WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicycle parking

  1. Bicycle parking preferences: costs versus walking time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Maat, K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful bicycle stimulating policies may increase the need for bicycle parking capacity, especially at main railway stations located in city centers. A potential solution for this problem involves combining paid surveyed indoor parking near the platforms and free open-air parking without surveill

  2. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) is proposing to designate the Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (Park). The National Park Service general regulation at 36 CFR 4.30(b) requires promulgation of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes outside of developed areas and special use...

  3. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (77 FR 12761). The proposed rule was..., and mountain bicycles (no motorized vehicles). I have hiked on this trail, as well as helping to work... NPS rangers and volunteers will patrol these trails and enforce NPS regulations. 5. Comment: I find...

  4. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... FR 28388). The proposed rule for bicycle use was based upon the selected action (Alternative 4... encouraged in our parks. Biking fights obesity and nature deficit disorder, providing additional... lines, power line corridors, old fields, reforestation plots, gullies and erosion control check...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1324 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycles. 13.1324 Section 13.1324 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... (egda) § 13.1324 Bicycles. Within the EGDA, the use of a bicycle is prohibited except on the...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1126 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycles. 13.1126 Section 13.1126 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1126 Bicycles. Use of a bicycle is prohibited on the Forest Loop, Bartlett River and Bartlett...

  7. 36 CFR 13.914 - Bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycle use. 13.914 Section 13.914 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... in public parking areas, or on trails and areas designated for bicycle use by the Superintendent....

  8. Stan i możliwości rozwoju turystyki rowerowej w parkach narodowych Lubelszczyzny / State and development of bicycle tourism in the national parks of the Lublin Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    The article presents the results of surveys sent to managers directly responsible for bicycle tourism in the Polesie National Park and Roztocze. Based on the answers to the questionnaire survey the author of the paper presented information on the rules of access to national parks, tourist sites of the bicycle tourists, quality, functionality and the degree of difficulty and the number of available routes, and the discipline of cycling tourists moving along the designated routes. The managers were asked to determine how the national parks are going to promote cycling and what actions they intend to take (or not) in the near future, managing the national parks. During the field research there have been evaluated the two bike trails (bike trail "Mietiułka" in the Polesie National Park and the bicycle path "Zwierzyniec - Florianka - Górecko Stare" in the Roztocze National Park). Special attention has been paid to: the state of tourism development, marking and passable routes (the type and condition of surface) set out.

  9. 36 CFR 4.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road or parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1.5 and 1.7 of this... consistent with the protection of a park area's natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety...

  10. 78 FR 73092 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... groups that may use the park. The park will continue to use these authorities to adaptively manage commercially led groups to address issues such as user conflict. Citizens always have the ability to make... problems of visitor safety, conflicts between uses, or resource impacts.'' The 1982 GMP also...

  11. Bicycle Commuting

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, E

    2011-01-01

    Cycling is cheaper, healthier and in urban environments often faster than other transport modes. Nevertheless, even at short distances, many individuals do not cycle. This thesis aims to explain why commuters vary in their decision to bicycle. Results indicate that the individual (day-to-day) choice to commute by bicycle is affected by personal attitudes towards cycling to work, social norms, work situation, weather conditions and trip characteristics. Additionally, this thesis provides evide...

  12. Solar Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sridhar; HARSHENDRA. N. SHET. K

    2011-01-01

    The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage ...

  13. Solar Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIDHAR. S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage of 15-20 km. It is also provided with manual pedaling which increases the cycle’s mileage further. Average speed of the cycle is 15-18 kmph.

  14. Bicycle Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James; Arellano , Secundino; Carrillo , Alma; Cruz , Melinda; Kunitskiy, Dmitriy; Maynigo , Marlo; Sell , Monica

    2013-01-01

    Project Description:  Bicycle detection has become a popular feature of high demand in cities and agencies across the United States. California has recently mandated that all new limit line detector installations as well as modifications to existing limit line detection must provide bicycle detection. This has created the need to develop detection methodologies which are able to detect bicycles as well as differentiate them from vehicles. The objective of this project is to utilize Econolite ...

  15. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  16. Recumbent bicycle design

    OpenAIRE

    Basso Puig, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this project is the design of a recumbent bicycle prototype. A recumbent bike is a type of bicycle in which the rider mounts in a reclined position. In order to do this, we will learn about these bicycles by showing the different types there are, its evolution over the years, and so on. After that, it is shown the recumbent bicycle design and all its components. It has been invented the frame and so, it is explained the material choice, a brief anthropometric study and FE...

  17. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  18. Bicycles made to measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2007-01-01

    For almost a century and a half, mathematicians have been racking their brains about the bike. How can a rolling bicycle be so stable of its own accord? Delft researchers now say they have completed the model to end all models. Bicycle manufacturer Batavus intends to use it to make better bikes for

  19. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  20. 78 FR 14447 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Chattahoochee River National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... routes for bicycle use (77 FR 40547). The proposed rule was available for a 60-day public comment period..., Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Bicycle Routes AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Recreation Area as routes for bicycle use. National Park Service general regulations require promulgation...

  1. Butchers and Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educ...

  2. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits. PMID:19850568

  3. Bicycle Culture in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersenn, Pia; Breitenstein, Marcus Lindgaard; Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo

    2014-01-01

    The research area involves the cycling culture in Denmark. Cycling is one of the main forms of transport in Denmark today, and it has been a big part of Denmark’s culture since the early 20th century. This project specifically looks at bicycle helmets. Today in Denmark, there is no legislation demanding cyclists to wear helmets. However we would like to investigate what the government’s stance is concerning bicycle helmets. The project will begin by looking at the efficiency of helmets. Some ...

  4. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design......, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educated individuals who were very interested in aesthetics. Furthermore, Wagener was convinced that trikes were...... between order and delivery. From a marketing perspective, one of the differentiating factors of Morten’s product is the quality of the ride (compared to competing products) and so his marketing team coined the slogan “Built-to-Tilt” because even though it’s a trike it feels like riding a two...

  5. Electric power generating bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Nuno; Ribeiro, Luís; Esteves, João Sena

    2006-01-01

    It is manifest the growing interest in both personal health and environmental issues. The device described on this paper contemplates both aspects: generating environment-friendly electric power while keeping fit. A car alternator excited through a 12V battery is coupled to a mountain bicycle, and this arrangement enables the lighting of six halogen lamps, if a cyclist pedals fast enough. Such a machine gives rise to the thought of a self-powered gymnasium. Considerable physical effort is req...

  6. Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging

    OpenAIRE

    Nekvapil, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...

  7. The evaluation of bicycle paths on bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hwa-chyi; De Backer, Hans; Lauwers, Dirk; Chang, SK Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle accidents have increasingly caused casualties and property damage. Many countries have therefore started to pay more attention to designing the space of bicycle paths. However, few studies have focused on the design of bicycle continuity between each bicycle path. In this study, the concept of using both spatial crash probability (P) and crash severity index (CSI) is introduced to address the bicycle safety issue on bridges in Central Business Districts (CBDs). Bicycle paths on bridge...

  8. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  9. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  10. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  11. Design of an electric bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Cabré Viñeta, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an electrical bicycle. As this bike has an electrical motor, it will not be used as a sport method, the main idea is to use it as a public transport so people can move from side to side of the city without traffic, without pollution and without getting tired. Once selected the purpose of the bicycle, it is necessary to take into account the main features that it must have. A bicycle used as a transport around the city needs to be easy to ...

  12. Design of Electric Bicycle Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Cong

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a sort of intelligent brushless DC motor driver and its concrete application in electric bicycle, and discusses the hardware and software design scheme of the controller, and realizes the speed control, over-current protection and battery under-voltage protection of the brushless DC motor. And the experiment result indicates that the control effect is good, and it could fulfill the application requirement of electric bicycle.

  13. Control for an Autonomous Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Neil H.; Marsden, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    The control of nonholonomic and underactuated systems with symmetry is illustrated by the problem of controlling a bicycle. We derive a controller which, using steering and rear-wheel torque, causes a model of a riderless bicycle to recover its balance from a near fall as well as converge to a time parameterized path in the ground plane. Our construction utilizes new results for both the derivation of equations of motion for nonholonomic systems with symmetry, as well as the control of undera...

  14. Bicycle Infrastructure that Extends beyond the Door: examining investments in bicycle-oriented design through a qualitative survey of commercial building owners and tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Frick, Karen; Ragland, David R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling “bicycle-oriented design” (BOD). The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities. The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what we...

  15. Bicycle Infrastructure that Extends beyond the Door: examining investments in bicycle-oriented design through a qualitative survey of commercial building owners and tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Frick, Karen; Ragland, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling “bicycle-oriented design” (BOD). The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities. The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what we...

  16. Valuing public investments to support bicycling

    OpenAIRE

    Götschi, Thomas; Hintermann, Beat

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for assessing the net benefits of investments to promote bicycling, which explicitly accounts for internal costs of bicycling. We apply our model to eight Swiss cities using data from the Swiss national travel survey and find that increasing the level of bicycling by reducing internal costs leads to inframarginal benefits that exceed the net benefits from the additional bicycling.  We further find that Swiss cyclists only partially internalize health benefits, which aff...

  17. 45 CFR 3.27 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bicycles. 3.27 Section 3.27 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.27 Bicycles. A person may not operate a bicycle, motorbike, or similar vehicle...

  18. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  19. 77 FR 40547 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Chattahoochee River National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ..., the United States Congress found that the: Natural, scenic, recreation, historic, and other values of... reflected the desire to increase the use of bicycles off- road in the park through development of an interconnected trail system. The final GMP/EIS describes off-road bicycling on trails as an appropriate use...

  20. Characterisation of Electric Bicycles Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Meeusen, Roman; Kempenaers, Farid

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper reports on characterisation work performed in the scope of the E-tour project. This project has already been presented at EVS-18. At the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ different EPACs (Electric Power Assisted Cycles) are put at the public’s disposal for testing. To quantify the performances of these electrical bicycles we want to link the subjective experienced driving comfort to some measurable objective parameters. For this purpose we converted a treadmill in...

  1. Intelligent Power Assist Algorithms for Electric Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xuan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation considers intelligent power-assist algorithm designs for electric bicycles. Traditional electric power-assist bicycles (EPBs) employ proportional power-assist strategy. The ratio is usually set to 1:1, which means that the motor will provide the same amount of assistive torque as the amount of the human's pedaling torque. This strategy is too rigid and does not consider the interaction between the bicycle, the human and the environment. Intelligent power-assist algorithms ar...

  2. Bicycle lessons, activity participation and empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Kloof, A. van der; Bastiaanssen, K.; Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of bicycle lessons for immigrant and refugee women on bicycle use and activity participation. Especially non-Western immigrant and refugee women have been identified as one of the population groups most likely to experience accessibility problems and, subsequently, transport-related social exclusion. The bicycle offers considerable potential to increase the mobility of these women. Hence, in the Netherlands and elsewhere, governments and non-governmental organi...

  3. Autonomous Bicycle: The First Self Balanced Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Ånnestad, Dag Christian

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an autonomous bicycle originates from Jens G. Balchen who wanted to make an unmanned autonomous bicycle. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug who extended the idea with the concept of using an inverted pendulum to simulate a leaning rider. The previous attempts to develop a bicycle capable of performing an autonomous ride has so far all ended in failure. The main reason for the Department of Engineering Cybernetics is to develop such a bicycle is for use in recruitment and mot...

  4. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  5. Bicycle helmet use and bicycling-related injury among young Canadians: an equity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cycling is a major activity for adolescents in Canada and potential differences exist in bicycling-related risk and experience of injury by population subgroup. The overall aim of this study was to inform health equity interventions by profiling stratified analytic methods and identifying potential inequities associated with bicycle-related injury and the use of bicycle helmets among Canadian youth. The two objectives of this study were: (1) To examine national patterns in bicycle ridership and also bicycle helmet use among Canadian youth in a stratified analysis by potentially vulnerable population subgroups, and (2) To examine bicycling-related injury in the same population subgroups of Canadian youth in order to identify possible health inequities. Methods Data for this study were obtained from the 6th cycle (2009/10) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, which is a general health survey that was completed by 26,078 students in grades 6–10 from 436 Canadian schools. Based on survey responses, we determined point prevalence for bicycle ridership, bicycle helmet use and relative risks for bicycling-related injury. Results Three quarters of all respondents were bicycle riders (n=19,410). Independent factors associated with bicycle ridership among students include being male, being a younger student, being more affluent, and being a resident of a small town. Among bicycle riders, 43% (95%CI ± 0.6%) reported never wearing and 32% (± 0.6%) inconsistently wearing a helmet. Only 26% (± 0.5%) of students reported always wearing a bicycle helmet. Helmets were less frequently used among older students and there were also important patterns by sex, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Adjusting for all other demographic characteristics, boys reported 2.02-fold increase (95% CI: 1.61 to 1.90) and new immigrants a 1.35-fold increase (95%CI: 1.00 to1.82) in the relative risk of bicycling-related injury in the past 12 months

  6. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet of...... the global. Beijing Bicycle is thematically similar to Vittorio de Sicas neorealist classic Bicycle Thieves (1948) and Akira Kurosawas filmnoir classic Stray Dog (1949). Both films describe a disillusioned post-war society in an impoverished Italy and a humiliated Japan respectively. The stories told...... Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle can be understood as the result of stories-so-far, as the cinematic representation of the globalized ”space” within the setting of the national. Beijing Bicycle is a production of space as well as a space of production, since it tells a new story in the trajectory of stories...

  7. STRESS ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.M.V.Pazare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stress analysis of bicycle frame by using Finite Element Method. The analysis is carried out in Ansys, The F.E.A. results are compared with theoretical results. In theoretical analysis the frame is treated as truss like structure and the stresses in various members of frame like top tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stay and seat stay are determined, considering various condition like, static start up, steady state paddling, vertical impact, horizontal impact, rear wheel braking. Also Finite Element Analysis is done considering the above conditions. From the analysis it is found that there is a good agreement between analytical and F.E.A. results. Result of all the cases reveals that maximum stress is found in top tube of the bicycle frame as compared to other frame members and is equal to 24.84 MPa which is less than yield strength in tension (i.e.Syt = 290 MPa for the material (aluminum T 6061 selected.

  8. Survey of options on legalizing bicycling (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwahlen, Jurg; Sulewski, Sharon; Sacovitch, Stephen;

    1999-01-01

    opposition against the proposal was.The goal of this project was to identify categories of users that were opposed to bicycling on the Dosseringen of the Østerbro and Nørrebro District lakes in Copenhagen. The identification of the opposition and its strength, rationale and organization was in terms of age......, gender, residency, frequency of use and their utilization of the area (i.e. walking, jogging, bicycling) as compared to the support for bicycling in the area. This was an Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP), that was designed to merge technical and scientific knowledge with society, and stresses the...

  9. Database improvements for motor vehicle/bicycle crash analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Anne C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Farvid, Maryam S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bicycling is healthy but needs to be safer for more to bike. Police crash templates are designed for reporting crashes between motor vehicles, but not between vehicles/bicycles. If written/drawn bicycle-crash-scene details exist, these are not entered into spreadsheets. Objective: To assess which bicycle-crash-scene data might be added to spreadsheets for analysis. Methods: Police crash templates from 50 states were analysed. Reports for 3350 motor vehicle/bicycle crashes (2011) w...

  10. A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Attitude towards Bicycle and Using Bicycle in Short Trips in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to investigate relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle among the men in Isfahan. Based on the descriptive research findings, mean using bicycle score is low in Iran. This situation is not satisfactory for a metropolis such as Isfahan that has an increasing population and motor vehicles, and also has many difficulties in urban base facilities and must be changed. In addition to mean attitude toward bicycle is high that is an opportunity for urban planners. Inferential findings show that attitude toward bicycle has a significant impact on using bicycle. In other words, increase attitude toward bicycle means an increase in using bicycle for short trips. This research finding theoretically confirm relation between attitude and behavior. Moreover it is compatible with results of the research that show there is significant relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle. There is an inverse significant relationship between age and using bicycle and with rising age using bicycle is decreased. This research finding shows that urban infrastructure in Isfahan for using bicycle is not available and consequently with rising age, bicycle risk is increased. There is a direct significant relationship between income rate and using bicycle and with increasing income rate, using bicycle is also increased. This research finding is rooted in social prestige bicycle and higher classes prefer to use motor vehicle for transportation instead of bicycle. There is a significant relationship between marital status and using bicycle and single men use bicycle more than married men but there is no significant relationship between education level and using bicycle. This research findings show that with rising education level in spite of rising income, using bicycle is not decreased. And finally there is no significant relationship between employed and unemployed persons in using bicycle. On the basis of the evidences such

  11. 36 CFR 1004.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... routes designated for bicycle use; provided, however, that the Board may close any Presidio Trust road or... consistent with the protection of natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations and...

  12. Design of Controller in Electric Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidong Zhang; Jingfeng Shen; Baohui Li

    2011-01-01

    Base on PIC16F72, a design of brushless DC motor controller strategy applied to the electric bicycle control system was presented in the paper. Through analyzed some possible problems when electric bicycle running daily. Function of over-current protection, under-voltage protection and helping were accomplished. Schematic diagrams of each function and drive circuit were given in the paper, the controller was debugged in rated voltage 36V and power rating 250W brushless DC motor, experiment tu...

  13. Profiling bicycle tourists: a case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the primary research is to gather information about the behaviour of bicycle tourism demand. Primarily by studying domestic bicycle tourists, the research results were expected to provide valuable market parameters, comparable with the determinants of previous relevant studies. Design and Methodology – Research was carried out by surveying different segments of bicyclists, recognized in earlier conceptual contributions. Electronic data collection techniques were ap...

  14. Users, uses and potential of electric-assisted bicycles - Results of a survey in the Canton of Geneva; Usagers, usages et potentiel des velos a assistance electrique. Resultats d'une enquete menee dans le canton de Geneve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardoni, S.; Iseli, A.; Munafo, S.

    2009-12-15

    The municipal, regional and national authorities wanted to assess the potential of electric-assisted bicycles in the Geneva region. A survey performed by the University of Geneva is reported. The following points were investigated: (i) Who uses an electric bicycle? (ii) How is an electric bicycle used? (iii) Why is an electric bicycle purchased? (iv) How many people could potentially use an electric bicycle in the Geneva region? (v) How much energy would be saved and what fraction of the carbon dioxide emissions would be avoided thanks to electric bicycles in the region? Some interesting results: Most current electric bicycle users are women and live in Geneva outskirts. Most users have an academic degree or equivalent and have a good job. Most of them have also a car and other bicycles without electric motor. The main uses of electric bicycles is commuting between house and job locations, leisure activities and shopping. The average annual distance per electric bicycle is about 3000 km. The majority of the electric bicycles in use are limited to 25 km/h and can be driven without any license. The users wish an extension of the bicycle track network along the roads and of the protected parking areas. The number of potential users in the City of Geneva is estimated to 9% or 15,600 new users and to 10% or 43,000 new users in the suburbs. In 2030, 7,500,000 litres-equivalent of gasoline could be annually saved in the region and more than 16,000 tons CO{sub 2} emissions avoided.

  15. Public Bicycle Share Programs and Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Barry; Moore, Lynne; Nathens, Avery B.; Hunte, Garth; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of North American public bicycle share programs (PBSPs), which typically do not offer helmets with rentals, on the occurrence of bicycle-related head injuries. Methods. We analyzed trauma center data for bicycle-related injuries from 5 cities with PBSPs and 5 comparison cities. We used logistic regression models to compare the odds that admission for a bicycle-related injury would involve a head injury 24 months before PBSP implementation and 12 months afterward. Results. In PBSP cities, the proportion of head injuries among bicycle-related injuries increased from 42.3% before PBSP implementation to 50.1% after (P < .01). This proportion in comparison cities remained similar before (38.2%) and after (35.9%) implementation (P = .23). Odds ratios for head injury were 1.30 (95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.67) in PBSP cities and 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.79, 1.11) in control cities (adjusted for age and city) when we compared the period after implementation to the period before. Conclusions. Results suggest that steps should be taken to make helmets available with PBSPs. Helmet availability should be incorporated into PBSP planning and funding, not considered an afterthought following implementation. PMID:24922150

  16. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  17. On the stability of a bicycle on rollers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Patricia A [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141 (United States); Mohazzabi, Pirooz, E-mail: pirooz.mohazzabi@uwp.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general readership interested in the dynamics of bicycle stability.

  18. On the Stability of a Bicycle on Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general…

  19. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  20. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  1. Parking Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Drew; Rhoades, Brendon

    2012-01-01

    Let $W$ be a Weyl group with root lattice $Q$ and Coxeter number $h$. The elements of the finite torus $Q/(h+1)Q$ are called the $W$-{\\sf parking functions}, and we call the permutation representation of $W$ on the set of $W$-parking functions the (standard) $W$-{\\sf parking space}. Parking spaces have interesting connections to enumerative combinatorics, diagonal harmonics, and rational Cherednik algebras. In this paper we define two new $W$-parking spaces, called the {\\sf noncrossing parking space} and the {\\sf algebraic parking space}, with the following features: 1) They are defined more generally for real reflection groups. 2) They carry not just $W$-actions, but $W\\times C$-actions, where $C$ is the cyclic subgroup of $W$ generated by a Coxeter element. 3) In the crystallographic case, both are isomorphic to the standard $W$-parking space. Our Main Conjecture is that the two new parking spaces are isomorphic to each other as permutation representations of $W\\times C$. This conjecture ties together sever...

  2. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calcula...

  3. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl;

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The...

  4. Children and bicycles: what is really happening? Studies of fatal and non-fatal bicycle injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Acton, C. H.; Thomas, S; Nixon, J. W.; Clark, R; Pitt, W R; Battistutta, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to ascertain the causes of accidents, injuries, and deaths in children who ride bicycles. Fatality and injury rates were also studied in order to compare with other studies. METHODS: Two studies of children were undertaken in children aged less than 15 years. In the first (retrospective fatality study), children who died as a result of a bicycle incident during the period 1981-92 were reviewed. In the second (prospective injury study) data were obt...

  5. Solutions to the Triangular Bicycle Flags Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartweg, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Students in a fifth-grade general education class and a second-grade gifted class participated in the Triangular Bicycle Flags problem. The results indicated that providing students with geometric experiences at the correct van Hiele level is necessary for helping students move from one level of understanding to the next.

  6. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes confoundin

  7. Bicyclic semigroups of left I-quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Ghroda, Nassraddin

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study left I-orders in the bicyclic monoid $\\mathcal{B}$. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup of $\\mathcal{B}$ to be a left I-oreder in $\\mathcal{B}$. We then prove that any left I-order in $\\mathcal{B}$ is straight.

  8. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  9. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group and...... 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate......, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle...

  10. Analysis of Innovative and Modern Technology of Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Damidavičius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of urban communication systems and ensuring of residents demands are the main tasks of the sustainable city development. One of the most important areas that forms better urban image is sustainable mobility development. It has influence on social, economical viability and environmental quality. Nowadays, intensive rhythm of life and increasing transport demands, usage of cars become a significant problem which regards the air and noise pollution and lack of parking spaces. Due to the daily impossibility of residents to find vacant parking spaces influence unproper usage of public spaces, streets, pedestrian and bicycle paths, children backgrounds, green areas and other territories. This report provides an overview of concepts of parking lots and their technology, and property usage in city center, middle zones, suburban territories and as well an analysis of the evolution of parking spaces. The report presents modern and innovative concepts of parking lots, which improves quality of communication and life in city and improves architectural environment.

  11. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Goede, M. de; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Methorst, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised tra

  12. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  13. Fatal falls from bicycles: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venara, A; Mauillon, D; Gaudin, A; Rouge-Maillart, C; Jousset, N

    2013-03-10

    Though rare occurrences, fatal falls from bicycles are generally linked to the absence of a protective helmet and/or a collision with another vehicle. The case presented here is exceptional due to its circumstances and the consequences of the accident: a fall with no obstacle at a low speed that brought about multiple traumas and the death of a cyclist wearing a protective helmet. Comparing this against a review of cyclist accidentology literature, this case is unique. The increased use of autopsy in terms of forensic accidentology is to be encouraged so as not to misunderstand the possibility of such lesion-based consequences following a simple fall from a bicycle. PMID:23312586

  14. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  15. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  16. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  17. Psychological Delaying Model of Bicycle Passing Events on Physically Separated Bicycle Roadways in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin; Shan, Xiaonian; Sun, Xin

    Bicycle facilities are quite common in China but there are not enough quantitative methods to evaluate the Level of Service (LOS) of bicycle roadways. The number of passing events, which considers the interactions between bicyclists, has been proved to be a proper indicator for evaluating bicycle LOS under the special traffic and roadway conditions in China. The primary objective of this study is to propose a model considering the delay effects of passing events and rider's overtaking motivation. Field data was collected on South Zhongshan Road and Huaihai Road in Nanjing city of China with 639 bicyclists investigated. Then a new mathematical model was built to evaluate those effects through probability and regression analyses. It was found that the delay effect of passing events and rider's overtaking motivation are significant influencing factors which cannot be omitted. Correlation test shows the fitted relationship is greater between the model prediction and field data comparing with the previous model.

  18. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important for choosing walking and bicycling, and how very different instruments can promote walking and bicycling at the expense of short car trips. Furthermore, the paper describes the most important factors when c...

  19. Technical analysis and market study of electric bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Matasyan, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This thesis project was done in collaboration with a Prismattery LLC, which is based in Tallinn, Estonia and is interested in entering the market of electric bicycles. For that reason in this report a detailed study concerning the market of electrical bicycles, its current situation and trends were performed and a promising target market was indicated. The market study showed that although in different countries the specifications and preferred types of electric bicycles may vary,...

  20. Bicycle-Sharing System Analysis and Trip Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiawei; Pan, Xiao; Li, Moyin; Yu, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing systems, which can provide shared bike usage services for the public, have been launched in many big cities. In bicycle-sharing systems, people can borrow and return bikes at any stations in the service region very conveniently. Therefore, bicycle-sharing systems are normally used as a short-distance trip supplement for private vehicles as well as regular public transportation. Meanwhile, for stations located at different places in the service region, the bike usages can be qu...

  1. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. PMID:26647016

  2. Parks & Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern;

    2011-01-01

    /or experiential cognition. Many historical examples show that such carrying capacities depend on a common commitment among stakeholders to a longsighted protection of the landscape system acknowledged as the main interaction between man and nature. However, 'Mediation among stakeholders is irrelevant if it is...... based on ignorance of the integrated character of nature and people'(Gunderson and Holling 2002). This is the main reason why general models for sustainability are so difficult to develop. However, a nature park designated to fulfill protection purposes through stakeholder cooperation might fulfill the...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...

  3. Bicycle Sharing in Developing Countries : A proposal towards sustainable transportation in Brazilian median cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Batista, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are a new trend in urban transportation. The main difference of a bicycle-sharing program with a regular bicycle rental is that is possible to get a bicycle in one station and return it in any other station. There are many models of bicycle sharing, each model with its pros and cons. This study analyzes the bicycle-sharing models in order to build a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities. The study begins with an overview of bicycle...

  4. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit ( 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  5. Haleakala National Park Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The park boundary of Haleakala National Park was digitized from USGS quadrangle maps. Haleakala National Park was established in September 1960. Recent NPS land...

  6. On Wiener polarity index of bicyclic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Shi, Yongtang; Wang, Zhen; Yue, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in biological, physical and social sciences. Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. A number of Wiener type indices have recently been incorporated as distance-based descriptors of complex networks. Wiener type indices are known to depend both on the network’s number of nodes and topology. The Wiener polarity index is also related to the cluster coefficient of networks. In this paper, based on some graph transformations, we determine the sharp upper bound of the Wiener polarity index among all bicyclic networks. These bounds help to understand the underlying quantitative graph measures in depth.

  7. Bicycle braking friction measurements on winter roads

    OpenAIRE

    Rekilä, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis study has been carried out during a student exchange in the Norwegian University of science and technology in the Research Centre for Winter maintenance. The master’s thesis consists of two parts: I) a process report and II) a manuscript for a scientific paper. In addition, appendix is marked as part III. Bicycling is considered an attractive way of traveling since it improves health, is flexible and often fastest mode of travelling in urban areas. Therefore it is bec...

  8. Solar Electric Bicycle Body Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new solar electric bicycle design and study were carried out on in this paper. Application of CAD technology to establish three-dimension geometric model, using the kinetic analysis on the frame and other parts for numerical simulation and static strength analysis for the vehicle model design, virtual assembly, complete frame dynamics analysis and vibration analysis, with considering other factors, first on the frame structure improvement, second on security of design calculation analysis and comparison, finally get the ideal body design.

  9. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide for grade 3 contains seven lessons on bicycles and an appendix on conducting a bicycle rodeo. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  10. 77 FR 39927 - Vehicles and Traffic Safety-Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... bicycle operator subject to most of the other traffic regulations in Part 4. 52 FR 10675, April 2, 1987... Responses to Public Comments The NPS published the proposed rule at 73 FR 76987 (December 18, 2008) and a... the special regulation requirement to ensure maximum public input on decisions to allow bicycle use...

  11. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  12. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  13. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  14. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important for...... choosing walking and bicycling, and how very different instruments can promote walking and bicycling at the expense of short car trips. Furthermore, the paper describes the most important factors when choosing between bicycling and walking and car driving, respectively, in case of trips of up to 22 km...... and bicycling. The study shows that instruments that improve the cyclists’ speed and increase the car drivers’ time consumption and costs will influence the competition conditions significantly. The total transfer potential will be between 12 and 16 % of the car trips in case of short tours...

  15. Bicyclic Peptide Inhibitor of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Paaske, Berit; Jiang, Longguang;

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptidebased inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... monocyclic peptide, upain-2. It was successfully converted to a bicyclic peptide, without loss of inhibitory properties. The aim was to produce a peptide cyclised by an amide bond with an additional stabilising across-the-ring covalent bond. We expected this bicyclic peptide to exhibit a lower entropic...... burden upon binding. Two bicyclic peptides were synthesised with affinities similar to that of upain-2, and their binding energetics were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Indeed, compared to upain-2, the bicyclic peptides showed reduced loss of entropy upon binding to uPA. We also...

  16. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  17. The Design of Sport Bicycle Speed Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbing Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As bicycle sport equipment, a sport bike needs a speed and distance measuring device, due to the characteristic of road cycling, thereby mastering the state of motion. According to external conditions such as temperature, wind speed, the bike can make the appropriate adjustment to achieve the best movement effect. The bicycle speed odometer is a major accessibility tool that satisfies with needs of the people with fast development. This study elaborated a bike speed odometer design based on Hall element, taking AT89C52 single chip as the core, measuring speed with A44E Hall sensor, to finish the bike mileage/speed measurement and statistics by displaying bike mileage and speed in real time. By using the Hall elements, the hardware of speed odometer input the number of pulse of per circle into the single-chip computer system. Then the signal processed by the single-chip computer displays. The software is programmed with assembly language and modular design idea. The design of the hardware circuit is simple and the subroutine has universal property, which fully meet the design requirements and possess a wide range of application and dissemination value.

  18. Helmet wearing among users of a public bicycle-sharing program in the district of columbia and comparable riders on personal bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Roffenbender, Jason S; Anderko, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  19. Helmet Wearing Among Users of a Public Bicycle-Sharing Program in the District of Columbia and Comparable Riders on Personal Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Anderko, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  20. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, John C; Huybers, Sherry

    2004-05-01

    Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicles; and the use of safety devices, including bicycle helmets, lights and reflective tape. Whereas, research into optimal roadway design and educational programs for drivers to improve road safety has yielded contradictory results, the benefits of bicycle helmet use and programs to enhance their use have been clearly shown. This paper has the following objectives for paediatricians and family physicians: To understand the relationship between bicycle safety and children's motor and cognitive skills.To understand the effectiveness and limitations of strategies to improve bicycle safety.To describe activities to promote bicycle safety that physicians can undertake in clinical settings and in the community. PMID:19657515

  1. The frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in countries with varying bicycle mode shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    In  order  to  encourage  cycling,  we  need  to  reduce  the  hazards  that  cyclists  face. Single-bicycle crashes or ‘bicycle-only crashes’ are falls and obstacle collisions in which only one cyclist is involved. Between 60 and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospital or treated at an emergency...... department are victims of single-bicycle crashes. As proportion of the total number of traffic casualties  the  share  exceeds  20%  in  most  countries  with  medium  to  high  levels  of cycling.  This paper  discusses  the  prevalence  of  the  problem  and  describes  measures  that  may  both reduce the...

  2. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  3. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.;

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate...... scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  4. Symbolic derivation of bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Everett X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels is presented in this paper. Using symbolic mathematic tool Maple, we obtain two holonomic and four nonholonomic constraint equations due to front and rear wheels of a bicycle. We show that the two holonomic constraints cannot be expressed in quartic form for bicycle rear body pitch angle unless the minor (crown radius of the torus are the same for both the front and rear wheels. In addition, we show that all the constraints can be written in differential form, from which a constraint matrix is constructed, according to standard procedure for developing dynamics in robotics.

  5. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  6. Bicyclic graphs with maximal revised Szeged index

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2011-01-01

    The revised Szeged index $Sz^*(G)$ is defined as $Sz^*(G)=\\sum_{e=uv \\in E}(n_u(e)+ n_0(e)/2)(n_v(e)+ n_0(e)/2),$ where $n_u(e)$ and $n_v(e)$ are, respectively, the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $u$ than to vertex $v$ and the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $v$ than to vertex $u$, and $n_0(e)$ is the number of vertices equidistant to $u$ and $v$. Hansen used the AutoGraphiX and made the following conjecture about the revised Szeged index for a connected bicyclic graph $G$ of order $n \\geq 6$:

  7. Bicycling induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, P L; Dunne, J W; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G

    1991-01-01

    Pudendal neuropathies are well recognised as part of more generalised peripheral neuropathies; however, focal abnormalities of the pudendal nerve due to cycling-related injuries have been infrequently reported. We describe two patients who developed pudendal neuropathies secondary to pressure effects on the perineum from racing-bicycle saddles. Both were male competitive athletes, one of whom developed recurrent numbness of the penis and scrotum after prolonged cycling; the other developed numbness of the penis, an altered sensation of ejaculation, with disturbance of micturition and reduced awareness of defecation. Both patients improved with alterations in saddle position and riding techniques. We conclude that pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy can result from prolonged cycling, particularly when using a poor riding technique. PMID:1821826

  8. Bicycle and Car Share Schemes as Inclusive Modes of Travel? A Socio-Spatial Analysis in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Clark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.

  9. The effect of tyre and rider properties on the stability of a bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bulsink, V.E.; Doria, A.; Belt, van de, M.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To work towards an advanced model of the bicycle-rider-environment system, an open-loop bicycle-rider model was developed in the commercial multibody dynamics software ADAMS. The main contribution of this article to bicycle dynamics is the analysis of tyre and rider properties that influence bicycle stability. A system identification method is used to extract linear stability properties from time domain analysis. The weave and capsize eigenmodes of the bicycle-rider system are analysed. The e...

  10. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Benington, Rob; Bjørnskau, Torkel; Dhondt, Stijn; de Geus, Bas; Hagemeister, Carmen; Loo, Becky P. Y.; Niska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. Methods A literature search identified figures...... SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  11. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  12. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys...... using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic...

  13. The safety impact of a yellow bicycle jacket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this project is that the safety of cyclists can be improved by increasing their visibility in traffic. This is explored by testing whether or not a high-visibility bicycle jacket (colour and reflectors) will increase the safety of cyclists. The project has been carried out as a...... randomized controlled trial with 6,800 volunteer cyclists. After random selection, half of the group – the test group – got the bicycle jacket at once and promised to wear it each time they biked during a year. The other half of the group composed a control group that got the bicycle jacket after the closing...... of the project, i.e. after a year. The safety effect of the bicycle jacket was analysed by comparing the number of self-reported accident for the test and control group. The self-reported accidents showed that the test group had 38 % fewer personal injury accidents with other road users – so...

  14. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in urban areas. The interventions included the construction of new bicycle routes on urban arterials in some...... larger cities and an area wide comprehensive upgrade of the bicycle network one medium sized city (Delft). The evaluations were based on before and after studies where in the case of Delft also a long-term after study was performed. The evaluations produced a wealth of information about the impacts of...... interventions in bicycle infrastructure on travel choices, safety, design appreciation, and other factors. These clarify under which conditions certain measures are effective or not and inform about the effectiveness of improving a single route versus upgrading a whole network. The information from the studies...

  15. National Environmental Research Parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  16. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, John C.; Huybers, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicl...

  17. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichao Zhang; Kangkang He; Sheng Dong; Jibiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing), for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental d...

  18. BICYCLE TRANSPORT IN URBAN TRANSPORT OF KONYA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    LORASOKKAY, Mehmet Ali; AĞIRDIR, M. Levent

    2011-01-01

    The use of motor vehicles in the cities of Turkey is increasing with every passing day due to the cities rapidly expanding in Turkey. The share of environment-friendly transportation types entirely based on manpower such as pedestrian and bicycle transports in urban areas continuously decreases due to expanding urban residential areas. For urban transportation, bicycle is an individual, independent and fast transportation vehicle similar to motor vehicles in terms of its properties such as it...

  19. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements. PMID:26910774

  20. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  1. Test verification and design of the bicycle frame parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Xiang, Zhongxia; Luo, Huan; Tian, Guan

    2015-07-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders' worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers' height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes' function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  2. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  3. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. Methods A literature search identified figures...... (largely from western countries) on SBC casualties who are fatally injured, hospitalised or treated at an emergency department. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate how bicycle modal share is related to SBCs. Results On average, 17% of fatal injuries to cyclists are caused by SBCs...... SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  4. Mumbai : the bicycle friendly city, bicycle masterplan & design guidelines for central mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lina

    2011-01-01

    Mumbai – the city of contrasts, is home for more than 20 million people. It is the financial centre and the most modern city in India. As most cities within developing countries Mumbai is striving to imitate the western model of growth and lifestyle to achieve a “developed” status. Motorization, especially private motorized modes, has become prioritized because they are seen as a big part of this development. This neglecting has also led to a significant prejudice against bicycle riding as a ...

  5. ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Beheshtitabar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to find out which parameters have the highest influence on bicyclists’ route-choice-behaviour and how they contribute. There are many attributes considered throughout different studies that are favoured by cyclists. The attributes are the basis for generating a function which predicts the route choice of cyclists. The paper aims at making a comparison between distance-based routes and attribute-based routes. The model for creating the bicycle route choice program is based on the network model of Norrköping, Sweden. The preferred attributes of the model each assign a weight in the cost function of the model for each link of the urban network. The algorithm of the lowest cost function route searches the shortest path in terms of assigned link costs over the whole network. For comparing the results of the cost function and the shortest route (between an origin-destination, the model has a shortest path finding algorithm between different Origin and Destination pairs implemented. It has been viewed that around 25% of all cumulative routes do not show any distance differences between the shortest path distance and attributes based solution. With the used weights of the Standard scenario, it can be seen that the trade-off between shortest distance and safety respectively comfort can be optimized, fulfilling both criteria (distance and safety/comfort.

  6. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron; Besenyi, Gina M; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Hughey, S Morgan; Wilcox, Sara

    2016-01-01

    A lack of comprehensive and standardized metrics for measuring park exposure limits park-related research and health promotion efforts. This study aimed to develop and demonstrate an empirically-derived and spatially-represented index of park access (ParkIndex) that would allow researchers, plann...... significance for researchers and professionals in diverse disciplines....

  7. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing, for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental duration corresponding to 75% degree were then calculated. On this basis, the radioactive decay law from physics was used to establish a theoretical model for the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration. The data on public bicycle rental duration in Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing were used to test the model and produce a corrected theoretical model. The results indicate that the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration obeys the decay law. The study results provide important theoretical support for the rental station planning of bicycle sharing systems, as well as the allocation, operation, and dispatch of public bicycles.

  8. Heterogeneous cellular automata model for straight-through bicycle traffic at signalized intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Jiang, Hang; Chen, Jingxu; Huang, Zhengfeng; Lu, Lili

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a cellular automata (CA) model to elucidate the straight-through movements of the heterogeneous bicycle traffic at signalized intersection. The CA model, via simulation, particularly exposits the dispersion phenomenon existing in the straight-through bicycle traffic. The nonlane-based cycling behavior and diverse bicycle properties are also incorporated in the CA model. A series of simulations are conducted to reveal the travel process, bicycles interaction and influence of the dispersion phenomenon. The simulation results show that the dispersion phenomenon significantly results in more bicycles interactions in terms of spilling maneuvers and overtaking maneuvers during the straight-through movements. Meanwhile, the dispersion phenomenon could contribute to the efficiency of the bicycle traffic, and straight-through bicycles need less time to depart the intersection under the circumstance of dispersion phenomenon. The simulation results are able to provide specific guideline for reasonably utilizing the dispersion phenomenon to improve the operational efficiency of straight-through bicycle traffic.

  9. Remarks on the New High-Efficiency Motor for an Electrical Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Hasimoto, Naohide; Abe, Minoru

    There have been numerous theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical bicycle, electrical vehicle, and so on. In this paper, we consider the new d-c compound motor for the electrical bicycle. This improvement maybe take positive advantage of compound moter in the electrical bicycle. As an illustrative example, we show the experimental results on the level ground. The experiments show that the proposed method is more higher efficiency for the electrical bicycle than conventional method.

  10. Investigation with Bluetooth Sensors of Bicycle Travel Time Estimation on a Short Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Dianhai Wang; Jun De Chen

    2012-01-01

    Accurate travel time information acquisition is essential to the effective planning and management of bicycle travel conditions. Traditionally, video camera data have been used as the primary source for measuring the quality of bicycle travel time. This paper deals with an investigation of bicycle travel time estimation on a short corridor, using Bluetooth sensors, based on field survey of travel time at one arterial road in Hangzhou. Usually bicycle travel time estimates with Bluetooth senso...

  11. Influences of infrastructure and attitudes to health on value of travel time savings in bicycle journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Gunilla; Mortazavi , Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how attitudes to health and exercise in connection with cycling influence the estimation of values of travel time savings in different kinds of bicycle environments (mixed traffic, bicycle lane in the road way, bicycle path next to the road, and bicycle path not in connection with the road). The results, based on two Swedish stated choice studies, suggest that the values of travel time savings are lower when cycling in better conditions. Surprisingly, the responde...

  12. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel Stefanie; Müller Daniel; Klingelhoefer Doris; Groneberg David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Du...

  13. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction st...

  14. Using magnetorheological fluids in an innovative hybrid bicycle damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Y. J.; Nguyen, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetorheological fluids are capable of changing their viscosity quickly. This can provide good controllability and fast dynamic response. A conventional passive suspension system with air spring or hydraulic damper has simple design and financial benefit for bicycles, but its operation is uncontrollable and non-adaptive. This paper presented a semi-active hybrid bicycle suspension system which combines conventional air spring and a new magnetorheological damping brake together to reduce vibration of a bicycle. A multi-layer magnetorheological brake and linkage mechanism are connected to bike fork to form the adaptive damping part of the innovative hybrid suspension system. The simulation results proved that the semi-active suspension system can reduce bike vibration effectively.

  15. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... alkaloids. The corresponding ditosyl derivative was treated with benzylamine to afford a bicyclic N-benzylated pyrrolidine. An alternative starting material was prepared from 5,6:4',6'-di-O-isopropylidene antirrhinoside by reduction with lithium aluminum hydride. Subsequent ozonolysis and sodium borohydride...... gave the expected triol. The corresponding ditosyl derivative was treated with benzylamine or 2-methoxy-benzylamine to afford bicyclic pyrrolidines in 54-66% yield. The isopropylidene protection was removed and the unprotected pyrrolidine was acylated with benzoyl chloride to afford a potential...

  16. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  17. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... in the Federal Register on April 24, 2007 (72 FR 20365). A full description of the alternatives that... October 5, 2009 (74 FR 51099) and accepted public comments through December 4, 2009. Comments were... Register on April 24, 2007 (72 FR 20365). A full description of the alternatives that were considered,...

  18. Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes Near Parks in the Los Angeles Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hanning, Cooper; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G.; Wolch, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Areas near parks may present active travelers with higher risks than in other areas due to the confluence of more pedestrians and bicyclists, younger travelers, and the potential for increased numbers of motor vehicles. These risks may be amplified in low-income and minority neighborhoods due to generally higher rates of walking or lack of safety infrastructure.  Objectives: We pursued three research objectives: (1) to determine if pedestrian and bicycle crashes occur at h...

  19. Bicycle Training for Youth with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Esposito, Phil; Hauck, Janet; Jeong, Irully; Hornyak, Joseph; Argento, Angela; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have difficulty riding a two-wheel bicycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate an intervention using an adapted bicycle and individualized instruction to teach 71 youth to ride a standard two-wheel bicycle. Youth with DS (n = 30) and ASD (n = 41) between the…

  20. A City Plans for Bicycles: A Case Study of Olympia, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    1990-01-01

    Discusses community planning for bicycling programs with emphasis on safety education for children and adults, enforcement of bicycle laws, engineering improvements, and special events. Describes how Olympia improved existing bicycling facilities and summarizes planning, communication, engineering, and policy issues addressed. (SV)

  1. Bicycle cycles and mobility patterns - Exploring and characterizing data from a community bicycle program

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Grivolla, Jens; Codina, Joan; Banchs, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of human mobility data in an urban area using the amount of available bikes in the stations of the community bicycle program Bicing in Barcelona. The data was obtained by periodic mining of a KML-file accessible through the Bicing website. Although in principle very noisy, after some preprocessing and filtering steps the data allows to detect temporal patterns in mobility as well as identify residential, university, business and leisure areas of the city. The results lead to a proposal for an improvement of the bicing website, including a prediction of the number of available bikes in a certain station within the next minutes/hours. Furthermore a model for identifying the most probable routes between stations is briefly sketched.

  2. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay;

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... might produce inconsistent estimates. There have been some studies on bicycle route choice set generation reported in the literature, whereof few studies focussed on route choice models for bicyclist estimated from GPS observations. Menghini et al. [3] successfully applied a Breadth First Search on Link...

  3. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the car and the dimensions of the bicycle/cyclist on the severity of the impacts. It is known that the speed of the car at impact is an important parameter in the resulting injury severity of the cyclis...

  4. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  5. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the

  6. Traffic Education for Montana Elementary Schools: Bicycle Safety 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    Designed to fit into existing curricula, the loose-leaf guide includes instructional aids, resources, and units for grades K-6. Each grade is presented separately, but with informative introductory material duplicated in each. For all grades, materials include information sheets for instructors about bicycles and traffic safety, and a list of…

  7. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  8. Mapping Bicycle Crash Risk Patterns on the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, mainly aggregated statistics are used for bicycle crash risk calculations. Thus, the understanding of spatial patterns at local scale levels remains vague. Using an agent-based flow model and a bicycle crash database covering 10 continuous years of observation allows us to calculate and map the crash risk on various spatial scales for the city of Salzburg (Austria. In doing so, we directly account for the spatial heterogeneity of crash occurrences. Additionally, we provide a measure for the statistical robustness on the level of single reference units and consider modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP effects in our analysis. This study is the first of its kind. The results facilitate a better understanding of spatial patterns of bicycle crash rates on the local scale. This is especially important for cities that strive to improve the safety situation for bicyclists in order to address prevailing safety concerns that keep people from using the bicycle as a utilitarian mode of (urban transport.

  9. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...

  10. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  11. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  12. Bicyclic graphs with exactly two main signless Laplacian eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    A signless Laplacian eigenvalue of a graph $G$ is called a main signless Laplacian eigenvalue if it has an eigenvector the sum of whose entries is not equal to zero. In this paper, all connected bicyclic graphs with exactly two main eigenvalues are determined.

  13. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    CERN Document Server

    Guemez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics and also some energetic issues related to the Marta mouse motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-to-go round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the Figuring Physics section of this magazine.

  14. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...

  15. Bicycle sharing system: role, effects and application to Plymouth

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Bouke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates the role and effects of a bicycle sharing system, and studies the feasi-bility of such a system in Plymouth. The research consists of a literature review, policy dis-cussion, case studies, and a detailed assessment of t

  16. A Formal Synthesis of ( + )-Cassiol Exploiting Meyers' Bicyclic Lactam Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Xin(沈鑫); WU,Yi-Kang(伍贻康); ZHANG,Fan(张帆)

    2002-01-01

    A formal synthesis of ( + )-cassiol using (1S,2S)-2-amino-1-(4- nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol as chiral auxiliary is reported.The quaternary chiral center in the molecule was constructed by sequential alkylation of a bicyclic lactam (prepared from the aforementioned auxiliary and 5-oxo-heptanlic acid) with methyl iodide and benzyloxymethyl chloride.

  17. Bicycle injuries: a matter of mechanism and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a popular form of recreation with positive health and environmental effects. These road users are vulnerable to serious injuries, especially when motor vehicles are involved. The goal of this study was to characterize cyclist-related injuries according to motor vehicle involvement for adults versus children. A retrospective study was carried out using data from 11 trauma centers in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (2001-2007). Injuries were classified according to whether a motor vehicle was involved, and differences in injury characteristics were assessed for adults (18+ years) versus children (1-17 years). A total of 5529 patients were hospitalized for bicycle injuries, of whom 1765 were adults and 3764 were children. Thirty percent (n=1662) of all bicycle injuries involved motor vehicles, although the rate of injuries resulting in hospitalization was 37% among adults and 27% among children. Injury characteristics and hospital resource utilization differed substantially by age group. Cyclists struck by a motor vehicle presented with more severe injuries requiring more hospital resources and resulting in poorer outcomes than those not involved with motor vehicles. The interaction effect between motor vehicle involvement and age was significant for torso injuries and need for medical imaging. We found that injury characteristics, hospital resource utilization and health-related outcomes for bicycle injuries are highly dependent on patient's age and mechanism of injury. Effect modification of motor vehicle involvement by age may in part reflect physicians' attitudes toward pediatric imaging. The risks identified in this study should be used for preparedness and management of trauma hospitalizations from bicycle injuries. PMID:22062347

  18. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  19. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of desktop and mobile Web applications involve geo-tagged content, e.g., photos and (micro-) blog postings. Such content, often called User Generated Geo-Content (UGGC), plays an increasingly important role in many applications. However, a great demand also exists for “core” UGGC...... where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces......, thus enabling effective parking search applications. In particular, we demonstrate how iPark helps ordinary users annotate an existing digital map with two types of parking, on-street parking and parking zones, based on vehicular tracking data....

  20. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Trauma is the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1-4 years and leading cause of death in children older than 4 years. Thoracic injury is the second most leading cause of death in traumatized children. Multisystemic injury is found in more than 50% of children with thoracic injuries most of which are secondary to blunt traumas. We planned this study to evaluate thorax trauma cases secondary to bicycle driving in childhood and to draw attention to the importance of the regulation of traffic rules, the education of bicycle drivers.Material and Methods:  A retrospective evaluation was performed in 17 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2010 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to bicycle driving. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS. Results; Eleven (64.70% cases were injured due to the tricycle accidents and six cases 6 (35.29% were injured due to the two-wheeled bicycle accidents. The most frequent thoracic pathologies included pulmonary contusion (41.2% and chest wall contusion (29.41%. Extrathoracic injuries were seen in 35.29%, the extremities (17.64% and abdomino pelvic (11.76% being the most commonly involved. Treatment consisted of symptomatic treatment in 12 patients (70.58%, tube thoracostomy in 2 patients (11.76%, and thoracotomy in 1 patient (5.9%. The morbidity was seen in 3 patients (17.64%. The mortality rate was 5.9% (n:1. The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas Conclusions: The pediatric thorax has a greater cartilage content and incomplete ossification of the ribs. Due to the pliability of the pediatric rib cage and mediastinal mobility, significant intrathoracic injury may exist in the

  1. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  2. The fastest bicycle in the world; how a team of Delft students is building a bicycle to break the world speed record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annega, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is a country known for its extensive use of bicycles as a means of everyday transport. However, while it has existed for about two centuries, todays bicycles only differ from those of the 19th century in relatively small details. Human Power Team Delft is building a whole new type of

  3. [Electrically assisted bicycles: health enhancement or "green" gadget?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J; Cornuz, J; Gojanovic, B

    2012-07-25

    Electrically assisted bicycles (EAB) are flourishing in cities throughout the world and capitalize on ecological and practical advantages, helping in the fight against pollution, CO2 emissions and traffic jam. Human power is necessary to activate the electrical support, so that it equals to a moderate intensity physical activity (> 3 MET), or a vigorous one on hilly courses (>6 MET). The ecological benefits are obvious and transportation departments tend to support citizens who purchase one. EAB offer increased mobility at speeds of 15 to 25 km/h depending on hills and fitness of the rider, but could cause more accidents. EAB is linked to a real physical activity beneficial for health, but potentially more dangerous than a traditional bicycle. PMID:22913003

  4. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2012-04-01

    As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

  5. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998. PMID:11036573

  6. Simultaneous optimization of transit network and public bicycle station network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 朱宁; 马寿峰

    2015-01-01

    The traditional manner to design public transportation system is to sequentially design the transit network and public bicycle network. A new public transportation system design problem that simultaneously considers both bus network design and public bicycle network design is proposed. The chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is designed to solve the problem. A shortcoming of CRO is that, when the two-molecule collisions take place, the molecules are randomly picked from the container. Hence, we improve CRO by employing different mating strategies. The computational results confirm the benefits of the mating strategies. Numerical experiments are conducted on the Sioux-Falls network. A comparison with the traditional sequential modeling framework indicates that the proposed approach has a better performance and is more robust. The practical applicability of the approach is proved by employing a real size network.

  7. Gradski park u Virovitici

    OpenAIRE

    Obad Šćitaroci, Mladen; Obad Šćitaroci, Bojana Bojanić

    1996-01-01

    Današnji Gradski park u povijesnoj jezgri Virovitice nastajao je kao park uz srednjovjekovnu tvrđavu i feudalni dvorac. U prvoj polovici 20. st. postao je javni gradski park. U članku se analiziraju njegova obilježja, istražuju se njegove mijene i povijesni razvoj, vrijednosti i očuvanost povijesne matrice te parkovno-urbanistička kompozicija i mogućnosti obnove.

  8. Mobile parking system

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgionis, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    The automobiles parking system is designed in this project. This system has to make the automobiles parking payment easier, to save drivers dear time and money, to reduce traffics and pollution in the centre of the city. By implementing our automobiles parking system we will avoid all these problems. Our clients will be all users who has cars and terminal ware (personal computer with connection to the internet, mobile phone which has WAP or GPRS function, laptop). Usage and payment will be ve...

  9. Methodology for a global bicycle real world accidents reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    The use of the bicycle on a large scale encouraged in the context to develop an eco friendly environment is facing today on a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of th...

  10. In-depth real-world bicycle accident reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Use of bicycles on a large scale, encouraged in the context to develop an eco-friendly environment, is facing today a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of this work ...

  11. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to obje...

  12. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik; van Nes, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Today the interest in cycling is increasing worldwide and in many countries authorities are faced with the question how cycling can be promoted efficiently. In the Netherlands and Denmark, this question came up already in the 1970s when the downsides of the rapidly increasing motorisation became evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in ...

  13. Mobile cockpit system for enhanced electric bicycle use

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, José A.; Afonso, João L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the project of a Mobile Cockpit System (MCS) for smartphones, which provides assistance to Electric Bicycle (EB) cyclists in Smart Cities’ environment. The presented system introduces a mobile application (MCS App) with the goal to provide useful personalized information to the cyclist related with the EB’s use, including EB range prediction considering the intended path, management of the cycling effort performed by the cyclist, handling of the battery charging process an...

  14. Capacity analysis of actions to increase safety of bicycle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Stavrević, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The thesis speaks about modern editing methods of bicycle traffic in urban areas. It contains comparison of four foreign design manuals for planning and editing cyclist areas in cities. Those are Dutch, German, Canadian and design manual of the United States of America. The comparison is done upon different situations, which could appear in process of editing cyclist friendly infrastructure. Therefore the comparison is done upon situations like crossing of the side road, turning left and righ...

  15. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Priya; Jeongjin Yeo; Yoonseok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study p...

  16. Built Environment Influences on Healthy Transportation Choices: Bicycling versus Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, Meghan; Brauer, Michael; Setton, Eleanor M.; Teschke, Kay

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, tri...

  17. Measuring dynamic loads on a foldable city bicycle:

    OpenAIRE

    Boltežar, Miha; Pirnat, Miha; Savšek, Zdenko

    2011-01-01

    Strain gauges have been used to measure dynamic loads on a foldable bicycle while it is being ridden. Eight full, Wheatstone-bridge measuring points were used to measure the forces on the front and rear wheels, the handlebars, the seat and the pedals. These bridges were positioned at special measuring parts that simplified the measurements. Some of the measuring problems that were successfully resolved are described. The measuring took place on public roads where real-life data was gathered f...

  18. The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Maria; ELIASSON, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that ...

  19. Formation and Properties of a Bicyclic Silylated Digermene

    OpenAIRE

    Hlina, Johann; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph; Albers, Lena; Müller, Thomas; Jouikov, Viatcheslav V

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of PMe3 or N-heterocyclic carbenes, the reaction of oligosilanylene dianions with GeCl2⋅dioxane gives germylene–base adducts. After base abstraction, the free germylenes can dimerize by formation of a digermene. An electrochemical and theoretical study of a bicyclic tetrasilylated digermene revealed formation of a comparably stable radical anion and a more reactive radical cation, which were characterized further by UV/Vis and ESR spectroscopy.

  20. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  1. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  2. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  3. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  4. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  5. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cripton Peter A; Teschke Kay; Harris M.; Reynolds Conor CO; Winters Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk ...

  6. Automated Analysis Methods for the Assessment of Bicycle Infrastructure and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkevich, Anton

    2013-01-01

    A first phase of the research activity has been related to the study of the state of art of the infrastructures for cycling, bicycle use and methods for evaluation. In this part, the candidate has studied the "bicycle system" in countries with high bicycle use and in particular in the Netherlands. Has been carried out an evaluation of the questionnaires of the survey conducted within the European project BICY on mobility in general in 13 cities of the participating countries. The questionn...

  7. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaonian Shan; Zhibin Li; Xiaohong Chen; Jianhong Ye

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA) for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the C...

  8. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  9. "The Mechanisms. Light and Miraculous": The Convivial Bicycle in Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, J. Josh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the prevalent representation of the bicycle as a liberatory figure in theoretical texts, novels, films, and poetry. Because the bicycle confers unexpected creativity and autonomy, it alters definitions of technology, modernity, and identity. Chapter one recuperates and employs Ivan Illich's concept of conviviality in order to re-examine the inheritance of the project of modernity and question the definition of technology in the twenty-first century bicycle epoch. Fo...

  10. Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing in Hangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, China has experienced a steady decline in bicycle use. To address this trend, China's central and local government for urban transportation created the "Public Transit Priority" to encourage public transport initiatives. As part of this effort, the Hangzhou government launched “Hangzhou Public Bicycle” in 2008. This service allows members to access a shared fleet of bicycles. As of March 2011, it operated 60,600 bicycles with 2,416 fixed stations in eight core district...

  11. Spatial analysis of dynamic movements of Vélo'v, Lyon's shared bicycle program

    OpenAIRE

    Borgnat, Pierre; Fleury, Eric; Robardet, Céline; Scherrer, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Public transportation systems like Lyon's bicycle community sharing program can be considered as a complex system composed of interconnected stations that exchange bicycles. Such system generates digital footprints that reveals the activity in the city over time and space and make possible their analyze. In this paper, the analysis deals with the spatial understanding and visualization of bicycle trips. We first study the activity in each station separately and then identify the main characte...

  12. Shared Bicycles in a City: A Signal Processing and Data Analysis Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Borgnat, Pierre; Robardet, Céline; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Abry, Patrice; Fleury, Eric; Flandrin, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Community shared bicycle systems, such as the Vélo'v program launched in Lyon in May 2005, are public transportation programs that can be studied as a complex system composed of interconnected stations that exchange bicycles. They generate digital footprints that reveal the activity in the city over time and space, making possible a quantitative analysis of movements using bicycles in the city. A careful study relying on nonstationary statistical modeling and data mining allows us to first mo...

  13. Envisioning Competence: Learning, Problem Solving, and Children at Work in the Exploratory Bicycle Shop

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Charles Florian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the conceptual learning and cognitive processes of schoolchildren engaged in problem solving activities in a non-school, workplace setting known as the exploratory bicycle shop. The exploratory bike shop is a commercial bicycle shop: a) that has been adapted for combined retail and educational purposes and b) where middle-school and high-school age students participate as bicycle mechanics explorers or, more formally, as apprentices. It provides a multi-generational, econo...

  14. Improving Bicyclic Peptide Phage Display and Development of Sortase A Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rentero Rebollo, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Bicyclic peptide ligands are promising molecules for the development of new therapeutics. They combine advantages from large protein therapeutics and small molecule drugs. Large combinatorial libraries of bicyclic peptides can be generated and screened by phage display using a recently developed strategy. Potent and selective bicyclic peptide inhibitors against several therapeutic targets have already been developed and their therapeutic potential is currently being evaluated in animal models...

  15. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  16. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  17. Beirut Waterfront Park

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Beirut Down Town is growing and a whole region is facing a transformation. On the N empty landfill next to the Marina I propose an urban park that can reflect Beirut's pulse and life. It is an urban structure in different levels that hovers over the city and overlooking the Mediterranean sea . The Park connects to the already existing seaside promenade a 6 km programmed walk full of activities, the Waterfront Park is designed to reflect the daily life on this seaside walk and meet the ambitio...

  18. Using an experimental bicycle seat to reduce perineal numbness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth S; Richburg, Allen; Wallis, David; Bracker, Mark

    2002-05-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental seat that was designed to prevent perineal numbness and possibly erectile dysfunction in male bicyclists. A trial of the device among 15 experienced cyclists measured perineal sensation after a 1-hour stationary cycling session on a standard seat followed several days later by the same exercise protocol on the experimental bike seat. Cyclists reported more numbness with the standard seat than with the experimental seat (79% vs 14%). Sensory testing found greater hypoesthesia with the standard seat. Innovations in bicycle seat design may decrease or eliminate perineal numbness. PMID:20086525

  19. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuneke J. L.; Ugwuegbu D. C.; Sinebe J. E.; Enyi L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically use...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL...—Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device EC03OC91.074...

  1. Use of Adapted Bicycles on the Learning of Conventional Cycling by Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tammy L.; Porretta, David L.; Klein, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of adapted bicycles on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of conventional cycling by seven children with mild mental retardation. Feedback was used in addition to the adapted bicycles and consisted of pedal rate, head position, and steering participation. A multiple probe design was used. Participants…

  2. Pedal On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Bicycles for Grades 6 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary and adult levels, this manual covers the topic of bicycling for grades 6-9. The manual contains forty-seven learning activities grouped…

  3. Pedal On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Bicycling for Grades 9 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers bicycling for grades 9-12. It contains forty-four learning activities grouped into eight…

  4. Advocating Green Transport and Promoting Healthy Urban Development: Strategies for Bicycle Transport Development in Jinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>As a green transport means,the bicycle has a history of over two hundred years.Since the 1970s,due to the inf luence of energy crisis and the consciousness of environment protection,the bicycle has regained its popularity in the public for its

  5. The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Godefrooij, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transpor

  6. [A specific sign of the injury inflicted by the front wheel of a bicycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V; Pinchuk, P V; Molchanov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical expertise of the injury inflicted by the front wheel of a bicycle that revealed a new specific sign of the contact between the protruding part of the wheel of the bicycle (the brake disk) and the pedestrian's body. PMID:27070037

  7. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix

    2001-01-01

    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has...

  8. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian;

    2011-01-01

    relevance of the cost for short trips. Expectedly, the selection of bicycle as mode for short trips is positively related to owning a bicycle and negatively linked to owning one or more cars. Urban density has also positive correlation with the selection of sustainable transport modes....

  9. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles: A controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J C O; Andersen, T; Lahrmann, H S

    2013-01-01

    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates - number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month - for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle running lights reduces the occurrence of multiparty accidents involving cyclists significantly. In the study the bicycle accidents were recorded trough self-reporting on the Internet. Possible shortcomings and problems related to this accident recording are discussed and analysed. PMID:22884376

  10. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, intellectual activity, and social function. Methods: On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties, or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results: Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5% had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions: The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults.

  11. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  12. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  13. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  14. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  15. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen......’s bicycle infrastructure and explores how the development corresponds to other processes of urban transformation. The study builds on historical maps of bicycle infrastructure that are digitised into geographical information, which allows for a comprehensive analysis of the formation of the network. In...... search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  16. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  17. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  18. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data. PMID:8133740

  19. Wobble of a racing bicycle with a rider hands on and hands off the handlebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Florian; Nusime, Julia; Edelmann, Johannes; Plöchl, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    So far fundamental papers on the understanding of the wobble mode at motorcycles have been published, but in contrast, little research has been published on the wobble mode at bicycles. Wobble denotes a characteristic unstable oscillatory mode dominated by oscillations of the front wheel about the steering axis. The wobble mode of a trekking bicycle at low speeds has already been analysed, where no influence of the rider's hands on the steering system is taken into account. The wobble mode of a racing bicycle at higher speeds has not been addressed in more detail so far. The paper points out the difference between a trekking bicycle and a racing bicycle in particular with respect to the wobble mode. Different geometry, mass and stiffness properties of both types of bicycles and different characteristic positions of the rider are considered. As the wobble at racing bicycles often occurs at high speeds, when riding down a grade with hands on a dropped handlebar, a passive rider model, that takes into account the movement of the rider's arms, is presented.

  20. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated

  1. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)

    2015-10-16

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  2. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  3. Bicycle Guidelines and Crash Rates on Cycle Tracks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F.; Willett, Walter C.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied state-adopted bicycle guidelines to determine whether cycle tracks (physically separated, bicycle-exclusive paths adjacent to sidewalks) were recommended, whether they were built, and their crash rate. Methods. We analyzed and compared US bicycle facility guidelines published between 1972 and 1999. We identified 19 cycle tracks in the United States and collected extensive data on cycle track design, usage, and crash history from local communities. We used bicycle counts and crash data to estimate crash rates. Results. A bicycle facility guideline written in 1972 endorsed cycle tracks but American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines (1974–1999) discouraged or did not include cycle tracks and did not cite research about crash rates on cycle tracks. For the 19 US cycle tracks we examined, the overall crash rate was 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.0) per 1 million bicycle kilometers. Conclusions. AASHTO bicycle guidelines are not explicitly based on rigorous or up-to-date research. Our results show that the risk of bicycle–vehicle crashes is lower on US cycle tracks than published crashes rates on roadways. This study and previous investigations support building cycle tracks. PMID:23678920

  4. Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Anne C; Furth, Peter G; Morency, Patrick; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Willett, Walter C; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2011-04-01

    Most individuals prefer bicycling separated from motor traffic. However, cycle tracks (physically separated bicycle-exclusive paths along roads, as found in The Netherlands) are discouraged in the USA by engineering guidance that suggests that facilities such as cycle tracks are more dangerous than the street. The objective of this study conducted in Montreal (with a longstanding network of cycle tracks) was to compare bicyclist injury rates on cycle tracks versus in the street. For six cycle tracks and comparable reference streets, vehicle/bicycle crashes and health record injury counts were obtained and use counts conducted. The relative risk (RR) of injury on cycle tracks, compared with reference streets, was determined. Overall, 2.5 times as many cyclists rode on cycle tracks compared with reference streets and there were 8.5 injuries and 10.5 crashes per million bicycle-kilometres. The RR of injury on cycle tracks was 0.72 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.85) compared with bicycling in reference streets. These data suggest that the injury risk of bicycling on cycle tracks is less than bicycling in streets. The construction of cycle tracks should not be discouraged. PMID:21307080

  5. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials. PMID:22269506

  6. Performance Evaluation of the New High-Efficiency Motor for an Electrical Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Hasimoto, Naohide; Abe, Minoru

    Over the past years, a great deal of studies have been devoted to electrical bicycle, electrical vehicle, and so on. In previous work, we studied a new d-c compound motor which is suitable for the electronic bicycle on the level ground. In contrast to this, this paper considers the performance evaluation of the new high-efficiency motor for an electrical bicycle in detail. We try to show the experimental results of several driving condition. This directly leads us to the conclusion that a new d-c compound motor is higher efficiency than conventional one.

  7. A microprocessor-based fuzzy logic control strategy for fuel cell powered bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is aimed to develop a fuzzy logic control strategy for fuel cell powered bicycle. Advanced control strategy with low cost microprocessor is a crucial development step for future commercialization phase of fuel cell system applications. In this paper, a micro controller based fuzzy logic control strategy and system is developed to improve the running performance of the bicycle, as the fuel cell powered system has great uncertainty of power output. Through advanced control methods, significant improvement in the performance of fuel cell powered bicycle, the energy consumption, and the running speed can be achieved. (author)

  8. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  9. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    The World Bank; Uganda's Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife, and Antiquities

    2007-01-01

    Uganda's Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park protect some of the most biologically diverse tropical forests in East Africa. Both parks conserve rare and dwindling Afromontane and Afro-alpine. Mgahinga represents the Ugandan share of the Virungas Volcanoes range and is contiguous with the Virungas National Park in the Republic of Congo and Parc National des Volcans in Rwanda. Up to fifty mountain gorillas use Mgahinga for part of the year. It is also home to nu...

  10. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  11. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  12. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  13. Prioritization of Integrated Bicycle Network Clusters in Istanbul Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Çol Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of the integration of nonmotorized transport and public transport on hypermobility was evaluated. The role of bicycle in non-motorized transportation, and its contribution to sustainable travel goals were examined. A decision support model was established in order to plan the phases of a bicycle network integrated with the public transport sytem in Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Data such as public transport routes planned for the target year 2023, locations of transfer centers, number of passengers at transfer centers, and a revised bicycle network were used as layers for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS map produced. Based on the survey data collected from the experts, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP which is a multi-criteria decision-making procedure that contains both qualitative and quantitative factors was used to prioritize the bicycle network clusters integrated with public transport system in Istanbul.

  14. Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Bicycle Accidents and Slip and Fall Injuries in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate associations between sleep time and bicycle accidents, falls under various circumstances, and dental injuries in adolescents.A total of 61,696 participants ranging from 12 to 18 years of age who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS in 2013 were enrolled in this study. Bicycle riding accidents were analyzed for 17,232 bicycle-riding participants. Data were collected regarding the weekday sleep duration for the most recent 7 days, which was categorized as the 5.5-6.5 h group > the 6.5-7.5 h group. There was no significant relationship between sleep deprivation and dental injury.This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation among Korean adolescents was associated with bicycle accidents and falls at home and school. Thus, adequate sleep may be needed to prevent accidents and falls.

  15. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  16. Physiological responses and exercise preference between the Trikke and the bicycle ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T.C. Lam

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Participants were more efficient in using the Trikke than the bicycle ergometer. The Trikke may be an enjoyable alternative for those individuals, particularly women, who have lost interest in traditional forms of exercise.

  17. Commuter Transport Mode Choice and Typologies in the Bicycle City Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Kjems, Erik; Reinau, Kristian Hegner;

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle Cities” such as Copenhagen can serve as role models: how far can we push the commuter modal shares in the direction of more sustainable transport? This paper presents a study that aims to give a state-of-the-art picture of a Copenhagen that provides wide cycling highways and the political...... will to provide for even more bicycles. We found a ratio of 1:1 of car to bicycle in the greater Copenhagen area, whereas a ratio 2:5 of cars to bicycles existed in the central city - in terms of commuters who both live and work in the city center and who thus have an effective choice between modes due...

  18. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  19. Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?%Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Bufton; Florian Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The humble bicycle was once the predominant mode of transport in Beijing and it can be argued that the city has previously been one of the best bicycle cities in the world. Now the streets are littered with rusting old bikes and it seems as if Beijing has turned its back on the bicycle in its quest for modernity and evolution. The resultant re-configuration of the city and the rapid speed of development of modern transportation systems (particularly the lightening growth of personal automobiles) have created a complex set of issues and challenges which now put the city under pressure such as sustainability, air quality, health and traffic congestion problems.

  20. Stabilization Control of an Autonomous Bicycle : Modeled as an Acrobot with Angular Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Jørgen Herje

    2014-01-01

    With an inverted pendulum mounted on the bicycle frame, the system is corresponding to a bicyclist who applies balancing torque from the hip. This thesis present a mathematical system model of the autonomous bicycle, modeled as an inverted double pendulum with actuation at the joint connecting the two system links, better known as an Acrobot. The Acrobot is a well-known underactuated robot manipulator, which implies that only the mounted inverted pendulum can obtain instantaneous acceleration...

  1. Reconstruction of Car-Electric Bicycle Side Collision Based on PC-Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Shenchao Wang; Yubin Qian; Xianguo Qu

    2014-01-01

    A collision model, an automobile model and a multi-rigid-body model in PC-crash are analyzed. By simulating a side collision accident between a car and an electric bicycle (EB), a method that reproduces the car-electric bicycle side collision accident based on PC-crash is presented according to some important information such as the final position, the contacting location between the cyclist and the car. A result is obtained by comparing with the reproduced result, the defor...

  2. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing number of immigrants, increasing car ownership, and a tendency to travel larger distances. The analysis of the paper confirms that the observed trend differs from the estimated trend, considering th...

  3. Modeling and simulation of the transmission system for a chainless electric bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Farreny, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This project, entitled Modeling and Simulation of the Transmission System for a Chainless Electric Bicycle, consists in the design of the controllers’ logics governing a chainless electric bicycle’s transmission in order to accomplish certain behavior in front of inputs such as pedaling torque, slope gradient, frontal wind, gear selected, etc. To better understand it, a chainless electric bicycle replaces the conventional mechanical transmission (chain) by two electric mac...

  4. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin; Jung, Hee Chang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index ...

  5. Historiographical Needs in the Study of Bicycling Mobility in France. In : Mobility in History, Volume 5

    OpenAIRE

    PAPON, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In historical research on cycling in France, most attention has been given to the development of bicycles themselves and the industry that built them, mainly in the nineteenth century, or on cycling as a sport. Some historians have studied the bicycle as a social object. But the works dealing with cycling as a means of transport are scarce. The special double session on 'Cycling History and Cycling Policies' at the 2012 annual conference of the International Association for the History of Tra...

  6. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yung Liao

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module), and public bicycle use were obta...

  7. Wheelies and Headers, or How to Keep Both Bicycle Wheels on the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrbein, William M.

    2004-01-01

    A "wheelie" is when a bicycle is ridden with its front wheel lifted from the ground. Riding the bicycle in a way to lift the rear wheel off the ground might lead to the cyclist tumbling over the handlebars, called a "header." Other colorful terms for this situation are "endo" (short for "end-over-end") and "face plant" (for landing face first on the ground). Let's determine the conditions required in order to keep both tires touching the ground at all times.

  8. 40 CFR 52.1162 - Regulation for bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities described in paragraph (f) of this section of feeder bikeways to bridges, on-bridge bikeways... deems it necessary, for a public comment period prior to the effective date of his response. (f... Government Center; (13) Porter Square, Cambridge to Columbus Park, Boston; (14) Cleveland Circle...

  9. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  10. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the CA model using the genetic algorithm. Traffic flow features between simulations of several CA models and field observations were compared. The results showed that our modified CA model produced more accurate simulation for the fundamental diagram and the passing events in mixed bicycle traffic flow. Based on our model, the bicycle traffic flow features, including the fundamental diagram, the number of passing events, and the number of lane changes, were analyzed. We also analyzed the traffic flow features with different traffic densities, traffic components on different travel lanes. Results of the study can provide important information for understanding and simulating the operations of mixed bicycle traffic flow.

  11. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  12. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  13. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents: The European Youth Hearts Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, L; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B; Møller, N C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may be beneficial to carotid arterial health among boys. PMID:25156494

  14. The safety effect of exchanging car mobility for bicycle mobility : substituting a small number of short car trips with bicycle trips.

    OpenAIRE

    Stipdonk, H.L. & Reurings, M.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of the effect of exchanging passenger car mobility for bicycle mobility on the number of fatalities and serious road injuries in the Netherlands. A precise calculation of this effect is not possible due to a lack of information, but we were able to give a first and rough approximation of the safety effect. The analysis considers a substitution of 10% of car trips shorter than 7.5 km by bicycle trips. The analysis is done ceteris paribus, thus, all relevant p...

  15. Beijing International Sculpture Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inauguration of the 2002 Beijing International Urban Sculptural Art Exhibition also saw the opening of the Beijing International Sculpture Park on Yuquan Road, Beijing. The park houses 140 statues.This exhibition is aimed at promoting exchanges and cooperation among sculptors across the world, integrating urban sculpture into everyday life, and encouraging innovation in this sector. It is expected to bring inspiration to Beijing as regards new concepts in urban construction, through exchanges with other nations. This exhibition constitutes interaction between the public and art, and dialogue between China and the world.The works on display are Beijing’s latest attraction, and add a touch of modernity to this ancient city. Some are to be placed in sports stadiums during the 2008 Olympics.

  16. Dog Park Renovation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Pellikka, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Green areas pay an important role in modern society. As cities expand rapidly, green areas become more important, desirable, and attractive for society. In order to offer an adequate environment, all sectors have to be considered in the planning; children, the handicapped, the elderly, and even pets. Dogs have natural instincts and necessities, and should be considered in an urban development as pets are part of society. Pikku-Palomäaki Dog Park, situated in Kouvola city, is lacking in ge...

  17. Park-Our?

    OpenAIRE

    Jæger, Pelle Ejlerskov; Hansen, Frederik Nikolaj Sandfeld

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This project revolves around parkour-practitioners in Albertslund and their interaction with the municipal system in connection with an action-research-project, which aims to shape a new parkour-park in the town. We investigate, via a progressive-phronetic research-model, in which situation un-organized groups, like parkour-practitioners, find themselves, when faced with the bureaucratic machinery of the municipality, which, in opposition with parkour-ideals of voluntary communiti...

  18. The Effects of Surface-Induced Loads on Forearm Muscle Activity During Steering a Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Önder C.; Soylu, Abdullah R.

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  19. Bicycles May Use Full Lane” Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, George; Peterson, M. Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-ba...

  20. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to objects. If the distance to other objects reduces, an acoustic signal is sent. Additionally, a self-created force plate was fixed on the pedal to evaluate the muscle performances during biking. An experiment with the ultrasound warning system confirmed that acoustic feedback was helpful in avoiding obstacles. The measurement of the blood pressure, the heart frequency and the pedaling force during biking approved that the training condition of the test person can be registered and enables tuning the power of the electric motor to individual requirements. The results demonstrate that an adapted E-bike can be improved to provide better space orientation for people with perceptual disorders and to measure training conditions of patients. Moreover, these enable individual adjustment of the electric motor power to optimize comfort and therapy effect. PMID:25485189

  1. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  2. Heparin-induced circular dichroism of an achiral, bicyclic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Floyd E; Warner, Andrew M; McWilliams, Kayla M; Stalcup, Apryll M

    2011-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs have shown potential in suppressing the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the pathology of prion protein conformational disorders (e.g. "Mad Cow" disease) by competing for sites of electrostatic interaction. In this study, circular dichroism (CD) and UV/Visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the interactions between N-methyl-N'-(7-chloro-4-quinolyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (QD), an achiral, bicyclic compound similar to previously investigated antimalarial drugs, and heparin, a complex GAG that is frequently used as a clinical anticoagulant. Relatively intense heparin-induced CD features were observed for QD and were noted to be radically different from previous studies using related chiral drugs, underscoring the importance of the Pfieffer effect on this and similar heparin research. Additionally, the induced CD for QD was observed to be highly dependent upon drug concentration, heparin concentration, system pH, equilibration time, and ionic strength. These results, in connection with recent work, provide new insight into the nature of the association between GAGs and antimalarial species. PMID:21125690

  3. On the closure of the extended bicyclic semigroup

    CERN Document Server

    Fihel, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we study the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ which is a generalization of the bicyclic semigroup. We describe main algebraic properties of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ and prove that every non-trivial congruence $\\mathfrak{C}$ on the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a group congruence, and moreover the quotient semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}/\\mathfrak{C}$ is isomorphic to a cyclic group. Also we show that the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ as a Hausdorff semitopological semigroup admits only the discrete topology. Next we study the closure $\\operatorname{cl}_T(\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}})$ of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological semigroup $T$. We show that the non-empty remainder of $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological inverse semigroup $T$ consists of a group of units $H(1_T)$ of $T$ and a two-sided ideal $I$ of $T$ in the case when $H(1_T)\

  4. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  5. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Elen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second. Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. 

  6. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Gregor, Thomas Issac; Bhat, Dhananjay I.; Kumarsamy, Akhil Deepika; Shukla, Dhaval P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011). Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ) and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ), were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males) with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5%) were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6%) cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5), and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4). Sixty-three (49%) patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%). Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1%) and death in 8 (7.4%). The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms. PMID:24250156

  7. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  8. The uneasy case for lower parking standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cutter, W. Bowman; Franco, Sofia F.

    2012-01-01

    Minimum parking requirements are the norm for urban and suburban development in the United States (Davidson and Dolnick (2002)). The justification for parking space requirements is that overflow parking will occupy nearby street or off-street parking. Shoup (1999) and Willson (1995) provides cases where there is reason to believe that parking space requirements have forced parcel developers to place more parking than they would in the absence of parking requirements. If the effect...

  9. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ..., and the Notice of Availability was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 12877, March 2, 2012). The... that take multi-use (hike and bike) social and physical issues into account while also mitigating the... of more than 100 miles of new trails will significantly improve NERI's attractiveness to...

  10. Innovation and the Interrelatedness of Core Competencies: How Taiwan's Giant Bicycles broke into the US Bicycle Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Phineas Upham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that capabilities and barriers to entry are, in certain circumstances, interconnected in such a way that sacrificing one of them can lead to the subsequent vulnerability or erosion of another capability or barrier to entry. I illustrate this through a study of the US bicycle market in the 1980's in general, and Schwinn Corporation and Giant Manufacturing in particular, arguing that both the barriers to entry and the firm capabilities were interrelated. A specific set of decisions by Schwinn had broad and unanticipated effects that went beyond the capacity they explicitly relinquished. In this case manufacturing and distribution were tightly linked in such a way that without some form of tight link between them successful incremental innovation became difficult. Seemingly unrelated capabilities and strengths become mutually reinforcing or interconnected. Instead of being able to choose to add a single capability, or choose to discard one, companies may instead be choosing between sets, groups of interlinked, or patterned capabilities. A seemingly small change may require a major reorganization of other core capabilities that its ostensible status belies.

  11. State Legislative Support for Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Kruger; Tina Lankford; Tom Schmid

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parks are important venues that can encourage population-level physical activity, and policy legislation can facilitate or discourage physical activity and other park uses, depending on the type and level of support. This study aims to summarize the status and content of state-level park-related legislation. Methods: We searched for eligible legislation from 2001–2007 in two data sources, CDC’s Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Legislative Database and Lexis-Nexis, using th...

  12. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  13. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  14. The today nuclear park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This economic analysis of the nuclear industry, takes stock on the french nuclear park, the nuclear materials flux, the operating and in construction from 1970 to 1998 reactors, the storage and the wastes reprocessing. The second part proposes many scenario in function of the reactors lifetime and the industrial policy of fuel reprocessing. This analysis shows the interest of extending the power plants lifetime and evaluates the consequences of a reprocessing-recycling policy facing the stop of such a policy in 2010. (A.L.B.)

  15. Evaluating the Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raghavan; McKnight, Claire E.; Ewing, Reid; Roe, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of on-street bicycle lanes installed prior to 2007 on different categories of crashes (total crashes, bicyclist crashes, pedestrian crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, and injurious or fatal crashes) occurring on roadway segments and at intersections in New York City. Methods. We used generalized estimating equation methodology to compare changes in police-reported crashes in a treatment group and a comparison group before and after installation of bicycle lanes. Our study approach allowed us to control confounding factors, such as built environment characteristics, that cannot typically be controlled when a comparison group is used. Results. Installation of bicycle lanes did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. The most likely explanations for the lack of increase in crashes are reduced vehicular speeds and fewer conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists after installation of these lanes. Conclusions. Our results indicate that characteristics of the built environment have a direct impact on crashes and that they should thus be controlled in studies evaluating traffic countermeasures such as bicycle lanes. To prevent crashes at intersections, we recommend installation of “bike boxes” and markings that indicate the path of bicycle lanes across intersections. PMID:22095351

  16. Lateral Drift Behavior Analysis in Mixed Bicycle Traffic: A Cellular Automaton Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle movements are always associated with lateral drifts. However, the impacts of lateral drift behavior, as well as variable lateral clearance maintaining behavior due to the variation of drift intensity, on mixed bicycle flow are not clear. This paper establishes a new cellular automata model to study typical characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic induced by lateral drift and its accompanying behavior. Based on derived positive correlation between passing speed and drift speed through survey, the occurrence probability of lateral drift and the degree of maintained lateral clearance are both introduced in accordance with the variance of passing speed. Then, in whole density region, firm conformity between simulation results and actual survey data is reached, which has seldom been achieved in previous studies. It is further verified that speed distortions in intermediate and high density region induced by assumption of constant lateral clearance requirements can be revised by introducing its variability characteristics. In addition, two contrastive impacts of lateral drift behavior are observed. That is, it causes speed fluctuation in low density while alleviating the speed fluctuation in relatively high density. These results are expected to be helpful to improve the simulation performance of mixed bicycle flow as well as depict more realistic vehicle-bicycle conflicts and so on.

  17. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. PMID:27077273

  18. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  19. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Munivenkatappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011. Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS, Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ, were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5% were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6% cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5, and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4. Sixty-three (49% patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%. Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1% and death in 8 (7.4%. The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms.

  20. Optimization of Time-Varying Parking Charges and Parking Supply in Networks with Multiple User Classes and Multiple Parking Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhichun; HUANG Haijun; William H. K. Lam; S. C. Wong

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of parking charges and parking supply over the time of a day is an important problem in the design of transportation networks. This paper presents a bilevel model to determine the optimal time-varying parking charges and parking supply in road networks with multiple user classes and different types of parking facilities. The upper level of the model aims to maximize the network net benefit in response to the parking charges and parking supply, whereas the lower level is a time-dependent network equilibrium problem with elastic demand. A descent-gradient-based solution algorithm is adapted to solve the model. The numerical results show that the implementation of time-varying parking charges and parking supply is useful to effectively cater to the time-varying demand with different parking needs. The model provides a powerful tool for strategically designing parking locations and evaluating various parking policies.

  1. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  2. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Methods: Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density......, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...... for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Results: Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to...

  3. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ring closing metathesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Nurul Islam; Md Shahidul Islam; Md Ashraful Hoque; Tamaki Kato; Norikazu Nishino

    2015-09-01

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, two cyclization steps, namely, peptide cyclization and fusion of aliphatic side chains by ring closing metathesis (RCM) were involved. In the course of these syntheses, we have established two facts: a lower limit of aliphatic loop length and better synthetic route for bicyclic tetrapeptide synthesis. It was found that nine methylene loop length is the lower limit for aliphatic loop and the synthetic route selection depended on the configuration of amino acids in the cyclic tetrapeptide scaffold. RCM followed by peptide cyclization was the proper route for LDLD configuration and the reverse route was suitable for LLLD configuration.

  4. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  5. Synthesis of a Library of 1,5,2-Dithiazepine 1,1-Dioxides. Part 2: Routes to Bicyclic Sultams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Zhou, Aihua; Knudtson, Chris A.; Bi, Danse; Basha, Fatima Z.; Hanson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a library of bicyclic sultams incorporating the 1,5,2-dithiazepine 1,1-dioxide moiety is reported. Following scaffold synthesis via a one-pot sulfonylation/intramolecular thia-Michael protocol, several additional cyclization strategies have been realized enabling access to new bicyclic sultams. PMID:24385680

  6. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In rece

  7. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible. PMID:25568838

  8. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  9. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  10. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  11. Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.

  12. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  13. Science parks as knowledge organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    gained agrowing importance in the new economy. If we shift focus to organizationtheory discussions on new knowledge and innovation has specialized in relationto the process of creation, managing, organizing, sharing, transferring etc. ofknowledge. The evaluation of science parks has to relate to the...... society.Keywords: knowledge creation, ba, science parks, knowledge management...

  14. Orthogonal ring-closing alkyne and olefin metathesis for the synthesis of small GTPase-targeting bicyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromm, Philipp M; Schaubach, Sebastian; Spiegel, Jochen; Fürstner, Alois; Grossmann, Tom N; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Bicyclic peptides are promising scaffolds for the development of inhibitors of biological targets that proved intractable by typical small molecules. So far, access to bioactive bicyclic peptide architectures is limited due to a lack of appropriate orthogonal ring-closing reactions. Here, we report chemically orthogonal ring-closing olefin (RCM) and alkyne metathesis (RCAM), which enable an efficient chemo- and regioselective synthesis of complex bicyclic peptide scaffolds with variable macrocycle geometries. We also demonstrate that the formed alkyne macrocycle can be functionalized subsequently. The orthogonal RCM/RCAM system was successfully used to evolve a monocyclic peptide inhibitor of the small GTPase Rab8 into a bicyclic ligand. This modified peptide shows the highest affinity for an activated Rab GTPase that has been reported so far. The RCM/RCAM-based formation of bicyclic peptides provides novel opportunities for the design of bioactive scaffolds suitable for the modulation of challenging protein targets. PMID:27075966

  15. Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics Analysis of Bicyclic 4-Nitroimidazole Analogs in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Helena I M Boshoff; Joseph Cherian; Sindhu Ravindran; Anne Goh; Jan Jiricek; Mahesh Nanjundappa; Amit Nayyar; Meera Gurumurthy; Ramandeep Singh; Thomas Dick; Francesca Blasco; Barry, Clifton E.; Ho, Paul C.; Manjunatha, Ujjini H

    2014-01-01

    PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC ). In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the eff...

  16. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  17. The pedelec market in Flanders: the position of the bicycle dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Lataire, Philippe; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Maggetto, Gaston

    2006-01-01

    The worldwide pedelec market has been growing fast during the last ten years. Many bicycle producers came along with a motor assisted bicycle model and launched it under a promising ‘e-name’. The consumer’s appreciation of these products was studied at the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ by means of a lending service and was proposed at EVS20. Also a technical performance analysis is done on different pedelec models (EVS19 and EVS21). The performance analysis and the consumer comm...

  18. Copenhagen: how bicycles can become an efficient means of public transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinaud, Antoine; Santos Canals, Marc; Janneau, Thibaut

    2006-01-01

    Private and public transports are important elements in a city. Transport gives a face to the city. For this project, Copenhagen was a good example. First this city knew how to obtain a powerful transport system. Moreover, the culture, in particular the culture of the bicycle, is acquired by many people. This is why starting from this postulate, we wanted to see how it is possible to combine bicycle and public transport. We know that the old system of city bikes has some problems and is not a...

  19. Low-cost bicycle path pavements. Final report, September 1, 1975--November 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.S.

    1976-12-01

    The proposed research involves an analytic and experimental investigation to develop realistic design criteria for bicycle path pavements. The research also included evaluation of specific designs and innovative low-cost material systems for use in bicycle path pavements. An extensive literature review of currently existing and experimental bikepath pavement was also included. Results from this report indicate that the strength and durability of Class I bikepath pavements can be improved and the construction cost can be reduced through better design and construction practices and use of low-cost material systems.

  20. Aminocyclopentanols as sugar mimics. Synthesis from unsaturated bicyclic lactones by Overman rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminid......Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta...

  1. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  2. Bicycle-related genitourinary injuries in the USA from 2002–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Appa, Ayesha A; Bagga, Herman S; Blaschko, Sarah; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2014-01-01

    Among children, the incidence of bicycle-related genitourinary (GU) injuries was 448 per 100 000 (95% CI 383 to 514) and, among adults, was 53 per 100 000 (95% CI 36 to 71). Although children sustained more injuries, adults were more likely to being admitted to the hospital for the GU injury (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.37). Children sustain nearly 10 times more GU injuries due to bicycles than adults, but adults have higher odds of sustaining injuries requiring admission. PMID:24618096

  3. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S;

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GABA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  4. The case of municipal parking offices

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Dorte Boesby

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about the work and management of parking patrol officers in a Danish municipal department responsible for parking law enforcement. The job as a parking officer is un-skilled and fairly light in terms of physical demands, but quite demanding in terms of contact and coping with disgruntled car-drivers. In recent years the municipality has developed a strict policy in regard to parking, increasing both the enforcement of parking rules and the prices for parking. Alongside this deve...

  5. CERN in the park

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN will be the centre of debate at a 'Café scientifique' on Monday 29 April. The aim of the Cafés scientifiques, which are organised by the association of Bancs Publics, is to kindle discussion between ordinary people and specialists in a scientific field. This Monday, Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Hans Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing at CERN, Gilbert Guignard, a physicist at CERN, and Ruhal Floris, who teaches mathematical didactics at the University of Geneva, will explain the usefulness and contributions to science of the world's biggest laboratory for particle physics. What is CERN for? Monday 29 April at 18.30 Musée d'histoire des sciences, Geneva (in the park Perle du Lac) Entry free Wine and buffet after the discussion

  6. Perception of urban park soundscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

  7. Understanding parking habits at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    The SMB department is setting up a monitoring system in certain CERN car parks in order to evaluate their occupancy rates and subsequently make them easier to use.    Vehicle registration plate readers (red triangles) are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Le Cèdres car park (in orange) and of the Building 4 and 5 one (in blue). The 2 other car parks (Building 40 in violet and “high-voltage” in green) will be equipped at a later stage. Vehicle registration plate readers are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. The information collected by these readers will allow the occupancy levels of these car parks to be analysed throughout the day, establishing periods of peak usage and the pattern of vehicle movements. “We have been experiencing parking problems at CERN for several years n...

  8. Regulating on-street parking

    OpenAIRE

    Calthrop, E; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    Consider the choices available to a shopper driving to a city and trying to park downtown. One option, typical to many cities, is to follow the signposts to an off-street parking facility, which is often privately operated. Another option is to search for an on-street spot. If this proves unsuccessful, it is always possible to return to the off-street facility. We formalise such a setting and examine optimal on-street parking policy in the presence of an off-street market. Not surprisingly, t...

  9. Comparison of dipyridamole-handgrip test and bicycle exercise test for thallium tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huikuri, H.V.; Korhonen, U.R.; Airaksinen, J.; Ikaeheimo, M.J.H.; Heikkilae, J.T.; Takkunen, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Seventy-three patients with angina pectoris and 20 with atypical chest pain, who underwent coronary angiography, were examined by single-photon emission computed thallium tomography (TI-SPECT) using a combined dipyridamole-handgrip stress test. Perfusion defects were detected in 78 of 81 patients with angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (sensitivity 96%). In 9 of 12 patients without CAD, the thallium images were normal (specificity 75%). Thirty-five patients with CAD were reexamined by TI-SPECT using a dynamic bicycle exercise stress test. The sensitivity of the dipyridamole-handgrip test did not differ from the bicycle exercise test in diagnosing the CAD (97% vs 94%). Multiple thallium defects were seen in 19 of 22 (86%) patients with multivessel CAD by the dipyridamole-handgrip test but only in 14 of 22 (64%) by the bicycle exercise test. Noncardiac side-effects occurred in 17 of 93 (18%) patients after dipyridamole infusion. Cardiac symptoms were less common during the dipyridamole-handgrip test than during the bicycle exercise (15% vs 76%, p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the dipyridamole-handgrip test is a useful alternative stress method for thallium perfusion imaging, particularly in detecting multivessel CAD.

  10. Black rubber sensitization by bicycle handgrips in a child with palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-01-01

    Black rubber is mainly an occupational source of contact sensitization; however, several unusual causes of non-occupational black rubber allergy are reported in the literature. A 10-year-old nonatopic Turkish boy with palmar hyperhidrosis developed acute vesicular bilateral palmar dermatitis following 2 to 3 weeks of intensive use of a new bicycle. The handgrips of the bicycle were made of black rubber. Patch testing showed a strong positive reaction to N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine (the main sensitizer in black rubber) and questionable papular reactions to pieces of the black rubber handgrip. Additional cross-sensitization was found to p-phenylenediamine. There was no previous contact with black rubber or with any material that would contain p-phenylenediamine (eg, black henna dye). In conclusion, this was an unusual pediatric case of non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine in black rubber bicycle handgrips. The young age of the patient and the development of contact sensitization within a relatively short period were striking. The release of the sensitizer from black rubber and the skin penetration were possibly enhanced by continuous friction and the accompanying hyperhidrosis, suggesting that the black rubber bicycle handgrip was the primary source of sensitization. PMID:21781633

  11. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  12. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    . Cycling intentions are related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, and are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender...

  13. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grades K-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on sidewalk vehicles and bicycles for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  14. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  15. A Study of Bicycle and Passenger Car Collisions Based on Insurance Claims Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden, bicycle crashes are under-reported in the official statistics that are based on police reports. Statistics from hospital reports show that cyclists constitute the highest percentage of severely injured road users compared to other road user groups. However, hospital reports lack detailed information about the crash. To get a more comprehensive view, additional data are needed to accurately reflect the casualty situation for cyclists. An analysis based on 438 cases of bicycle and passenger car collisions is presented, using data collected from insurance claims. The most frequent crash situations are described with factors as to where and when collisions occur, age and gender of the involved cyclists and drivers. Information on environmental circumstances such as road status, weather- and light conditions, speedlimits and traffic environment is also included. Based on the various crash events, a total of 32 different scenarios have been categorized, and it was found that more than 75% were different kinds of intersection related situations. From the data, it was concluded that factors such as estimated impact speed and age significantly influence injury severity. The insurance claims data complement the official statistics and provide a more comprehensive view of bicycle and passenger car collisions by considering all levels of crash and injury severity. The detailed descriptions of the crash situations also provide an opportunity to find countermeasures to prevent or mitigate collisions. The results provide a useful basis, and facilitates the work of reducing the number of bicycle and passenger car collisions with serious consequences. PMID:23169111

  16. 76 FR 52046 - Final Policy Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements Under Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... of Joint Development Projects under Federal Transit Law at 72 FR 5788. B. Transit Enhancement... Investment Projects, 75 FR 31383 (June 3, 2010). ] F. Access to Public Transportation for Individuals With... Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements under Federal Transit Law, 74 FR...

  17. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist. PMID:27209153

  18. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  19. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  20. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  1. Impact Evaluation of a Public Bicycle Share Program on Cycling: A Case Example of BIXI in Montreal, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Fournier, Michel; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between residential exposure to BIXI (BIcycle-taXI)—a public bicycle share program implemented in Montreal, Quebec, in 2009, which increases accessibility to cycling by making available 5050 bicycles at 405 bicycle docking stations—and likelihood of cycling (BIXI and non-BIXI) in Montreal over the first 2 years of implementation. Methods. Three population-based samples of adults participated in telephone surveys. Data collection occurred at the launch of the program (spring 2009), and at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) seasons of implementation. Difference in differences models assessed whether greater cycling was observed for those exposed to BIXI compared with those not exposed at each time point. Results. We observed a greater likelihood of cycling for those exposed to the public bicycle share program after the second season of implementation (odds ratio = 2.86; 95% confidence interval = 1.85, 4.42) after we controlled for weather, built environment, and individual variables. Conclusions. The implementation of a public bicycle share program can lead to greater likelihood of cycling among persons living in areas where bicycles are made available. PMID:23327280

  2. A reliability assessment of a direct-observation park evaluation tool: the Parks, activity and recreation among kids (PARK) tool

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Madeleine E.; Datta, Geetanjali D.; Van Hulst, Andraea; Kestens, Yan; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parks are increasingly being viewed as a resource that may influence youth obesity and physical activity (PA). Assessing park quality can be challenging as few tools assess park characteristics geared towards youth PA. Additionally, no studies have compared reliability estimates of items assessed in different countries, hindering aims towards generalizable park audit items. Finally, new satellite imaging technology is allowing for desktop identification of parks, however it remains...

  3. Full-Automatic Parking registration and payment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry; Jørgensen, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    As part of ITS Platform North Denmark, a full-automatic GNSS-based parking payment (PP) system was developed (PP app). On the basis of the parking position and parking time, the PP app can determine the price of parking and collect the amount from the car owner’s bank account. The driver is...

  4. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  5. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  6. REVIEW: Baluran Nasional Park Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    M. YUSUF SABARNO

    2002-01-01

    One of the biodiversity richness in Indonesia is ecosystem of Baluran National Park savanna. This type of savanna is similar to African savanna that is included in tropical savanna. There are two types of savanna, namely flat and undulating savanna. The savanna ecosystem that covers about 40% of the total area of Baluran National Park has important role on supporting herbivore animals such as wild cattle (Bos javanicus), deer (Cervus timorensis) and wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The variety...

  7. Archaeological parks: what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette M. McManus

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Most in-situ conservation and presentation of archaeological sites focuses more on the monuments and other artefacts themselves than on them and the landscapes of which they are a part. The concept of an archaeological park can overcome this limitation. In this personal view of what constitutes an archaeological park, the intellectual roots and contemporary meaning of this relatively new concept are explored.

  8. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said

    2013-01-01

    One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...

  9. Parking management : strategies, evaluation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  10. REVIEW: Baluran Nasional Park Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. YUSUF SABARNO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biodiversity richness in Indonesia is ecosystem of Baluran National Park savanna. This type of savanna is similar to African savanna that is included in tropical savanna. There are two types of savanna, namely flat and undulating savanna. The savanna ecosystem that covers about 40% of the total area of Baluran National Park has important role on supporting herbivore animals such as wild cattle (Bos javanicus, deer (Cervus timorensis and wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. The variety of grasses and other vegetation provide food for those animals, therefore, the reduction of the reduction of quality and quantity of the savanna would reduce in the population of the herbivores. The savanna in the Baluran National Park is about 10.000 ha, however, due to invasion of Acacia nilotica has resulted in the reduction of the savanna reaching about 50%. Moreover, illegal grassing inside the Park has brought negative impact to the quality of the area and the wild fauna. Overgrazing may influence on the reduction of the population of wild fauna. Pressure to the savanna has a great impact on the balance and preservation of whole ecosystem in Baluran. Efforts have been made in order to restore the Baluran ecosystem such as preventing the expansion of A. nilotica as well as preventing illegal grazing. The Baluran National Park is still looking for the most effective and efficient way of preserving savanna ecosystem in Baluran.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chang Wu; Zi-Heng Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC) hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including...

  12. The risk of pediatric bicycle handlebar injury compared with non-handlebar injury: a retrospective multicenter study in Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Tomoya; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shimazaki, Junya; Shiono, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hitoshi; Wakai, Akinori; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bicycle accidents are one of the major causes of unintentional traumatic injury in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics and risks of handlebar injury in childhood. Methods We conducted a more than 5-year retrospective survey of patients under 15 years of age with bicycle-related injuries admitted to eight urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka, Japan. Patients were divided into the direct-impact handlebar injury (HI) group and the non-handlebar inj...

  13. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle Across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications – bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic coming from opposing directions. Opportunities for crossing were divided into aligned (far gap opens with or before near gap) and rolli...

  14. Increasing bicycle helmet use in the community. Measuring response to a wide-scale, 2-year effort.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, B A; Trimble, N. E.; Fendley, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a wide-scale, long-term community promotional effort would increase the use of bicycle helmets among children. DESIGN: Over 2 years, a non-profit group coordinated a range of activities to promote helmet use. On one date before the intervention began and three dates during the intervention, observers surveyed students riding bicycles. SETTING: Cyclists were observed at 5 elementary schools, three secondary schools, and two community college entrances. PARTICIPA...

  15. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  16. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  17. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...... intentions are related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, and are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender, residential...

  18. The Bicycle – Future’s Solution for an Eco-friendly Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciovică

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though more and more cities across the globe impose restrictive measures regarding theuse of cars and offer instead incentives in order to choose alternative means of transport, they do not slowdown their economic growth, but on the contrary they prove their skills towards providing citizens a betterlife. Under these circumstances, the bicycle appears as a viable solution for most of us, and the publicprograms that support its use have started to develop globally, at European level, and in Romania as well.The current paper wishes to point out the stimulating perspectives brought by the slight increase in thenumber of bicycles sold in our country in recent years towards the future of urban transport.

  19. Study of Drive Mechanisms of Bicycle, Tricycle or Like Vehicles to Optimize Operating Performance - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul U. Urunkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cycle or cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport. Cycle rickshaws are human-powered, a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver. Tricycles are used primarily for commercial transportation. Various locally made configurations of bicycle or tricycle are available. The present form of cycle has many shortcomings. One of the major problems faced by available bicycle or tricycle is its less efficiency or mechanical advantage. This paper reviews patent (which are now open for public access and experimental work brought by researchers on drive mechanism of cycle in order to optimize its operating performance. An individual idea or any possible combination of different ideas can be used for optimizing performance of driving mechanism for cycle.

  20. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. PMID:26739323

  1. [An automatic torque control system for a bicycle ergometer equipped with an eddy current brake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinev, V V

    2007-01-01

    The main elements of the loading device of a bicycle ergometer, including an eddy current brake and a torque sensor, are described. The automatic torque control system, which includes the loading device, is equipped with a stabilizing feedback controller that optimally approximates the closed-loop transfer function of the target model. The reduced transfer function model of the controller is of the fourth order. A method featuring a modulation-demodulation loop is suggested for implementation of the control system. PMID:17598478

  2. Who, where, when: the demographic and geographic distribution of bicycle crashes in West Yorkshire

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelace, R; Roberts, H.; Kellar, I

    2015-01-01

    Factors associated with cycle safety, including international differences in injury and mortality rates, protective equipment and bicycle training, have been subject to increasing academic interest. Environmental variables associated with cycle safety have also been scrutinised, but few studies have focussed on geographical factors at the local level. This paper addresses this research gap by analysing a geo-referenced dataset of road traffic incidents, taken from the UK's STATS19 dataset (20...

  3. Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ranky, Richard G.; Sivak, Mark L; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E.; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. Methods In thi...

  4. The Regional Response to Federal Fundingfor Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects: Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Barbara; McRee, Lanier; Handy, Susan L; Meharg, Emily; Bailey, Linda; Ewing, Reid; Ernst, Michelle; Wright, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Since its initiation in the early 20th century, the federal transportation funding program has focused on highway construction for automobile travel. In the last few decades, public transportation has received 20% of federal resources, a significant share, but non-motorized modes such as bicycling and walking have historically received very limited funding. Over the past three decades, however, views of non-motorized modes and the federal interest in promoting them have changed dramatically. ...

  5. Automatic control of cycling effort using electric bicycles and mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Afonso; Rodrigues, Filipe J.; Delfim Pedrosa; Joao L. Afonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a novel effort control system for cycling, which contributes to promote the users’ mobility and physical health. This system provides automatic control of the motor assistance level of an electric bicycle in order to ensure that the cyclist’s effort remains inside the desired target zone, regardless of changes in other variables which normally affect the effort, such as the slope of the road. The system presented in this paper controls th...

  6. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, James; Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate ...

  7. Development and calibration of an indoor cycling bicycle with load graduation

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Sousa da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Indoor Cycling (IC) has considerably grown at fitness centers, due to practitioners giving-up of street cycling because of security issues as well as the trainability and practicity. IC also has the potencial for helping to lose weight and cardiovascular conditioning. There are only few studies on this subject, and the main reason is thelimitation of the Indoor Cycling Bicycle (ICB), which does not either measure workload or power. Therefore, functional evaluation and adequate training prescr...

  8. A simple, enaminone-based approach to some bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates

    OpenAIRE

    František Josefík; Markéta Svobodová; Valerio Bertolasi; Petr Šimůnek

    2013-01-01

    Easily obtainable cyclic enaminones (piperidin-2-ylidenealkanones) can be transformed into substituted bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates upon treatment with corresponding diazonium salts. The transformation can be performed either in a one-pot way or in a two-step process with the isolation of single azo-coupled enaminone as the intermediate. The former method is superior. Under the optimized conditions, a number of pyridazinium salts substituted with both electron-donating and electro...

  9. Does sharing the cost of a bicycle helmet help promote helmet use?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, A. N.; Rivara, F. P.; Koepsell, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether asking for a $5.00 donation for bicycle helmets, compared with distribution free of charge, would affect helmet use among children receiving helmets and an educational intervention from public health clinics. SETTING: Six public health clinic sites in King County, Washington. METHODS: Six participating clinic sites were randomly assigned to either free helmet distribution or to a $5.00 suggested donation for the helmets, stratified by whether a helmet law was i...

  10. Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    JÀppinen, Sakari; Toivonen, Tuuli; Salonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In many European cities, support for public transport and cycling in daily mobility is considered an efficient means to reduce air pollution, traffic jams, and carbon emissions. Shared bicycle systems have turned out effective in increasing cycling in many urban areas, particularly when combined with public transportation. In this study, we make an effort to model a hypothetical shared bike system and quantify its spatial effect on public transport travel times. The study area is one of the f...

  11. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98, a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  12. A Universal Design Method for Reflecting Physical Characteristics Variability: Case Study of a Bicycle Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masato; Suzuki, Wataru; Yamada, Shuho; Inoue, Masato

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a Universal Design, designers must consider diverse users' physical and functional requirements for their products. However, satisfying these requirements and obtaining the information which is necessary for designing a universal product is very difficult. Therefore, we propose a new design method based on the concept of set-based design to solve these issues. This paper discusses the suitability of proposed design method by applying bicycle frame design problem. PMID:27534334

  13. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  14. Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Breaud, Autumn; Burns, Sean; Margulies, Jared; Romano, Max; Lawrence, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Maryland (MD) recently became one of fourteen states in the United States to enact a traffic law requiring motor vehicles to pass bicyclists at a distance of greater than three feet. To our knowledge, motorist compliance with the law has never been assessed. This study measured the distance between overtaking motor vehicles and cyclists [e.g. vehicle passing distance (VPD)], to develop baseline metrics for tracking implementation of the three-foot passing law in Baltimore, MD and to assess risk factors for dangerous passes. During September and October 2011, cyclists (n=5) measured VPD using a previously published video technique (Parkin and Meyers, 2010). Cyclists logged a total of 10.8h of video footage and 586 vehicle passes on 34 bicycle commuting trips. The average trip lasted 19.5±4.9 min and cyclists were passed on average 17.2±11.8 times per trip. VPDs of three feet or less were common when cycling in standard lanes (17%; 78 of 451 passes) and lanes with a shared lane marking (e.g. sharrows) (23%; 11 of 47 passes). No passes of three feet or less occurred in bicycle lanes (0 of 88 passes). A multiple linear regression model was created, which explained 26% of the variability in VPD. Significant model variables were lane width, bicycle infrastructure, cyclist identity, and street identity. Interventions, such as driver education, signage, enforcement, and bicycle infrastructure changes are needed to influence driving behavior in Baltimore to increase motorist compliance with the three-foot law. PMID:22664711

  15. ω-Extension of Bicyclic Semigroup%双循环半群的ω扩张

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雯; 詹亮

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we discussed ω-extension of bicyclic semigroups.Two types of this extension are proposed.In §2 we discussed strong semilattice extension and the structure of the extension is well presented.In §3 we discussed another order extension.We proved that congruence lattice of this extension semigroups is union set of two sublattice.One is the group congruence semilattice,the other is the pure idempotent congruence semilattice.

  16. Free and Shared Parking: New Ideas on Construction and Management of Parking Facilities in Old City of Zhenhai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Because of a shortage of parking spaces, illegal and sidewalk parking are becoming increasingly prominent in cities. Finding effective measures to increase parking space and alleviate parking problems are challenges faced by many cities. On the basis of research on parking lot distribution and parking rules, this paper proposes a strategy of free and shared parking. Charges for public parking lots should be suspended and parking management should be strengthened. New public buildings, while satisfying their own parking needs, should also take on the responsibility of providing some public parking spaces. Residential districts and public buildings could share their parking spaces.

  17. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENT AUTOMATED CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to a rapid increase in the number of vehicles, the need for parking spaces is on rise. It is important to park the cars in close proximity to avoid traffic congestion and use a parking areaefficiently. Current car parking management systems utilize human personnel to find available parking areas or use a video based system that collects the information in the form of images and tracks available parking slots. This paper describes an alternative energy efficient system which allots a unique parking ‘slot’ for every incoming car. The parking area has a number of ‘slots’ to park which are prioritized in such a way that the available slot nearest to the entry is allotted to every incoming car. The driver has to park in that particular slot allotted without searching for a vacant space thus reducing the time for parking and making an efficient use of available space. The System additionally makes efficient use ofenergy by switching the lights in the parking area ON only when a car is in motion. The application is developed on LPC1343 ARM processor and tested on a miniature prototype. The results suggest that it isa robust system and can be implemented in real time with an option to increase the number of parking slots as required.

  19. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  20. 车锁式打气筒设计%Design of Bicycle Lock Type Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 司慧

    2012-01-01

    The design combines a bicycle lock with a pump, realizing a uniform structure of the two. The application of a dual-pump structure makes the pumping process more efficient. In order to facilitate bicycle riders' relaxation, the air pump can also serve as a stool. Compared with carrying a single air pump or a single bicycle lock, this kind of air pump features lost air pumping cost, easy use, low space requirements, convenience to carry steady and reliable operation.%本设计将自行车车锁与打气筒巧妙地结合在一起,实现了二者结构形式的统一。应用双注气杆式打气结构,使打气效率优于现有的便携式打气筒,为了方便骑行者能够就地休息又附加了凳子的功能。与单独携带气筒、单独使用车锁相比,合二为一的车锁式打气筒成本低,使用、携带方便,节省空间,工作过程稳定、可靠。

  1. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole analogs in a murine model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Lakshminarayana

    Full Text Available PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC. In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the efficacy of diverse nitroimidazole analogs ranged between 0.5 and 2.3 log CFU reduction compared to untreated controls. Further, a retrospective analysis was performed for a set of seven nitroimidazole analogs to identify the PK parameters that correlate with in vivo efficacy. Our findings show that the in vivo efficacy of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles correlated better with lung PK than with plasma PK. Further, nitroimidazole analogs with moderate-to-high volume of distribution and Lung to plasma ratios of >2 showed good efficacy. Among all the PK-PD indices, total lung T>MIC correlated the best with in vivo efficacy (rs = 0.88 followed by lung Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC. Thus, lung drug distribution studies could potentially be exploited to guide the selection of compounds for efficacy studies, thereby accelerating the drug discovery efforts in finding new nitroimidazole analogs.

  2. Influence of roadway geometric elements on driver behavior when overtaking bicycles on rural roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Chapman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine what influence geometric design elements of roadway may have on driver behavior during the overtaking maneuver. This was part of a larger research effort to eliminate crashes (and the resulting fatalities and injuries between bicycles and motorized vehicles. The data collection process produced 1151 observations with approximately 40 different independent variables for each data point through direct observation, sensor logging, or derivation from other independent variables. Prior research by the authors developed a means to collect real-time field data through the use of a bicycle-mounted data collection system. The collected data was then used to model lateral clearance distance between vehicles and bicycles. The developed model confirmed field observations that the lateral clearance distance provided by drivers changes with vehicle speed and oncoming vehicle presence. These observations were presented by the authors previously. The model shows that driver behavior can be adjusted by the inclusion, or exclusion, of geometric elements. Evaluating roadways (or roadway designs based on this model will enable stakeholders to identify those roadway segments where a paved shoulder would prove an effective safety countermeasure. This research will also enable roadway designers to better identify during the design phase those roadway segments that should be constructed with a paved shoulder.

  3. Boris Loutzky – Creator of the world's first motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Firsov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to creation of the first motor vehicles with internal combustion engines. The purpose of article is to establish the name of the designer who was the first to create the world's motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine. This article describes the construction of the first motorized vehicles Gottlieb Daimler, Edward Butler, Felix Millet, Giuseppe Murniotti, Edward Pennington, Alois Wolfmüller and Hans Geisenhof. based on the analysis of structures of motor vehicles. It’s stated that none of the vehicles can be called a «prototype» of modern mopeds and motorcycles. Based on the research it was found that in Germany Russian engineer B. Loutzky was engaged in creation of motorized vehicles with internal combustion engines even before Hildebrand and Pennington. These motorized vehicles were exhibited in Palermo, Erfurt, Vienna, Prague, Lamberg, Stuttgart and other cities in Europe, and were acknowledged and rewarded with gold medals. The paper describes the design of the first motorized bicycle with a classic layout by B. Loutzky and design of the unique internal combustion engines, which B. Loutzky used in his first vehicles. Overall, based on the analysis of patents for inventions, literary and archival sources, the priority of the Russian engineer B. Loutzky in creation of the motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine is established.

  4. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing. PMID:26609666

  5. A solid solution to a conjecture on the maximal energy of bipartite bicyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Bofeng; Li, Xueliang; Shi, Yongtang

    2011-01-01

    The energy of a simple graph $G$, denoted by $E(G)$, is defined as the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. Let $C_n$ denote the cycle of order $n$ and $P^{6,6}_n$ the graph obtained from joining two cycles $C_6$ by a path $P_{n-12}$ with its two leaves. Let $\\mathscr{B}_n$ denote the class of all bipartite bicyclic graphs but not the graph $R_{a,b}$, which is obtained from joining two cycles $C_a$ and $C_b$ ($a, b\\geq 10$ and $a \\equiv b\\equiv 2\\, (\\,\\textmd{mod}\\, 4)$) by an edge. In [I. Gutman, D. Vidovi\\'{c}, Quest for molecular graphs with maximal energy: a computer experiment, {\\it J. Chem. Inf. Sci.} {\\bf41}(2001), 1002--1005], Gutman and Vidovi\\'{c} conjectured that the bicyclic graph with maximal energy is $P^{6,6}_n$, for $n=14$ and $n\\geq 16$. In [X. Li, J. Zhang, On bicyclic graphs with maximal energy, {\\it Linear Algebra Appl.} {\\bf427}(2007), 87--98], Li and Zhang showed that the conjecture is true for graphs in the class $\\mathscr{B}_n$. However, they could not...

  6. A Geo-Aware and VRP-Based Public Bicycle Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Bicycle System (PBS has been developed for short-distance transportation as a part of the mass transportation system. The supply and demand of bikes in PBS is usually unbalanced at different stations and needs to be continuously and widely monitored and redistributed. The bicycle redistribution is a part of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. We can apply solutions to the VRP to redistribute bicycle efficiently. However, most solutions to the VRP use the Euclidean distance as the condition factor, which does not take road conditions, traffic regulations, and geographical factors into account, resulting in unnecessary waste of delivery time and human resources. In this work, we propose an actual path distance optimization method for the VRP to adapt the several additional constraints of road problems. We also implement a system that integrates real-time station information, Web GIS, the urban road network, and heuristics algorithms for PBS. The system includes a simulator inside that can assist PBS managers to do the route planning efficiently and find the best scheduling strategy to achieve hotspot analysis and the adjustment of station deployment strategies to reduce PBS operation cost.

  7. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  8. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  9. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  10. Piscataway Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Catoctin Mountain Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Sequoia National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Parkes Weber syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because of their color are sometimes called "port-wine stains." In people with Parkes Weber syndrome , capillary ... diagnosis or management of Parkes Weber syndrome: Gene Review: Gene Review: RASA1-Related Disorders Genetic Testing Registry: ...

  14. Adminstrative Boundary for Glacier National Park, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The current administrative boundary of Glacier National Park, Montana. This data is based on 1:24000 scale USGS quad mapping published in 1968, but was revised in...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  17. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  18. Haleakala National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Canyonlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Badlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Saguaro National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Voyageurs National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Bureau of Land Maganement in GCDB for the Midwest Regional...

  3. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cripton Peter A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists. Methods We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. The results were tabulated within two categories of infrastructure, namely that at intersections (e.g. roundabouts, traffic lights or between intersections on "straightaways" (e.g. bike lanes or paths. To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes (collisions and/or falls. Results The literature to date on transportation infrastructure and cyclist safety is limited by the incomplete range of facilities studied and difficulties in controlling for exposure to risk. However, evidence from the 23 papers reviewed (eight that examined intersections and 15 that examined straightaways suggests that infrastructure influences injury and crash risk. Intersection studies focused mainly on roundabouts. They found that multi-lane roundabouts can significantly increase risk to bicyclists unless a separated cycle track is included in the design. Studies of straightaways grouped facilities into few categories, such that facilities with potentially different risks may have been classified within a single category. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths was associated with the lowest

  4. Geologie van die Bergkwagga Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K Toerien

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Die geologie van die Bergkwagga Nasionale Park word behandel. Die topografie en dreinering word bespreek en gevolg deur 'n kort behandeling van die Serie Beaufort (asook doleriet intrusies soos dit in die Park voorkom. The geology of the Mountain Zebra National Park is dealt with. The topography and drainage is discussed, followed by a brief discussion of the Beaufort Series (and dolerite intrusion, as it occurs in the Park.

  5. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  6. Changing perspectives in urban park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chung-shing; Marafa, Lawal M.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... for future park management. Moreover, these findings also provide a source of comparison, and perhaps inspiration for urban green space authorities in other cities.......Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... managers in Hong Kong have encountered different challenges over time, and the quest for changing park managerial strategies. In 2004, a set of indicators for urban park management in Hong Kong was produced as part of a Master's research. Local park managers were asked about their views on the respective...

  7. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and... Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 645 University Parkway, Natchitoches, LA 71457--telephone...

  8. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  10. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  12. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior..., Public Law 111-11 (codified at 16 U.S.C. 410lll), the National Park Service announces that the Secretary... National Historical Park as a unit of the National Park System. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  13. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  15. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  17. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section 7.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  6. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  7. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  10. gPark: Vehicle Parking Management System Using Smart Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana E. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable technologies have opened new avenues for their applications in various fields. This paper presents the design, implementation, and testing results for a vehicle parking management system using smart Glass technology. The management system consists of four major interconnected applications. The most important one, running on the smart Glass, scans the vehicle number plate and extracts the related information in real time. The vehicle information is sent to the remote server for checking of any violation. The server sends the updates back to the Glass that allows the parking attendant to take further actions, if needed. The system was tested in real-life scenarios, and it was found that the detection accuracy up to 75% can be easily achieved with current hardware and software capabilities of the Google Glass.

  11. gPark: Vehicle Parking Management System Using Smart Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Rana E. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in wearable technologies have opened new avenues for their applications in various fields. This paper presents the design, implementation, and testing results for a vehicle parking management system using smart Glass technology. The management system consists of four major interconnected applications. The most important one, running on the smart Glass, scans the vehicle number plate and extracts the related information in real time. The vehicle information is sent to the remot...

  12. TOURISM- DISTURBANCE IN THE NATIONAL PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Bisht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in national parks is a very important economical source of all over world. National parks are the symbol of protective and conservative area of wildlife. Although tourism is good for economic growth, yet it also creates negative impact on national park. Thus tourism are very important for country‘s economy but on other side it create many problems. In national parks, the effect of visitors include litter, soil erosion, water pollution, Noise pollution .vegetation damage etc. This paper will highlight the negative impact in national park by tourist’s activities.

  13. A Comparison of Static and Dynamic Measures of Lower Limb Joint Angles in Cycling: Application to Bicycle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bini Rodrigo Rico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Configuration of bicycle components to the cyclist (bicycle fitting commonly uses static poses of the cyclist on the bicycle at the 6 o’clock crank position to represent dynamic cycling positions. However, the validity of this approach and the potential use of the different crank position (e.g. 3 o’clock have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study compared lower limb joint angles of cyclists in static poses (3 and 6 o’clock compared to dynamic cycling. Methods. Using a digital camera, right sagittal plane images were taken of thirty cyclists seated on their own bicycles mounted on a stationary trainer with the crank at 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions. Video was then recorded during pedalling at a self-selected gear ratio and pedalling cadence. Sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles were digitised. Results. Differences between static and dynamic angles were large at the 6 o’clock crank position with greater mean hip angle (4.9 ± 3°, smaller knee angle (8.2 ± 5° and smaller ankle angle (8.2 ± 5.3° for static angles. Differences between static and dynamic angles (< 1.4° were trivial to small for the 3 o’clock crank position. Conclusions. To perform bicycle fitting, joint angles should be measured dynamically or with the cyclist in a static pose at the 3 o’clock crank position.

  14. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  15. Relative injury severity among vulnerable non-motorised road users: comparative analysis of injury arising from bicycle-motor vehicle and bicycle-pedestrian collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shanley; Poulos, Roslyn; Olivier, Jake; Watson, Wendy L; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of bicycle usage and limited funding and/or space for segregated pedestrian and bicycle paths, there is a need for traffic, road design and local government engineers to decide if it is more appropriate for space to be shared between either cyclists and pedestrians, or between cars and cyclists, and what restrictions need to be applied in such circumstances. To provide knowledge to aid engineers and policy makers in making these decisions, this study explored death and morbidity data for the state of New South Wales, Australia to examine rates and severity of injury arising from collisions between pedestrians and cyclists, and between cyclists and motor vehicles (MVs). An analysis of the severity of hospitalised injuries was conducted using International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) diagnosis-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) and the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) was used to measure burden of injury arising from collisions resulting in death or hospitalisation. The greatest burden of injury in NSW, for the studied collision mechanisms, is for cyclists who are injured in collisions with motor vehicles. Collisions between cyclists and pedestrians also result in significant injuries. For all collision mechanisms, the odds of serious injury on admission are greater for the elderly than for those in other age groups. The significant burden of injury arising from collisions of cyclists and MVs needs to be addressed. However in the absence of appropriate controls, increasing the opportunity for conflict between cyclists and pedestrians (through an increase in shared spaces for these users) may shift the burden of injury from cyclists to pedestrians, in particular, older pedestrians. PMID:19887170

  16. The Park Hotels: Designing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Gupta; J. Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    The case describes how Priya Paul, the Chairperson of The Park Hotel (TPH), and her team created a uniquely Indian boutique hotel network — infusing each property with local ethos and a charming distinction, emphasizing intimate and personalized service, and positioning each hotel as an entertainment destination for customers. The case invites students to consider the communication choices open to the TPH management in 2010 as they cope with growing competition from the entry of international...

  17. Feasibility of Wind Energy Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discuss the feasibility of wind energy parks including aspects of supply and demand of energy, costs of generation and risks of investment associated. The paper introduce to the situation of wind energy in the word and specifically in Spain, describes the legal framework in promotion of renewables in Spain, the analysis of revenues and the risk of this business in the european market

  18. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  19. Sovremennoje iskusstvo v angliskom parke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Performance-kunsti rühmituse Virus (Alan Holligan, Stewart Bennett ja Ewan Robertson Edinburghist) projekt "Sekkumine - kaasaegne kunst inglise pargis" toimub Väliskunsti muuseumis, Mikkeli muuseumis ja selle ümbruses. Inspiratsiooniks on Kadrioru park ning parginäitused Mikkeli ja Väliskunsti muuseumis. Radical Loyalty projektist, millele pani aluse Chris Evans (Glasgow) 2002. a. ja mille raames plaanitakse skulptuuripargi rajamist Järvakandisse. Evansi projekt presentatsiooni formaadis toimub Mikkeli muuseumis video ja fotode abil

  20. Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: an in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Summala, H

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight bicycle-car accidents in four cities were studied by multidisciplinary in-depth analysis. The sample was representative of the national accident statistics. All the accidents were analyzed in detail to reconstruct the actual movements of those involved and to assess detection of the other party. In 37% of collisions, neither driver nor cyclist realized the danger or had time to yield. In the remaining collisions, the driver (27%), the cyclist (24%) or both (12%) did something to avert the accident. Two common mechanisms underlying the accidents were identified. First, allocation of attention such that others were not detected, and second, unjustified expectations about the behavior of others. These mechanisms were found to be closely related to the system of two-way cycle tracks and to the fact that the general priority rule is applied to the crossings of a cycle track and a roadway. The most frequent accident type among collisions between cyclists and cars at bicycle crossings was a driver turning right and a bicycle coming from the driver's right along a cycle track. The result confirmed an earlier finding (Accident Analysis and Prevention 28, 147-153, 1996) that drivers turning right hit cyclists because they looked left for cars during the critical phase. Only 11% of drivers noticed the cyclist before impact. Cyclists' behavior was in marked contrast to that of drivers. In these cases, 68% of cyclists noticed the driver before the accident, and 92% of those who noticed believed the driver would give way as required by law. Cyclists with a driving license and those who cycled daily through the accident site were involved in different accident types to other cyclists. PMID:9678219

  1. Deaths of bicycle riders in Brazil: characteristics and trends during the period of 2000 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Posenato Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, bicycle use has been increasing. Accidents involving cyclists are important causes of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality of cyclists injured in transport accidents in Brazil, the characteristics of the victims and of the occurrence, and to investigate its trends during the period between 2000 and 2010. METHODS: A descriptive study with data from the Mortality Information System (SIM was conducted in the period of 2000 - 2010. Crude and age-standardized corrected mortality rates were calculated for Brazil, its macro-regions and states. Linear regression was used to study the trends. RESULTS: In the period of 2000 - 2010, 32,422 bicycle-related deaths were identified in Brazil. In 2010, there were, on average, 8.8 bicycle-related deaths per day. Age-standardized mortality rates for the country were 15.3 and 15.9 deaths per million inhabitants in 2000 and 2010, respectively (p = 0.725. During the whole period, the Center-Western region showed the highest rates, though stable, corresponding to 23.4 deaths per million inhabitants in 2010. Men accounted for 85.4% of deaths, with death risk 5 times higher than women. CONCLUSION: In spite of the stable rates for the country, there was an increase trend in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while a decreasing trend was observed in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The risk of death was higher among men, elderly, and people living in large cities and at the Center-Western region.

  2. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  3. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Candiota coal samples: novel series of bicyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C.M.L.; Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used to analyse aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from nine samples taken from two different seams of five boreholes in the Candiota coalfield (Lower Permian). The occurrence of certain tetracyclic diterpenoids among the aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the tricyclic diterpenoids simonellite and retene in the aromatic hydrocarbon concentrates, suggest an important input from conifers to the sedimentary biomass. This may explain the origin of a novel series of saturated and aromatic bicyclic compounds detected in the extracts which may be structurally related to the same precursor, possibly a conifer resin-derived tricyclic diterpenoid.

  4. Unexpected involvement of staple leads to redesign of selective bicyclic peptide inhibitor of Grb7

    OpenAIRE

    Menachem J. Gunzburg; Ketav Kulkarni; Gabrielle M. Watson; Ambaye, Nigus D.; Del Borgo, Mark P.; Rebecca Brandt; Stephanie C. Pero; Patrick Perlmutter; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2016-01-01

    The design of potent and specific peptide inhibitors to therapeutic targets is of enormous utility for both proof-of-concept studies and for the development of potential new therapeutics. Grb7 is a key signaling molecule in the progression of HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers. Here we report the crystal structure of a stapled bicyclic peptide inhibitor G7-B1 in complex with the Grb7-SH2 domain. This revealed an unexpected binding mode of the peptide, in which the staple forms a...

  5. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  6. Feasibility study on a perceived fatigue prediction dependent power control for an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Minagawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Several types of electric motor assists have been developed, as a result, it is important to control muscular fatigue on-site in terms of health promotion and motor rehabilitation. Predicting the perceived fatigue by several biosignal-related variables with the multiple regression model and polynomial approximation, we try to propose a self control design for the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB). We also determine the meaningful muscles during pedaling by muscle synergies in relation to the motion maturity. In field experiments, prediction of ongoing perceived physical fatigue could have the potential of suitable control of EAB. PMID:24110131

  7. [The electrical stimulation bicycle: a neuroprosthesis for the everyday use of paraplegic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Fiegel, M; Krafczyk, S; Straube, A; Quintern, J; Brandt, Th

    2004-06-24

    Until recently, few patients with complete paraplegia could walk or stand with the help of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the leg muscles regularly at home. In comparison, FES cycling with an adapted tricycle is easy to put into practice because the legs remain connected to the pedals and through the use of a tricycle or stationary bicycle, the balancing problems of the patient recedes into the background. In the first German feasibility studies for paraplegic cycling, eleven completely paraplegic patients have been tested so far. The goal is to make FES cycling a daily activity in the lives of as many patients as possible. PMID:15529690

  8. The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan and road safety : measures to be taken.

    OpenAIRE

    Noordzij, P.C. Blokpoel, A. Pol, J.E. van de & Harris, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Bicycle Master Plan was launched in 1990 and concluded in 1996. To mark its conclusion, a study was carried out to assess developments in road safety for cyclists. An overview of future measures was also compiled. Since 1950, there have been three broad periods: (1) 1950-1975: an increase in the number of deaths, mainly among young and old cyclists, coinciding with a sharp increase in car-use; (2) 1975-1990: a decline in the number of deaths among cyclists per distance cycled, coinciding ...

  9. A measurement system for the bicycle crank angle using a wireless motion sensor attached to the crank arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kitawaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a system for measuring the rotational angle of a bicycle crank arm. This system consists of a wireless motion sensor with bi-axial acceleration and angular velocity sensors attached to the crank arm. Rotational angles measured by the motion sensor were compared with data from a motion capture system. We found the RMS (root-mean-square error for the bicycle crank angle was 0.339 ± 0.115 degrees (mean ± SD, and the angular velocity RMS error normalized by the average angular velocity was 0.655 ± 0.217 %. Using the proposed motion sensor system, we were able to measure the rotational angle and angular velocity of the bicycle crank to the same accuracy and high frequency as the motion capture system. Furthermore, we demonstrate it is possible to precisely obtain the rotational crank angle to evaluate fluctuations of crank angular velocity.

  10. A wearable ECG-HR detector and its application to automatic assist-mode selection of an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akinori; Miyashita, Osamu; Yoshida, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Lataire, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an electrically assisted bicycle has been widely used in daily life and becomes very popular. The user selects the stepwise assist-mode to determine the assistive torque for pleasurable running. From the viewpoint of improvement of health by exercise, the electrically assisted bicycle can be an exercise machine like a treadmill. The heart rate (HR) is regarded as an indication of exercise load. This paper presents an automatic assist-mode selection system based on the HR of the bicycle user. The HR is obtained from the R-waves measured by the proposed wearable electrocardiograph on the user. The mode-selection system is simply implemented by a personal computer, USB-connected interface, and some electronic switching circuits. The running experiments confirm that the proposed assist-mode selection method has practicability. PMID:22255925

  11. 3-hydroxyisoxazole bioiosteres of gaba - synthesis of a series of 4-substituted muscimol analogs and identification of a bicyclic 2-isoxazoline rearrangement product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjeds, H.; Christensen, I. T.; Cornett, Claus; Frolund, B.; Falch, E.; Pedersen, J. B.; Krogsgaardlarsen, P.

    1992-01-01

    cyclization and O-deprotection form the last steps of a new synthesis of the clinically active bicyclic muscimol analogue, (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) (THIP) (16). Whereas treatment of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methoxy-5-methylisoxazole (3a) with bromine or with NBS gave the bicyclic 2...

  12. Configuration study of large wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, using both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. The most interesting candidate for a DC transmission based wind park was investigated more in detail, the series DC wind park. Finally, the power quality impact in the PCC (point of common coupling) was studied. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km. Regarding the series DC wind park it was found that it is the most difficult one to control. However, a control algorithm for the series park and its turbines was derived and successfully tested. Still, several more details regarding the control of the series wind park has to be dealt with.

  13. Dempster-Shafer Theory for Move Prediction in Start Kicking of The Bicycle Kick of Sepak Takraw Game

    OpenAIRE

    Maseleno, Andino; Hasan, Md. Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Dempster-Shafer theory for move prediction in start kicking of the bicycle kick of sepak takraw game. Sepak takraw is a highly complex net-barrier kicking sport that involves dazzling displays of quick reflexes, acrobatic twists, turns and swerves of the agile human body movement. A Bicycle kick or Scissor kick is a physical move made by throwing the body up into the air, making a shearing movement with the legs to get one leg in front of the other without holding on to th...

  14. Burning Cars in a Parking Lot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoin, Jean

    2011-08-01

    Knuth's parking scheme is a model in computer science for hashing with linear probing. One may imagine a circular parking lot with n sites; cars arrive at each site with unit rate. When a car arrives at a vacant site, it parks there; otherwise it turns clockwise and parks at the first vacant site which is found. We incorporate fires into this model by throwing Molotov cocktails on each site at a smaller rate n - α , where 0 2/3, whereas for α < 2/3, the average occupation approaches 1 at time 1 but then quickly drops to 0 before the parking lot is ever saturated. Our study relies on asymptotics for the occupation of the parking lot without fires in certain regimes which may be of independent interest.

  15. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. PMID:25336037

  16. 双圈图的Laplacian Spread%The Laplacian Spread of Bicyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 王立庆

    2011-01-01

    Laplacian spread的概念在刻画图的整体性质方面非常重要.近年来,Fan等分别刻画了树中具有极大和极小Lap|acian spread的图.另外Bao等确定了在所有单圈图中具有极大Laplacian spread的图.边数减去顶点数目为1的连通图称为双圈图.令召。是所有有几个顶点构成的双圈图集合.对n≥11,本文确定了Bn中所有具有极大Laplacian spread的那些图.%The notion of Laplacian spread is very important in characterizing the global structural property of graphs. Recently, Fan et al. showed that K1,n-1 and Pn are the only trees with the maximal and the minimal Laplacian spread among all trees with n vertices, respectively. Furthermore, Bao etal. determined the graph with the maximal Laplacian spread among all unicyclic graphs. Connected graphs in which the number of edges equals the number of vertices plus one are called bicyclic graphs. Let Bn be the set of all bicyclic graphs with n vertices. In this paper, we continue the work on Laplacian spread of graphs, and determine those graphs with the maximal Laplacian spread in Bn for n≥11.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:27074628

  18. Effect of the structure, solid state and lipophilicity on the solubility of novel bicyclic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solubility in buffer pH 7.4 of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • The influence of melting parameters and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied. • The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated. - Abstract: Novel bicyclic derivatives have been synthesized. The solubility of drug-like substances in phosphate buffer rH 7.4 has been measured within the range of (9.02 · 10−5 to 1.05 · 10−4) mol/l. The relationship between the chemical nature and the structure of the aryl substituents and the solubility parameter was investigated. The fusion temperatures, enthalpies and entropies have been determined experimentally. The influence of thermophysical characteristics and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied using regression analysis. The calculations by the solubility/lipophilicity equation showed an overall improvement of the predictions equal to 0.5 log units. It was concluded that the solvation has a considerable influence on the solubility of the compounds under consideration. It was also determined that the alkyl- and halogen-derivatives solubility values correlate with HYBOT descriptors characterizing the (donor + acceptor) properties of the substances. The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated using the temperature dependences. The study also revealed that the solubility of the bicyclic compounds is characterized by high endothermicity of the processes and negative entropies

  19. Long-term use of computerized bicycle ergometry for spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipski, M L; Alexander, C J; Harris, M

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-eight spinal cord injured subjects who participated in an electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry home program were surveyed to determine perceived benefits, home exercise adherence, and predictors of continued home exercise with electrical stimulation. Subjects were classified as users or nonusers depending upon if they used the electrical stimulation ergometry on a regular basis in the home during the past four months. Nineteen subjects qualified as users and nine were nonusers. Ninety-five percent of the users cycled at least twice per week whereas the majority of the nonusers stopped regular home exercise within one month postclinic discharge. All subjects generally perceived increases in muscle bulk and endurance. Users and nonusers perceived inconsistent results related to spasticity. Minimal effects were noted with neurogenic pain and swelling. Adherence to the home exercise program was significantly related to sex of subject and pre-injury exercise habits. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry in the home. PMID:8439248

  20. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. The new approach brings a completely different view on planning cycling infrastructure, while rather than physical infrastructure characteristics, humans are placed at the forefront of the cycling infrastructure design as the most important measure of its quality. Since the complexity of human beings cannot be controlled with only one science or profession, solving the problem of bicycle traffic is not just a technical problem, but its design and management also lend a multidisciplinary character. From the perspective of different cycling infrastructure users, the study will define integrated multidisciplinary methodology for evaluating the quality of cycling infrastructure, which will equally include the criteria of sensing and perceiving of space. The new approach seeks a system of criteria, which enables the integrated planning of cycling infrastructure in all spatial, organizational, sectoral, and professional levels. All theoretical findings will be tested and demonstrated on the pilot case of the long-distance cycling connection in the area of four Slovenian coastal municipalities, namely Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran.

  1. [Craniocerebral trauma in fall from bicycles--what is the effect of a protective helmet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, G; Helber, M U; Ulrich, C

    1996-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to analyze the particular injuries of 76 cyclists who required in-patient treatment in our department in 1994. There were 50 male and 26 female cyclists, with a median age of 33 years (range: 4-87 years). The most frequent diagnosis, in 50% (n = 38), was head injury. The series included 63 cyclist (83%) who had not been wearing helmets, and 33 of these sustained a head injury; in the helmet group head injury was found in only 38% (5 out of 13). It is remarkable that more serious head injuries did not occur in the helmet group. In 24 of these 33 head-injured patients (73%) without helmets additional intra- and extracranial diagnoses were made: pathologic EEG in 18 patients (55%), skull fracture in 13 patients (39%), intracerebral haemorrhagic contusion in 4 patients (12%) and an increase in intracerebral pressure (edema) in 3 patients (9%). In contrast to these findings, only 2 of the 5 head-injured patients (40%) in the helmet group showed slight changes in the EEG. In our opinion the bicycle helmet can reduce the incidence and the grade severity of head injuries significantly, particularly as we had 2 deaths in the non-helmet group and none in the helmet group. The use of a bicycle helmet is therefore strongly advocated. PMID:8685726

  2. The Structure of Spatial Networks and Communities in Bicycle Sharing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltz Austwick, Martin; O’Brien, Oliver; Strano, Emanuele; Viana, Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems exist in hundreds of cities around the world, with the aim of providing a form of public transport with the associated health and environmental benefits of cycling without the burden of private ownership and maintenance. Five cities have provided research data on the journeys (start and end time and location) taking place in their bicycle sharing system. In this paper, we employ visualization, descriptive statistics and spatial and network analysis tools to explore system usage in these cities, using techniques to investigate features specific to the unique geographies of each, and uncovering similarities between different systems. Journey displacement analysis demonstrates similar journey distances across the cities sampled, and the (out)strength rank curve for the top 50 stands in each city displays a similar scaling law for each. Community detection in the derived network can identify local pockets of use, and spatial network corrections provide the opportunity for insight above and beyond proximity/popularity correlations predicted by simple spatial interaction models. PMID:24040320

  3. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  4. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  5. The structure of spatial networks and communities in bicycle sharing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zaltz Austwick

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing systems exist in hundreds of cities around the world, with the aim of providing a form of public transport with the associated health and environmental benefits of cycling without the burden of private ownership and maintenance. Five cities have provided research data on the journeys (start and end time and location taking place in their bicycle sharing system. In this paper, we employ visualization, descriptive statistics and spatial and network analysis tools to explore system usage in these cities, using techniques to investigate features specific to the unique geographies of each, and uncovering similarities between different systems. Journey displacement analysis demonstrates similar journey distances across the cities sampled, and the (outstrength rank curve for the top 50 stands in each city displays a similar scaling law for each. Community detection in the derived network can identify local pockets of use, and spatial network corrections provide the opportunity for insight above and beyond proximity/popularity correlations predicted by simple spatial interaction models.

  6. Injuries Due to Wedging of Bicycle Wheels in On-road Tram Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Jaap; Harmsen, Annelieke M. K.; Schonhuth, Casper P.; Bloemers, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In cities with trams as public transportation, tram tracks are often on public roads, creating a shared road situation with other road participants like cyclists. Beside the risk of direct collisions, this situation can also lead to bicycle wheels getting wedged in tram tracks, causing cyclists to fall. Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the injury pattern of this trauma mechanism and to draw attention to the risks of the infrastructural situation with on-road tram tracks. Patients and Methods: A one-year, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. All patients admitted after presentation to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center, who got injured because their bicycle wheels got wedged in tram tracks, were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, type of injury and treatment. Results: Ten patients were included. Six were male. The mean age was 38 years. Six patients required surgery, mostly because of extremity injuries. Mean duration of admission was 4 days. Mean injury severity score was 13. One patient died as a result of the injuries sustained in the accident. Conclusions: Tram tracks on public roads are potentially dangerous and can lead to serious injuries and even mortality amongst cyclist. Operative intervention is frequently needed. PMID:25685751

  7. A hub dynamometer for measurement of wheel forces in off-road bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, D S; Hull, M L

    1999-02-01

    A dynamometric hubset that measures the two ground contact force components acting on a bicycle wheel in the plane of the bicycle during off-road riding while either coasting or braking was designed, constructed, and evaluated. To maintain compatibility with standard mountain bike construction, the hubs use commercially available shells with modified, strain gage-equipped axles. The axle strain gages are sensitive to forces acting in the radial and tangential directions, while minimizing sensitivity to transverse forces, steering moments, and variations in the lateral location of the center of pressure. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check that computed differences between applied and apparent loads developed during coasting revealed root mean squared errors of 1 percent full-scale or less (full-scale load = 4500 N). The natural frequency of the rear hub with the wheel attached exceeded 350 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer useful for its intended purpose during coasting. To demonstrate this usefulness, sample ground contact forces are presented for a subject who coasted downhill over rough terrain. The dynamometric hubset can also be used to determine ground contact forces during braking providing that the brake reaction force components are known. However, compliance of the fork can lead to high cross-sensitivity and corresponding large (> 5 percent FS) measurement errors at the front wheel. PMID:10080099

  8. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Parenting influences on bicycle helmet rules and estimations of children's helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Brinson, Margaret Kay; Ross, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the potential relationship between parenting variables and estimations of children's bicycle helmet use. Parents (N = 121) completed surveys asking about parental monitoring and questions about their bicycle habits and attitudes, as well as their expectations for their children to wear a helmet and their estimation of how often their children wear a helmet. Parents reported stronger helmet rules for their children who are beginning cyclists rather than experienced cyclists, and rules for experienced cyclists were more strongly endorsed among parents who reported more parental monitoring as well. Parents who wear helmets themselves endorsed stronger helmet rules for their experienced riders, compared to parents who do not wear helmets. Parents without helmet rules reported more peer pressure in that they were more likely to agree that their friends do not make their kids wear helmets and that their child's friends do not wear helmets. In addition, believing other parents do not wear helmets and believing one's child's friends do not wear helmets were both associated with a lower likelihood that their children wear a helmet. This appears to be the first study linking perceptions of parental peer pressure with helmet rules and use. For public health reasons, it is imperative to examine parental factors that may establish children's helmet wearing. PMID:24684079

  10. Rehabilitate Failing Park Sewage System Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) proposes to rehabilitate the failing sewage system within Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. The rehabilitation would provide a safe, healthy, and functional environment, and maintain public health and future service for park visitors and staff. Portions of the sanitary sewage collection system were originally constructed in 1958 of clay pipe and currently service the lodge, staff housing, and visitor center before feeding into sewage treatment lagoons. Secti...

  11. Open Days: information on CERN parking

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The organising team for the Open Days (28-29 September) would like to inform you that some parking sites in Meyrin and Prévessin will have to be kept free as of 18 September for the installation of tents and marquees.   Next week, CERN Management will address parking concerns and give you more information on other parking possibilities. The Open Day organising team thanks you for your cooperation and apologises for any inconvenience.

  12. Le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belaidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de présenter quelques problématiques d'une recherche sur la construction d’un mécanisme de valorisation sociale de la protection de l’environnement : l’ordre public écologique. Cette étude s’appuie sur une expérience récente et originale en Afrique australe : la création de Parcs pour la Paix dont relève le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Ces parcs sont officiellement consacrés à la protection et à la conservation de la diversité biologique, des ressources naturelles et culturelles qui y sont associées, ainsi qu’à la promotion de la coopération et de la Paix qu’elle soit civile, sociale, économique ou culturelle. La logique de construction de ces parcs repose sur l’idée que l’articulation des zones de conservation facilite la résolution de conflits territoriaux – de toutes sortes – en transformant les préoccupations environnementales en objet de coopération entre des juridictions politiques diverses. C’est précisément le schéma du concept juridique objet de nos travaux : l’ordre public écologique. Aussi peut-on se demander si le GLTP, en particulier, (peut constitue(r une illustration concrète de ce mécanisme et permettre d’atteindre la Paix recherchée, favorisant ainsi les processus de développement ?This article aims to present some problems of researches on the construction of a mechanism of social valorisation of the environmental protection: ecological public order. This study leans on a recent and original experience in southern Africa: the creation of Peace Park like the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP. These parks are officially dedicated to the protection and to the preservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources which are associated with it, as well as in the promotion of the cooperation and the peace. The peace looked for in these parks is not only the opposite of the war but it is also social, economic and cultural peace

  13. Exploring en-route parking type and parking-search route choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking...... policies as travel demand management tools, the growing interest in parking guidance information systems, and the need for representing parking-search behavior in traffic assignment and micro-simulation models. This paper addresses two main topics. First, the development of a methodological framework is...... introduced, including a behavioral model, its mathematical representation and the variable specification. Second, the design of a two-wave field survey accompanies the framework, with the aim of revealing the determinants of cruising-for-parking by retrieving both self-reported and GPS data. This paper...

  14. Science Parks: Eventually a Real Estate Concept?

    OpenAIRE

    J. van Dinteren

    2009-01-01

    Given the increased importance of knowledge as a production factor in many companies it is not surprising that there is a growing interest in the development of science and technology parks. In many cases these parks are developed by the private sector or by the private sector in collaboration with an university. These parks often have a high quality. The question comes up whether a science park is a real estate concept or an ëengineí that stimulates the exchange of information and innovation...

  15. A Comparative Review on Car Parking Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ranjini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information technology embeds microchips and sensors within vehicles, traffic lights, roads and makes transportation system to communicate using wireless technologies. Intelligent transport system embodies several functionalities such as traffic monitoring, parking assistant, and vehicle monitoring by making the system smarter. Parking plays a vital role amongst them. Developing countries are facing major parking management problems. Most of the available parking methods do not satisfy the user’s requirements. The biggest challenge in parking lies in how well the monitored information is being communicated from sensor nodes to users effectively and also the method being employed to carry out this. Timeliness, accuracy, reliability, and security are some of the important characteristics in a parking management system to be considered. Any parking management system must be able to provide features like accounting, dynamic allotment of slots, security management, statistical reporting along with detecting the count of vehicles inside a parking zone. This paper discusses some of the commonly used techniques in parking management and identifies the problems present in their methodologies.

  16. Emerald Park RESIDENCE楼盘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    地理位置ZETLAND地理位置优越.距离悉尼市中心只有2.5公里紧邻GteenSquare.TownCenter.距邦迪海滩3公里.距悉尼大学、UTS大学、新南威尔士大学等三所大学均为2公里,CentennialPark2公里.距悉尼国际机场5公里.在5到lO分钟车程内.可以到上述任何地方

  17. Technology parks as innovation policy : a study of the technology park of the Basque Country

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Synopsis This thesis aims to explore how technology parks may function as innovation policy. Ever since the mid 1980s technology parks have been widely applied as policy instruments across Europe, and there is nothing indicating that this policy is loosing its momentum. Although there have been many studies inquiring into the alleged effects of these parks, there is as far as I know, none which explicitly sets out to investigate these parks as innovation policy. In order to do this, I fir...

  18. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Chen; Ling Pei; Yuwei Chen; Ruizhi Chen; Jingbin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service p...

  19. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-street parking. 910.33... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.33 Off-street parking. (a) Off-street parking as a principal use is prohibited, although off-street parking as an accessory use in...

  20. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  1. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  2. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte...

  3. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  4. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Yosemite National Park is... boundary of Yosemite National Park. DATES: The effective date of this boundary revision is July 24,...

  5. Impacts of national parks on tourism: a case study from a prominent alpine national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term.

  6. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Richard N.

    2015-08-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to observe 22 millisecond pulsars in three bands: 40cm (band centre 732 MHz), 20cm (1369 MHz) and 10cm (3100 MHz). Coherent de-dispersion systems are used for the 40cm and 20cm bands and digital polyphase filterbanks are used for the 20cm and 10cm bands. Observations are made at intervals of two to three weeks and observations times for each pulsar in each band are typically one hour. Regular PPTA observations commenced in early 2005 but earlier timing data, primarily in the 20cm band, exist for many of the pulsars back to 1994. Pipeline processing scripts are based on PSRCHIVE routines and take into account instrumental offsets. Timing analyses include modelling of dispersion variations and red and white noise in the data. The primary scientific goal of the PPTA project is the detection of gravitational waves, either a stochastic background from supermassive black-hole binary systems in distant galaxies or from individual binary systems. The PPTA data sets have many other applications including establishment of a pulsar-based timescale, improvement of solar-system ephemerides and studies of the individual pulsars. PPTA data sets have been made available to the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium and analysis of the combined data sets is progressing. Recent developments, both instrumental and science-related, will be described.

  7. Noise management of industrial parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senden, Virgini [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp (Canada)], email: virgini.senden@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    Because of industrial development, more noise-producing facilities are being built, with negative noise impacts on local residents' lives and comfort. The question raised by this paper is which way would be the best to ensure both acceptable noise impact, and efficient industrial facilities operations? The author presents two approaches: the {sup r}egional noise management plan{sup ,} adopted in Alberta, leaves the different industries present in the region in charge of noise emissions, working both together and individually to maintain acceptable noise pollution levels. The zoned industrial parks approach, in effect in the Netherlands, where industrial parks are situated within a noise zone, outside of which noise impact should be reduced to levels that do not disturb residents. Both approaches are effective, but demand a great deal of effort to achieve noise efficiency. The Alberta approach, thanks to its specificity and the collaborative work of all actors involved, facilitates continuous improvement while the Dutch approach is more rigid, but better suited to industry realities and the space that is available in the Netherlands.

  8. 78 FR 51207 - Kobuk Valley National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Denali National Park SRC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Park Service Kobuk Valley National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Denali National Park SRC; Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law 92-463, 86 Stat. 770), the National Park...

  9. Bicycle helmets.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    One third of the cyclists who are admitted to hospital with serious injury after a road crash are diagnosed with head or brain injury. Approximately three-quarters of the head and brain injuries among cyclists are caused by crashes that do not involve motorized traffic; as many as nine out of ten young children who sustain head/brain injury, do so in crashes not involving motor vehicles. These are mostly cyclist-only crashes. This type of crash is difficult to prevent, but it is possible to l...

  10. Interactive bicycle

    CERN Multimedia

    Measure your power : VOLTMETER x AMPMETER = electric power generated in Watts Pedal power! The force from your legs turns the back wheel which is connected to an alternator. This generates a voltage and current which lights the bulbs. The faster you pedal, the more light there is. Have a go and measure your power!. To generate a kilowatt hour of energy, you would need to produce 1000 Watts continuously for an hour. Where does the energy come from to move your legs? After several minutes of pedalling, the body starts to use the chemical energy stored in your fat. Did you know? On a clear day, the power of sunlight is enough to light twenty 50W lightbulbs per square metre!

  11. Copper(II)-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives via radical pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eietsu; Tateyama, Minami; Nagumo, Ryosuke; Tayama, Eiji; Iwamoto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Copper(II)-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives were investigated. The regioselectivities of these processes were found to be influenced by the structure of cyclopropanols as well as the counter anion of the copper(II) salts. A mechanism involving rearrangement reactions of radical intermediates and their competitive trapping by copper ions is proposed.

  12. Copper(II-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives via radical pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eietsu Hasegawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives were investigated. The regioselectivities of these processes were found to be influenced by the structure of cyclopropanols as well as the counter anion of the copper(II salts. A mechanism involving rearrangement reactions of radical intermediates and their competitive trapping by copper ions is proposed.

  13. Chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity of cyclisation pathways leading to bicyclic tetramates controlled by ring-chain tautomerisation in thiazolidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduwawala, Tharindi D; Iqbal, Sarosh; Tirfoin, Rémi; Moloney, Mark G

    2016-05-11

    Chemoselective Dieckmann cyclisation reactions on N-malonyl thiazolidine templates derived from cysteine and pivaldehyde or aromatic aldehydes may be used to access bicyclic tetramates, for which different pathways operate as a result of differing ring-chain tautomeric behaviour of the respective intermediate imines. PMID:27089842

  14. Age Does Not Affect the Material Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Liners in Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Bonin, Stephanie J; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-04-01

    Bicycle helmet foam liners absorb energy during impacts. Our goal was to determine if the impact attenuation properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used in bicycle helmets change with age. Foam cores were extracted from 63 used and unused bicycle helmets from ten different models spanning an age range of 2-20 yrs. All cores were impact tested at a bulk strain rate of 195 s(-1). Six dependent variables were determined from the stress-strain curve derived from each impact (yield strain, yield stress, elastic modulus, plateau slope, energy at 65% compression, and stress at 65% compression), and a general linear model was used to assess the effect of age on each dependent variable with density as a covariate. Age did not affect any of the dependent variables; however, greater foam density, which varied from 58 to 100 kg/m(3), generated significant increases in all of the dependent variables except for yield strain. Higher density foam cores also exhibited lower strains at which densification began to occur, tended to stay within the plateau region of the stress-strain curve, and were not compressed as much compared with the lower density cores. Based on these data, the impact attenuation properties of EPS foam in field-used bicycle helmets do not degrade with the age. PMID:26902784

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel dioxa-bicycle C-aryl glucosides as SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Ding, Ning; Li, Yingxia

    2016-02-01

    A series of novel C-aryl glucosides containing dioxa-bicycle were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition activity against hSGLT2. Among the compounds tested, compound 6a showed moderate SGLT2 inhibition activities at 700 nM. The results could benefit the discovery of new SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:26735747

  16. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N;

    2015-01-01

    outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day...

  17. Synthesis of novel N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids and evaluation of their interaction with glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni; di Ventimiglia, Samuele Joppolo;

    2005-01-01

    N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids (S)-9a-9c and (R)-9a-9c, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested for activity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors...

  18. A Balanced Scorecard of Sustainable Management in the Taiwanese Bicycle Industry: Development of Performance Indicators and Importance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Chung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the development of the performance indicators of sustainable management in the Taiwanese bicycle industry and to perform an importance analysis. Based on the Balanced Scorecard concept, the framework of sustainable management is added. Ten experts evaluated the performance indicators of a sustainable Balanced Scorecard in the Taiwanese bicycle industry using five major categories: (1 Financial, (2 Customer, (3 Internal Business Processes, (4 Learning and Growth, and (5 Sustainable Development, and a total of 21 performance indicators were used. The analytic network process (ANP was used to perform an importance analysis of the various performance indicators. Most of the experts suggested that for the introduction of a sustainable management strategy into the bicycle industry in Taiwan, it is necessary to include the definition of sustainable management and to improve five performance indicators: innovation process, customer satisfaction, operations process, after-sales service, and market share. According to the analysis results, this study proposed relevant management definitions and suggestions to be used as important references for decision-makers to understand the introduction of sustainable management strategies to the current bicycle industry in Taiwan.

  19. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage is of Voyageurs National Park and extended environs, covering 156,886 hectares (387,674 acres). Voyageurs National Park...

  2. Solar battery powered bicycle lamp SKL050. Final report; Solar/Akkufahrradleuchte SKL050. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, O.

    2001-06-01

    Up to now there are no functional or high quality mobile solar powered chargers and lamps available for the outdoor and bicycle consumer. Hence the project SKL050 was concerned with the development of a novel combination of battery powered multi-functional lamp and solar charger. All components such as solar module, bulb, electronics and housing were supposed to be involved in the development. The goal was a ready-for-production development well placed in the field of high quality bicycle, camping and household appliances by efficient, well matched components and an exclusive and functional design. Another issue in the development was a cost effective production by automated assembling in order to maintain the maximum customer price of 129,- DM (incl. VAT). Most of the stated goals were reached at the end of the project. Only the detailed construction of the housing parts and final approvals have to be carried out by a bicycle accessories company which is interested to produce and market the SKL050 in licence. Apart from the product SKL050 several important results regarding automation processes of small solar modules have been collected and are supposed to be integrated in future products of the SOLARC GmbH. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich mobiler solarbetriebener Ladegeraete und Leuchten fuer den Outdoor- und Fahrradkonsumenten sind bislang keine funktionell oder aesthetisch brauchbaren Produkte verfuegbar. Das Vorhaben SKL050 umfasste daher gezielt die Entwicklung einer neuartigen Kombination aus akkubetriebener Mehrzweckleuchte und Solar-Akkulader. Saemtliche Basiskomponenten wie Solarmodul, Leuchtmittel, Elektronik und Gehaeuse sollten mit in die Entwicklung einbezogen werden. Ziel des Vorhabens war ein zur Serienreife entwickeltes Produkt, welches durch leistungsfaehige, optimal aufeinander abgestimmte Komponenten sowie durch ein exklusives und funktionelles Design einen Platz im Bereich der hochwertigen Fahrrad-, Camping-, und Haushaltsaccessoires findet. Bei

  3. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). Participants 578 607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Main outcome measures Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Results Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change −72 DALYs (95% credible interval −110 to −43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; −15 (−42 to −6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change −49 DALYs (−88 to −17) among men; −1 DALY (−27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled

  4. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Heger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA, free PSA (fPSA and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively, lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L. It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL. Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine. Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA.

  5. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49-57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0-0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa-sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  6. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus notify the system to count for it. However, this type of sensors actually has an increase of budgeting inorder to install and to be maintained. In this project, we have developed a unique solution by providing cost effective solution by using Zigbee technology in parking lot system technology. Instead of using and maintain cable that need to be installed at the ceiling of the parking lot, we developed a system that use wireless technology of Zigbee and it could notify the visitors of empty and non-empty parking lot.

  7. Parking functions and Haglund--Loehr data

    OpenAIRE

    Burman, Yurii M.

    2004-01-01

    A parking function is a sequence of N nonnegative integers majorated by a permutation of the set {0, ..., N-1}. We provide a way to encode parking functions by data suggested by J.Haglund and N.Loehr. This coding is compared with another one proposed earlier by M.Shapiro and the author.

  8. Parking regulations on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The site surveillance service is also responsible for supervising compliance with the parking regulations on the CERN site. In that context, it ensures that the following rules are complied with on the CERN car park: Vehicles may not be left on a CERN car park for longer than 5 consecutive working days. However, CERN users are entitled to leave their vehicles parked at CERN for a longer period in the car park near Building 588 , subject to completing the application form "Demande d'autorisation pour un stationnement de longue durée" (application for a long-term parking permit) and sending it to the Reception and Access Control Service (access.surveillance@cern.ch) prior to departure.   Parking spaces, which are in short supply in many crowded areas of the CERN site, must not be occupied by abandoned vehicles/wrecks. The service organizes the disposal of such vehicles. Any CERN users wishing to get rid of a private vehicle parked on one of the CERN car pa...

  9. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  10. Emergency department coding of bicycle and pedestrian injuries during the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhaneh, M; Hagel, B E; Couperthwaite, A; Saunders, L D; Voaklander, D C

    2011-01-01

    Background The international classification of diseases version 10 (ICD-10) uses alphanumeric expanded codes and external cause of injury codes (E-codes). Objective To examine the reliability and validity of emergency department (ED) coders in applying E-codes in ICD-9 and -10. Methods Bicycle and pedestrian injuries were identified from the ED information system from one period before and two periods after transition from ICD-9 to -10 coding. Overall, 180 randomly selected bicycle and pedestrian injury charts were reviewed as the reference standard (RS). Original E-codes assigned by ED coders (ICD-9 in 2001 and ICD-10 in 2004 and 2007) were compared with charts (validity) and also to ICD-9 and -10 codes assigned from RS chart review, to each case by an independent (IND) coder (reliability). Sensitivity, specificity, simple, and chance-corrected agreements (κ statistics) were calculated. Results Sensitivity of E-coding bicycle injuries by the IND coder in comparison with the RS ranged from 95.1% (95% CI 86.3 to 99.0) to 100% (95% CI 94.0 to 100.0) for both ICD-9 and -10. Sensitivity of ED coders in E-coding bicycle injuries ranged from 90.2% (95% CI 79.8 to 96.3) to 96.7% (95% CI 88.5 to 99.6). The sensitivity estimates for the IND coder ranged from 25.0% (95% CI 14.7 to 37.9) to 45.0% (95% CI 32.1 to 58.4) for pedestrian injuries for both ICD-9 and -10. Conclusion Bicycle injuries are coded in a reliable and valid manner; however, pedestrian injuries are often miscoded as falls. These results have important implications for injury surveillance research. PMID:21705466

  11. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  12. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  13. Password Based Rotational Multistory Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Suhail Hamirani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parking is a big issue in thickly populated areas and in larger cities due to heavy traffic. This intended application of rotational multistory parking system effectively minimizes this issue. It results in less space and more secure parking. ATMEL microcontroller is used as main processor while LCD and motors are as complimentary components for display and rotation The model is based on circular mechanism giving low cost, less space and optimum performance. Password locking system is used to verify the object and detects number of free spaces available in the parking lot. The world has become a global market and numbers of vehicles are also increased to an uncontrollable situation. Keeping this problem the intended model is designed. Password locking system embedded in the work has made the parking of vehicles very much secure.

  14. Sustainable urban spaces: Ecological parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçak Erdoğan Onur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly depleted resources with technological and economic developments which increased in recent years has led to deterioration of the natural balance in the world. Urban ecosystems is considerably changed, especially with population growth and intensive construction in the city. This situation, as such in all other areas, urban ecosystems are also increasing their sustainability concerns. More compatible solution with the natural process in landscape design and management have to be brought. This article describes the conceptual structure of ecological park that has become a tool for sustainable urban target in community that matured of environmental awareness. Also planning, design and management principles are explained by supporting with application examples. The obtained results within the framework, it is aimed to create a source for similar applications that will lead to spread in our country. In addition, it is put forward suggestions for dissemination of such practices.

  15. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center. The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Theoretical Studies on the Thermodynamic Properties and Detonation Performances of Bicyclic Nitramines: TNAD Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ling; XIAO He-Ming; GONG Xue-Dong; JU Xue-Hai

    2006-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been performed at Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Mōller-Plesset (MP2), and hybrid density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP levels with 6-31G** basis set to investigate the low sensitive explosive trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8- tetraazadecalin (TNAD) and its seven bicyclic isomers. Their molecular geometries, electronic structures, thermodynamic properties, and detonation performances were predicted and compared. The relationships between structures and various properties were discussed in detail. The calculated results agree well with the available experimental data, and suggest that some compounds may be novel potential candidates of high energy density materials (HEDMs) with performances better than TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and similar to RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

  17. Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 μg m-3) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 μg m-3) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland

  18. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J., E-mail: ju.zhang@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Mehner, W., E-mail: w.mehner@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Holl, S., E-mail: st.holl@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Boltes, M., E-mail: m.boltes@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Andresen, E., E-mail: e.andresen@uni-wuppertal.de [Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany); Schadschneider, A., E-mail: as@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany); Seyfried, A., E-mail: a.seyfried@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2014-09-12

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space–time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  19. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Holl, Stefan; Boltes, Maik; Andresen, Erik; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The relation between flow and density, also known as the fundamental diagram, is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compare the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space-time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite of their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  20. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space–time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected