of solar energy/snow cold energy space cooling to the insurance welfare center/interchange center, introduction of the photovoltaic power generation to the Korakukan area/elementary school/junior high school, introduction of the snow melting system using soil heat to town street/sidewalk, use of clean energy vehicle to public vehicle, use of ligneous biomass energy, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Regional new energy vision for Aogaki town; Aogakicho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A regional new energy vision has been formulated as part of Phase 4 of the Town Development Program of Aogaki town, Hyogo Prefecture, calling for 'building a town, comfortable to live in and full of hope, by utilizing rich natural environments.' The results of activities conducted in this connection are summarized in five chapters, which are (1) the description of the new energy vision, (2) Aogaki-town's energy characteristics, (3) basic plan, (4) driving forward of prioritized plans, and (5) toward the driving forward of the new energy vision. Chapter (4) comprises the goal of the formulation of the prioritized plans, the definition of the prioritized plans, and the establishment of individual projects. Established as the individual projects are the introduction of new energy linked to the inhibition of carbon dioxide gas emissions, use of wind energy for multiple purposes, public facilities preceding others in the introduction of new energy, building of environmentally symbiotic residences utilizing new energy, utilization of new energy at recreation facilities, and the popularization of and enlightening about new energy and its introduction through the participation of the local population. (NEDO)

  14. Language and intercourse in Visaginas town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskiene, V.

    1998-01-01

    The article deals with the attitude towards the key integration problems of the non Lithuanian population in town Visaginas (its building began in 1975 as Ignalina nuclear power plant - NPP - worker's settlement, first residents settled in 1977, up to 1992 it was named Sniechkus, in 1995 Visaginas received town status). The town was built on Visaginas' lake bank, Ignalina NPP - on Drukshiai lake bank. Ignalina is name of district, one of 44 in Lithuania. Ignalina town is in 14 kilometres from NPP. The situation of language and intercourse was investigated by three stages, three inquests. The first was expert inquest in 1993, the second - workers of Ignalina NPP inquest in 1995, third - inhabitants and institutions of administration of Visaginas and 4 districts around NPP in 1996. Investigation in 1996 displayed the 38% of non-indigenous residents of Visaginas absolutely had no command of Lithuanian (a desire their children to learn the language practically has been expressed by everybody). Inhabitants of Visaginas up to now can't to read any Lithuanian book or newspaper, to listen Lithuanian radio, to see Lithuanian television. The intercourse with indigenous residents mostly are going on Russian because 82% inhabitants of the region around Ignalina NPP can speak in Russian. In Visaginas no one have a good command of English, German or French in time as 2-5% habitants of districts around Visaginas have a good command of the languages. The 14% of non indigenous residents of Visaginas said they had a good command of Lithuanian. Problems of intercourse had 24% inhabitants in Visaginas,.26% - in Ignalina district, 12-13% - in Zarasai, Utena, Shvenchionys (districts around Ignalina NPP). Inhabitants of Visaginas interest for their living land, they have a big tolerance for mixed marriage (indigenous habitants - considerably less). Inhabitants of Visaginas may catch integration in Lithuanian culture in manner from Lithuanian language, and catch wealth which accumulated

  15. Regional new energy vision for Sakurae town; Sakuraecho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The town is situated in a mountainous region typical of the Iwami district, Shimane Prefecture, rich in natural energy resources with as many as four hydroelectric power stations in service. Such local features were taken into account fully when a regional new energy vision was formulated for showing the town the course to follow for promoting the introduction of new energy which is environmentally friendly. The results of related efforts are described in eight chapters, which are (1) the outline of the vision, (2) survey of the trend of new energy, (3) description of Sakurae town, (4) townspeople's awareness of energy matters, (5) rate of energy consumption, (6) available amount of new energy, (7) basic policy for introducing new energy, and (8) projects for introducing new energy. Part (8) covers a photovoltaic project, wind power project, ligneous biomass energy introduction project, and the introduction of clean energy vehicles. Under the ligneous biomass energy introduction project, business profitability is discussed of a scrap wood fueled power plant. (NEDO)

  16. Innovative sewerage solutions for small rural towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaper, C; Sharma, A

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of alternative wastewater servicing approaches in rural communities in Australia appears more feasible than in larger urban developments as many rural centres rely on septic tanks and surface discharge of greywater. This method of disposal creates many environmental, social and economic issues and is seen to limit potential for growth in many towns. This paper describes a generic methodology for the selection of innovative sewerage options for six regional towns in Victoria, Australia. The method includes consultation with stakeholders, multi-criteria assessment and concept design of the most favourable option. Despite the broad range of initial wastewater servicing options presented which included cluster-scale systems, upgrade of existing systems, greywater reuse and alternative collection, the outcome for five of the six towns was a modified centralised collection system as the preferred option. Lack of robust and reliable data on the human health risks and environmental impacts of alternative systems were identified as the primary data gaps in the sustainability assessment. In addition, biases in the assessment method due to stakeholder perceptions were found to be an additional issue.

  17. Application of GIS Technology for Town Planning Tasks Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyashko, G. A.

    2017-11-01

    For developing territories, one of the most actual town-planning tasks is to find out the suitable sites for building projects. The geographic information system (GIS) allows one to model complex spatial processes and can provide necessary effective tools to solve these tasks. We propose several GIS analysis models which can define suitable settlement allocations and select appropriate parcels for construction objects. We implement our models in the ArcGIS Desktop package and verify by application to the existing objects in Primorsky Region (Primorye Territory). These suitability models use several variations of the analysis method combinations and include various ways to resolve the suitability task using vector data and a raster data set. The suitability models created in this study can be combined, and one model can be integrated into another as its part. Our models can be updated by other suitability models for further detailed planning.

  18. Planning Failure of Satellite Town: A Case Study of Korangi, Karachi-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ali Soomro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite town of Korangiis part of the ‘Greater Karachi Resettlement Plan’ along with other satellite towns of Landhi and New Karachi proposed by the Greek Architect Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis in 1958. It is located in southern part of Karachi next to the Arabian Sea at latitude: 24°49' and longitude: 67° 7'. It is considered as one of the major post-independence urban regeneration projects. The actual plan of Doxiadis was supposed to be developed as self-sufficient satellite town for refugees (from Indian sub-continent partition with the provision of employment through industries and commercial areas along with residential settlement. This research revolves around the planning strategies adopted by the architect influenced by the indigenous way of living. The analysis is based upon the main proposition of the Greater Karachi Resettlement Plan that aimed to develop industrial activity in the satellite towns of Landhi-Korangi and North Karachi freeing the central Karachi from low income groups (poor and from environmental degradation. From here began the multiple issues mainly the transportation troubles of city, as these settlement towns were positioned at least 25 Kilometer off the city centre which probably was the only working hub for most of people then. This eventually led to the failure of the plan leaving behind the inhabitants with economic pandemonium. The objective of this research is to understand the issues related to the existing satellite town and the reasons for its decline; not growing on the pace of what it was assumed to develop. The paper also focuses on the stated argument of the failure of this massive relocation plan and its impacts on rest of the city.

  19. Exploring the Chemistry of Bicyclic Isoxazolidines for the Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycomimetic Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Lutz, Martin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-10-07

    Starting from a chiral furanone, the nitrone-olefin [3 + 2] cycloaddition can be used to obtain bicyclic isoxazolidines for which we report a set of reactions to selectively modify each functional position. These synthetically versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines allowed us to obtain complex glycomimetic building blocks, like iminosugars, via multicomponent chemistry. For example, a library of 20 pipecolic acid derivatives, a recurring motif in various prescription drugs, could be obtained via a one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Ugi three-component reaction of a bicyclic isoxazolidine-derived azido-hemiacetal. Notably, specific pipecolic acids in this library were obtained via hydrolysis of an unique tricyclic imidate side product of the Ugi reaction. The azido-hemiacetal was also converted into an aza-C-glycoside iminosugar via an unprecendented one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Mannich reaction.

  20. Influence of the cognitive workload on bicycle safety at four-legged intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    is the influence of workload capacity on bicyclists spatial behaviour in a natural environment of four-legged intersections. Method: Due to the traffic safety of test participants, the study is divided in two phases. In the first phase, the actual physical environment of the four-legged intersection and bicyclists......-legged intersection. The eye tracking glasses will be used to make video and audio recording of visible field of where or how long bicyclists are allocating their visual attention while riding a bicycle and facing obstacles when crossing the four-legged intersection. On the second phase, a bicycle riding simulator...... riding task. This will allow to understand the allocation of bicyclists attention between primary and secondary tasks, to reveal the limit of the information processing capacity during biking. Results expected: Two experimental results will be incorporated to gain in-depth knowledge on bicycle accidents...

  1. Investigation of the role of bicyclic peroxy radicals in the oxidation mechanism of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Adam W; Andreoni, John F; Elrod, Matthew J

    2010-10-07

    The products of the primary OH-initiated oxidation of toluene were investigated using the turbulent flow chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique under different oxygen, NO, and initial OH radical concentrations as well as a range of total pressures. The bicyclic peroxy radical intermediate, a key proposed intermediate species in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) for the atmospheric oxidation of toluene, was detected for the first time. The toluene oxidation mechanism was shown to have a strong oxygen concentration dependence, presumably due to the central role of the bicyclic peroxy radical in determining the stable product distribution at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. The results also suggest a potential role for bicyclic peroxy radical + HO(2) reactions at high HO(2)/NO ratios. These reactions are postulated to be a source of the inconsistencies between environmental chamber results and predictions from the MCM.

  2. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  3. A Remote Power Management Strategy for the Solar Energy Powered Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsing Chao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar energy powered bicycle by a wireless sensor network (WSN far-end network monitoring solar energy to transfer the electrical energy storage and the effectiveness analysis is proposed. In order to achieve this goal, an embarked ZigBee by a solar-powered bicycle the far-end wireless network supervisory system is setup. Experimental results prove that our prototype, the solar energy powered bicycle, can manage the solar energy for charging two Lead-Acid batteries pack. As a result, the user by the wireless network in parking period knows the data on the amount of immediate solar radiation, the degree of illumination, the ambient temperature, and electrical energy storage capacity information by the internet interface.

  4. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  5. Traumatic Globe Subluxation and Intracranial Injury Caused by Bicycle Brake Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroy, Ceren; Cibik, Cansu; Yazici, Bulent

    2016-09-01

    Penetration of a bicycle brake handle into the orbit is a rare and serious type of trauma. Globe subluxation due to such trauma has not been previously reported. A 10-year-old girl presented after falling from a bicycle, which resulted in the handbrake penetrating her right upper eyelid. On examination, the globe was subluxated anteriorly, there was no light perception, and the pupilla was fixed and dilated. Radiologic studies revealed orbitonasal fractures, hemorrhage, emphysema in the orbit and cranium, and rupture of the extraocular muscles. The globe was replaced into the orbit with the help of lateral cantholysis and orbital septotomy. During 22 months of follow-up, the globe remained intact, but total loss of vision, blepharoptosis, and extraocular motility restriction persisted. This case and previous reports show that bicycle brake handles can cause severe, penetrating orbital and cerebral traumas that can result in vision loss or fatality. Brake handles should be designed to protect bicyclists from such injuries.

  6. [Abortion using a bicycle pump on the mistress and unusual suicide of a blind man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, F J

    1973-01-01

    In Tyrol a case of fatal air embolism after an abortion attempt with a bicycle pump, performed by a blind man who later committed suicide, is described. The bicycle tube was inserted into the vagina and air and a soapy solution were pumped in. Autopsies revealed internal bleeding, gas embolisms in the veins of the ovaries and heart, a bloody foamy liquid in the lungs, and an intact 14 cm male fetus. 3 similar cases of fatal air embolisms after abortion attempts with bicycle pumps are described. In 1 case a soapy solution had been injected. Abortion attempts with a pipe and a rubber catheter, reported here, also resulted in rapidly fatal air embolisms. In 1 case death occurred a few seconds after a partner blew air with his mouth into his pregnant mistress' vagina. It is concluded that under some conditions filling the vagina with air (tightly) can cause fatal air embolisms.

  7. Automatic Stabilization of a Riderless Bicycle using the Active Disturbance Rejection Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baquero-Suárez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an ADRC (Active Disturbance Rejection Control strategy by disturbance extended observers to stabilize a moving riderless bicycle with a variant forward speed. Although the bicycle has an unstable and non-linear dynamics when in its upright position, which can be modeled as a LPV (Linear-Parameter-Varying system that depends on the forward speed, a simplified time-invariant and lumped-parameter model, with an nominal constant forward speed is used in the controller design. ADRC scheme groups discrepancies between the simplified model and the plant, with external disturbances into an equivalent additive unified disturbance signal at input, which is estimated via the observer and rejected through a linear control law. The effectiveness of this strategy is validated by a co-simulation between ADAMS and MATLAB, which exhibits a high performance and robustness in a virtual dynamic model of the bicycle, submitted to severe external disturbances and parameter variations.

  8. Hexographic Method of Complex Town-Planning Terrain Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of a complex town-planning analysis based on the “hexographic” graphic analytic method, makes a comparison with conventional terrain estimate methods and contains the method application examples. It discloses a procedure of the author’s estimate of restrictions and building of a mathematical model which reflects not only conventional town-planning restrictions, but also social and aesthetic aspects of the analyzed territory. The method allows one to quickly get an idea of the territory potential. It is possible to use an unlimited number of estimated factors. The method can be used for the integrated assessment of urban areas. In addition, it is possible to use the methods of preliminary evaluation of the territory commercial attractiveness in the preparation of investment projects. The technique application results in simple informative graphics. Graphical interpretation is straightforward from the experts. A definite advantage is the free perception of the subject results as they are not prepared professionally. Thus, it is possible to build a dialogue between professionals and the public on a new level allowing to take into account the interests of various parties. At the moment, the method is used as a tool for the preparation of integrated urban development projects at the Department of Architecture in Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “South Ural State University (National Research University)”, FSAEIHE SUSU (NRU). The methodology is included in a course of lectures as the material on architectural and urban design for architecture students. The same methodology was successfully tested in the preparation of business strategies for the development of some territories in the Chelyabinsk region. This publication is the first in a series of planned activities developing and describing the methodology of hexographical analysis in urban and architectural practice. It is also

  9. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  10. The Politics of Bicycle Innovation: Comparing the American and Dutch Human-Powered Vehicle Movements, 1970s—present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, M.; Oldenziel, R; Trischler, H

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the history of the international Human-Powered Vehicle (HPV) movement, originally launched in the 1970s by engineers and scientists who believed that bicycle innovation could give a major impetus to a coveted western bicycle renaissance. Based on a reading of magazines and

  11. An experiment on rider stability while mounting : comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Platteel, S. & Lovegrove, G.R.

    2017-01-01

    Pedelecs, popular among elderly cyclists, are associated with a higher injury risk than conventional bicycles. About 17% of these injuries are due to falls while (dis)mounting. Using instrumented bicycles, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to the stability of self-chosen mounting

  12. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In

  13. BICYCLE HELMET DESIGN AND THE VIRTUAL VALIDATION OF THE IMPACT, AERODYNAMICS AND PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Boshevski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development process of a bicycle helmet through individual research, creation, presentation and analysis of the results of the most important product development stages. The quality of the development and manufacturing process of the protective equipment for extreme sports is an imperative for a successful product and its flawless function. The design of the bicycle helmet is made following the rules of the design in order to create a well-founded and functional product. After creating design sketches, a virtual prototype was developed in "SolidWorks" using the required ergonomic dimensions. 3D printed model of the human head with adapted ergonomic dimensions and the designed bicycle helmet was developed in order to verify the applied ergonomic measures. The virtual model will be used as an input in the finite element analysis of the helmet impact test based on the EN1078 standard and the aerodynamic simulations executed in "SolidWorks Simulation and Flow Simulation", for verification of the impact and aerodynamic properties. Virtual testing of aerodynamic features and the ability of the bicycle helmet to allow ventilation of the user's head indicate that the helmet performs its function in the desired way. Also, the virtual prototype will be used for the production process simulation in "SolidWorks Plastics" in order to analyze the production of the bicycle helmet. The polycarbonate helmet outer shell is subject to a number of simulations for the sake of analyzing the production process in order to obtain the desired characteristics of the polycarbonate outer shell and to avoid the disadvantages that occur in the manufacturing process. The main goal of this paper is to develop a safety bicycle helmet with improved ergonomic, validation of impact, aerodynamic characteristics and production process in order to produce a high quality product for mass use.

  14. Development of a solar-powered electric bicycle in bike sharing transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisuwignjo, S.; Siradjuddin, I.; Rifa'i, M.; Putri, R. I.

    2017-06-01

    The increasing mobility has directly led to deteriorating traffic conditions, extra fuel consumption, increasing automobile exhaust emissions, air pollution and lowering quality of life. Apart from being clean, cheap and equitable mode of transport for short-distance journeys, cycling can potentially offer solutions to the problem of urban mobility. Many cities have tried promoting cycling particularly through the implementation of bike-sharing. Apparently the fourth generation bikesharing system has been promoted utilizing electric bicycles which considered as a clean technology implementation. Utilization of solar power is probably the development keys in the fourth generation bikesharing system and will become the standard in bikesharing system in the future. Electric bikes use batteries as a source of energy, thus they require a battery charger system which powered from the solar cells energy. This research aims to design and implement electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. It is necessary to develop an electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. The study was conducted by means of experimental method which includes the design, manufacture and testing controller systems. The designed fuzzy algorithm have been planted in EEPROM microcontroller ATmega8535. The charging current was set at 1.2 Amperes and the full charged battery voltage was observed to be 40 Volts. The results showed a fuzzy logic controller was able to maintain the charging current of 1.2 Ampere with an error rate of less than 5% around the set point. The process of charging electric bike lead acid batteries from empty to fully charged was 5 hours. In conclusion, the development of solar-powered electric bicycle controlled using fuzzy logic controller can keep the battery charging current in solar-powered electric bicycle to remain stable. This shows that the fuzzy algorithm can be used as

  15. Restraining private vehicles in town centres. A handbook for those considering strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The desire and need to travel has shown an explosive growth in recent years and society has become more and more dependent on the motor car with all its harmful side effects such as congestion and air pollution and burgeoning use of energy. Nowhere is this more apparent than in town centres where limitations on space aggravate all the problems, and it is here that the necessity to limit the use of private cars is most urgent. In 1995, Energie-Cites, a network of local authorities interested in energy issues, proposed a project on this topic (RePriVe) as part of the PACTE programme, to the European Commission's Directorate General for Regional Policy. Six local authorities: Cork County Council in Ireland, Bridgend County Borough Council in Wales, Erlangen in Germany, Vejle in Denmark and Edessa and Menemeni in Greece, met to discuss and exchange experience on this issue in a project whose technical co-ordination was handled by Energie-Cites. The Authorities' own experience varies widely. Erlangen and Vejle have developed sophisticated traffic management arrangements for their towns, Porthcawl (in Bridgend CBC), Menemeni and Cork have started to introduce traffic management arrangements in small or suburban settlements, while in Bridgend town and Edessa the Authorities are considering how they can improve their towns following the construction of relief roads. Energie-Cites itself has made studies of how local authorities have responded to this challenge through the planning process. There are a number of conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. Firstly the barriers to action are largely political. While there are institutional barriers, with sufficient political will-power all local authorities can undertake effective action, and there is no size too small for action to be. Secondly, certain actions in medium and large size towns are likely to be more successful than others. Projects to encourage modal transfer to public transport are likely to be

  16. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  17. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  18. Generation of Polar Semi-Saturated Bicyclic Pyrazoles for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luise, Nicola; Wyatt, Paul

    2018-05-07

    Synthesising polar semi-saturated bicyclic heterocycles can lead to better starting points for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) programs. This communication highlights the application of diverse chemistry to construct bicyclic systems from a common intermediate, where pyrazole, a privileged heteroaromatic able to bind effectively to biological targets, is fused to diverse saturated counterparts. The generated fragments can be further developed either after confirmation of their binding pose or early in the process, as their synthetic intermediates. Essential quality control (QC) for selection of small molecules to add to a fragment library is discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2011-01-01

    -economic variables of a representative sample of the population. The investigated sample includes 11,072 observations. The model considers five alternatives (i.e., car driver, car passenger, public transport, walk and obviously bike), for which level of service variables are calculated through assignment procedures...... relevance of the cost for short trips. Expectedly, the selection of bicycle as mode for short trips is positively related to owning a bicycle and negatively linked to owning one or more cars. Urban density has also positive correlation with the selection of sustainable transport modes....

  20. Device and method to determine perineal artery occlusion during road bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hotaling, James M; Ohlander, Samuel J; Baftiri, Amit P; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Greater than 60 million American men who ride bicycles are at risk of developing erectile dysfunction. One possible reason is occlusion of the perineal arteries. Researchers relied on indirect methods and stationary models to study this problem. We developed a novel system to quantify occlusion among bicycle riders during a road bike ride. Our verification and validation activities show that this system can be safely used on human subjects to measure perineal artery occlusion. The method described in this paper provides a valuable tool to the researchers to study or to develop new solutions that alleviate this problem. The outcomes of these efforts will help millions of cyclists worldwide.

  1. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  2. Simulating the Conversion of Rural Settlements to Town Land Based on Multi-Agent Systems and Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472

  3. Cycle for Science: An informal outreach program connecting K-12 students with renewable energy and physics through miniature 3D-printed, solar-powered bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Robinson, R.; Case, E.

    2017-12-01

    Engaging communities with renewable energy is key to fighting climate change. Cycle for Science, an innovative STEM outreach organization, has reached more than 3,000 K-12 students across the United States by bringing early-career female scientists into classrooms to teach basic physics and solar energy engineering through hands-on, DIY science activities. We designed a fleet of miniature, 3D-printed, solar-powered bicycles called "Sol Cycles" to use as teaching tools. Traveling by bicycle, Cycle for Science has brought them to rural and urban communities across the U.S. in two major efforts so far: one traversing the country (2015), and one through central California (2017). The program involves (1) introducing the scientists and why they value science, (2) running a skit to demonstrate how electrons and photons interact inside the solar panel, (3) assembling the Sol Cycles, (4) taking students outdoors to test the effects of variables (e.g. light intensity) on the Sol Cycles' movement, (5) and debriefing about the importance of renewable energy. In addition to physics and solar energy, the lessons teach the scientific process, provide tactile engagement with science, and introduce a platform to engage students with climate change impacts. By cycling to classrooms, we provide positive examples of low-impact transportation and a unique avenue for discussing climate action. It was important that this program extend beyond the trips, so the lesson and Sol Cycle design are open source to encourage teachers and students to play, change and improve the design, as well as incorporate new exercises (e.g. could you power the bicycle by wind?). Additionally, it has been permanently added to the XRaise Lending Library at Cornell University, so teachers across the world can implement the lesson. By sharing our project at AGU, we aim to connect with other scientists, educators, and concerned citizens about how to continue to bring renewable energy lessons into classrooms.

  4. New energy visions for the Town of Ichinohe district; Ichinohecho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Ichinohe, Iwate Pref. The town's population has been generally decreasing since 1975, from 21,433 to 17,906 in 1995. The town consumed energy totaling 288,691Gcal in 1998, of which the transportation sector accounts for 55%, followed by the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors, in this order, the industrial sector accounting for only 7%. The estimated new energy sources available to the town are wind power, power generated by temperature difference at rivers or using snow, solar energy, biomass energy and energy from wastes, in the order of quantity, totaling 137GWh/y as electrical power and 45.6Tcal/y as heat. The priority projects include making Ichinohe Primary School an eco-school, construction of a biomass demonstration plant in the Okunakayama district, introduction of a boiler firing wood chips at Okunakayama Heights, construction of a wind power mill at Takamori Heights, and introduction of new energies by the citizens. (NEDO)

  5. New energy vision in Daito Town area; Daitocho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in the Daito Township area in Iwate Prefecture. The energy consumed by Daito town as a whole in fiscal 1998 is about 213,685 two-hundred-kL drums, accounted for by the consumer department at 35.7%, the transportation department at 33.3%, and the industrial department at 31.0%. Carbon dioxide emission amount is estimated to be 109,647 t-CO2. General households in the town consume fossil fuel largely for room heating, whose energy conservation or substitution by new energies is important. The utilizable quantity of new energies in the town include solar energy, forest bio-mass, agricultural resource bio-mass, livestock excreta bio-mass, and refuses, whose total quantity is estimated to be 23,161 drums. The new energy utilization project includes enlightenment activities by introducing a photovoltaic power generator and a small wind power generator into Daito Middle School and the Murone Plateau Natural Energy Park, introduction of solar heat generated hot water supply devices for public facilities and town-operated houses, a discussion on a pellet production line in the wood processing industrial complex, and introduction of pellet boilers into public facilities. (NEDO)

  6. New energy vision of the Yokohama town area; 2001 nendo Yokohama machi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Yokohama Town, Aomori Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the structure of energy demand of the town, existence amount of new energy, introduction of new energy, etc., and a new energy vision was worked out. The population of Yokohama Town was 5,508 as of October 2000, which is slightly decreasing. The number of household was unchanged, though. The amount of energy demand was estimated at 21,368 kL/y in crude oil conversion. The energy demand consisted of petroleum-base energy such as kerosene, light oil, heavy oil and gasoline (about 70%), electric power (20%) and LPG (10%). In the action plan for new energy introduction, the following were studied: wind power generation of which the plan has already been worked on by a private company (15 x 1,750kW class generator), introduction of the photovoltaic power generation to Yokohama Junior High School, hothouse vegetable cultivation using exhaust heat from hot spring, and 'Yokohama Rape Blossoms Eco Project' that mainly includes the agricultural land protection/oil squeezing from rapeseed/recycle of waste cooking oil as fuel, for which rape blossoms as one of the most important resources in Yokohama Town are used. (NEDO)

  7. New energy visions for the Town of Ichinohe district; Ichinohecho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Ichinohe, Iwate Pref. The town's population has been generally decreasing since 1975, from 21,433 to 17,906 in 1995. The town consumed energy totaling 288,691Gcal in 1998, of which the transportation sector accounts for 55%, followed by the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors, in this order, the industrial sector accounting for only 7%. The estimated new energy sources available to the town are wind power, power generated by temperature difference at rivers or using snow, solar energy, biomass energy and energy from wastes, in the order of quantity, totaling 137GWh/y as electrical power and 45.6Tcal/y as heat. The priority projects include making Ichinohe Primary School an eco-school, construction of a biomass demonstration plant in the Okunakayama district, introduction of a boiler firing wood chips at Okunakayama Heights, construction of a wind power mill at Takamori Heights, and introduction of new energies by the citizens. (NEDO)

  8. Report on new energy vision at Hinase Town area; 2001 nendo Hinase cho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    With an objective of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Hinase Town in Hyogo Prefecture, investigations and discussions were given on the energy demand, quantity of new energies available, and the new energy introduction projects for the town, thus a new energy vision was established. The estimated amount of energy consumption in Hinase Town is 242,814,320,000 kcal in fiscal 2000. The amount of carbon dioxide discharge associated therewith is 76.57 t-CO2/year. Regarding the energy consumption by departments, the industrial department consumes the most, followed by the transportation department, civil household department, and civil business department. The new energy introduction projects have discussed servicing of the bio-gas plant utilizing organic wastes and cogeneration, the new energy introduction projects for the Natural Energy Island at Kakui Island and the ocean ranch consisted of the use of solar heat water warmer, solar cell powered street lights, photovoltaic power generation, and electric cars for sightseeing visitors, the Eco-school promotion project for primary schools, introduction of energy saving devices into the town office, and the new energy proliferation and enlightenment project. (NEDO)

  9. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fleet Composition Current & Future Work FoodBank Cape Town First in South Africa Launched on 2 March 2009 Warehouse located in Philippi East [1] Majority of food sourced from DCs and retail sector Distributing to approximately 200 agencies... & Future Work Figure: Sourcing & distributing ow diagram EJ Lanz 40th Annual ORSSA Conference 11 of 36 Background Project Focus Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Data Demand Site...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF JURIDICAL REGULATIONS UPON TOURIST TOWN-PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen IORDACHE; Iuliana CEBUC

    2009-01-01

    Urban tourism, if correctly planned, developed and managed, may create advantages and benefits both to urban communities and overall society. By systematically implementing planning based on intelligent management and town-planning regulations complying with the organizing and long-lasting growth requirements of towns, local and national communities, benefits can be maximized, whereas troubles minimized. Town planning should pursue the juridical requirements of the legislation in force, based...

  11. What Factors Explain Bicycling and Walking for Commuting by ELSA-Brasil Participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Dos Santos, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Rogerio Tosta; da Silva, Ianne Tayrine Martins; Griep, Rosane Harter; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Patrão, Ana Luísa; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking in adult participants from ELSA-Brasil (Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). Cross-sectional. Six teaching/research institutions throughout Brazil. A total of 15 105 civil servants. Commuting by bicycling and walking was analyzed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A hierarchical model containing possible factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking was constructed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Considering the 2 forms of commuting, 66% of the participants were being considered inactive or insufficiently active. In women, being "heavier," feeling unsafe practicing physical activity, and being a former smoker were factors negatively associated with commuting by bicycling and walking. In men, active commuting was less common among those who were overweight or had abdominal obesity, those with a negative perception of safety, and those reporting that there was nowhere suitable in the neighborhood to practice physical activity. Obesity and negative perceptions in the neighborhood are associated with inactive or insufficiently active commuting. The relevance of this finding for public health is reinforce developing policies aimed at promoting health in Brazil and in other countries with similar characteristics.

  12. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  13. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks.We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98, a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions.The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  14. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Nott, Kenneth; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks. We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98), a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions. The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  15. Validity of a device designed to measure braking power in bicycle disc brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Macdermid, Paul William; Perry, Blake G; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-21

    Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event. Strong linear relationships between the total energy removed from the bicycle-rider system through braking and the change in kinetic energy were observed on the tar-sealed road (r 2  = 0.989; p brake torque and angular velocity sensors are valid for calculating brake power on the disc brakes of a bicycle in field conditions. Such a device may be useful for investigating cyclists' ability to traverse through various terrains.

  16. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  17. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  18. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  19. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  20. 76 FR 52046 - Final Policy Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements Under Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... important for pedestrian comfort and safety. The most successful and useful public transportation systems... could take light rail, a bus, or ride a bike.'' \\4\\ As the Secretary further described, ``livable...; (G) Eligible Activities; (H) Bicycle Sharing Programs; (I) Planning Issues; (J) Safety Concerns; (K...

  1. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... hiking and equestrian trail that originates at the Loma Alta Trailhead and travels east through the..., including hiking, equestrian, and bicycle use. Shortly after acquiring the land, the NPS closed the route to... leadership after an adequate analysis of the benefits, impacts, and economic cost of alternative courses of...

  2. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., preserve, and interpret the monument's resources, and to provide for education and benefit to the public... worldwide as an icon of the American Southwest. The Hope Camp Trail is a 2.8 mile long hiking and equestrian... the route to be used for recreational purposes, including hiking, equestrian and bicycle use. Shortly...

  3. Optimal Test Characteristics for Maximal Anaerobic Work on the Bicycle Ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Victor; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from two separate experiments conducted to ascertain the optimum protocol for a maximum anaerobic work output test on the bicycle ergometer indicated that the test duration needs to be approximately forty seconds and the optimal frictional resistance five to six kilograms. (MB)

  4. The Synthesis of cis- and trans-Fused Bicyclic Sugar Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risseeuw, Martijn D.P.; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tuin, Adriaan W.; Leeuwenburgh, Michiel A.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Overhand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Four isomeric bicyclic sugar amino acids (SAAs) were prepared from an α-acetylenic-C-glucoside by employing a Petasis olefination and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key steps. The applicability of the resulting SAAs in solid-phase peptide synthesis was demonstrated by the synthesis of a

  5. Effect of bicycle saddle designs on the pressure to the perineum of the bicyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Brian D; Schrader, Steven M; Breitenstein, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    Increasing awareness of an association between bicycling and male sexual dysfunction has led to the appearance of a variety of bicycle saddles that share the design objective of reducing pressure in the groin of the cyclist by removal of the narrow protruding nose of the saddle. This study compared three of these saddle designs to a traditional sport/road racing saddle with a narrow protruding nose in terms of pressure in the region of the perineum (groin) of the cyclist. Saddle, pedal, and handlebar contact pressure were measured from 33 bicycle police patrol officers pedaling a stationary bicycle at a controlled cadence and workload. Pressure was characterized over the saddle as a whole and over a region of the saddle assumed to represent pressure on the cyclist's perineum located anteriorly to the ischial tuberosities. The traditional sport/racing saddle was associated with more than two times the pressure in the perineal region than the saddles without a protruding nose (P perineum of the bicyclist.

  6. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Alveano-Aguerrebere

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001. For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development.

  7. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés; Farvid, Maryam; Lusk, Anne

    2017-01-01

    México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development. PMID:29271873

  8. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    , intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...

  9. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Van Paepegem, Wim; Loccufier, Mia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  10. The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan and road safety : measures to be taken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Blokpoel, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Bicycle Master Plan was launched in 1990 and concluded in 1996. To mark its conclusion, a study was carried out to assess developments in road safety for cyclists. An overview of future measures was also compiled. Since 1950, there have been three broad periods: (1) 1950-1975: an increase in the

  11. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental

  12. Bicycle-Related Shoulder Injuries: Etiology and the Need for Protective Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Yariv; Dolkart, Oleg; Kaufman, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rath, Ehud; Mozes, Gavriel; Maman, Eran

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of bicycle riding for recreation, exercise and transportation has grown enormously in recent years, which has led to an increased incidence of bicycle-related injuries. While these injuries involve mainly the musculoskeletal system, data on shoulder-specific injuries incurred while bike riding are lacking. Classifying these shoulder injuries may provide insight and assistance in the creation and implementation of effective protective gear and measures. To investigate the types and mechanisms of shoulder injuries among cyclists. This study retrospectively examined all cyclists who incurred shoulder injuries while riding and were admitted to the emergency department and shoulder clinic between January 2008 and November 2013. The study included 157 subjects with various bicycle-related shoulder injuries treated with either conservative or surgical measures. Eighty-four percent of injuries were caused by a direct blow to the shoulder, 7% by falling on an outstretched hand, 6% were traction injuries, and 3% were due to hyperabduction. Nine different clinical types of injury were observed; the most common injuries were clavicle fractures (32%), followed by acromioclavicular joint dislocations (22%), rotator cuff tears (22%), and humeral fractures (8%). Fifty-one percent of subjects were managed with conservative care and the remaining patients required surgical interventions. Shoulder injuries incurred while riding a bicycle span the entire spectrum of shoulder injuries and often result in debilitating conditions. Although the use of helmets is increasing, there is currently no effective protective gear or measures to prevent riders from suffering shoulder injuries.

  13. Aminocyclopentanols as sugar mimics. Synthesis from unsaturated bicyclic lactones by Overman rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminid...

  14. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E

    1993-04-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  15. The Bicycle Illusion: Sidewalk Science Informs the Integration of Motion and Shape Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Dodd, Michael D.; Enns, James T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a new visual illusion first discovered in a natural setting. A cyclist riding beside a pair of sagging chains that connect fence posts appears to move up and down with the chains. In this illusion, a static shape (the chains) affects the perception of a moving shape (the bicycle), and this influence involves assimilation…

  16. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés; Javier Ayvar-Campos, Francisco; Farvid, Maryam; Lusk, Anne

    2017-12-22

    México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development.

  17. Biomechanical Evaluation of an Electric Power-Assisted Bicycle by a Musculoskeletal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Shoichiro; Murakami, Musashi; Hase, Kazunori

    In this study, we construct an evaluation system for the muscular activity of the lower limbs when a human pedals an electric power-assisted bicycle. The evaluation system is composed of an electric power-assisted bicycle, a numerical simulator and a motion capture system. The electric power-assisted bicycle in this study has a pedal with an attached force sensor. The numerical simulator for pedaling motion is a musculoskeletal model of a human. The motion capture system measures the joint angles of the lower limb. We examine the influence of the electric power-assisted force on each muscle of the human trunk and legs. First, an experiment of pedaling motion is performed. Then, the musculoskeletal model is calculated by using the experimental data. We discuss the influence on each muscle by electric power-assist. It is found that the muscular activity is decreased by the electric power-assist bicycle, and the reduction of the muscular force required for pedaling motion was quantitatively shown for every muscle.

  18. Investigation of Influential Factors for Bicycle Crashes Using a Spatiotemporal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G.; Sakrani, T.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2017-09-01

    Despite the numerous potential advantages of indulging in bicycling, such as elevation of health and environment along with mitigation of congestion, the cyclists are a vulnerable group of commuters which is exposed to safety risks. This study aims to investigate the explanatory variables at transportation planning level which have a significant impact on the bicycle crashes. To account for the serial changes around the built environment, the linear time trend as well as time-varying coefficients are utilized for the covariates. These model modifications help account for the variations in the environment which may escape the incorporated variables due to lack of robustness in data. Also, to incorporate the interaction of roadway, demographic, and socioeconomic features within a Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ), with the bicycle crashes of that area, a spatial correlation is integrated. This spatial correlation accounts for the spatially structured random effects which capture the unobserved heterogeneity and add towards building more comprehensive model with relatively precise estimates. Two different age groups, the student population in the TAZs, the presence of arterial roads and bike lanes, were observed to be statistically significant variables related with bicycle crashes. These observations will guide the transportation planning organizations which focus on the entity of TAZ while developing policies. The results of the current study establish a quantifies relationship between the significant factors and the crash count which will enable the planners to choose the most cost-efficient, yet most productive, factors which needs to be addressed for mitigation of crashes.

  19. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  20. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Astroparticle Physics European Consortium Town Meeting Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium (APPEC) invites you to a town meeting at the Grand Amphithéatre de Sorbonne in Paris on the 6th and 7th April 2016 to discuss an update of the 2011 APPEC Astroparticle Physics roadmap, to be published in September 2016. In 2014 APPEC decided to launch an update of the 2011 Roadmap, transforming it to a “resource aware” roadmap. The intention was to gauge the financial impact of the beginnings of operation of the large global scale observatories put forward in the previous roadmap and to examine the possibilities of international coordination of future global initiatives. The APPEC Scientific Advisory Committee examined the field and prepared a set of recommendations. Based on these recommendations, the APPEC General Assembly drafted a set of “considerations” to be published by end of February 2016 and be debated in an open dialogue with the community, through the web page but primarily at the town meeting of 6-7 April. Based on this debate the final re...

  2. Radon Mapping of the Osijek Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Smit, G.; Culo, D.; Planinic, J.

    1998-01-01

    After ten years investigation of radon seasonal variations at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens and schools, systematical indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings of Osijek. Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 nuclear track detector at 48 town locations that gave the arithmetic mean of 71.6 Bq m -3 , standard deviation of 44.0 Bq m -3 and geometric mean of 60.1 Bq m -3 , for the radon concentration range from 23 to 186 Bq m -3 . The empirical frequency distribution of radon concentrations, with the class width of 20 Bq m -3 , was in accordance with the theoretical log-normal distribution which was shown with χ 2 - test. The radon map pointed out a region of higher radon concentrations (central part of the town) that was ascribed to the geological soil structure. Thus supposition was confirmed by radon measurement in the soil gas using radon emanators with the LR-115 film that showed the positive correlation between radon concentrations in the soil and indoors. Radon measurements in Osijeks primary schools pointed out a school that had the highest radon concentration (300 Bq m -3 ) considering all the former indoor radon measurements. The radon distribution in the school building was investigated afterwards radon mitigation procedures were undertaken. (author)

  3. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  4. An Association Rule Based Method to Integrate Metro-Public Bicycle Smart Card Data for Trip Chain Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart card data provide valuable insights and massive samples for enhancing the understanding of transfer behavior between metro and public bicycle. However, smart cards for metro and public bicycle are often issued and managed by independent companies and this results in the same commuter having different identity tags in the metro and public bicycle smart card systems. The primary objective of this study is to develop a data fusion methodology for matching metro and public bicycle smart cards for the same commuter using historical smart card data. A novel method with association rules to match the data derived from the two systems is proposed and validation was performed. The results showed that our proposed method successfully matched 573 pairs of smart cards with an accuracy of 100%. We also validated the association rules method through visualization of individual metro and public bicycle trips. Based on the matched cards, interesting findings of metro-bicycle transfer have been derived, including the spatial pattern of the public bicycle as first/last mile solution as well as the duration of a metro trip chain.

  5. Biking for Health: Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Impact of a Bicycling Intervention on Lower-Income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rebecca; Schneider, Robert; Welch, Whitney; Dressel, Anne; DeNomie, Melissa; Kusch, Jennifer; Sosa, Mirtha

    2017-08-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a bicycling intervention targeting inactive, low-income, overweight adults on reducing perceived barriers to bicycling, increasing physical activity, and improving health. A nonblinded 2-site randomized controlled trial was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in summer 2015. Participants included members from 1 largely Latino community and a second primarily African American neighborhood. A certified bicycling instructor led a 12-week bicycling intervention. Outcome measures including biking-related attitudes, self-reported physical activity, fitness as measured by the 6-minute step test, and biometric data were collected at baseline, 12 weeks, and 20 weeks. Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Barriers to bicycling declined significantly among intervention group participants at 12 weeks with some declines persisting to 20 weeks. Bicycling for leisure or non work transportation increased significantly more in the intervention than control group from baseline to 12 weeks but this difference attenuated by 20 weeks. Both groups increased their fitness between baseline and 12 weeks, with a trend towards greater gains in the bicycling intervention group. No significant change in biometric measurements was seen at either 12 weeks or 20 weeks. Despite the small study size, this bicycling intervention decreased perceived barriers to bicycling and increased bicycling activity in low-income minority participants. These findings support a larger-scale study to measure fitness and health changes from bicycling interventions.

  6. Severe bicycling injury risk factors in children and adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent E; Romanow, Nicole T R; Enns, Nancy; Williamson, Jacqueline; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-05-01

    Bicycling is the most common cause of sports and recreation injury in children and adolescents; yet, there is limited evidence on the factors associated with severe bicycling injuries in youth. Case-control study of injured bicyclists less than 18 years old seen in seven emergency departments (EDs) from May 2008 to October 2010. Cases were bicyclists hospitalized after their ED visit (severe injury). Controls were bicyclists seen and discharged from the ED (non-severe injury). Personal, environmental, and crash characteristics were collected by interview. Injury data were collected from medical charts. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression were used to estimate the odds of hospitalization associated with risk factors. Multiple imputation techniques were employed to address missing data. There were 1470 participants including 119 cases. Those ages 13-17 had the highest proportion (23%) of severe injuries resulting from motor vehicle [MV] collision. In models including age, sex and MV collision, being male (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21-3.38), not wearing a helmet (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.43-3.31) and MV collision (OR: 3.91; 95% CI: 2.26-6.78) were significant risk factors for severe injury. Riding on a paved surface (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41-0.97) and utilitarian (school, work) bicycling (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.2-0.94) decreased injury risk. Results were similar, apart from utilitarian bicycling (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.22-1.06), after imputation for missing data. Bicycle-MV collisions increase severe injury risk in youth, and adolescents are often injured in these events. This suggests separating bicyclists from MVs or traffic calming strategies could improve safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An expert judgment model applied to estimating the safety effect of a bicycle facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, L; Gårder, P; Pulkkinen, U

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a risk index model that can be used for assessing the safety effect of countermeasures. The model estimates risk in a multiplicative way, which makes it possible to analyze the impact of different factors separately. Expert judgments are incorporated through a Bayesian error model. The variance of the risk estimate is determined by Monte-Carlo simulation. The model was applied to assess the safety effect of a new design of a bicycle crossing. The intent was to gain safety by raising the crossings to reduce vehicle speeds and by making the crossings more visible by painting them in a bright color. Before the implementations, bicyclists were riding on bicycle crossings of conventional Swedish type, i.e. similar to crosswalks but delineated by white squares rather than solid lines or zebra markings. Automobile speeds were reduced as anticipated. However, it seems as if the positive effect of this was more or less canceled out by increased bicycle speeds. The safety per bicyclist was still improved by approximately 20%. This improvement was primarily caused by an increase in bicycle flow, since the data show that more bicyclists at a given location seem to benefit their safety. The increase in bicycle flow was probably caused by the new layout of the crossings since bicyclists perceived them as safer and causing less delay. Some future development work is suggested. Pros and cons with the used methodology are discussed. The most crucial parameter to be added is probably a model describing the interaction between motorists and bicyclists, for example, how risk is influenced by the lateral position of the bicyclist in relation to the motorist. It is concluded that the interaction seems to be optimal when both groups share the roadway.

  9. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  10. Why Devil's town has Devil's water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sladjana; Mitriceski, Bojana

    2015-04-01

    Why Devil's town has Devil's water In the south of Serbia, lies a first-class natural landmark "Devil's Town" at an altitude of 660-700 m. Earthen figures or "towers" as the locals call them, are located in the watershed between two gullies, whose sources joined together create a unique erosive formation, tremendously demolished by the erosive processes. The gullies also have strange names: "Devil's Gully" and "Hell's Gully". There are two rare natural phenomena at the same spot: 202 earthen figures of different shape and dimension, from 2 m to 15 m in height, and from 0.5 m to 3 m in width, with stone caps on the top. They are an outcome of a specific erosive process that lasts for centuries. When figures are formed, they grow, change, shorten, gradually (very slowly) disappear and reappear. The loose soil is dissolved and washed away by the rain. However, the material under the stone caps is protected from the "bombardment" of the rain drops and washout, and remains in place in the form of the rising earthen pillars - figures. Another natural rarity in "Devil's Town" are two springs of extraordinary properties "Devil's Water", which is located in vicinity of these earthen figures, is a cold and extremely acid spring (pH 1.5) of high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), springing out in "Devil's Gully". In comparison to drinking water, it is 10 to 1000 times richer in minerals (aluminium, iron, potassium, copper, nickel, sulphur, and alaun). "Red Well" is another spring located downstream, in the alluvial plain, 400 m away from the first spring. Its water (pH 3.5) is less acid and has a lower general mineral concentration (4.372 mg/l of water). Due to the oxidation of iron, which is contained in water in large amounts, an attractive red terrace in the form of a fan is created. The main assessment for students is to take some examples of water from Devils Gully and the others from Red Well . Second part is to find out content of minerals in water examples and

  11. Territorial action plans against the climatic change. Good practices of european towns. State of lthe art 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    By their actions and their choices in matter of public buildings and wastes management or electric power production and distribution, the collectivities aim to be an example and to bring information to make the public aware of the greenhouse effect. A collectivity which builds an action plan to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions begins to realize an inventory which includes an energy accounting and the CO 2 emissions evaluation. Objectives can then be decided. In a second part the towns realize cooperations and organize the management and the evaluation of the projects. Some examples of european towns are described to illustrate the study. (A.L.B.)

  12. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  13. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  14. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  15. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  16. Comparative Noise Pollution Study Of Some Major Towns In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative noise pollution studies have been carried out in some major towns in Delta State, Nigeria using a PIONneer 65 noise dosimeter. The noise measurements were taken at ten points within each of the towns at an interval of 30 minutes during the peak period of the day and at the cool of the night. The results ...

  17. Cyber Town at the Woodrow Wilson Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dennis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Town is a technology based after-school program that concentrates on reading and technology literacy. The program provides at-risk minority youth a safe environment where they learn skills that will make them competitive in the digital age. Qualitative and quantitative data are collected on all after-school program participants enabling program staff with the ability to individualize technology aided instruction. Youth are instructed at appropriate instructional levels these levels are determined through reading level assessment software programs, teacher recommendations, and reading scores. The program provides a model others can utilize in operating similar computer based programs. It illustrates that when working with youth, educators may discover deeper problems than originally anticipated and adaptations must be made to meet the needs of those young people.

  18. Promoting small towns for rural development: a view from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, B N

    1995-06-01

    Two small villages in Nepal are the subjects of case studies that illustrate the role of small towns in provision of services, employment, and market operations. Some general findings are that small towns act as service centers for distribution of basic essential goods such as food grains, salt, kerosene, and fabric for hill and mountain areas. The role of small towns as market centers and in the provision of employment is limited. In resource-poor areas small towns are less diversified. Towns with agricultural surpluses are more developed. Small hill towns satisfy consumption rather than production needs. The growth of rural areas and towns in rural areas in Nepal is dependent on arable land and levels of production in hill areas. Limited land and low levels of production have an adverse impact. Movement of people, goods, and services is limited by difficult terrain and lack of access to good roads. Variability in access to off-farm jobs and services available in small towns varies with ethnicity and place of residence. The best development strategy for small towns in Nepal is market-oriented territorial development, which retains surpluses in the local area and integrates markets in the larger economy. The strategy would decentralize planning into small territorial units that include both small towns and groups of villages, provide institutional support for the rural poor, expand off-farm employment, and include investment in region-serving functions. Subsistence agriculture needs to include diversification of high value cash crops based on local comparative advantage suitable for hill climate and terrain. Small farmers must produce both cash and subsistence crops. Government should provide market space and paved areas, weighing facilities, and overnight storage facilities. Products would be processed at the village level. Subdistricts must be established according to spatial and social linkages between villages and the service center and coordinated at the

  19. North Central Texas Council of Governments peer exchange on bicycle and pedestrian count programs : a TPCB peer exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on bicycle and pedestrian count programs, held on May 29 and May 30, 2013 in Arlington, Texas. The North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) reque...

  20. Leading Communities: Community-led Development in England’s Small Towns: the Market Towns Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Morris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Market Towns Initiative (MTI, a UK community-led development programme, operated throughout rural England from 2000 until 2005/6. It was designed to help local people, with professional support, identify – and then capitalize on – the economic, environmental and social strengths and weaknesses of small country towns. This paper explains the origins and ways of working of the MTI. Examples of the topics explored and participants’ views are given, and conclusions drawn. The opportunity is also taken to explain how interest in the roles of England’s small country towns grew in the years following the Second World War, and how this led to the development of the MTI. Evidence suggests that the programme worked well. It demonstrated that local people have the enthusiasm, skills and knowledge to take a lead in the development of the places in which they live; something which, until local government reforms changed roles and structures, was largely taken for granted.

  1. Report on new energy vision for fiscal 2000 in Nanno Town (Gifu Prefecture); 2000 nendo Nannocho shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in Nanno Town, upon investigating the existence quantity and utilization possibility of new energies, and from a viewpoint of reduction of air pollutants, and assurance of independent energy resources. The vision was established with the residents' participation as the base, while keeping consistency with the 'Nanno Town's new century development plan, 2010'. The activity achievements were put into order by the following six items: 1) necessity of introducing new energies, 2) the current status of Nanno Town, 3) energy demand quantity in Nanno Town, 4) possibility of introducing the new energies, 5) establishment of the introduction project, and 6) assignments and measures toward realization of the vision. Item 4) is composed of the summary of new energies in the district, new energy existence quantity in Nanno Town, and the residents' consciousness. Investigations were carried out on utilization possibilities of energies from solar beam, wind power, bio-mass, and wastes. The new energy existence quantity is estimated to be 5,005 kl/year converted into petroleum, as solar heat for general houses, 1,132 k/year as bio-mass, and 329 k/year as wastes. (NEDO)

  2. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  3. Bicycles May Use Full Lane” Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to “get out of the way” to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” and “Share the Road” signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. “Share the Road” signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing “Share the Road” with “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited. PMID

  4. Bicycle physics and biomechanics. Techniques - formulas - laws. 9. rev. and enl. ed.; Fahrradphysik und Biomechanik. Technik - Formeln - Gesetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gressmann, M.

    2005-07-01

    Michael Gressmann explains the physical aspects of bicycle riding by numerous concrete examples: Acceleration and velocity, friction and rolling resistance, steering-gear angle and displacement, under- and override, bicycle gear/chain gear, muscle activity in the pedaling, energy and power balance. From this follow many interesting hints for the riding technique and the selection of the technical material. Especially valuable for the practitioner: Considerations and calculations on aerial resistance, gyro forces, frame geometry, seat position, and pedaling frequency.

  5. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  6. Assessing and Prioritizing bicycle projects in Denmark: the CPP-Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will describe principles and methods made use of concerning the implementation relating to the Danish Governmental agreement on more cycling as part of the so-called Green Transport Policy of January 29th 2009. This political framework agreement corresponds to a total sum of 1...

  7. A Novel Electric Bicycle Battery Monitoring System Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery monitoring system (BMS plays a crucial role in maintaining the safe operation of the lithium battery electric bicycle and prolonging the life of the battery pack. This paper designed a set of new battery monitoring systems based on the Android system and ARM single-chip microcomputer to enable direct management of the lithium battery pack and convenient monitoring of the state of the battery pack. The BMS realizes the goal of monitoring the voltage, current, and ambient temperature of lithium batteries, estimating the state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH, protecting the battery from abuse during charging or discharging, and ensuring the consistency of the batteries by integrating the passive equalization circuit. The BMS was proven effective and feasible through several tests, including charging/discharging, estimation accuracy, and communication tests. The results indicated that the BMS could be used in the design and application of the electric bicycle.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency of an Autonomous Bicycle with Adaptive Controller Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed to achieve lateral stability of an autonomous bicycle with only the rotation of the front wheel. This can be achieved with a classic controller. However, if the energy consumption of the bicycle also has to be minimized, this solution is not valid. To solve this problem, an adaptive controller has been designed, which modifies its gains according to the bicycle’s forward velocity, adapting its response with minimum energy consumption and satisfying the design specifications. The study demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed control, achieving an energy saving of 73 . 8 % in trajectory tracking with respect to a conventional proportional-integral ( P I controller. These results show the importance of designing energy-efficient controllers, not only for autonomous vehicles but also for any automatic system where the energy consumption can be minimized.

  9. Does the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond Affect the Spectroscopic Properties of Bicyclic Diazole Heterocycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Misiak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-1(2H-one bicyclic diazoles was analyzed, and the influence of N-substitution on HB formation is discussed in this study. B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations were performed for the diazole, and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM approach as well as the natural bond orbital (NBO method was applied to analyze the strength of this interaction. It was found that the intramolecular hydrogen bond that closes an extra ring between the C=O proton acceptor group and the CH proton donor, that is, C=O⋯H–C, influences the spectroscopic properties of pyrrolopyrazine bicyclic diazoles, particularly the carbonyl frequencies. The influence of N-substitution on the aromaticity of heterocyclic rings is also discussed in this report.

  10. On the Effects of Tube Butting on the Structural Performance of Steel Bicycle Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Covill

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown how finite element analysis (FEA can be used to support designers and frame builders in the selection of butted tubes to tune the stiffness and strength behaviour of steel bicycles. The aim of this paper was therefore to analyse the effects of tube butting on the stiffness, stress distribution and energy absorption behaviour of bicycle frames using numerical simulations. Butted tubes were shown to provide a highly effective means to decrease mass whilst producing a disproportionately small change in stress compared with a straight gauge tubeset with a maximum material condition although there was no added benefit in terms of stiffness or strain energy. Conversely, decreasing the wall thickness produced an increase in stress at the tube ends that was disproportionate to the change in mass. This work can now be extended to analyse a fuller set of butted profiles for a range of tube types.

  11. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from pyrolysis of Bangladeshi bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Rofiqul; Tushar, M.S.H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Tire wastes in the form of used bicycle/rickshaw tires available in Bangladesh were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields and liquid product composition. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtain liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly. (author)

  12. Structure-activity relationship of antiparasitic and cytotoxic indoloquinoline alkaloids, and their tricyclic and bicyclic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baelen, Gitte; Hostyn, Steven; Dhooghe, Liene; Tapolcsányi, Pál; Mátyus, Péter; Lemière, Guy; Dommisse, Roger; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Hajós, György; Riedl, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Ildikó; Maes, Bert U W; Pieters, Luc

    2009-10-15

    Based on the indoloquinoline alkaloids cryptolepine (1), neocryptolepine (2), isocryptolepine (3) and isoneocryptolepine (4), used as lead compounds for new antimalarial agents, a series of tricyclic and bicyclic analogues, including carbolines, azaindoles, pyrroloquinolines and pyrroloisoquinolines was synthesized and biologically evaluated. None of the bicyclic compounds was significantly active against the chloroquine-resistant strain Plasmodium falciparum K1, in contrast to the tricyclic derivatives. The tricyclic compound 2-methyl-2H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (9), or 2-methyl-beta-carboline, showed the best in vitro activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.45 microM against P. falciparum K1, without apparent cytotoxicity against L6 cells (SI>1000). However, this compound was not active in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. Structure-activity relationships are discussed and compared with related naturally occurring compounds.

  13. A comparative study on the crystal structure of bicycle analogues to the natural phytotoxin helminthosporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo; Nogueira, Leonardo Brandão; Maltha, Celia Regina Alvares; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-02-01

    Herein we described structural insights of a series of analogues to helminthosporin phytotoxins. The key reaction used to prepare the compounds corresponded to the [3 + 4] cycloaddition between the oxyallyl cation generated from 2,4-dibromopentan-3-one and different furans. Their structures were confirmed upon IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses. While bicycles 7, 8 and 9 crystallize in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/c, compound 10 was solved in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group P212121. The solid materials obtained were shown to be racemic crystals (7, 8, 9) or racemic conglomerate (10). In all compounds, there is formation of a bicycle featured by fused tetrahydropyranone and 2,5-dihydrofuran rings. They adopt chair and envelope conformations, respectively. Crystal packing of all compounds is stabilized through C-H•••O contacts. Conformational aspects as well as similarities and differences among the crystal structures of the synthesized analogues are discussed.

  14. Understanding the preconditions for revitalizing bicycle transport in Beijing, with a reference study from Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli

    of transport and planning research by strengthening the knowledge base on the conditions that affect the use of bicycles in the megacities of developing world as well as by exploring the factors governing the populations’ attitudes towards their future mobility. Furthermore, the study contributes...... for accelerating the identification of effective solutions in specific cities and in specific planning cultures. For Beijing residents, the bicycle is currently a mode of transport for those with limited education and limited financial resources. The young Beijingers are least likely to cycle. This age difference...... is likely to be partly due to a cohort difference and, thus, indicates a growing problem for cycling in Beijing. On the other hand, clear associations with density and other urban form variables indicate that the proximity environment and urban development policies can also affect cycling. The effect...

  15. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

  16. Methodological proposal for the implementation of shared bicycle applied to the Brazilian context

    OpenAIRE

    BARBOSA, PHILIPPE; Modesto de Sousa, Adriana; Azevedo Oliveira, Rodrigo; ESPANA, JUAN

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The main objective of this study is to analyze the bicycle rental system in the Federal District "Bike Brasilia". It aims to identify guidelines that supported the application process and consensus, disagreements and guidelines established by the Institute for Policies and Development in Transportation - ITDP and relate those listed by Zhang regarding rented bikes systems. This is an exploratory study based on the strategy of document analysis and its secondary sources: institutional doc...

  17. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do transition towns have the potential to promote health and well-being? A health impact assessment of a transition town initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J; Nichols, A; Henry, T

    2012-11-01

    Climate change and energy vulnerability present significant challenges for the development and sustainability of our communities. The adverse effects will most likely impact on those already experiencing poverty, as energy and food costs will rise, thus increasing inequalities in health. Transition town initiatives seek to build cohesive sustainable communities to prepare for a future with limited oil and a changing climate. Increasingly, public health practitioners are interested in the role of transition towns as a community development initiative, and their potential to support the wider public health agenda. Health impact assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based process that aims to predict the positive and negative impacts of a strategy, proposal or development. The HIA process provides an opportunity to promote sustainable communities by ensuring that new strategies and developments are considered in the context of their contribution to the health and well-being of local populations. The aim of this study was to use an HIA to examine the potential health and well-being benefits of two related transition town initiatives. A rapid HIA to consider the potential lifestyle changes and health and well-being impacts of Transition Together/Transition Streets (TT/TS) projects. An HIA template was used to assess key documents related to the TT/TS initiatives and those related to the characteristics of the community. Additionally, meetings with 12 key informants (four involved in TT/TS and eight purposively selected for their local knowledge) were held using the HIA template to focus the discussion. The findings highlight the associated lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and healthy eating, and possible social and well-being benefits of engagement in such an initiative. Engagement may be limited to those already concerned about environmental issues. This paper illustrates the important links between transition towns and the wider public health agenda

  19. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Schipperijn, Jasper; Conway, Terry L; Frank, Lawrence D; Chapman, Jim E; Glanz, Karen; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2015-03-01

    To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking. Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  1. Methodological proposal for the implementation of shared bicycle applied to the Brazilian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, J.P.; Barbosa, P.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the bicycle rental system in the Federal District {sup B}ike Brasilia{sup .} It aims to identify guidelines that supported the application process and consensus, disagreements and guidelines established by the Institute for Policies and Development in Transportation - ITDP and relate those listed by Zhang regarding rented bikes systems. This is an exploratory study based on the strategy of document analysis and its secondary sources: institutional documents, basic design, procurement and other official documents made exclusively for this study. To support the discussion, a systematic literature review of the rules describing specially: sustainability, transport, urban mobility, bicycle rental and environment. The results reveal that while some of the parameters and indicators of efficiency are met on time, the bicycle sharing system of the city of Brasilia, has weaknesses that can lead to inefficiency and impracticality of maintaining and expanding such services. On the other hand, Bike Brasilia partially fulfills the principles enumerated by Zhang and lacks improvement in the steps for the successful operation of the system. (Author)

  2. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  3. Peptides derivatized with bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags. Sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setner, Bartosz; Rudowska, Magdalena; Klem, Ewelina; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-10-01

    Improving the sensitivity of detection and fragmentation of peptides to provide reliable sequencing of peptides is an important goal of mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides derivatized by bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags: 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), are characterized by an increased detection sensitivity in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and longer retention times on the reverse-phase (RP) chromatography columns. The improvement of the detection limit was observed even for peptides dissolved in 10 mM NaCl. Collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of peptides showed dominant a- and b-type ions, allowing facile sequencing of peptides. The bicyclic ionization tags are stable in collision-induced dissociation experiments, and the resulted fragmentation pattern is not significantly influenced by either acidic or basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. Obtained results indicate the general usefulness of the bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags for ESI-MS/MS sequencing of peptides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Study for Adjustable Riding Position of the Innovation Bicycle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Che; Huang, Tai-Shen

    2018-04-01

    This research is about the analysis and design of the user in a wheelchair use posture can be changed. So user can through different sitting posture changes to provide different needs, so the folding design patents for the existing data collection and classification, through the analysis of advantages and disadvantages, further to find the innovative design approach. Finally through the multi linkage mechanism system, change the seat, handlebars and rear position, provide different posture context. In order to reduce the cost, this study is designed to integrate the innovation input mechanism, multi linkage system, through the construction of 10 joints and degrees of freedom of the bicycle frame. Then use 3D software to design of bicycle the size of the frame of innovation, through the three-dimensional CAD model to simulate the mechanism between movement and interference, and to evaluate the 3D The virtual prototype can meet the requirement. It will also enable CAE to analyze and determine the strength and the safety of the bicycle frame structure of ANSYS11.0 stress. Finally, we have integrated design through CAID to make a product appearance, the focus of research is mainly a study of CAD, CAE, CAID integration the production and the completion of a prototype.

  5. Protect and bring up forest of Kuse Town. New energy vision at Kuse Town area; 2001 nendo Kuse cho chiiki shin energy vision. Kuse no mori to machi wo mamori sodateru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    With an objective of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Kuse Town in Okayama Prefecture, investigations and discussions were given on the current situation of energy demand, quantity of new energies available, and the idea of introducing new energies, thus a new energy vision was established. The estimated amount of energy consumption in Kuse Town is 304,768 MWh/year, and the amount of carbon dioxide discharge associated therewith is 22,300 t-C. Regarding the energy consumption by departments, the industrial department accounts for 40%, followed by the transportation department accounting for 30%. The basic new energy introduction ideas have discussed town resident enlightenment and town resident participation projects, bio-mass energy utilization, such as bark combustion plant, procurement of wood resources remaining in forest, ligneous pellet and transportation fuel manufacture, utilization of edible oil into diesel fuel, introduction of photovoltaic power generation at public facilities and places of refuge, introduction of solar heat utilization system into public facilities and homes, large size wind power generation project, introduction of small size wind power generation into road illumination and places of refuge at disaster, small hydro-energy utilization system, and introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles and fuel cells. (NEDO)

  6. Photovoltaics in buildings: town planning considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cradick, K.

    1999-07-01

    This report explores the significance of PV specifically from a town and country planning perspective. PV will become of interest to planners for a number of reasons. Installation of PV systems on the walls, roofs and windows of buildings will have implications for the design and appearance of buildings and the wider townscape. For this reason, it would be beneficial for the planning profession to have a general awareness of the rapidly expanding range of PV building products now available. A widespread use of the technology will raise a number of other practical planning considerations, such as the need to ensure that PV-equipped buildings are not overshadowed by subsequent development or maturing trees.The use of PV could bring planning benefits. For example, use of the technology could sometimes obviate the need to route overhead power supplies through sensitive landscapes to outlying rural settlement. As a renewable source of energy, the use of PV will be in harmony with Local Agenda 21 objectives and sustainability policies in development plans. This report is written for practising planners in local government, private practice and the voluntary sector, and has regard to the regulatory context within which planners operate. It does not seek to encourage members of the profession to exceed their powers by insisting upon the use of PV in new development. Instead, the report aims to provide an introduction to the technology so that planners may be conversant with the technology and understand both its potential and its limitations. (author)

  7. Report of regional new energy vision for Kannami Town; 2001 nendo Kannami cho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Kannami Town, Shizuoka Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the energy consumption structure of the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. The town consumes approximately 5-million GJ/year, with the industrial sector consuming 47%, the transportation sector 29%, and the residential and commercial sector 26%. When a comparison is made, the percentages of the residential/commercial and transportation sectors are relatively higher than the national average. Projects for new energy introduction were studied, which involved photovoltaic power generation for the town office, community hall, primary and junior high schools, nursery schools, and general residences; solar heat utilization for public facilities, greenhouses, and general residences; wind power generation for sightseeing facilities, public gardens, and emergency evaluation areas; utilization of sewage waste heat for the sewage purification center; utilization of hot spa waste heat in the urban area; a biomass-fueled power plant; medium- and mini-scale hydroelectric power generation for the drinking water treatment plant; refuse-fueled power generation at refuse incineration facilities; use of clean-energy automobiles; natural gas-fueled cogeneration for public organizations; and so forth. (NEDO)

  8. Disaster Governance for Community Resilience in Coastal Towns: Chilean Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Paula; Quintana, Carolina

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance-redundancy, diversity, and overlap-were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32) and uses given to specific sites (e.g., for refuge, sanitary purposes and medical attention) were mapped. Content and GIS analyses (Directional Distribution and Kernel Density Index) were used to explore the dispersion and concentration of institutions and uses in each town. Disaster Governance was found to be highly influenced by decisions taken during regional, urban, and emergency planning. Governance is better in towns of higher order in the communal hierarchical structure. Most of the emergency institutions were found to be located in central and urban areas, which, in turn, assures more redundancy, overlap, and diversity in governance in the event of a tsunami. Lack of flexibility of emergency plans also limits governance in rural and indigenous areas. While the spatial relationships found in this study indicate that urban sectors have better Disaster Governance than rural and indigenous sectors, the influence of resource availability after tsunamis, the role and responsibility of different levels of governments, and the politics of disaster also play an important role in Disaster Governance for determining Community Resilience. These findings shed light on emergency planning and aspects of the Disaster Management cycle.

  9. Residents’ perspectives towards conservation in George Town world heritage city: A post-UNESCO listing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke Mui LIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Being inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage City since 2008, this scenario calls into question the voices, the participation and the aspirations of George Town residents themselves in the process of planning and conserving their city. As an extension of a similar project undertaken in 2006, prior to the UNESCO listing, the present study sought to explore and understand the residents’ perceptions and preferences of George Town as a Heritage City after the UNESCO listing. Using the same set of samples (i.e. 400 inner city residents, the findings from this study revealed the change of residents’ preference as well as their appreciation towards the value of heritage and its economic potential. More respondents are supportive on the protection of heritage buildings and maintaining a heritage city. The older generations are the advocates of the heritage houses and they are more willing to pay higher prices to own a heritage house in the city. heritage awareness, urban conservation, resident perspectives, George Town.

  10. Foreign University Involvement in Sustainable New Town Planning in Provincial China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David. J. Edelman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recent concern with sustainable urban development has focused on the widespread development of new towns and the expansion of cities throughout China. In recent decades, an increasing number of planning and design professionals in the United States and Europe have undertaken consulting work in China. This study examines the first instance of a Chinese city funding an American academic planning unit to create a conceptual plan for a new town. The School of Planning from the University of Cincinnati was commissioned to prepare the conceptual plan for the Anyang Eastern New Town. Prior to the drafting of the plan, faculty and students visited the site on a reconnaissance and data gathering mission, undertook research and studio work, organized presentations, and navigated the labyrinthine bureaucracy at the local, provincial, and national levels. These experiences differ considerably from those encountered in places such as Shanghai and the southern coastal plain region. This article identifies a number of issues that play a key role in the success of projects involving American or European Universities in conjunction with the Chinese government, particularly provincial authorities. This paper provides a valuable reference for any organization involved in such undertakings. KEYWORDS: Chinese urban planning, sustainable urban design, provincial planning

  11. New energy vision of Oshimizu Town; 2001 nendo Oshimizu machi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Oshimizu Town, Ishikawa Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy consumption amount of the city, existence amount of new energy and project for new energy introduction, and a vision was worked out. The energy consumption amount of the city was 3.02 x 10{sup 11} kcal, out of which electric power was 1.53 x 10{sup 11} kcal, petroleum 1.33 x 10{sup 11} kcal, and LPG 1.59 x 10{sup 10} kcal. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation to the general center/Oshimizu Junior High School/general household; solar energy utilization for the general center/general household; introduction of wind power generation to the Azuma Line of forest road; biomass power generation project using cattle feces/hog feces; RDF project for waste from Oshimizu Town; introduction of clean energy vehicle (hybrid car/electric car). The amount of new energy introduction from these was estimated at 1,716kL in crude oil conversion, which is equal to 5.3% of the energy demand amount. (NEDO)

  12. Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy for the Town of Franklin, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines best techniques for the Town, based on land uses and physical constraints, experience with the implementation of existing practices, and the findings of recently completed reviews of current programs and practices.

  13. Cities, Towns, Villages with 1990 Census Population (GNIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains points for 1600 populated places, cities and towns, in New Mexico. The points were generated from latitude and longitude coordinates contained...

  14. Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG10-2 Wright, S., Larsen, F., and Springston, G., 2010,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  15. Surficial geology and hydrogeology of the Town Londonderry, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG08-2 De Simone, D., and Gale, M., 2008,�Surficial geology and hydrogeology of the Town Londonderry, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open-File...

  16. Integrated water resource planning in the city of Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    supply (at a 98% level of assurance) in 1999. Should ... WDM policy. The WDM Policy is based on three broad principles namely that ... and Cape Town Water Services. ... audit of all schools, which includes implementing some immediate.

  17. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: ... Keywords: Methamphetamine; Sexual behaviour; HIV; South Africa ... to high school students who had used drugs other than MA in their.

  18. Geophysical Investigations at the Hanna's Town Cemetery, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley D.

    Hanna's Town (36WM203), an 18th century site located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, was a major frontier settlement that was attacked and destroyed by a force of British and Native Americans in 1782. The town never fully recovered, and by the early 1800s, no buildings remained from the settlement. The land was repurposed for agricultural use until it was purchased by the Westmoreland County Historical Society, who reconstructed the town for tourism and educational purposes. In addition to the town, the site also contains a cemetery that currently has five headstones. There are several stone fragments in storage that are no longer associated with burials, providing evidence that the cemetery may contain unmarked graves. Geophysical investigations using ground penetrating radar, magnetometry, and electrical resistance were performed to examine the presence of additional grave shafts in and adjacent to the present-day cemetery.

  19. Temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Key words: fruit exports; reefer containers; cold chain; Cape Town Container ... challenges required for maintaining high product quality when exporting large ... perishable products due to the availability of a range of temperature settings.

  20. Bedrock geologic map of the town of Williston, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG07-4, Kim, J., Gale, M., Thompson, P.J. and Derman, K., 2007, Bedrock geologic map of the town of Williston, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  1. Small towns resisting urban decay through residential attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2015-01-01

    composition, residential migration, social organisation and community engagement form and affect small town (1000–5000 inhabitants) development patterns in Denmark and specific place-based endowments. The study is carried out with mixed methods, comprising a quantitative analysis of development trends......, complemented by qualitative case studies in six small towns. Our findings show how favourable development paths are a combination of a positive development in population, provision of daily commodities and attractive housing, and a high number of local voluntary social organisations. Introducing the concept......Small towns are often considered as losing out in the current trend towards urban development. However, research from around Europe shows a great diversity of small town development, including successful development trajectories despite geographical disadvantages. Investigations...

  2. Geological Study of Monica Pintado mine. Florida town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.; Carrion, R.

    1988-01-01

    This work is about the geological study carried in Monica Pintado mine in Florida town by photointepretation - scale 1.20.000. In the area were found rocks granites, deep metamorfites and black granite

  3. Geology and hydrogeology of the Town of Calais, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-1 Springston, G., Kim, J., Gale. M. and Thomas, E., 2016, Geology and hydrogeology of the Town of Calais, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  4. EPA Region 1 - New England Towns, with Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New England Town Boundary coverage is a compilation of coverages received from the six New England State GIS Offices. The EPA New England GIS Center appended the...

  5. The structure of the medieval town of Rupea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcoman, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The town of Rupea, set up at the beginning of the 12th century, was the capital of the county of Rupea between 1337 and 1876. Its urban structure and organization prove that it belonged to group of Transylvania’s German medieval towns. Here, alongside with the German (established in the central area, Romanians lived in the outskirts. This structure was preserved until the early 1800s, and even until nowadays although the initial ethnical composition has altered.

  6. Monitoring congenital malformation among inhabitants of town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, I.

    2004-01-01

    In Russia rendering of medical care of inhabitants of town located not far from works of nuclear industries be provided for system of special referral centers. Now the congenital malformation (CM) is one of the most issue of the day unresolved problem protection of genetic health of populations. CM account weighty part of structure incidence nursery every where. The most of CM lead to developmental disability, substantively restrict to life span and fertility. for the present moment the treatment CM developed for isolated instances therefore special prophylaxis to take on special significance. The one way to prophylaxis is simultaneous monitoring of CM and chief factors of disutility. In the framework of the State system of monitoring of CM our research laboratory of the State Research Centre Institute of Biophysics to Make a reality monitoring CM in the families of personnel of units of the atomic industry. From 2000 and during the present moment we are logged data about 21 a species of CM. In any case monstriparity with one of these CM in the families of workers of the atomic industry we investigated this case. Pro hac vice we are logged data about professional contacts parents this child with any factors of professional disutility including ionizing radiation. During 2002 we was obtained reliable information from 13 special referral centers about 33 case of birth of baby with CM. It's average about 1/1000 from all case of birth. From this case only 12 babies with CM was birth in the families of personnel of the atomic industry. (Author)

  7. The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to

  8. Promotie vrijwillig gebruik van fietshelmen in de Bollenstreek : de resultaten van een project bij twee basisscholen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, M. Goldenbeld, C. Dijkman, A. & Venema, A.

    1996-01-01

    Together with local and national organisations the Consumer Safety Institute developed in 1995 a project to encourage the use of bicycle helmets on a voluntary basis among children. In two municipalities, Noordwijkerhout and Leiderdorp, the project is carried out with children of two governmental

  9. Let People Bathe in Clean Energy. Regional new energy vision for Matsuyama Town; 2001 nendo Matsuyama machi chiiki shin energy vision. Toumeinal energy wo sosoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Matsuyama Town, Yamagata Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the amount of energy needed by the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and then a vision was formulated. The town demands 120,407-million kcal/year in energy comprising 56.8% from oil based fuels, 39.2% from electric power, and 4.1% from LP gas. As for consumption, 35.6% is consumed by households, 28.9% by industries, 21.3% by transportation, and 14.2% by commerce. The amount of carbon dioxide due to the consumption is estimated at 28,000 t-CO2/year. Key projects for new energy introduction were discussed, which included an eco-town project for introducing photovoltaic power generation systems, passive solar heat utilization systems, clean energy vehicles, and so forth, into public facilities; an eco-agriculture project for utilizing wind power generation and livestock excreta energy; an eco-park project for exhibiting new energies to the public; and an eco-school pilot model project. (NEDO)

  10. Design and Implementation of Battery Management System for Electric Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the electric vehicle (EV has been developed in such a way that electronic motor, battery, and charger replace the engine, tank and gasoline pump of the conventional gasoline-powered [1]. In other word, instead of using fossil fuel to move the vehicle, in this case we used a pack of batteries to move it. The global climate change and the abnormal rising international crude oil prices call for the development of EV [2]. To solve these problems, a new energy needs to be developed or optimized in order to replace the current energy which is fossil fuel. A clean and green energy [2]. Because of this, it is very important to make sure that the battery that being used is reliable as the fossil fuel. Thus, the design of the battery management system plays an important role on battery life preservation and performance improvement of EV [3]. The BMS also performs many tasks including the measurement of system voltage, current and temperature, the cells’ state of charge (SOC, state of health (SOH, remaining useful life (RUL determination, controlling and monitoring the charge / discharge characteristics and cell balancing [3]. For this project, 18650 Lithium-Ion battery is used to develop battery management for 144V 50Ah. As lithium-ion batteries have high value of specific energy, high energy density, high open circuit voltage, and low self-discharge, they are a proper candidate for EVs among other cell chemistries [4].

  11. The Life and Death of a Mycenaean Port Town: Kalamianos on the Saronic Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    In the late fourteenth century bc of the Aegean Late Bronze Age (LBA), a large walled settlement was established at Korphos: Kalamianos, on the Saronic Gulf coast of the Corinthia, Greece. Archaeological and geological work by the Saronic harbors Archaeological Research Project has succeeded in reconstructing the LBA coastline and likely harbor basins, as well as documenting the well-preserved plan of an entire Late Helladic town. Kalamianos was a short-lived maritime outpost, purposely founded as a component of state expansion in a climate of intense peer-polity competition in LBA (fifteenth-thirteenth centuries bc) Greece.

  12. The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour. Methods Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices. Results Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations. Conclusion Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data. So what? The use of smartphone GPS data with other data sources is recommended for assessing how infrastructure improvements influence cycling behaviour.

  13. Schools water efficiency and awareness project | Wilson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The City of Cape Town's Water Demand Management (WDM) department has been involved in school projects for several years, although these have generally been restricted to educational activities during Water Week and school competitions, due mainly to limited resources. Cape Town is a water scarce area, and ...

  14. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision New Town Center Growth Areas, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_new_town_growth_areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates town center new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Town center new growth areas include local...

  15. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  16. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  17. Report on new energy vision in Utazu Town area (aiming at building town where people and nature live together); Utazucho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho. Ningen to shizen no kyoseisuru machizukuri wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in Utazu Town in Miyagi Prefecture. The population of the town is decreasing year after year to 5,905 persons in fiscal 1996. The industrial structure has the ratio of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries at 43:26:31 in 1995, wherein the marine products industry is the basic industry. The annual energy consumption of the town in fiscal 1998 is 69,950 Gcal, and is accounted for by the transportation department at 48.8%, the consumer and household department at 29.9%, the consumer business department at 12.4%, and the industrial department at 8.7%. Evaluation on utilizable quantity of new energies revealed 9,925 MWh annually by wind power generation, 1,000 MWh annually by small to medium hydropower generation, 33,033 GJ annually by bio-mass, and 11,565 GJ annually by refuses. The new energy introducing project includes utilization of photovoltaic power generation at the Road Station, the town office, the public hall, primary and middle schools, fishing boats, fishery cultivation and fishing industry, introduction of wind power generation into the Tazukayama sightseeing road, introduction of small to medium hydropower generation into the Harai River dam, introduction of clean energy type community buses, and introduction of cogeneration system to the meal supply center. (NEDO)

  18. The Role of Small Towns in Local Place Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csurgó Bernadett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-promotion and reinterpretation of local identity is becoming increasingly important in rural communities. Local identity building is succeeded very differently by rural municipalities and regions. The paper analyses the role of small towns in local identity creation. There are varying interpretations of places in Hungary as ways of achieving meaningful territorialisation. Small towns based on their leading and central position within the micro regions can dominate the place-making processes. Using the example of six Hungarian rural micro-regions we analyse how rural small towns position themselves by local image building. The aim of this paper is to investigate interactions between territorial position and innovative capacity of rural towns through the analysis of symbolisation process and image building. We purpose to introduce a concept of a place oriented approach and demonstrate its usefulness for analysis of rural innovation and place-based development. The case-studies are based on qualitative methods: document-analysis, semi-structured interviews, transect walking and participatory observation. The paper analyses the process of local community and identity building in six rural micro-regions. We seek to understand how small towns position themselves in place-making, the aim of ‘placing’ themselves in the territorial hierarchy of the settlements of micro region. Our results suggest that small towns play very different roles in local image building. Characteristics and territorial scope of local cultural heritage significantly determine the innovative capacity of small towns in local image building where there is a wide range of meanings procedures and processes of place-making.

  19. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  1. Asymmetric Catalytic Aza-Diels-Alder/Ring-Closing Cascade Reaction Forming Bicyclic Azaheterocycles by Trienamine Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Barløse, Casper; Jørgensen, Julie; Carlsen, Bjørn Dreiø; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2017-01-01

    An asymmetric catalytic aza-Diels-Alder/ring-closing cascade reaction between acylhydrazones and in situ formed trienamines is presented. The reaction proceeds through a formal aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition, followed by a ring-closing reaction forming the hemiaminal ring leading to chiral bicyclic azaheterocycles in moderate to good yield (up to 71 %), good enantio- (up to 92 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to >20:1 d.r.). Furthermore, transformations are presented to show the potential application of the formed product. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Gold-catalyzed Bicyclization of Diaryl Alkynes: Synthesis of Polycyclic Fused Indole and Spirooxindole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ju; Wu, Bing; Rong, Guangwei; Zhang, Cheng; Qiu, Lihua; Xu, Xinfang

    2018-04-13

    An unprecedented gold-catalyzed bicyclization reaction of diaryl alkynes has been developed for the synthesis of indoles in good to high yields. Mechanistically, this alkyne bifunctionalization transformation was terminated by a stepwise formal X-H insertion reaction to furnish the corresponding polycyclic-frameworks with structural diversity, and the key intermediate 3 H-indole was isolated and characterized for the first time. In addition, further transformation of these generated tetracyclic-indoles with PCC as the oxidant provided straightforward access to the spirooxindoles in high yields.

  3. Synthesis of fused bicyclic piperidines: potential bioactive templates for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglan; Campbell-Conroy, Erica L; Silina, Alina; Uy, Johnny; Pierre, Fabrice; Hurley, Dennis J; Hilgraf, Nicole; Frieman, Bryan A; DeNinno, Michael P

    2015-01-02

    An array of six pyridyl-substituted fused bicyclic piperidines was prepared as novel cores for medicinal chemistry. For maximum diversity, the size of the fused ring varied from three to six atoms and contained up to two oxygen atoms. The pyridine ring was incorporated to improve physicochemical properties and to challenge the robustness of the chemistry. The presence of the pyridine did interfere with our initial approaches to these molecules, and in several instances, a blocking strategy had to be employed. These new scaffolds possess high sp3 character and may prove useful in multiple medicinal chemistry applications.

  4. Two Pilot Studies of the Effect of Bicycling on Balance and Leg Strength among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rissel, Chris; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Merom, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Methods. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited...

  5. Relationship between the Pedaling Biomechanics and Strain of Bicycle Frame during Submaximal Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Manolova, Aneliya; Crequy, Samuel; Lestriez, Philippe; Debraux, Pierre; Bertucci, William

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of forces applied to pedals and cranks on the strain imposed to an instrumented bicycle motocross (BMX) frame. Using results from a finite element analysis to determine the localisation of highest stress, eight strain gauges were located on the down tube, the seat tube and the right chain stay. Before the pedaling tests, static loads were applied to the frame during bench tests. Two pedaling conditions have been analysed. In the first, the rider...

  6. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  7. Wittig Reaction: Domino Olefination and Stereoselectivity DFT Study. Synthesis of the Miharamycins' Bicyclic Sugar Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachatra, Vasco; Almeida, Andreia; Sardinha, João; Lucas, Susana D; Gomes, Ana; Vaz, Pedro D; Florêncio, M Helena; Nunes, Rafael; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José; Rauter, Amélia P

    2015-11-20

    2-O-Acyl protected-d-ribo-3-uloses reacted with [(ethoxycarbonyl)methylene]triphenylphosphorane in acetonitrile to afford regio- and stereoselectively 2-(Z)-alkenes in 10-60 min under microwave irradiation. This domino reaction is proposed to proceed via tautomerization of 3-ulose to enol, acyl migration, tautomerization to the 3-O-acyl-2-ulose, and Wittig reaction. Alternatively, in chloroform, regioselective 3-olefination of 2-O-pivaloyl-3-uloses gave (E)-alkenes, key precursors for the miharamycins' bicyclic sugar moiety.

  8. FY 2001 report on the new energy vision of Ajigasawa Town; 2001 nendo Azigasawa machi shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Ajigasawa Town, Aomori Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the amount of energy demand of the town, potential introduction of new energy, etc., and a new energy vision was worked out. The population of Ajigasawa Town was 13,551 according to the results of the national census taken in 2000, which is slightly decreasing. The energy demand is broken down into 40.1% in the transportation sector, 35.4% in the industrial sector and 24.5% in the commercial/residential sector, depending on petroleum (81.8%) and electric power (13.1%). The CO2 emission amount from the above is estimated at 26,210 t-C/y in total. In the model project for new energy introduction, the following were selected: wind power generation for the filtration plant of water supply system/night soil treatment plant/funeral hall/comprehensive park/seed and seedling center; photovoltaic power generation for the trip village for youth/elementary schools; fuel cell/hybrid car for Ajigasawa town office; micro-hydroelectric power generation for nursery; natural gas cogeneration for the insurance welfare center. (NEDO)

  9. The spatial flaws of new towns : Morphological comparison between a Chinese new and old town through the application of space syntax, spacematrix and mixed use index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.E.; Van Nes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many new towns are established in China with the intention of providing desirable places to live. Nevertheless, these new towns often lack the flourishing street life, small businesses, and variety of social activities that old towns have to offer. This paper explores the spatial reasons why old

  10. Ergonomic Analysis of UI’s BicyclesUsing Posture Evaluation Index (PEI Method in Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Muslim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study ergonomic aspect from University of Indonesia bicycle in virtual environment. Software Jack 6.0 was used to analyze it. PEI was used as approach that integrated the results of three methods: Lower Back Analysis, Ovako Working Posture Analysis, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment. The research objective is to evaluate existing design of University of Indonesia bicycle and to determine the most ergonomic redesign which concern with handlebar height and saddle height modification. The result showed that the most ergonomic design of University of Indonesia bicycle is the one with the highest handlebar height (22 cm and the lowest saddle height (11 cm.

  11. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Page Jackson Elementary School, Charles Town, West Virginia, October 1979-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    This school in Charles Town, West Virginia is equipped with 11,215 ft/sup 2/ of PPG flat-plate collectors of which 69% operate. Two insulated tanks of 10,000 gal capacity provide heat storage. A natural gas fired boiler and a chiller augment the solar heating and cooling system. Collector failure was primarily responsible for the system supplying 23% rather than the projected 85% of the heating requirement. (MHR)

  12. Exercise capacity in non-specific chronic low back pain patients : A lean body mass-based Astrand bicycle test; Reliability, validity and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Objective Measurement of exercise capacity is essential in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the conventional Astrand bicycle test is not feasible in patients with a very poor aerobic capacity. Therefore the Astrand bicycles test for non-specific CLBP patients based

  13. Assessing and Mapping of Road Surface Roughness based on GPS and Accelerometer Sensors on Bicycle-Mounted Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Wan, Mi; Shi, Jiafeng

    2018-01-01

    The surface roughness of roads is an essential road characteristic. Due to the employed carrying platforms (which are often cars), existing measuring methods can only be used for motorable roads. Until now, there has been no effective method for measuring the surface roughness of un-motorable roads, such as pedestrian and bicycle lanes. This hinders many applications related to pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. In recognizing these research gaps, this paper proposes a method for measuring the surface roughness of pedestrian and bicycle lanes based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer sensors on bicycle-mounted smartphones. We focus on the International Roughness Index (IRI), as it is the most widely used index for measuring road surface roughness. Specifically, we analyzed a computing model of road surface roughness, derived its parameters with GPS and accelerometers on bicycle-mounted smartphones, and proposed an algorithm to recognize potholes/humps on roads. As a proof of concept, we implemented the proposed method in a mobile application. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the proposed method. The results of the experiments show that the IRI values measured by the proposed method were strongly and positively correlated with those measured by professional instruments. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm was able to recognize the potholes/humps that the bicycle passed. The proposed method is useful for measuring the surface roughness of roads that are not accessible for professional instruments, such as pedestrian and cycle lanes. This work enables us to further study the feasibility of crowdsourcing road surface roughness with bicycle-mounted smartphones. PMID:29562731

  14. Report on new energy vision planning operation at Yachiyo Town; 2001 nendo Yachiyo cho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    With an object of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Yachiyo Town in Hyogo Prefecture, investigations and discussions were given on the energy consumption of the town, quantity of new energies in existence, and the new energy introduction projects, thus a new energy vision was established. Yachiyo Town consumes energy annually at 99,966 Gcal. By departments, the transportation department accounts for 46%, the industrial department for 24%, the civil household department for 16%, and the civil business department for 14%. By energy types, petroleum accounts for 69%, and electric power for 31%. The new energy introduction projects that have been discussed include introduction of photovoltaic power generation into the town office, public halls, primary and middle schools, and photovoltaic and micro-wind power generation for street lights, photovoltaic and wind power generation in the Garten Yachiyo, a city and farm town culture exchange facility, micro-hydroelectric power generation in Noma River, bio-mass energy utilizing forest resources and fabric wastes, clean energy fueled automobiles as public use cars, school buses and welfare buses, and small wind power and large photovoltaic power generation at Mt. Noma. (NEDO)

  15. Report of survey for formulating regional new energy vision for Okuma Town; 2001 nendo Okuma machi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Okuma Town, Fukushima Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the amount of energy needed by the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. The town demands 29,769 times 10{sup 7} kcal/year in energy comprising 44.5% for the industrial sector, 31.4% for the transportation sector, and 24.1% for the residential/commercial sector. As for energy source types, 25.7% is covered by electric power, 20.0% by gasoline, 16.2% by gas oil, and 15.3% by heavy oil, with the oil based sources responsible for 71.2%. New energy introduction projects were discussed, which included the introduction of photovoltaic power generation for a newly built children's hall, residential complexes, town managed housing, street lights and road signs, and for some other public facilities; introduction of cogeneration into enterprises present in the eastern industrial park and into hotels; and the introduction of natural gas fueled cogeneration. Studies were also made about public information, public relations, and support systems for implementation in Okuma Town. (NEDO)

  16. The town in Serbia and Bulgaria: A comparative reading of current processes. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this volume is a result from The Contemporary City in Serbia and Bulgaria: Processes and Changes, a bilateral project of the Institute of Ethnography of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2014-2016. The six papers offer a comparative view of current social processes in two neighbouring Balkan countries, linked by numerous historical and political experiences. Comparative research into societal trends enables a more thorough understanding and monitoring of global processes. In today’s increasingly globalised and glocalised world, towns experience sudden changes and it is in the towns that these changes are most vividly to be seen. The focus of our research is on the dynamism of the contemporary town, on processuality and changes in societal practices. Ana Luleva examines life in the small town of Nessebar in southeast Bulgaria, which has been on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1983. The protection, management and presentation of Nessebar’s cultural heritage are highly complex issues, further complicated by the problem of collision with the interests of the inhabitants. The author analyses the relations between the various factors - the state administration, municipal authorities and the local population. Here the tourist industry, investment interests, corrupt institutions and civil society all play their part. Ivanka Petrova chose to research Belogradchik, a small town in northwest Bulgaria. Petrova investigates how local social and cultural resources are used in the work of a family tourist enterprise. The author looks for answers to questions such as: how its members identify with the town and its culture and how the work of the enterprise fits into the Belogradchik local context. At the focus of her paper are current societal practices: the local urban economy and the production of images and symbols

  17. Mathematical model for studying cyclist kinematics in vehicle-bicycle frontal collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrea, OA; Chiru, A.; Chiriac, RL; Vlase, S.

    2017-10-01

    For the development of effective vehicle related safety solutions to improve cyclist protection, kinematic predictions are essential. The objective of the paper was the elaboration of a simple mathematical model for predicting cyclist kinematics, with the advantage of yielding simple results for relatively complicated impact situations. Thus, the use of elaborated math software is not required and the calculation time is shortened. The paper presents a modelling framework to determine cyclist kinematic behaviour for the situations in which a M1 category vehicle frontally hits the rear part of a bicycle. After the primary impact between the vehicle front bumper and the bicycle, the cyclist hits the vehicle’s bonnet, the windscreen or both the vehicle’s bonnet and the windscreen in short succession. The head-windshield impact is often the most severe impact, causing serious and potentially lethal injuries. The cyclist is represented by a rigid segment and the equations of motion for the cyclist after the primary impact are obtained by applying Newton’s second law of motion. The impact time for the contact between the vehicle and the cyclist is yielded afterwards by formulating and intersecting the trajectories for two points positioned on the cyclist’s head/body and the vehicle’s windscreen/bonnet while assuming that the cyclist’s equations of motion after the primary impact remain the same. Postimpact kinematics for the secondary impact are yielded by applying linear and angular momentum conservation laws.

  18. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Effect of the structure, solid state and lipophilicity on the solubility of novel bicyclic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Volkova, Tatyana V.; Proshin, Alexey N.; Perlovich, German L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility in buffer pH 7.4 of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • The influence of melting parameters and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied. • The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated. - Abstract: Novel bicyclic derivatives have been synthesized. The solubility of drug-like substances in phosphate buffer rH 7.4 has been measured within the range of (9.02 · 10 −5 to 1.05 · 10 −4 ) mol/l. The relationship between the chemical nature and the structure of the aryl substituents and the solubility parameter was investigated. The fusion temperatures, enthalpies and entropies have been determined experimentally. The influence of thermophysical characteristics and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied using regression analysis. The calculations by the solubility/lipophilicity equation showed an overall improvement of the predictions equal to 0.5 log units. It was concluded that the solvation has a considerable influence on the solubility of the compounds under consideration. It was also determined that the alkyl- and halogen-derivatives solubility values correlate with HYBOT descriptors characterizing the (donor + acceptor) properties of the substances. The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated using the temperature dependences. The study also revealed that the solubility of the bicyclic compounds is characterized by high endothermicity of the processes and negative entropies

  20. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S

    2013-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  1. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C 15 and C 16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  2. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. The new approach brings a completely different view on planning cycling infrastructure, while rather than physical infrastructure characteristics, humans are placed at the forefront of the cycling infrastructure design as the most important measure of its quality. Since the complexity of human beings cannot be controlled with only one science or profession, solving the problem of bicycle traffic is not just a technical problem, but its design and management also lend a multidisciplinary character. From the perspective of different cycling infrastructure users, the study will define integrated multidisciplinary methodology for evaluating the quality of cycling infrastructure, which will equally include the criteria of sensing and perceiving of space. The new approach seeks a system of criteria, which enables the integrated planning of cycling infrastructure in all spatial, organizational, sectoral, and professional levels. All theoretical findings will be tested and demonstrated on the pilot case of the long-distance cycling connection in the area of four Slovenian coastal municipalities, namely Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran.

  3. Differential specificity in the glomerular response profiles for alicyclic, bicyclic and heterocyclic odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett A.; Xu, Zhe; Pancoast, Paige; Kwok, Jennifer; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to relate stimulus to response in the olfactory system, we tested the hypothesis that the unique chemical structures and odors of various cyclic odorants would be associated with unique spatial response patterns in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb. To this end, rats were exposed to sets of odorants including monocyclic hydrocarbons, bicyclic compounds, and various heterocyclic structures containing oxygen or nitrogen in the ring. Relative activity across the entire layer was assessed by mapping uptake of 2-deoxyglucose into anatomically standardized data matrices. Whereas monocyclic hydrocarbons evoked patterns similar to those evoked by open-chained hydrocarbon odorants, a set of bicyclic compounds with structures and odors similar to camphor evoked uptake in paired ventral domains not previously associated with any other odorant chemical structures. Despite their unique odors as judged by humans, heterocyclic odorants either evoked uptake in previously characterized areas corresponding to their functional groups or stimulated weak or patchy patterns involving isolated glomeruli. While the patchiness of the patterns may be partly related to the rigidity of the compounds, which would be expected to restrict their interactions to only a few receptors, the weakness of the patterns suggests the possibility of species-specific odorant representations. We conclude that whereas some of the novel cyclic structures indeed were represented by unique patterns in the rat bulb, other unique structures were poorly represented, even when they evoked intense and unique odors in humans. PMID:16958095

  4. Solution Structure of a Novel C2-Symmetrical Bifunctional Bicyclic Inhibitor Based on SFTI-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaulent, Agnes M.; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel bifunctional bicyclic inhibitor has been created that combines features both from the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) proteins, which have two distinct inhibitory sites, and from sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1), which has a compact bicyclic structure. The inhibitor was designed by fusing together a pair of reactive loops based on a sequence derived from SFTI-1 to create a backbone-cyclized disulfide-bridged 16-mer peptide. This peptide has two symmetrically spaced trypsin binding sites. Its synthesis and biological activity have been reported in a previous communication [Jaulent and Leatherbarrow, 2004, PEDS 17, 681]. In the present study we have examined the three-dimensional structure of the molecule. We find that the new inhibitor, which has a symmetrical 8-mer half-cystine CTKSIPP'I' motif repeated through a C 2 symmetry axis also shows a complete symmetry in its three-dimensional structure. Each of the two loops adopts the expected canonical conformation common to all BBIs as well as SFTI-1. We also find that the inhibitor displays a strong and unique structural identity, with a notable lack of minor conformational isomers that characterise most reactive site loop mimics examined to date as well as SFTI-1. This suggests that the presence of the additional cyclic loop acts to restrict conformational mobility and that the deliberate introduction of cyclic symmetry may offer a general route to locking the conformation of β-hairpin structures

  5. A Visual Analysis Approach for Inferring Personal Job and Housing Locations Based on Public Bicycle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the home and workplace of residents is the basis of analyzing the urban job-housing spatial relationship. Traditional methods conduct time-consuming user surveys to obtain personal job and housing location information. Some new methods define rules to detect personal places based on human mobility data. However, because the travel patterns of residents are variable, simple rule-based methods are unable to generalize highly changing and complex travel modes. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis approach to assist the analyzer in inferring personal job and housing locations interactively based on public bicycle data. All users are first clustered to find potential commuting users. Then, several visual views are designed to find the key candidate stations for a specific user, and the visited temporal pattern of stations and the user’s hire behavior are analyzed, which helps with the inference of station semantic meanings. Finally, a number of users’ job and housing locations are detected by the analyzer and visualized. Our approach can manage the complex and diverse cycling habits of users. The effectiveness of the approach is shown through case studies based on a real-world public bicycle dataset.

  6. Partnerships in Sustainability: The Transition Town Movement in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie MacKenzie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition Towns is a citizen-led movement that seeks to address individual and societal dependence on fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas production in order to fight climate change. The foundation of Transition is permaculture, a design process based on whole-systems thinking informed by the patterns and relationships found in nature. Since its inception in 2005, the Transition movement has spread worldwide, as people in small groups and across large towns look for ways to take practical action to fight climate change: from home vegetable gardens to weatherization work parties, from time banks and tool shares to renewable energy systems. Transition looks different in every location because it meets the needs and draws on the skills of the local community. This article looks at Transition in one community: The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, profiling several Transition Town groups.

  7. Types of Planning Structures of Small Historic Towns of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia Zapunna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article exhibits the results of systematic analysis on structure and planning of fragments of urban environment. The results have been obtained by looking into the prerequisites of formation of urban environment, specifically the impact of the Magdeburg Rights on urban culture. The study covers the small towns in Ukraine, which retained their historical background to a greater extent. 70 towns in Ukraine that had the Magdeburg Law have been analyzed and their historic, architectural and planning capacity investigated. The most valuable urban fragments have been classified in accordance with a number of criteria, such as the form of the plan, planning composition, etc. Based on the conducted analysis the author presents further generalized proposals for comprehensive development of historical and architectural heritage within the socio-cultural and tourism infrastructure of the Ukrainian towns.

  8. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Tourist Town Growth Based on the Cellular Automata Model: The Case of Sanpo Town in Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.

  9. The perception of the next Bouin wind farm by the border towns people; La perception du futur parc eolien de Bouin par les habitants des communes limitrophes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document provides statistical results (questions and answers) of the inquiry realized in january 2003 in the border towns of a next wind farm in Bouin (Vendee). It also includes the analysis of the results showing the good public information and the favorable opinion concerning the project. (A.L.B.)

  10. Narrating Muslim women’s identities in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the complexity of Muslim women’s identities in the city of Cape Town in 2010. It is argued that emerging super-diversity in the form of African immigration, the commercialisation of Islam and increasing freedoms for women in South Africa impact on women’s engagement with religion and diversifies their identity. The paper also offers glimpses into the diversity of Islam in Cape Town, suggesting that this religion is not monolithic in the city and that it is continuously di...

  11. DESIGNING OF TOWN SKYLINE ON THE STAGE OF GENERAL LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kishik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to consider an aggregation of such active elements of town structure as multistoreyed dominants to be used as a basis for designing skyline of a large town on the stage of its general layout. Some interrelated principles, namely: spatial integration, subordination, nature consistence, succession are formulated for improvement of their spatial organization. Every principle takes down any general property of the network of vertical accents which is formed as a system. The obtained principles of the system organization of the multistoreyed dominants are checked while designing Grodno skyline. 

  12. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are located on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and serve as a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Lake Austin, located immediately downstream of Lake Travis, extends for more than 20 miles into the western edge of the city of Austin. Town Lake extends through the downtown area of the city of Austin for nearly 6 miles where the Colorado River is impounded by Longhorn Dam.

  13. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart of a cohort of residents (n = 909 in the intervention area (n = 520 (Fairfield and Liverpool and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389 (Bankstown. Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels.

  14. Hycycle. The feasibility of the introduction of the hydrogen bicycle to the Dutch citizen to promote social acceptance of the hydrogen economy; Hycycle. De haalbaarheid van de introductie van de waterstoffiets aan de Nederlandse burger ter bevordering van de maatschappelijke acceptatie van de waterstofeconomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkus, R.C. [ECN Brandstofcel Technologie, Petten (Netherlands); Van Hoeven, K. [Van Hoeven Consult, Beuningen (Netherlands); Bastianen, H. [Sparta, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); D' Herripon, B. [IDbike, Goirle (Netherlands); Smolenaars, J.; Westendorp, G. [Hexion, Arnhem (Netherlands); De Wit, H. [Hoek Loos, Schiedam (Netherlands)

    2005-04-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to develop a pedal assisted bicycle for which the required electrical energy is supplied by a PEM Fuel Cell system, the 'hycycle'. The bicycle is based on the existing electric Sparta Ion bicycle. It is concluded that such a 'hycycle' is technically and economically feasible, if the PEM Fuel Cell system is produced on a large scale. However, technical developments are needed before entering into a demonstration project. [Dutch] Hycycle is het concept van een waterstoffiets, gebaseerd op de bestaande elektrische Sparta Ion fiets. Hycycle wordt een trapbekrachtigde fiets die de benodigde (elektrische) energie uit waterstof haalt middels een brandstofcelsysteem. Hycycle is een haalbaarheidsstudie in her kader van het onderzoek naar transitiemogelijkheden naar een duurzame energiehuishouding in Nederland. Deze studie wordt verricht door een coalitie van Sparta, IDbike, ECN, Hexion, Hoek Loos en Van Hoeven Consult. Het project is uitgevoerd in de periode augustus 2004 tot en met februari 2005. Het doel van het onderzoek is om de haalbaarheid na te gaan van een praktisch demonstratieproject in Nederland van het gebruik van de waterstoffiets.

  15. Bicycle safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local sporting goods store, sports facility, or bike shop can help make sure your helmet fits properly. ... sidewalks, children need to learn to watch for cars pulling out from driveways and alleys. Also, teach ...

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel dioxa-bicycle C-aryl glucosides as SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Ding, Ning; Li, Yingxia

    2016-02-08

    A series of novel C-aryl glucosides containing dioxa-bicycle were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition activity against hSGLT2. Among the compounds tested, compound 6a showed moderate SGLT2 inhibition activities at 700 nM. The results could benefit the discovery of new SGLT2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : concept of operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...

  18. Understanding and measuring bicycling behavior : a focus on travel time and route choice, final report, December 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    With rates of obesity, heart disease, and related health problems increasing in the U.S., many policy makers are looking for ways to increase : physical activity in everyday life. Using a bicycle instead of a motor vehicle for a portion of everyday t...

  19. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...

  20. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...: Significant health benefits can be derived from bicycling and trail users at the park would benefit from..., foster mental and physical health, and promote learning and personal growth. The health benefits derived... Parks'' initiative of the NPS and the President's ``America's Great Outdoors'' initiative. White Oak...

  1. A Bayesian Network Model on the Public Bicycle Choice Behavior of Residents: A Case Study of Xi’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the main factors affecting the behaviors that city residents make regarding public bicycle choice and to further study the public bicycle user’s personal characteristics and travel characteristics, a travel mode choice model based on a Bayesian network was established. Taking residents of Xi’an as the research object, a K2 algorithm combined with mutual information and expert knowledge was proposed for Bayesian network structure learning. The Bayesian estimation method was used to estimate the parameters of the network, and a Bayesian network model was established to reflect the interactions among the public bicycle choice behaviors along with other major factors. The K-fold cross-validation method was used to validate the model performance, and the hit rate of each travel mode was more than 80%, indicating the precision of the proposed model. Experimental results also present the higher classification accuracy of the proposed model. Therefore, it may be concluded that the resident travel mode choice may be accurately predicted according to the Bayesian network model proposed in our study. Additionally, this model may be employed to analyze and discuss changes in the resident public bicycle choice and to note that they may possibly be influenced by different travelers’ characteristics and trip characteristics.

  2. Barriers to and Facilitators of Walking and Bicycling to School: Formative Results from the Non-Motorized Travel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlport, Kathryn N.; Linnan, Laura; Vaughn, Amber; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2008-01-01

    Barriers to and facilitators of walking and bicycling to school were explored through 12 focus groups made up of fourth- and fifth-grade students and their parents who lived near their respective schools. The barriers and facilitators reported by parents and children generally fell into one of three categories: intrapersonal and interpersonal…

  3. Examining the potential for modal change : motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. The research shows that these factors have different effects on people depending on the stage of

  4. Modelling the potential for bicycle in access trips to bus, train and metro in Rio de Janeiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho de Souza, Flavia; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Brussel, M.J.G.; Orrico, R.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that address the integration of cycling and public transport (PT) focus on developed countries and deal with multi-modal bicycle-train trips. Little is known about the integration of cycling and other main modes such as bus and metro, especially in developing countries, where entirely

  5. Synthesis of novel N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids and evaluation of their interaction with glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni; di Ventimiglia, Samuele Joppolo

    2005-01-01

    N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids (S)-9a-9c and (R)-9a-9c, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested for activity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors...

  6. Practical Example of Introductory Engineering Education Based on the Design Process and Teaching Methodology Using a Gyro Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Yoshikazu; Shimojima, Ken

    2018-01-01

    This report describes a workshop on the Dynamics of Machinery based on the fabrication of a gyro- bicycle in a summer school program for junior high school students. The workshop was conducted by engineering students who had completed "Creative Research", an engineering design course at the National Institute of Technology, Okinawa…

  7. Paper Town: The Social Production of Territory in the Industrial Town of Atenquique, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ponce de León Pagaza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social production of space in Atenquique, an industrial town in the southern region of Jalisco in western Mexico. The theoretical framework draws on insights from critical geography. Through the case of Atenquique we reflect on the transformation of the area from the beginning of the neoliberal period in Mexico. Neoliberalism ushered in the growth of precarious and insecure working conditions, something which has deepened over the past several decades. The methodology employed is based on ethnographic research undertaken over a period of four months in Atenquique. During this time period we used three different audiovisual methods to collect information: photography, oral history and the production of an ethnographic documentary film. The results of the study show how the ex-inhabitants of Atenquique have knit together complex constructions- both material and symbolic- that provide insight on how the changes of the past several decades have affected the area. In the conclusions, we return to the broader debates on the local and territorial consequences of the implementation of the neoliberal policies in Mexico.

  8. Disaster Governance for Community Resilience in Coastal Towns: Chilean Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villagra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance—redundancy, diversity, and overlap—were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32 and uses given to specific sites (e.g., for refuge, sanitary purposes and medical attention were mapped. Content and GIS analyses (Directional Distribution and Kernel Density Index were used to explore the dispersion and concentration of institutions and uses in each town. Disaster Governance was found to be highly influenced by decisions taken during regional, urban, and emergency planning. Governance is better in towns of higher order in the communal hierarchical structure. Most of the emergency institutions were found to be located in central and urban areas, which, in turn, assures more redundancy, overlap, and diversity in governance in the event of a tsunami. Lack of flexibility of emergency plans also limits governance in rural and indigenous areas. While the spatial relationships found in this study indicate that urban sectors have better Disaster Governance than rural and indigenous sectors, the influence of resource availability after tsunamis, the role and responsibility of different levels of governments, and the politics of disaster also play an important role in Disaster Governance for determining Community Resilience. These findings shed light on emergency planning and aspects of the Disaster Management cycle.

  9. FY 2001 Report of regional new energy vision for Futaba Town; 2001 nendo Futaba machi chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Futaba Town, Fukushima Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the amount of energy consumed by the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and a vision was formulated. The annual energy consumption of the town is 113,049 times 10{sup 6} kcal, with automobiles consuming 47.2%, manufacturing industries 19.8%, households 18.9%, and commerce 12.6%. The amount of carbon dioxide due to the consumption is estimated at 9,999 times 10{sup 3} kg-C in total. Studies were made about new energy introduction projects toward 2010, which involved the introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems and solar heat utilization systems into four public facilities and 214 general residences; introduction of nine clean energy vehicles into public facilities and 181 into general residences; a wind power station near the seashore; a mini-scale hydroelectric power system for irrigation; introduction of new energy for illuminating sightseeing roads and parks, and so forth. (NEDO)

  10. Mongrel: Essays. William Dicey. Cape Town: Umuzi, 2016. 220 pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ey has become the literary executor of the work of a sort of doppelgänger: Michael. D'Arcy has unaccountably disappeared. Dicey's discussion of D'Arcy's works, including a voluminous exploration of. Cape Town's central thoroughfare, en- titled Main Road, sounds fascinating. One is sent scampering to Kalahari or Loot for.

  11. Municipal solid waste generation and disposal in Robe town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasu, Duguma; Faye, Tesfaye; Kiros, Amaha; Balew, Abel

    2018-04-20

    The amount of solid waste generated in developing countries is rising from time to time due to economic growth, change in consumer behavior and lifestyles of people. But it is hard to manage and handle the increase of solid waste with existing waste management infrastructure. Thus, the management system of solid waste is very poor and become a serious problem. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the volume of solid waste generated and investigate factors affecting generation and disposal of wastes in the study area. The result of this study indicated that total waste generated from households was about 97.092kg/day.Furthermore, the study reveals that the solid waste generation rate of the town is 0.261kg/person/day.About 57.5% of solid waste is properly disposed of to landfill site whereas the remaining 42.5% is illegally dumped at the roadsides and open fields. Implication Statement Nowadays, in developing countries there is high concentration of people in urban areas and cause for the generation of enormous concentration of municipal waste in urban areas. Therefore this finding will be important for various policy makers and town planners. It may also serve as a benchmark for the municipal authorities of the town for whom the problem is still invisible and negligible and can push environmental protection authorities to reexamine the implementation of their policies and strategies with regard to the broader issues of human and environmental health condition of town dwellers.

  12. comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... In hosting future events, it is recommended that relevant government departments and stakeholders such as event managers involve and consult local businesses through ...

  13. DRUG ABUSE IN KISUMU TOWN WESTERN KENYA Otieno AO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, ... Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and peer .... A preliminary survey of drug abuse was conducted among secondary school ..... illegal and medically prescribed psychotropic drugs from adolescence to.

  14. Underrecognition and undertreatment of asthma in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In view of the high local prevalence of asthma, the extent of recognition and appropriate managementof childhood asthma was studied in a large suburban area of Cape Town. Design. Cross-sectional study based on random community sample of schools. Method. 1955 parents of sub B pupils from 16 schools ...

  15. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Short communication. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of. Campylobacter spp. from environmental waters. SM Diergaardt, SN Venter*, M Chalmers, J Theron and VS Brözel. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, ...

  16. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this ... Forensic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of National Health, Cape. Town. J. Monis .... Short term « 8 wks). 80. 40.8. 47. 39.2. 33. 43.4. Long tenn (;;. 8 wks). 54 27.6.

  17. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal ...

  18. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of HPV found in normal cervical tissue from Cape Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. In the age group 20 - 39 years, 15 of 92 (16%) were ...

  19. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be 13% (25/192) using Southern blot hybridisation. The types of HPV found in normaJ cervical tissue from Cape. Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

  20. Building a repository on European colonial architecture and town planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    During the past two years the TU Delft Library has developed a repository to store data about architecture and town planning in the former Dutch colonies. Historical images, books, journals and archives coming from libraries and museums are scanned and stored into the repository. Information about