WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicycle helmets

  1. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes confoundin

  2. Bicycle helmet promotion programs--Canada, Australia, and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-26

    The use of bicycle helmets substantially reduces the risk for serious head injuries during bicycle-related crashes. Despite this benefit, epidemiologic data indicate a worldwide low prevalence of helmet use. Strategies to increase the use of bicycle helmets in the United States and other countries include subsidies, legislation, and education. This report summarizes information regarding three strategies to increase bicycle helmet use and the impact of implementing these approaches in Canada (helmet subsidies), Australia (legislation), and the United States (education). PMID:8446097

  3. Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L

    1996-07-01

    The first year of the mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Australia saw increased helmet wearing from 31% to 75% of cyclists in Victoria and from 31% of children and 26% of adults in New South Wales (NSW) to 76% and 85%. However, the two major surveys using matched before and after samples in Melbourne (Finch et al. 1993; Report No. 45, Monash Univ. Accident Research Centre) and throughout NSW (Smith and Milthorpe 1993; Roads and Traffic Authority) observed reductions in numbers of child cyclists 15 and 2.2 times greater than the increase in numbers of children wearing helmets. This suggests the greatest effect of the helmet law was not to encourage cyclists to wear helmets, but to discourage cycling. In contrast, despite increases to at least 75% helmet wearing, the proportion of head injuries in cyclists admitted or treated at hospital declined by an average of only 13%. The percentage of cyclists with head injuries after collisions with motor vehicles in Victoria declined by more, but the proportion of head injured pedestrians also declined; the two followed a very similar trend. These trends may have been caused by major road safety initiatives introduced at the same time as the helmet law and directed at both speeding and drink-driving. The initiatives seem to have been remarkably effective in reducing road trauma for all road users, perhaps affecting the proportions of victims suffering head injuries as well as total injuries. The benefits of cycling, even without a helmet, have been estimated to outweigh the hazards by a factor of 20 to 1 (Hillman 1993. Cycle helmets-the case for and against. Policy Studies Institute, London). Consequently, a helmet law, whose most notable effect was to reduce cycling, may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. Despite the risk of dying from head injury per hour being similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, cyclists alone have been required to wear head protection. Helmets for motor

  4. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  5. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998. PMID:11036573

  6. Bicycle helmet use and bicycling-related injury among young Canadians: an equity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cycling is a major activity for adolescents in Canada and potential differences exist in bicycling-related risk and experience of injury by population subgroup. The overall aim of this study was to inform health equity interventions by profiling stratified analytic methods and identifying potential inequities associated with bicycle-related injury and the use of bicycle helmets among Canadian youth. The two objectives of this study were: (1) To examine national patterns in bicycle ridership and also bicycle helmet use among Canadian youth in a stratified analysis by potentially vulnerable population subgroups, and (2) To examine bicycling-related injury in the same population subgroups of Canadian youth in order to identify possible health inequities. Methods Data for this study were obtained from the 6th cycle (2009/10) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, which is a general health survey that was completed by 26,078 students in grades 6–10 from 436 Canadian schools. Based on survey responses, we determined point prevalence for bicycle ridership, bicycle helmet use and relative risks for bicycling-related injury. Results Three quarters of all respondents were bicycle riders (n=19,410). Independent factors associated with bicycle ridership among students include being male, being a younger student, being more affluent, and being a resident of a small town. Among bicycle riders, 43% (95%CI ± 0.6%) reported never wearing and 32% (± 0.6%) inconsistently wearing a helmet. Only 26% (± 0.5%) of students reported always wearing a bicycle helmet. Helmets were less frequently used among older students and there were also important patterns by sex, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Adjusting for all other demographic characteristics, boys reported 2.02-fold increase (95% CI: 1.61 to 1.90) and new immigrants a 1.35-fold increase (95%CI: 1.00 to1.82) in the relative risk of bicycling-related injury in the past 12 months

  7. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit ( 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  8. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-05-25

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  9. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  10. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. PMID:27077273

  11. Helmet Wearing Among Users of a Public Bicycle-Sharing Program in the District of Columbia and Comparable Riders on Personal Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Anderko, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  12. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction st...

  13. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; Pchin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  14. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  15. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  16. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  17. The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents--A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2016-06-01

    There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries among cyclists. Epidemiological, experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested that helmets do indeed have a protective effect, whereas other studies based on epidemiological data have argued that there is no evidence that the helmet protects the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a helmet in single bicycle accident reconstructions using detailed finite element simulations. Strain in the brain tissue, which is associated with brain injuries, was reduced by up to 43% for the accident cases studied when a helmet was included. This resulted in a reduction of the risk of concussion of up to 54%. The stress to the skull bone went from fracture level of 80 MPa down to 13-16 MPa when a helmet was included and the skull fracture risk was reduced by up to 98% based on linear acceleration. Even with a 10% increased riding velocity for the helmeted impacts, to take into account possible increased risk taking, the risk of concussion was still reduced by up to 46% when compared with the unhelmeted impacts with original velocity. The results of this study show that the brain injury risk and risk of skull fracture could have been reduced in these three cases if a helmet had been worn. PMID:26974030

  18. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  19. Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.

  20. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  1. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripton, Peter A; Dressler, Daniel M; Stuart, Cameron A; Dennison, Christopher R; Richards, Darrin

    2014-09-01

    Cycling is a popular form of recreation and method of commuting with clear health benefits. However, cycling is not without risk. In Canada, cycling injuries are more common than in any other summer sport; and according to the US National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 52,000 cyclists were injured in the US in 2010. Head injuries account for approximately two-thirds of hospital admissions and three-quarters of fatal injuries among injured cyclists. In many jurisdictions and across all age levels, helmets have been adopted to mitigate risk of serious head injuries among cyclists and the majority of epidemiological literature suggests that helmets effectively reduce risk of injury. Critics have raised questions over the actual efficacy of helmets by pointing to weaknesses in existing helmet epidemiology including selection bias and lack of appropriate control for the type of impact sustained by the cyclist and the severity of the head impact. These criticisms demonstrate the difficulty in conducting epidemiology studies that will be regarded as definitive and the need for complementary biomechanical studies where confounding factors can be adequately controlled. In the bicycle helmet context, there is a paucity of biomechanical data comparing helmeted to unhelmeted head impacts and, to our knowledge, there is no data of this type available with contemporary helmets. In this research, our objective was to perform biomechanical testing of paired helmeted and unhelmeted head impacts using a validated anthropomorphic test headform and a range of drop heights between 0.5m and 3.0m, while measuring headform acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). In the 2m (6.3m/s) drops, the middle of our drop height range, the helmet reduced peak accelerations from 824g (unhelmeted) to 181g (helmeted) and HIC was reduced from 9667 (unhelmeted) to 1250 (helmeted). At realistic impact speeds of 5.4m/s (1.5m drop) and 6.3m/s (2.0m drop), bicycle helmets changed the

  2. Age Does Not Affect the Material Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Liners in Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Bonin, Stephanie J; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-04-01

    Bicycle helmet foam liners absorb energy during impacts. Our goal was to determine if the impact attenuation properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used in bicycle helmets change with age. Foam cores were extracted from 63 used and unused bicycle helmets from ten different models spanning an age range of 2-20 yrs. All cores were impact tested at a bulk strain rate of 195 s(-1). Six dependent variables were determined from the stress-strain curve derived from each impact (yield strain, yield stress, elastic modulus, plateau slope, energy at 65% compression, and stress at 65% compression), and a general linear model was used to assess the effect of age on each dependent variable with density as a covariate. Age did not affect any of the dependent variables; however, greater foam density, which varied from 58 to 100 kg/m(3), generated significant increases in all of the dependent variables except for yield strain. Higher density foam cores also exhibited lower strains at which densification began to occur, tended to stay within the plateau region of the stress-strain curve, and were not compressed as much compared with the lower density cores. Based on these data, the impact attenuation properties of EPS foam in field-used bicycle helmets do not degrade with the age. PMID:26902784

  3. Bicycle helmets.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    One third of the cyclists who are admitted to hospital with serious injury after a road crash are diagnosed with head or brain injury. Approximately three-quarters of the head and brain injuries among cyclists are caused by crashes that do not involve motorized traffic; as many as nine out of ten young children who sustain head/brain injury, do so in crashes not involving motor vehicles. These are mostly cyclist-only crashes. This type of crash is difficult to prevent, but it is possible to l...

  4. Bicycle helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    One third of the cyclists who are admitted to hospital with serious injury after a road crash are diagnosed with head or brain injury. Approximately three-quarters of the head and brain injuries among cyclists are caused by crashes that do not involve motorized traffic; as many as nine out of ten yo

  5. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra; Coleman, Emily; Zwolakowski, Dorothy; Lauwers, Bert; Cass, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury. Methods: We used a case–control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner’s review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet. Results: Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2–10.2). Interpretation: Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths. PMID:23071369

  6. Bicycle Helmet Wearing Is Not Associated with Close Motor Vehicle Passing: A Re-Analysis of Walker, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To re-analyse bicycle overtaking data collected by Walker (2007) with a view to assess factors associated with close passing (<1 m), to adjust for other observed factors in a multivariable analysis, and to assess the extent to which the sample size in the original analysis may have contributed to spurious results. Method A re-analysis of 2,355 motor vehicle passing events recorded by Walker that includes information on cyclist's distance to the kerb, vehicle size and colour, city of observation, time of day, whether the event occurred while in a bikelane and helmet wearing. Each variable was considered for a final, multivariable model using purposeful selection of variables. The analysis was repeated using multiple logistic regression with passing distance dichotomised by the one metre rule. Bootstrap p-values were computed using sample sizes computed from conventional values of power and effect size. Results The previously observed significant association between passing distance and helmet wearing was not found when dichotomised by the one metre rule. Other factors were found to be significantly associated with close passing including cyclists' distance to the kerb, vehicle size and city of observation (Salisbury or Bristol, UK). P-values from bootstrap samples indicate the significance of helmet wearing resulted from an overly large sample size. Conclusions After re-analysis of Walker's data, helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing. The results, however, highlight other more important factors that may inform effective bicycle safety strategies. PMID:24086528

  7. Bicycle helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing: a re-analysis of Walker, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Olivier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To re-analyse bicycle overtaking data collected by Walker (2007 with a view to assess factors associated with close passing (<1 m, to adjust for other observed factors in a multivariable analysis, and to assess the extent to which the sample size in the original analysis may have contributed to spurious results. METHOD: A re-analysis of 2,355 motor vehicle passing events recorded by Walker that includes information on cyclist's distance to the kerb, vehicle size and colour, city of observation, time of day, whether the event occurred while in a bikelane and helmet wearing. Each variable was considered for a final, multivariable model using purposeful selection of variables. The analysis was repeated using multiple logistic regression with passing distance dichotomised by the one metre rule. Bootstrap p-values were computed using sample sizes computed from conventional values of power and effect size. RESULTS: The previously observed significant association between passing distance and helmet wearing was not found when dichotomised by the one metre rule. Other factors were found to be significantly associated with close passing including cyclists' distance to the kerb, vehicle size and city of observation (Salisbury or Bristol, UK. P-values from bootstrap samples indicate the significance of helmet wearing resulted from an overly large sample size. CONCLUSIONS: After re-analysis of Walker's data, helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing. The results, however, highlight other more important factors that may inform effective bicycle safety strategies.

  8. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. PMID:23026203

  9. The cost-effectiveness of compulsory bicycle helmets in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P; Scuffham, P A

    1995-10-01

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness for primary school children (age 5-12 years), secondary school children (13-18 years) and adults (over 18 years) of the legislation enacted on 1 January 1994 requiring road-cyclists in New Zealand to wear helmets. The cost to cyclists not in possession of a helmet before they became compulsory of either obtaining one or quitting cycling was compared with the number of deaths and hospitalisations expected to be prevented over the average life of a helmet. Corresponding to Victorian and United States estimates of the efficacy of cycle helmets at preventing serious head injuries, the cost per life saved was $88 379 to $113 744 for primary school children, $694 013 to $817 874 for secondary school children, and $890 041 to $1 014 850 for adults (New Zealand dollars = approximately 0.95 Australian dollars). The cost per hospitalisation avoided was $3304 to $4252, $17 207 to $20 278, and $49 143 to $56 035 respectively. These estimates are extremely sensitive to the estimated efficacy of helmets at protecting cyclists. Mainly anecdotal evidence for New Zealand suggests that they are not to be very effective at preventing serious head injuries; future research into the change in injury patterns as a result of the helmet regulation would be valuable. Nonetheless, the ranking of the abovementioned estimates does not contradict the policy in some parts of the world requiring helmets for children and/or teenagers, but not adults.

  10. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  11. Bicycle Culture in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersenn, Pia; Breitenstein, Marcus Lindgaard; Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo

    2014-01-01

    The research area involves the cycling culture in Denmark. Cycling is one of the main forms of transport in Denmark today, and it has been a big part of Denmark’s culture since the early 20th century. This project specifically looks at bicycle helmets. Today in Denmark, there is no legislation demanding cyclists to wear helmets. However we would like to investigate what the government’s stance is concerning bicycle helmets. The project will begin by looking at the efficiency of helmets. Some ...

  12. Challenges in the Accurate Surveillance of Booster Seat and Bicycle Helmet Usage by Children: Lessons from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Pankratz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle collisions and bicycle collisions and falls are a leading cause of death by preventable injury for children. In order to design, implement and evaluate campaigns and programs aimed at improving child safety, accurate surveillance is needed. This paper examined the challenges that confront efforts to collect surveillance data relevant to child traffic safety, including observation, interview, and focus group methods. Strategies to address key challenges in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of surveillance methods were recommended. The potential for new technology to enhance existing surveillance methods was also explored.

  13. Challenges in the Accurate Surveillance of Booster Seat and Bicycle Helmet Usage by Children: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Curt; Warda, Lynne; Piotrowski, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions and bicycle collisions and falls are a leading cause of death by preventable injury for children. In order to design, implement and evaluate campaigns and programs aimed at improving child safety, accurate surveillance is needed. This paper examined the challenges that confront efforts to collect surveillance data relevant to child traffic safety, including observation, interview, and focus group methods. Strategies to address key challenges in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of surveillance methods were recommended. The potential for new technology to enhance existing surveillance methods was also explored. PMID:27399749

  14. Challenges in the Accurate Surveillance of Booster Seat and Bicycle Helmet Usage by Children: Lessons from the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Curt; Warda, Lynne; Piotrowski, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions and bicycle collisions and falls are a leading cause of death by preventable injury for children. In order to design, implement and evaluate campaigns and programs aimed at improving child safety, accurate surveillance is needed. This paper examined the challenges that confront efforts to collect surveillance data relevant to child traffic safety, including observation, interview, and focus group methods. Strategies to address key challenges in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of surveillance methods were recommended. The potential for new technology to enhance existing surveillance methods was also explored. PMID:27399749

  15. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  16. Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n = 15) as…

  17. Helmet blastometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  18. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  19. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  20. Public Bicycle Share Programs and Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Barry; Moore, Lynne; Nathens, Avery B.; Hunte, Garth; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of North American public bicycle share programs (PBSPs), which typically do not offer helmets with rentals, on the occurrence of bicycle-related head injuries. Methods. We analyzed trauma center data for bicycle-related injuries from 5 cities with PBSPs and 5 comparison cities. We used logistic regression models to compare the odds that admission for a bicycle-related injury would involve a head injury 24 months before PBSP implementation and 12 months afterward. Results. In PBSP cities, the proportion of head injuries among bicycle-related injuries increased from 42.3% before PBSP implementation to 50.1% after (P < .01). This proportion in comparison cities remained similar before (38.2%) and after (35.9%) implementation (P = .23). Odds ratios for head injury were 1.30 (95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.67) in PBSP cities and 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.79, 1.11) in control cities (adjusted for age and city) when we compared the period after implementation to the period before. Conclusions. Results suggest that steps should be taken to make helmets available with PBSPs. Helmet availability should be incorporated into PBSP planning and funding, not considered an afterthought following implementation. PMID:24922150

  1. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  2. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older...

  3. Bicycle Commuting

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, E

    2011-01-01

    Cycling is cheaper, healthier and in urban environments often faster than other transport modes. Nevertheless, even at short distances, many individuals do not cycle. This thesis aims to explain why commuters vary in their decision to bicycle. Results indicate that the individual (day-to-day) choice to commute by bicycle is affected by personal attitudes towards cycling to work, social norms, work situation, weather conditions and trip characteristics. Additionally, this thesis provides evide...

  4. Impact of Helmet Use in Traumatic Brain Injuries Associated with Recreational Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ganti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the impact of helmet use on outcomes after recreational vehicle accidents. Methods. This is an observational cohort of adult and pediatric patients who sustained a TBI while riding a recreational vehicle. Recreational vehicles included bicycles, motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs, as well as a category for other vehicles such as skateboards and scooters. Results. Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with having a more severe traumatic brain injury and being admitted to the hospital. Similarly, 25% of those who did wearing a helmet were admitted to the ICU versus 36% of those who did not (P=0.0489. The hospital length of stay was significantly greater for patients who did not use helmets. Conclusion. Lack of helmet use is significantly correlated with abnormal neuroimaging and admission to the hospital and ICU; these data support a call for action to implement more widespread injury prevention and helmet safety education and advocacy.

  5. Fatal falls from bicycles: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venara, A; Mauillon, D; Gaudin, A; Rouge-Maillart, C; Jousset, N

    2013-03-10

    Though rare occurrences, fatal falls from bicycles are generally linked to the absence of a protective helmet and/or a collision with another vehicle. The case presented here is exceptional due to its circumstances and the consequences of the accident: a fall with no obstacle at a low speed that brought about multiple traumas and the death of a cyclist wearing a protective helmet. Comparing this against a review of cyclist accidentology literature, this case is unique. The increased use of autopsy in terms of forensic accidentology is to be encouraged so as not to misunderstand the possibility of such lesion-based consequences following a simple fall from a bicycle. PMID:23312586

  6. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  7. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, John C; Huybers, Sherry

    2004-05-01

    Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicles; and the use of safety devices, including bicycle helmets, lights and reflective tape. Whereas, research into optimal roadway design and educational programs for drivers to improve road safety has yielded contradictory results, the benefits of bicycle helmet use and programs to enhance their use have been clearly shown. This paper has the following objectives for paediatricians and family physicians: To understand the relationship between bicycle safety and children's motor and cognitive skills.To understand the effectiveness and limitations of strategies to improve bicycle safety.To describe activities to promote bicycle safety that physicians can undertake in clinical settings and in the community. PMID:19657515

  8. Solar Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sridhar; HARSHENDRA. N. SHET. K

    2011-01-01

    The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage ...

  9. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  10. Solar Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIDHAR. S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage of 15-20 km. It is also provided with manual pedaling which increases the cycle’s mileage further. Average speed of the cycle is 15-18 kmph.

  11. Effects of Wearing a Helmet on Thermal Balance While Cycling in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisolfi, C V; Rohlf, D P; Navarude, S N; Hayes, C L; Sayeed, S A

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Many cyclists refuse to wear helmets because they produce discomfort and drag. To determine the effects of wearing a helmet on thermal balance and rating of perceived exertion while cycling in the heat, six male competitive cyclists aged 19 to 32 rode a stationary bicycle attached to a road-racing simulator in an environmentally controlled chamber for two hours at 70% V O2 max. Measurements were taken of rectal and skin temperatures, V O2, heart rate, sweat rate, and rating of perceived exertion. The results showed that (under the experimental conditions used) wearing a helmet while cycling in the heat does not alter thermal balance or cardiovascular strain compared with not wearing a helmet.

  12. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males.

  13. Lost Kingdom of Bicycles?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For most people born in the 1950s and '60s, the bicycle was a faithful companion of their youth, when China was known as a kingdom of bicycles. A bicycle ride was a favorite pastime during a colorful spring day or in the crisp

  14. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  15. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  16. Studi Simulasi Penibebanan Impak Pada Helmet Sepeda Dari Baiian Pol}.Uieric Foam Yang Diperkuat Serbuk Tkks Dengan Menggunakan Sottware Ansys 14.5

    OpenAIRE

    Afrinedi

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle helmet is a form of body protection that was used qtclists to protect the head when/blling and minimizing injury caused by impact. Nowadays the material .for bike helmet mandacturingrelatively expensive this makes production costs and selling price higher, therefore new research conducted on natural powder from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). Raw abundant often become waste, it was estimated to be quite economical and can be developed into alternative materials t...

  17. Bicycle Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James; Arellano , Secundino; Carrillo , Alma; Cruz , Melinda; Kunitskiy, Dmitriy; Maynigo , Marlo; Sell , Monica

    2013-01-01

    Project Description:  Bicycle detection has become a popular feature of high demand in cities and agencies across the United States. California has recently mandated that all new limit line detector installations as well as modifications to existing limit line detection must provide bicycle detection. This has created the need to develop detection methodologies which are able to detect bicycles as well as differentiate them from vehicles. The objective of this project is to utilize Econolite ...

  18. Recumbent bicycle design

    OpenAIRE

    Basso Puig, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this project is the design of a recumbent bicycle prototype. A recumbent bike is a type of bicycle in which the rider mounts in a reclined position. In order to do this, we will learn about these bicycles by showing the different types there are, its evolution over the years, and so on. After that, it is shown the recumbent bicycle design and all its components. It has been invented the frame and so, it is explained the material choice, a brief anthropometric study and FE...

  19. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  20. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design, mane...

  1. Bicycling and Hostels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, George M., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This collection of articles focuses on bicycling and hosteling as important recreational activities that can (a) help conserve energy, (b) benefit the economy offering a low-cost pasttime, and (c) stimulate foreign travel to the U.S. Articles include the following: (a) "Bicycling and Hosteling--An American Partnership," (b) "The Return of the…

  2. Bicycles made to measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2007-01-01

    For almost a century and a half, mathematicians have been racking their brains about the bike. How can a rolling bicycle be so stable of its own accord? Delft researchers now say they have completed the model to end all models. Bicycle manufacturer Batavus intends to use it to make better bikes for

  3. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt...) Years of Age and Older ER10MR98.004...

  4. Butchers and Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educ...

  5. Combat Helmets and Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and the prominence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, mostly from improvised explosive devices, have focused attention on the effectiveness of combat helmets. Purpose: This paper examines the importance of TBI, the role and history of the development of combat helmets, current helmet designs and effectiveness, helmet design methodology, helmet sensors, future research and recommendations. Method: A literature review was conducted using search terms – combat helmets, traumatic brain injury, concussion, Iraq, Afghanistan and helmet sensors, searching PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Conclusions: At present, no existing helmet is able to fully protect against all threats faced on the battlefield. The prominence of traumatic brain injury from improvised explosive devices in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has highlighted the limitations in knowledge about blast and how to provide protection from it. As a result, considerable research is currently occurring in how to protect the head from blast over-pressure. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Some new combat helmets may be able to protect against rifle rounds, but may result in injuries occurring behind body armour. Optimal combat helmet design requires a balance between the need for protection from trauma and the comfort and practicality of the helmet for the user to ensure the best outcomes.

  6. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible. PMID:25568838

  7. Electric Bicycle Design

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar López, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The thesis consists of the design of an electric bike. Based on the analysis of the needs arising from urban transport in Sweden and its people.We wanted to develop a bicycle that could be manufactured in the coming years and be widely accepted by the Swedish population and later also in Europe.

  8. Bicycles and Valentines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shanghai municipality's announcement late last year that bicycles were to be banned from the city's main thoroughfares was ill received by many residents. The measure was taken to relieve traffic congestion and reflects how traditional modes of transport fail to meet the changing needs of Chinese contemporary life.

  9. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  10. The safety of electrically assisted bicycles compared to classic bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Fishman, E; den Hertog, P; Wolt, K Klein; Schwab, A L

    2014-12-01

    Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case-control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is needed and injury consequences for electric bicycles to classic bicycles in the Netherlands among users of 16 years and older. Data were gathered through a survey of victims treated at emergency departments. Additionally, a survey of cyclists without any known crash experience, drawn from a panel of the Dutch population acted as a control sample. Logistic regression analysis is used to compare the risk of crashes with electric and classical bicycles requiring treatment at an emergency department. Among the victims treated at an emergency department we compared those being hospitalized to those being send home after the treatment at the emergency department to compare the injury consequences between electric and classical bicycle victims. The results suggest that, after controlling for age, gender and amount of bicycle use, electric bicycle users are more likely to be involved in a crash that requires treatment at an emergency department due to a crash. Crashes with electric bicycles are about equally severe as crashes with classic bicycles. We advise further research to develop policies to minimize the risk and maximize the health benefits for users of electric bicycles.

  11. Ultra-wideband RF helmet antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Lebaric, Jovan; Tan, Ah-Tuan

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an ultra-wideband, vertically polarized communications antenna integrated into the camouflage cover of a standard military-issue Kevlar helmet. The Helmet Camouflage Cover Antenna (referred to as the “helmet antenna’y is one of three antennas based on the antenna COMbat Wear INtegration (COMWIN) concept developed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) for the man -portable implementation of the new Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). The results of c...

  12. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding.

  13. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  14. Electric power generating bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Nuno; Ribeiro, Luís; Esteves, João Sena

    2006-01-01

    It is manifest the growing interest in both personal health and environmental issues. The device described on this paper contemplates both aspects: generating environment-friendly electric power while keeping fit. A car alternator excited through a 12V battery is coupled to a mountain bicycle, and this arrangement enables the lighting of six halogen lamps, if a cyclist pedals fast enough. Such a machine gives rise to the thought of a self-powered gymnasium. Considerable physical effort is req...

  15. Teaching children about bicycle safety: an evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Noland, Robert B; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple health and environmental benefits associated with increasing bicycling among children. However, the use of bicycles is also associated with severe injuries and fatalities. In order to reduce bicycle crashes, a bicycling education program was implemented in selected New Jersey schools and summer camps as part of the New Jersey Safe Routes to School Program. Using a convenience sample of participants to the program, an opportunistic study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two bicycle education programs, the first a more-structured program delivered in a school setting, with no on-road component, and the other a less structured program delivered in a summer camp setting that included an on-road component. Tests administered before and after training were designed to assess knowledge acquired during the training. Questions assessed children's existing knowledge of helmet use and other equipment, bicycle safety, as well as their ability to discriminate hazards and understand rules of the road. Participating children (n=699) also completed a travel survey that assessed their bicycling behavior and their perception of safety issues. Response to individual questions, overall pre- and post-training test scores, and changes in test scores were compared using comparison of proportion, t-tests, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Improvements between the pre-training and post-training test are apparent from the frequency distribution of test results and from t-tests. Both summer camps and school-based programs recorded similar improvements in test results. Children who bicycled with their parents scored higher on the pre-training test but did not improve as much on the post-training test. Without evaluating long-term changes in behavior, it is difficult to ascertain how successful the program is on eventual behavioral and safety outcomes.

  16. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  17. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  18. Quantification of ventilation characteristics of a helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brecht, A; Nuyttens, D; Aerts, J M; Quanten, S; De Bruyne, G; Berckmans, D

    2008-05-01

    Despite the augmented safety offered by wearing a cyclist crash helmet, many cyclists still refuse to wear one because of the thermal discomfort that comes along with wearing it. In this paper, a method is described that quantifies the ventilation characteristics of a helmet using tracer gas experiments. A Data-Based Mechanistic model was applied to provide a physically meaningful description of the dominant internal dynamics of mass transfer in the imperfectly mixed fluid under the helmet. By using a physical mass balance, the local ventilation efficiency could be described by using a single input-single output system. Using this approach, ventilation efficiency ranging from 0.06 volume refreshments per second (s(-1)) at the side of the helmet to 0.22s(-1) at the rear ventilation opening were found on the investigated helmet. The zones at the side were poorly ventilated. The influence of the angle of inclination on ventilation efficiency was dependent on the position between head and helmet. General comfort of the helmet can be improved by increasing the ventilation efficiency of fresh air at the problem zones.

  19. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.

  20. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    absence of external signs of trauma. Pulmonary contusion and pneumothorax are frequently present without rib fractures. Pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, and rib fractures are the most common injuries. In order to prevent bicycle accidents; bicycle drivers should have specific education, helmet use must become widespread and special traffic regulations have to be settled. Increasing the education level if family will contribute to the prevention of childhood trauma.

  1. Ultra-wideband conformal helmet antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Lebaric, J.; Ah-Tuan Tan

    2000-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1.1109/APMC.2000.926116 This paper presents the development of an ultra-wideband (300 to 3000 MHz), vertically polarized, nearly omni-directional (in azimuth) communications antenna integrated into the camouflage cover of a standard military-issue Kevlar helmet. The Helmet Camouflage Cover Antenna (referred to as the “helmet antenna”) is one of three antennas (with the combined frequency coverage from 2 to 2000 MHz) based on the an...

  2. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  3. Assessing the reliability and validity of direct observation and traffic camera streams to measure helmet and motorcycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Heather N; Carbone, Emily C; Dsouza, Nishita; Xu, Michelle R; Byrne, Mary C; Kraemer, John D

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to develop motorcycle helmet surveillance approaches that are less labour intensive than direct observation (DO), which is the commonly recommended but never formally validated approach, particularly in developing settings. This study sought to assess public traffic camera feeds as an alternative to DO, in addition to the reliability of DO under field conditions. DO had high inter-rater reliability, κ=0.88 and 0.84, respectively, for cycle type and helmet type, which reinforces its use as a gold standard. However, traffic camera-based data collection was found to be unreliable, with κ=0.46 and 0.53 for cycle type and helmet type. When bicycles, motorcycles and scooters were classified based on traffic camera streams, only 68.4% of classifications concurred with those made via DO. Given the current technology, helmet surveillance via traffic camera streams is infeasible, and there remains a need for innovative traffic safety surveillance approaches in low-income urban settings.

  4. Design of an electric bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Cabré Viñeta, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an electrical bicycle. As this bike has an electrical motor, it will not be used as a sport method, the main idea is to use it as a public transport so people can move from side to side of the city without traffic, without pollution and without getting tired. Once selected the purpose of the bicycle, it is necessary to take into account the main features that it must have. A bicycle used as a transport around the city needs to be easy to ...

  5. Biomechanical performance of leather and modern football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Daniel, Ray W; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-09-01

    With the increased national concern about concussions in football, recent research has focused on evaluating the impact performance of modern football helmets. Specifically, this technical note offers a biomechanical analysis of classic leather helmets compared with modern helmets. Furthermore, modern helmets were examined to illustrate the performance differences between the better- and worse-performing ones. A total of 1224 drop tests were performed from a range of drop heights and impact locations on 11 different helmet types (10 modern and 1 leather helmet model). The resulting head acceleration was used to assess the risk of concussion for each drop test. The results of this analysis demonstrate that modern helmets are significantly and substantially superior to leather helmets in all impact scenarios, and that notable differences exist among modern helmets.

  6. Control for an Autonomous Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Neil H.; Marsden, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    The control of nonholonomic and underactuated systems with symmetry is illustrated by the problem of controlling a bicycle. We derive a controller which, using steering and rear-wheel torque, causes a model of a riderless bicycle to recover its balance from a near fall as well as converge to a time parameterized path in the ground plane. Our construction utilizes new results for both the derivation of equations of motion for nonholonomic systems with symmetry, as well as the control of undera...

  7. Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160423.html Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet Wearing the ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- All cyclists should wear bike helmets, which can reduce the risk of head ...

  8. Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Dodge, Thomas M; Nauman, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) has developed impact attenuation thresholds that protective helmets worn in sport must meet to be commercially available in an attempt to prevent injury. It remains unknown how normal helmet use in athletic activity alters the force attenuation ability of lacrosse helmets. We tested 3 new and 3 randomly selected used helmets from 2 popular lacrosse models (Cascade Pro7, Cascade CPXR). All used helmets had been worn for 3 collegiate seasons prior to testing and had never been refurbished. Helmets were drop-tested using 3 prescribed impact velocities at 6 locations according to the NOCSAE lacrosse helmet standard, and we compared the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores between new and used helmets using a repeated measure ANOVA with location as the repeated variable and data separated by impact velocity. All 12 helmets passed the NOCSAE GSI threshold for all testing conditions; however 1 used helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test. We found a significant main effect for helmet age at the low (F5,50=2.98, P=.02), medium (F5,50=3.71, P=.006), and high (F5,50=2.70, P=.03) velocities. We suspect that helmet use can degrade materials under some conditions, but improve performance in others due to changes in helmet composition from use. The clinical implications of the differences in GSI scores noted remain unclear. Because one helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test, used helmets should be regularly inspected for cracks or other signs of mechanical fatigue that may weaken helmet integrity. PMID:26429768

  9. Valuing public investments to support bicycling

    OpenAIRE

    Götschi, Thomas; Hintermann, Beat

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for assessing the net benefits of investments to promote bicycling, which explicitly accounts for internal costs of bicycling. We apply our model to eight Swiss cities using data from the Swiss national travel survey and find that increasing the level of bicycling by reducing internal costs leads to inframarginal benefits that exceed the net benefits from the additional bicycling.  We further find that Swiss cyclists only partially internalize health benefits, which aff...

  10. The Bicycle Rental Market In Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 1, 2008, Hangzhou, capital of east China’s Zhejiang Province, included bicycle rentals in the public transportation system. Now, bicycles have become the most convenient form of transport for Hangzhou residents. Data from the Hangzhou Bureau of Transportation show that on average each bicycle gets rented five times a day.

  11. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. PMID:27448519

  12. Two Wheeler Helmets with Ventilation and Metal Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pinnoji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different two wheeler helmets were studied to investigate their dynamic performance.First is helmet with ABS shell, second is helmet with metal foam, and third is helmet with singlegroove in the liner foam for providing ventilation. Front and side impact analyses were carriedout at 10 m/s velocity by using LS-DYNATM. Forces on the helmet and on the head due to impactwere studied with function of time. Pressure and stresses in the brain were investigated andfound not to change significantly due to the presence of groove in the liner foam, which wasprovided to improve the ventilation in helmets. The dynamic performance of a helmet with outershell as metal foam was examined and compared with ABS material.

  13. Pedal cyclists, crash helmets and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1991-07-01

    As a rate per million kilometres travelled, the 'risk' of cycling appears to be high in relation to other forms of transport. Yet, in absolute numbers, there are far fewer cyclist deaths than pedestrian or motor vehicle occupant deaths, and most deaths and serious injuries to pedal cyclists are caused by other road users--principally motor vehicles. The large majority of pedal cyclist deaths are due to head injuries after collision with a motor vehicle. It is therefore commonly proposed that cyclists should wear crash helmets for their own 'safety'. Helmets may protect against fall injuries, but current models are not designed to withstand the impact of collisions with motor vehicles. Evidence for the benefit of pedal cyclists wearing helmets is limited: the existing studies cannot exclude the possibility of different risk-taking behaviour, either by cyclists or by motor vehicle drivers, for helmet wearers compared with non-wearers. A public health policy towards reducing pedal cyclist deaths should seek prevention of accidents, rather than protection from their consequences. Cycling in greater safety would reduce the 'risk' per kilometre travelled, but more cycling might not reduce total cyclist deaths or injuries--because of greater exposure. The 'risk' of cycling--the risk of injury or death--is a complex mix of exposure, 'danger' of the environment, and the perceived risk affecting our precautionary preventive behaviour.

  14. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; f...

  15. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  16. Proper fit of the bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E R

    1994-01-01

    After cyclists have carefully made adjustments for proper fit, minor aches and pains may develop before the body adjusts to the new riding posture. This is normal--so resist the temptation to fiddle with the position much. They will become accustomed to the new riding position after a few rides, and cycling performance will be improved. Then they can concentrate on bike handling skills and fitness confident that their riding position is as good as can be. Proper bicycle fit requires careful review of bicycle selection, saddle height for proper leg extension, fore-and-aft positioning of the knee over the pedal, saddle tilt, handlebar position, and positioning of the upper body for optimum comfort and performance. Further research on the effects of maintaining an aerodynamic position for extended periods of time needs to be investigated to review fatigue patterns in lower and upper body musculature. The underlying principle of positioning a cyclist on a bicycle is to remember that the bicycle is adjustable, and the cyclist is adaptable. PMID:8111846

  17. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  18. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  19. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  20. Characterisation of Electric Bicycles Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Meeusen, Roman; Kempenaers, Farid

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper reports on characterisation work performed in the scope of the E-tour project. This project has already been presented at EVS-18. At the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ different EPACs (Electric Power Assisted Cycles) are put at the public’s disposal for testing. To quantify the performances of these electrical bicycles we want to link the subjective experienced driving comfort to some measurable objective parameters. For this purpose we converted a treadmill in...

  1. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  2. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  3. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Gregor, Thomas Issac; Bhat, Dhananjay I.; Kumarsamy, Akhil Deepika; Shukla, Dhaval P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011). Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ) and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ), were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males) with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5%) were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6%) cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5), and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4). Sixty-three (49%) patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%). Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1%) and death in 8 (7.4%). The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms. PMID:24250156

  4. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.218 Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. S1. Scope. This standard... and other motor vehicle users resulting from head impacts. S3. Application. This standard applies to all helmets designed for use by motorcyclists and other motor vehicle users. S4. Definitions....

  5. Adaptive sensor array algorithm for structural health monitoring of helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-04-01

    The adaptive neural network is a standard technique used in nonlinear system estimation and learning applications for dynamic models. In this paper, we introduced an adaptive sensor fusion algorithm for a helmet structure health monitoring system. The helmet structure health monitoring system is used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull. Installed inside the helmet system, there is an optical fiber pressure sensors array. After implementing the adaptive estimation algorithm into helmet system, a dynamic model for the sensor array has been developed. The dynamic response characteristics of the sensor network are estimated from the pressure data by applying an adaptive control algorithm using artificial neural network. With the estimated parameters and position data from the dynamic model, the pressure distribution of the whole helmet can be calculated following the Bazier Surface interpolation method. The distribution pattern inside the helmet will be very helpful for improving helmet design to provide better protection to soldiers from head injuries.

  6. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  7. Bicycle parking preferences: costs versus walking time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Maat, K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful bicycle stimulating policies may increase the need for bicycle parking capacity, especially at main railway stations located in city centers. A potential solution for this problem involves combining paid surveyed indoor parking near the platforms and free open-air parking without surveill

  8. Stabilizing a Bicycle: A Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Timothy J.; Williams, Blair R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a project that takes students through the process of forming a mathematical model of bicycle dynamics. Beginning with basic ideas from Newtonian mechanics (forces and torques), students use techniques from calculus and differential equations to develop the equations of rotational motion for a bicycle-rider system as it tips from…

  9. STRESS ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.M.V.Pazare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stress analysis of bicycle frame by using Finite Element Method. The analysis is carried out in Ansys, The F.E.A. results are compared with theoretical results. In theoretical analysis the frame is treated as truss like structure and the stresses in various members of frame like top tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stay and seat stay are determined, considering various condition like, static start up, steady state paddling, vertical impact, horizontal impact, rear wheel braking. Also Finite Element Analysis is done considering the above conditions. From the analysis it is found that there is a good agreement between analytical and F.E.A. results. Result of all the cases reveals that maximum stress is found in top tube of the bicycle frame as compared to other frame members and is equal to 24.84 MPa which is less than yield strength in tension (i.e.Syt = 290 MPa for the material (aluminum T 6061 selected.

  10. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is al

  11. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  12. Survey of options on legalizing bicycling (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwahlen, Jurg; Sulewski, Sharon; Sacovitch, Stephen;

    1999-01-01

    the opposition against the proposal was.The goal of this project was to identify categories of users that were opposed to bicycling on the Dosseringen of the Østerbro and Nørrebro District lakes in Copenhagen. The identification of the opposition and its strength, rationale and organization was in terms of age......, gender, residency, frequency of use and their utilization of the area (i.e. walking, jogging, bicycling) as compared to the support for bicycling in the area. This was an Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP), that was designed to merge technical and scientific knowledge with society, and stresses...... the importance of this interaction....

  13. A Lightweight Innovative Helmet Airborne Display And Sight (HADAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Daniel; Arnon, Oded; Avnur, Arie

    1987-09-01

    The Helmet Airborne Display and Sight (HADAS) system under development, has succeeded in surmounting many of the problems experienced by current, as well as past helmet mounted display and sight designs for operation in fighter aircraft. The goal has been achieved by combination of holographic optical elements and fiber optics for the display function, as well as real-time image processing of the helmet location for the sight function. The integrated system can provide "all aspect head-up display" performance in the cockpit.

  14. Rebreathing in a subject wearing an integral crash helmet.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenbaum, R; Malins, A F; Davies, R.; Baskett, P J

    1982-01-01

    The respired air of a volunteer was analysed while he was wearing a variety of integral crash helmets. Observations were made with and without a protective balaclava, bib or scarf, or both. Rebreathing occurred and the peak inspired oxygen tension fell as low as 16.0 kPa (120 mm Hg) with a minimum inspired carbon dioxide of 2.1 KPa (16.0 mm Hg). Accessories worn or attached to the helmet which restrict airflow into the helmet should not be used. Attention should be paid to the "air conditioni...

  15. A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Attitude towards Bicycle and Using Bicycle in Short Trips in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to investigate relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle among the men in Isfahan. Based on the descriptive research findings, mean using bicycle score is low in Iran. This situation is not satisfactory for a metropolis such as Isfahan that has an increasing population and motor vehicles, and also has many difficulties in urban base facilities and must be changed. In addition to mean attitude toward bicycle is high that is an opportunity for urban planners. Inferential findings show that attitude toward bicycle has a significant impact on using bicycle. In other words, increase attitude toward bicycle means an increase in using bicycle for short trips. This research finding theoretically confirm relation between attitude and behavior. Moreover it is compatible with results of the research that show there is significant relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle. There is an inverse significant relationship between age and using bicycle and with rising age using bicycle is decreased. This research finding shows that urban infrastructure in Isfahan for using bicycle is not available and consequently with rising age, bicycle risk is increased. There is a direct significant relationship between income rate and using bicycle and with increasing income rate, using bicycle is also increased. This research finding is rooted in social prestige bicycle and higher classes prefer to use motor vehicle for transportation instead of bicycle. There is a significant relationship between marital status and using bicycle and single men use bicycle more than married men but there is no significant relationship between education level and using bicycle. This research findings show that with rising education level in spite of rising income, using bicycle is not decreased. And finally there is no significant relationship between employed and unemployed persons in using bicycle. On the basis of the evidences such

  16. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  17. 36 CFR 1004.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... routes designated for bicycle use; provided, however, that the Board may close any Presidio Trust road or... consistent with the protection of natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations and...

  18. 36 CFR 4.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road or parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1.5 and 1.7 of this... consistent with the protection of a park area's natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety...

  19. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Munivenkatappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011. Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS, Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ, were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5% were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6% cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5, and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4. Sixty-three (49% patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%. Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1% and death in 8 (7.4%. The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms.

  20. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  1. Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, S; Gu, L; Alai, A; Chandra, N

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of helmets in extenuating the primary shock waves generated by the explosions of improvised explosive devices is not clearly understood. In this work, the role of helmet on the overpressurisation and impulse experienced by the head were examined. The shock wave-head interactions were studied under three different cases: (i) unprotected head, (ii) head with helmet but with varying head-helmet gaps and (iii) head covered with helmet and tightly fitting foam pads. The intensification effect was discussed by examining the shock wave flow pattern and verified with experiments. A helmet with a better protection against shock wave is suggested. PMID:21806412

  2. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  3. On the stability of a bicycle on rollers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Patricia A [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141 (United States); Mohazzabi, Pirooz, E-mail: pirooz.mohazzabi@uwp.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general readership interested in the dynamics of bicycle stability.

  4. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van R.M.; Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Vlimmeren, van L.A.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  5. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; MJ, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  6. A Novel and High Performance System for Enhancing Speech in Helmet Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a highly innovative system for enhancing speech in helmet. First, we propose to apply a circular array with 8 microphones that are inside the helmet. In...

  7. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    ’s Beijing Bicycle can be understood as the result of stories-so-far, as the cinematic representation of the globalized ”space” within the setting of the national. Beijing Bicycle is a production of space as well as a space of production, since it tells a new story in the trajectory of stories......Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...

  8. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.

    2009-05-01

    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.

  9. On the Stability of a Bicycle on Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general…

  10. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  11. Psychological determinants of motorcycle helmet use among young adults in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Socheata, Sann; TRINH, Tu Anh; Wets, Geert; RUITER, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Cambodian accident statistics show that motivating motorcyclists to make proper use of a safety helmet is a top priority for road safety policy makers. Yet, currently there is no insight whatsoever in the psychological precursors of helmet use in Cambodia. As such, it remains unclear which variables to target by interventions aimed at promoting the use of safety helmets. Therefore, this study adopted a socio-cognitive perspective towards the examination of helmet use in a sample of Cambodian ...

  12. Some recent studies on spatial perception in Helmet-Mounted Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Paillé, Damien; Neveu, Pascaline; Philippe, Matthieu; Buffat, Stéphane; Prablanc, Claude; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    One challenging human factors issue in Helmet-Mounted Displays is the alteration of perceived distance. Distances judgments in virtual environments and Helmet-Mounted Displays are generally underestimated compared to the real world. Indeed, visual stimulation in Helmet-Mounted Displays presents some discrepancy with natural visual stimulation. After a brief review of the literature pertaining to the representation of space in Helmet-Mounted Displays, we explore two potential factors for the a...

  13. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  14. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets.

  15. Bicyclic semigroups of left I-quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Ghroda, Nassraddin

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study left I-orders in the bicyclic monoid $\\mathcal{B}$. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup of $\\mathcal{B}$ to be a left I-oreder in $\\mathcal{B}$. We then prove that any left I-order in $\\mathcal{B}$ is straight.

  16. 15 CFR 265.22 - Bicycle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle traffic. 265.22 Section 265.22... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS &...

  17. Solutions to the Triangular Bicycle Flags Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartweg, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Students in a fifth-grade general education class and a second-grade gifted class participated in the Triangular Bicycle Flags problem. The results indicated that providing students with geometric experiences at the correct van Hiele level is necessary for helping students move from one level of understanding to the next.

  18. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  19. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. PMID:26410724

  20. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  1. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. PMID:25039407

  2. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011). Two... published at 76 FR 28132, May 13, 2011, is May 13, 2013. Compliance date: Voluntary early compliance with the final rule amending 49 CFR part 571 published at 76 FR 28132, May 13, 2011, is permitted as...

  3. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  4. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal loading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kumar Pinnoji; Puneet Mahajan

    2007-08-01

    Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner. The foam is taken as elasto-plastic, the brain is assumed to be viscoelastic and all other components are taken as elastic. The contact forces and coup pressures with helmet on the head are much lower than in the absence of the helmet. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of liner thickness and density on the contact forces, pressures and energy absorption during impact. For 4 ms-1 velocity, expanded poly styrene (EPS) foam of density 24 kg m-3 gave the lowest contact forces and for the velocities considered, thickness of the foam did not affect the contact forces.

  5. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... procedures for better enforcement of the performance requirements. \\9\\ 73 FR 57297, Docket NHTSA-2008-0157... motorcycle crashes has been disproportionately large and fast compared to the increases in the number of... manufactured by NexL Sports Products (NexL). NHTSA compliance testing indicated that NexL's helmets failed...

  6. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Goede, M. de; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Methorst, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised tra

  7. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  8. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  9. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  10. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  11. Psychological Delaying Model of Bicycle Passing Events on Physically Separated Bicycle Roadways in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin; Shan, Xiaonian; Sun, Xin

    Bicycle facilities are quite common in China but there are not enough quantitative methods to evaluate the Level of Service (LOS) of bicycle roadways. The number of passing events, which considers the interactions between bicyclists, has been proved to be a proper indicator for evaluating bicycle LOS under the special traffic and roadway conditions in China. The primary objective of this study is to propose a model considering the delay effects of passing events and rider's overtaking motivation. Field data was collected on South Zhongshan Road and Huaihai Road in Nanjing city of China with 639 bicyclists investigated. Then a new mathematical model was built to evaluate those effects through probability and regression analyses. It was found that the delay effect of passing events and rider's overtaking motivation are significant influencing factors which cannot be omitted. Correlation test shows the fitted relationship is greater between the model prediction and field data comparing with the previous model.

  12. Bicycling and walking are associated with different cortical oscillatory dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eStorzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although bicycling and walking involve similar complex coordinated movements, surprisingly Parkinson’s patients with freezing of gait typically remain able to bicycle despite severe difficulties walking. This observation suggests functional differences in the motor networks subserving bicycling and walking. However, a direct comparison of brain activity related to bicycling and walking has never been performed, neither in healthy participants nor in patients. Such a comparison could potentially help elucidating the cortical involvement in motor control and the mechanisms through which bicycling ability may be preserved in patients with freezing of gait. The aim of this study was to contrast the cortical oscillatory dynamics involved in bicycling and walking in healthy participants.To this end, EEG and EMG data of 14 healthy participants were analyzed, who cycled on a stationary bicycle at a slow cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm and walked at 40 strides per minute (spm, respectively.Relative to walking, bicycling was associated with a stronger power decrease in the high beta band (23-35 Hz during movement initiation and execution, followed by a stronger beta power increase after movement termination. Walking, on the other hand, was characterized by a stronger and persisting alpha power (8-12 Hz decrease. Both bicycling and walking exhibited movement cycle-dependent power modulation in the 24-40 Hz range that was correlated with EMG activity. This modulation was significantly stronger in walking.The present findings reveal differential cortical oscillatory dynamics in motor control for two types of complex coordinated motor behavior, i.e., bicycling and walking. Bicycling was associated with a stronger sustained cortical activation as indicated by the stronger high beta power decrease during movement execution and less cortical motor control within the movement cycle. We speculate this to be due to the more continuous nature of

  13. Technical analysis and market study of electric bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Matasyan, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This thesis project was done in collaboration with a Prismattery LLC, which is based in Tallinn, Estonia and is interested in entering the market of electric bicycles. For that reason in this report a detailed study concerning the market of electrical bicycles, its current situation and trends were performed and a promising target market was indicated. The market study showed that although in different countries the specifications and preferred types of electric bicycles may vary,...

  14. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important for choosing walking and bicycling, and how very different instruments can promote walking and bicycling at the expense of short car trips. Furthermore, the paper describes the most important factors when c...

  15. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. PMID:26647016

  16. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path.

  17. The relationship between public and private bicycle use: the case of Seville

    OpenAIRE

    José I. Castillo-Manzano; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Lopez-Valpuesta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success achieved by Public Bicycle Sharing Systems (PBSS) across the world, several researchers provide evidence on their limitations and constraints in a medium-long term, and bicycle ownership may be considered as a complementary tool to promote a 'bicycle-culture'. This paper aims to cover the gap about the interaction between both systems (public bicycle / private bicycle) and which are the key aspects to explain the bicycle-buying decision. After a fieldwork based on surveys ...

  18. Helmet Streamers with Triple Structures: Simulations of resistive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegelmann, T; Neukirch, T

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations of the solar corona with the LASCO coronagraph on board of the SOHO spacecraft have revealed the occurrence of triple helmet streamers even during solar minimum, which occasionally go unstable and give rise to large coronal mass ejections. There are also indications that the slow solar wind is either a combination of a quasi-stationary flow and a highly fluctuating component or may even be caused completely by many small eruptions or instabilities. As a first step we recently presented an analytical method to calculate simple two-dimensional stationary models of triple helmet streamer configurations. In the present contribution we use the equations of time- dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamics to investigate the stability and the dynamical behaviour of these configurations. We particularly focus on the possible differences between the dynamics of single isolated streamers and triple streamers and on the way in which magnetic reconnection initiates both small scale and large scale dynam...

  19. Bicycle Sharing in Developing Countries : A proposal towards sustainable transportation in Brazilian median cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Batista, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are a new trend in urban transportation. The main difference of a bicycle-sharing program with a regular bicycle rental is that is possible to get a bicycle in one station and return it in any other station. There are many models of bicycle sharing, each model with its pros and cons. This study analyzes the bicycle-sharing models in order to build a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities. The study begins with an overview of bicycle...

  20. Safety Aspect Analysis of Helmet Mounted Millimeter Wave Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswari

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of millimetric wave (MMW power density from two-helmet-mounted MMW radiating horn antennas were made at various distances on the three axes. These three axes are representing three planes: (i in the direction of propagation (Z-axis, (ii horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of propagation (Y-axis, i.e., 15 cm to the left or right of Z-axis, and (iii vertical axis (X-axis also perpendicular to the direction of propagation and extending up and down an imaginary central reference line passing through the centre of the horn and the centre of the microwave measuring probe. Measurements were also made inside the helmet close to the metallic plate at 17 locations and 10 cm away from it. The Narda-8723 broadband isotropic microwave probe [frequency of operation (0.3-40 GHz power density range 0.05-100 mW/cm1 was placed at various distance points marked at 15 nm intervals and also at distances of relevance on Z-axis. For each of the distance points on Z-axis, measurements were taken at 7 probe locations on X-axis. For Y-axis measurements, 4 probe locations were selected (on vertical or X-axis. The results revealed no leakage of microwave power inside the helmets. In the transmitting mode of operation, there was a great variability of microwave power emitted closest to the horn antennas (2.5-5.0 mW / 2 and 6.0-105 mW /cm2 for helmet Nos.11 and2, respectively. As the distance from the antenna increased in the direction of propagation, the power density dropped to 0.04 m W / cm2 or 0.075 m W / cm{ maximum value at 1 m. As the values recorded are within American National Standards Institute (ANSI safety guidelines (10mW/cm2 at 35 GHz.

  1. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  2. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  3. A Discussion of the Issue of Football Helmet Removal in Suspected Cervical Spine Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflex...

  4. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  5. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Haigh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities.

  6. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  7. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  8. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, V.E.; Beusenberg, C.M.; Dubbeldam, R.; Bonnema, G.M.; Poelman, W.A.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced rider/bicy

  9. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  10. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  11. On Wiener polarity index of bicyclic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Shi, Yongtang; Wang, Zhen; Yue, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in biological, physical and social sciences. Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. A number of Wiener type indices have recently been incorporated as distance-based descriptors of complex networks. Wiener type indices are known to depend both on the network’s number of nodes and topology. The Wiener polarity index is also related to the cluster coefficient of networks. In this paper, based on some graph transformations, we determine the sharp upper bound of the Wiener polarity index among all bicyclic networks. These bounds help to understand the underlying quantitative graph measures in depth.

  12. Solar Electric Bicycle Body Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new solar electric bicycle design and study were carried out on in this paper. Application of CAD technology to establish three-dimension geometric model, using the kinetic analysis on the frame and other parts for numerical simulation and static strength analysis for the vehicle model design, virtual assembly, complete frame dynamics analysis and vibration analysis, with considering other factors, first on the frame structure improvement, second on security of design calculation analysis and comparison, finally get the ideal body design.

  13. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl;

    are revealed by collection and analysis of historical material and interviews with key stakeholders. The historical material is obtained from libraries, online resources, and reports from professionals including urban designers, transportation engineers, research centres and politicians of the Beijing......This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...

  14. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group......, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle...

  15. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  16. Safe bicycling – Problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecka M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herewith a popularity of bicycling, various safety problems of cyclists are researched. Studies are connected with infrastructure, riding culture, choice of cyclist's suit and riding equipment. Overall, 382 respondents (159 cyclists, 119 drivers, 104 pedestrians were involved in the survey. The road participants' mutual communication problems in the traffic and opportunities of solving them were clarified. Most of cyclists wear comfortable daily or sporty clothing with reflective elements, and in their opinion, clothing with light emissive elements must be like daily clothing. The drivers could better notice cyclists, if they wear brightly colored suit with light emissive and reflective elements, but pedestrians – if cyclists use warning sound signals. The opinions of road participants about the placement of light emissive and reflective elements in cyclist's clothing were clarified. The prototype of cycling belt (Fig. 1e has been drawn up with LED stop signals, which are activated by the accelerometer placed in the central back pocket. The results of approbation have shown that the sensor does not provide the proper functioning of signals, due to a high level of riding movements. Using Motion Capture technology and bicycle exercise equipment, the research of oscillation of anthropometric points on the back has been carried out. The accelerometer should be placed between scapulae to design the cycling jacket.

  17. The Design of Sport Bicycle Speed Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbing Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As bicycle sport equipment, a sport bike needs a speed and distance measuring device, due to the characteristic of road cycling, thereby mastering the state of motion. According to external conditions such as temperature, wind speed, the bike can make the appropriate adjustment to achieve the best movement effect. The bicycle speed odometer is a major accessibility tool that satisfies with needs of the people with fast development. This study elaborated a bike speed odometer design based on Hall element, taking AT89C52 single chip as the core, measuring speed with A44E Hall sensor, to finish the bike mileage/speed measurement and statistics by displaying bike mileage and speed in real time. By using the Hall elements, the hardware of speed odometer input the number of pulse of per circle into the single-chip computer system. Then the signal processed by the single-chip computer displays. The software is programmed with assembly language and modular design idea. The design of the hardware circuit is simple and the subroutine has universal property, which fully meet the design requirements and possess a wide range of application and dissemination value.

  18. The effect of tyre and rider properties on the stability of a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, V.E.; Doria, A.; Belt, van de D.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To work towards an advanced model of the bicycle-rider-environment system, an open-loop bicycle-rider model was developed in the commercial multibody dynamics software ADAMS. The main contribution of this article to bicycle dynamics is the analysis of tyre and rider properties that influence bicycle

  19. Do crash helmets retain their position on the head in case of an impact ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusenberg, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This report gives the description and results of three sled tests with each four dummy heads, to record the behaviour of the head and neck of the dummy and the helmet in case of a simulated accident. The simulated accident resulted in a motions of the head, neck and helmet owing to the effects of in

  20. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment is lacking. The HEADS study (Helmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) aims to d

  1. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  2. The frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in countries with varying bicycle mode shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    In  order  to  encourage  cycling,  we  need  to  reduce  the  hazards  that  cyclists  face. Single-bicycle crashes or ‘bicycle-only crashes’ are falls and obstacle collisions in which only one cyclist is involved. Between 60 and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospital or treated at an emergency...... department are victims of single-bicycle crashes. As proportion of the total number of traffic casualties  the  share  exceeds  20%  in  most  countries  with  medium  to  high  levels  of cycling.  This paper  discusses  the  prevalence  of  the  problem  and  describes  measures  that  may  both reduce...... the risks and make cycling a more attractive transport choice at the same time....

  3. Symbolic derivation of bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Everett X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels is presented in this paper. Using symbolic mathematic tool Maple, we obtain two holonomic and four nonholonomic constraint equations due to front and rear wheels of a bicycle. We show that the two holonomic constraints cannot be expressed in quartic form for bicycle rear body pitch angle unless the minor (crown radius of the torus are the same for both the front and rear wheels. In addition, we show that all the constraints can be written in differential form, from which a constraint matrix is constructed, according to standard procedure for developing dynamics in robotics.

  4. Associations between a walkability index and bicycle use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Christiansen, L.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2012-01-01

    /day, and important health benefits can accrue from regular commuting cycling. Studies have shown a positive correlation between walkability attributes of neighborhood environments (street connectivity, and use mix, residential density, retail floor area ratio) and cycling. Results from Australia/Belgium show...... associations between measures of walkability and bicycle use for transport and the present study focuses on exploring whether these findings can be applied to a Danish setting where cycling culture differs and bicycle share is much higher (17% of all trips are by bicycle)...

  5. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may...

  6. The effect of tyre and rider properties on the stability of a bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bulsink, V.E.; Doria, A.; Belt, van de, M.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To work towards an advanced model of the bicycle-rider-environment system, an open-loop bicycle-rider model was developed in the commercial multibody dynamics software ADAMS. The main contribution of this article to bicycle dynamics is the analysis of tyre and rider properties that influence bicycle stability. A system identification method is used to extract linear stability properties from time domain analysis. The weave and capsize eigenmodes of the bicycle-rider system are analysed. The e...

  7. Bicyclic graphs with maximal revised Szeged index

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2011-01-01

    The revised Szeged index $Sz^*(G)$ is defined as $Sz^*(G)=\\sum_{e=uv \\in E}(n_u(e)+ n_0(e)/2)(n_v(e)+ n_0(e)/2),$ where $n_u(e)$ and $n_v(e)$ are, respectively, the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $u$ than to vertex $v$ and the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $v$ than to vertex $u$, and $n_0(e)$ is the number of vertices equidistant to $u$ and $v$. Hansen used the AutoGraphiX and made the following conjecture about the revised Szeged index for a connected bicyclic graph $G$ of order $n \\geq 6$:

  8. Bicycling induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, P L; Dunne, J W; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G

    1991-01-01

    Pudendal neuropathies are well recognised as part of more generalised peripheral neuropathies; however, focal abnormalities of the pudendal nerve due to cycling-related injuries have been infrequently reported. We describe two patients who developed pudendal neuropathies secondary to pressure effects on the perineum from racing-bicycle saddles. Both were male competitive athletes, one of whom developed recurrent numbness of the penis and scrotum after prolonged cycling; the other developed numbness of the penis, an altered sensation of ejaculation, with disturbance of micturition and reduced awareness of defecation. Both patients improved with alterations in saddle position and riding techniques. We conclude that pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy can result from prolonged cycling, particularly when using a poor riding technique. PMID:1821826

  9. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  10. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important...... for choosing walking and bicycling, and how very different instruments can promote walking and bicycling at the expense of short car trips. Furthermore, the paper describes the most important factors when choosing between bicycling and walking and car driving, respectively, in case of trips of up to 22 km....... Hills and temperature differences appear to be particularly impor-tant, apart from car ownership. Regarding the socio-economy, particularly the number of children is of importance. Furthermore, the paper elucidates the effect of various instruments to promote the transfer of short car trips to walking...

  11. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  12. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, John C.; Huybers, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicl...

  13. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements. PMID:26910774

  14. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  15. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the f

  17. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. PMID:26998593

  18. Sport helmet design and virtual impact test by image-based finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunhua; Liang, Zhaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Head injury has been a major concern in various sports, especially in contact sports such as football and ice hockey. Helmet has been adopted as a protective device in such sports, aiming at preventing or at least alleviating head injuries. However, there exist two challenges in current helmet design and test. One is that the helmet does not fit the subject's head well; the other is that current helmet testing methods are not able to provide accurate information about intracranial pressure and stress/strain level in brain tissues during impact. To meet the challenges, an image-based finite element modeling procedure was proposed to design subject-specific helmet and to conduct virtual impact test. In the procedure, a set of medical images such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the subject's head was used to construct geometric shape of the helmet and to develop a helmet-head finite element model that can be used in the virtual impact test.

  19. Test Verification and Design of the Bicycle Frame Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long; XIANG Zhongxia; LUO Huan; TIAN Guan

    2015-01-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders’ worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers’ height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes’ function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  20. [Bicycle spoke-related injuries in children: emphasise prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, William L M; Haaring, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Three children, a 6-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 4 years, were seen at an emergency department due to distal lower-leg injuries sustained from the spokes of bicycle wheels. All three patients had been passengers on rear carrying seats of moving bicycles. Only the third bicyclist had used a special child safety seat. The second girl had drawn her foot up from underneath a strap and suffered a tibial fracture later treated with an osteosynthetic plate. The other two patients recovered after conservative casting treatment. Bicycle spoke-related injuries are sustained when the foot or lower limb makes contact with the spokes of a bicycle wheel and usually by children who are bicycle passengers. In the Netherlands, approximately 4600 children are seen at emergency departments with such injuries each year. Bicycle spoke-related accidents can cause severe damage that can result in lengthy recovery periods. Not only physical complications but also psychological ones can occur. The latter are often overlooked but do deserve proper treatment. The physician treating a spoke-related injury is in a good position to advice parents as to preventive measures, particularly on the use of special child safety seats.

  1. Effect of wearing a ski helmet on perception and localization of sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization.

  2. The impact of helmets on motorcycle head trauma at a tertiary hospital in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeks-Aitken Nicole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Jamaica road traffic act mandates motorcycle riders to wear approved helmets, opponents suggest that the local road conditions obviate any benefits from helmet use that have been proven in Developed countries. They suggest that the narrow, winding, poorly surfaced, congested local highways do not allow motorcyclists to sustain high velocity travel. The accidents then tend to occur at lower speeds and are accompanied by less severe injuries. This study was carried out to determine the impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle collisions in patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Jamaica. Methods A prospectively collected trauma registry maintained by the Department of Surgery at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Jamaica was accessed to identify all motorcycle collision victims from January 2000 to January 2007. The therapeutic outcomes of traumatic brain injuries were compared between helmeted and un-helmeted riders. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 12. Results Of 293 motorcycle collision victims, 143 sustained brain injuries. There were 9 females (6.3% with an average age of 23 +/- 7.3 years and 134 males (93.7% at an average age of 33.4 +/- 11.2 years (mean +/- SD. Only 49 (34.3% patients wore a helmet at the time of a collision. Helmet use at the time of a collision significantly reduced the severity of head injuries (28.6% vs 46.8%, P = 0.028 and the likelihood of sustaining intra-cranial lesions (26.5% vs 44.7%, P = 0.03 from head injuries. Conclusion Wearing a helmet at the time of a motorcycle collision reduces the severity of head injuries. However, the prevalence of helmet use at the time of a collision is unacceptably low.

  3. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  4. Reviving a ghost in the history of technology: the social construction of the recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassaan; Qureshi, Omer Masood; Khan, Abid Ali

    2015-02-01

    Recumbent bicycles have never truly been associated with international cycling. Conventional safety (upright) bicycles have long been at the center of the cycling world, for both sport and transportation. This is despite the fact that recumbent bicycles are faster, more comfortable, and more efficient than the upright bicycles. The aim of this article is to explain the historical and social perspectives that led to the rejection of the recumbent bicycle by utilizing the theory of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Bijker's two power theory, providing a contrast with the adoption of the safety bicycle.

  5. Foundations of Active Control - Active Noise Reduction Helmets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmkjær, Torsten Haaber Leth

    2008-01-01

    includes a number of coherence analysis that are based on diffuse sound field measurements in a reverberant chamber and measurements conducted onboard a CH-47D Chinook helicopter. From these coherence analysis it can be concluded that the CFFAC system with 10 reference sensors applied to pilot helmets...... with no obvious input and output channel definition by a finite lumped-elements multi-channel system. Usually, no unique transfer function x exist as the system is not point-wise excited, but excited over an area as in the case of diffuse sound field illumination. A new method for acoustical signal processing...... on a head and torso simulator (HATS), is exposed to diffuse sound field illumination. By applying the JCRSA method the spatially-weighted-averaged acquisition lead times provided by the reference sensors relative to the performance sensors are estimated to be as much as 800-900μs. The thesis also includes...

  6. Analysis of the Internal Ventilation for a Motorcycle Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    This work deals with a methodology for the numerical simulation of the inner ventilation of a motorcycle helmet, based on a thermo-fluid-dynamic model capable of describing evaporation-related heat transfer phenomena. The final purpose is the enhancment of the comfort of the rider and ultimately his safety. The fluid-dynamic problem concerns the modelization of the filtration of a flow over a porous medium, while the (decoupled) thermodynamic model is associated with the heat and sweat removal by means of the airflow. The latter is based on a set of evolution equations for the three scalar unknowns temperature, absolute humidity and sweat. Simulations on a sample 2D problem show the applicability of the methodology, highlighting the implicitly-defined free boundary separating the wet and dry regions as well as the zones where sweat accumulates.

  7. ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Beheshtitabar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to find out which parameters have the highest influence on bicyclists’ route-choice-behaviour and how they contribute. There are many attributes considered throughout different studies that are favoured by cyclists. The attributes are the basis for generating a function which predicts the route choice of cyclists. The paper aims at making a comparison between distance-based routes and attribute-based routes. The model for creating the bicycle route choice program is based on the network model of Norrköping, Sweden. The preferred attributes of the model each assign a weight in the cost function of the model for each link of the urban network. The algorithm of the lowest cost function route searches the shortest path in terms of assigned link costs over the whole network. For comparing the results of the cost function and the shortest route (between an origin-destination, the model has a shortest path finding algorithm between different Origin and Destination pairs implemented. It has been viewed that around 25% of all cumulative routes do not show any distance differences between the shortest path distance and attributes based solution. With the used weights of the Standard scenario, it can be seen that the trade-off between shortest distance and safety respectively comfort can be optimized, fulfilling both criteria (distance and safety/comfort.

  8. Bicycle, city and education: search moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hempkemeyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study comes from a Master’s degree in Education research, which investigates narratives of “pedaling beings” starting from the relationship bicycle-city. The theoretical assumptions lean on the Cultural Studies and concepts about education, culture, everyday life, experience and narratives. Researching with narratives closes everyday life and promotes co-authorship to the subjects in the paper. The article puts in discussion some forms of contemporary subjectivity, resistance techniques and expression. A study that builds narratives and reflections about the experiences of theses hybrid subjects and their everyday life, questioning their way of life in the city. Thinking in this urban medley is connect the environment and the dynamic of these pedaling bodies, emerging other ways of education and interaction with the medium, weaving multiple affectations in aesthetics, poetry, politics, opening breaches to reflect in the everyday happenings. The article also discusses the movements in research and the effects in those who research and are researched.

  9. Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Meghan; Brauer, Michael; Setton, Eleanor M; Teschke, Kay

    2010-12-01

    A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, trip destinations, and along the route between. We analyzed 3,280 utilitarian bicycle and car trips in Metro Vancouver, Canada made by 1,902 adults, including both current and potential cyclists. Objective measures were developed for built environment characteristics related to the physical environment, land use patterns, the road network, and bicycle-specific facilities. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the likelihood that a trip was made by bicycle, adjusting for trip distance and personal demographics. Separate models were constructed for each spatial zone, and a global model examined the relative influence of the three zones. In total, 31% (1,023 out of 3,280) of trips were made by bicycle. Increased odds of bicycling were associated with less hilliness; higher intersection density; less highways and arterials; presence of bicycle signage, traffic calming, and cyclist-activated traffic lights; more neighborhood commercial, educational, and industrial land uses; greater land use mix; and higher population density. Different factors were important within each spatial zone. Overall, the characteristics of routes were more influential than origin or destination characteristics. These findings indicate that the built environment has a significant influence on healthy travel decisions, and spatial context is important. Future research should explicitly consider relevant spatial zones when investigating the relationship between physical activity and urban form.

  10. Microphone Array Signal Processing and Active Noise Control for the In-Helmet Speech Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For in-helmet voice communication, the currently used Communication-Cap-based Audio (CCA) systems have a number of recognized logistical issues and inconveniences...

  11. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing, for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental duration corresponding to 75% degree were then calculated. On this basis, the radioactive decay law from physics was used to establish a theoretical model for the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration. The data on public bicycle rental duration in Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing were used to test the model and produce a corrected theoretical model. The results indicate that the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration obeys the decay law. The study results provide important theoretical support for the rental station planning of bicycle sharing systems, as well as the allocation, operation, and dispatch of public bicycles.

  12. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  13. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  14. Investigation with Bluetooth Sensors of Bicycle Travel Time Estimation on a Short Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Dianhai Wang; Jun De Chen

    2012-01-01

    Accurate travel time information acquisition is essential to the effective planning and management of bicycle travel conditions. Traditionally, video camera data have been used as the primary source for measuring the quality of bicycle travel time. This paper deals with an investigation of bicycle travel time estimation on a short corridor, using Bluetooth sensors, based on field survey of travel time at one arterial road in Hangzhou. Usually bicycle travel time estimates with Bluetooth senso...

  15. Influences of infrastructure and attitudes to health on value of travel time savings in bicycle journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Gunilla; Mortazavi , Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how attitudes to health and exercise in connection with cycling influence the estimation of values of travel time savings in different kinds of bicycle environments (mixed traffic, bicycle lane in the road way, bicycle path next to the road, and bicycle path not in connection with the road). The results, based on two Swedish stated choice studies, suggest that the values of travel time savings are lower when cycling in better conditions. Surprisingly, the responde...

  16. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  17. Using magnetorheological fluids in an innovative hybrid bicycle damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Y. J.; Nguyen, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetorheological fluids are capable of changing their viscosity quickly. This can provide good controllability and fast dynamic response. A conventional passive suspension system with air spring or hydraulic damper has simple design and financial benefit for bicycles, but its operation is uncontrollable and non-adaptive. This paper presented a semi-active hybrid bicycle suspension system which combines conventional air spring and a new magnetorheological damping brake together to reduce vibration of a bicycle. A multi-layer magnetorheological brake and linkage mechanism are connected to bike fork to form the adaptive damping part of the innovative hybrid suspension system. The simulation results proved that the semi-active suspension system can reduce bike vibration effectively.

  18. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Today the interest in cycling is increasing worldwide and in many countries authorities are faced with the question how cycling can be promoted efficiently. In the Netherlands and Denmark, this question came up already in the 1970s when the downsides of the rapidly increasing motorisation became...... evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in urban areas. The interventions included the construction of new bicycle routes on urban arterials in some...... was used in both countries for formulating guidelines for road and bicycle infrastructure design. However, at that time the study results were not shared with the international scientific audience. The paper describes briefly the classical cases and the main study results. The outcomes of the classical...

  19. Bicycling crash characteristics: An in-depth crash investigation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Stevenson, Mark; Newstead, Stuart; Cameron, Peter; Judson, Rodney; Edwards, Elton R; Bucknill, Andrew; Johnson, Marilyn; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study. Crashes commonly occurred during daylight hours and in clear weather conditions. Two-thirds of crashes occurred on-road (69%) and were a combination of single cyclist-only events (56%) and multi-vehicle crashes (44%). Of the multi-vehicle crashes, a motor vehicle was the most common impact partner (72%) and distinct pre-crash directional interactions were observed between the cyclist and motor vehicle. Nearly a quarter of on-road crashes occurred when the cyclist was in a marked bicycle lane. Of the 31% of crashes that were not on-road, 28 (15%) occurred on bicycle paths and 29 (16%) occurred in other locations. Crashes on bicycle paths commonly occurred on shared bicycle and pedestrian paths (83%) and did not involve another person or vehicle. Other crash locations included mountain bike trails (39%), BMX parks (21%) and footpaths (18%). While differences in impact partners and crash characteristics were observed between crashes occurring on-road, on bicycle paths and in other locations, injury patterns and severity were similar. Most cyclists had returned to work at 6 months post-injury, however only a third of participants reported a complete functional recovery. Further research is required to develop targeted countermeasures to address the risk factors identified in this study. PMID:27544886

  20. Bicycling crash characteristics: An in-depth crash investigation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Stevenson, Mark; Newstead, Stuart; Cameron, Peter; Judson, Rodney; Edwards, Elton R; Bucknill, Andrew; Johnson, Marilyn; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study. Crashes commonly occurred during daylight hours and in clear weather conditions. Two-thirds of crashes occurred on-road (69%) and were a combination of single cyclist-only events (56%) and multi-vehicle crashes (44%). Of the multi-vehicle crashes, a motor vehicle was the most common impact partner (72%) and distinct pre-crash directional interactions were observed between the cyclist and motor vehicle. Nearly a quarter of on-road crashes occurred when the cyclist was in a marked bicycle lane. Of the 31% of crashes that were not on-road, 28 (15%) occurred on bicycle paths and 29 (16%) occurred in other locations. Crashes on bicycle paths commonly occurred on shared bicycle and pedestrian paths (83%) and did not involve another person or vehicle. Other crash locations included mountain bike trails (39%), BMX parks (21%) and footpaths (18%). While differences in impact partners and crash characteristics were observed between crashes occurring on-road, on bicycle paths and in other locations, injury patterns and severity were similar. Most cyclists had returned to work at 6 months post-injury, however only a third of participants reported a complete functional recovery. Further research is required to develop targeted countermeasures to address the risk factors identified in this study.

  1. Bicycle Training for Youth with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Esposito, Phil; Hauck, Janet; Jeong, Irully; Hornyak, Joseph; Argento, Angela; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have difficulty riding a two-wheel bicycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate an intervention using an adapted bicycle and individualized instruction to teach 71 youth to ride a standard two-wheel bicycle. Youth with DS (n = 30) and ASD (n = 41) between the…

  2. A City Plans for Bicycles: A Case Study of Olympia, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    1990-01-01

    Discusses community planning for bicycling programs with emphasis on safety education for children and adults, enforcement of bicycle laws, engineering improvements, and special events. Describes how Olympia improved existing bicycling facilities and summarizes planning, communication, engineering, and policy issues addressed. (SV)

  3. Bicycle cycles and mobility patterns - Exploring and characterizing data from a community bicycle program

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Grivolla, Jens; Codina, Joan; Banchs, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of human mobility data in an urban area using the amount of available bikes in the stations of the community bicycle program Bicing in Barcelona. The data was obtained by periodic mining of a KML-file accessible through the Bicing website. Although in principle very noisy, after some preprocessing and filtering steps the data allows to detect temporal patterns in mobility as well as identify residential, university, business and leisure areas of the city. The results lead to a proposal for an improvement of the bicing website, including a prediction of the number of available bikes in a certain station within the next minutes/hours. Furthermore a model for identifying the most probable routes between stations is briefly sketched.

  4. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the car and the dimensions of the bicycle/cyclist on the severity of the impacts. It is known that the speed of the car at impact is an important parameter in the resulting injury severity of the cyclis...

  5. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    2015-01-01

    . Different countries show a range of values between 5% and 30%. Between 60% and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospitals or treated at emergency departments are victims of SBCs. The proportion of all injured cyclists who are injured in SBCs is unrelated to the share of cycling in the modal split. The share...... of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  6. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    CERN Document Server

    Guemez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics and also some energetic issues related to the Marta mouse motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-to-go round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the Figuring Physics section of this magazine.

  7. The safety impact of a yellow bicycle jacket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann

    2016-01-01

    of the project, i.e. after a year. The safety effect of the bicycle jacket was analysed by comparing the number of self-reported accident for the test and control group. The self-reported accidents showed that the test group had 38 % fewer personal injury accidents with other road users – so-called multi...

  8. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds ...

  9. Mapping Bicycle Crash Risk Patterns on the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, mainly aggregated statistics are used for bicycle crash risk calculations. Thus, the understanding of spatial patterns at local scale levels remains vague. Using an agent-based flow model and a bicycle crash database covering 10 continuous years of observation allows us to calculate and map the crash risk on various spatial scales for the city of Salzburg (Austria. In doing so, we directly account for the spatial heterogeneity of crash occurrences. Additionally, we provide a measure for the statistical robustness on the level of single reference units and consider modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP effects in our analysis. This study is the first of its kind. The results facilitate a better understanding of spatial patterns of bicycle crash rates on the local scale. This is especially important for cities that strive to improve the safety situation for bicyclists in order to address prevailing safety concerns that keep people from using the bicycle as a utilitarian mode of (urban transport.

  10. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  11. Bicyclic graphs with exactly two main signless Laplacian eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    A signless Laplacian eigenvalue of a graph $G$ is called a main signless Laplacian eigenvalue if it has an eigenvector the sum of whose entries is not equal to zero. In this paper, all connected bicyclic graphs with exactly two main eigenvalues are determined.

  12. 77 FR 39927 - Vehicles and Traffic Safety-Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... family--they bicycle to visit points of interest, to be healthy, and because it's fun. The National Park... that, at a minimum, the plan: Evaluates the suitability of existing trail surface and soil condition... objectives and will not disturb wildlife or park resources. See NPS Management Policies 2006,...

  13. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the

  14. Bicyclic peptide inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Jensen, Berit Paaske; Jiang, Longguang;

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptide-based inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...

  15. Bicycle sharing system: role, effects and application to Plymouth

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Bouke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates the role and effects of a bicycle sharing system, and studies the feasi-bility of such a system in Plymouth. The research consists of a literature review, policy dis-cussion, case studies, and a detailed assessment of t

  16. Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From March 15 to17, at the invitation of the Euro-Chinese Friendship Association (ECFA) of France, a CPAFFC representative attended the launching ceremony of the Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 in Paris, during which he met with officials of the National Commission on Decentralized Cooperation (Commission Nationale de la Cooperation Decentralisee-CNCD) of France.

  17. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  18. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.;

    2014-01-01

    for scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  19. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defen...

  20. A Formal Synthesis of ( + )-Cassiol Exploiting Meyers' Bicyclic Lactam Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Xin(沈鑫); WU,Yi-Kang(伍贻康); ZHANG,Fan(张帆)

    2002-01-01

    A formal synthesis of ( + )-cassiol using (1S,2S)-2-amino-1-(4- nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol as chiral auxiliary is reported.The quaternary chiral center in the molecule was constructed by sequential alkylation of a bicyclic lactam (prepared from the aforementioned auxiliary and 5-oxo-heptanlic acid) with methyl iodide and benzyloxymethyl chloride.

  1. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  2. Bicycle Conversion Factor Calibration at Two-Phase Intersections in Mixed Traffic Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dianhai; LIANG Chunyan; JING Chunguang; WANG Guohua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese traffic is typically composed of bicycles and motor vehicles on the same road. The efficiency of bicycle traffic in time and space at intersections was investigated for eight typical intersections in the cities of Tianjin, Shenyang, and Changchun, all in China, by means of video recording. Models were developed to calculate the through bicycle traffic and the left-turn bicycle traffic conversion factors in intersections where bicycles and motor vehicles share the same road. The results indicate that the through bicycle conversion factor is 0.28 and the left-turn bicycle conversion factor is 0.33. This conclusion differs from the current value used in China. More research on the conversion factor is necessary to evaluate the impact of intersections.

  3. A computational study of influence of helmet padding materials on the human brain under ballistic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi Jazi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Azarmi, Fardad; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The results of a computational study of a helmeted human head are presented in this paper. The focus of the work is to study the effects of helmet pad materials on the level of acceleration, inflicted pressure and shear stress in a human brain model subjected to a ballistic impact. Four different closed cell foam materials, made of expanded polystyrene and expanded polypropylene, are examined for the padding material. It is assumed that bullets cannot penetrate the helmet shell. Finite element modelling of the helmet, padding system, head and head components is used for this dynamic nonlinear analysis. Appropriate contacts and conditions are applied between the different components of the head, as well as between the head and the pads, and the pads and the helmet. Based on the results of simulations in this work, it is concluded that the stiffness of the foam has a prominent role in reducing the level of the transferred load to the brain. A pad that is less stiff is more efficient in absorbing the impact energy and reducing the sudden acceleration of the head and consequently lowers the brain injury level. Using the pad with the least stiffness, the influence of the angle of impacts as well as the locations of the ballistic strike is studied.

  4. Head Position in the MEG Helmet Affects the Sensitivity to Anterior Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2013-01-01

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people’s heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential “invisibility” of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position (“front” vs. “back”) secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the “visibility” of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks. PMID:16012659

  5. Bicycle injuries: a matter of mechanism and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a popular form of recreation with positive health and environmental effects. These road users are vulnerable to serious injuries, especially when motor vehicles are involved. The goal of this study was to characterize cyclist-related injuries according to motor vehicle involvement for adults versus children. A retrospective study was carried out using data from 11 trauma centers in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (2001-2007). Injuries were classified according to whether a motor vehicle was involved, and differences in injury characteristics were assessed for adults (18+ years) versus children (1-17 years). A total of 5529 patients were hospitalized for bicycle injuries, of whom 1765 were adults and 3764 were children. Thirty percent (n=1662) of all bicycle injuries involved motor vehicles, although the rate of injuries resulting in hospitalization was 37% among adults and 27% among children. Injury characteristics and hospital resource utilization differed substantially by age group. Cyclists struck by a motor vehicle presented with more severe injuries requiring more hospital resources and resulting in poorer outcomes than those not involved with motor vehicles. The interaction effect between motor vehicle involvement and age was significant for torso injuries and need for medical imaging. We found that injury characteristics, hospital resource utilization and health-related outcomes for bicycle injuries are highly dependent on patient's age and mechanism of injury. Effect modification of motor vehicle involvement by age may in part reflect physicians' attitudes toward pediatric imaging. The risks identified in this study should be used for preparedness and management of trauma hospitalizations from bicycle injuries. PMID:22062347

  6. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.175 Section 84.175 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons...

  7. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. 84.198 Section 84.198 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE..., full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes...

  8. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... helmets; fit; minimum requirements. 84.135 Section 84.135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes and sizes either: (1)...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.1135 Section 84.1135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH..., full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes...

  10. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  11. Acoustic sensors in the helmet detect voice and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.

  12. Toward reducing impact induced brain injury: Lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, W C; Blackman, E G

    2012-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterize the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the Head Injury Criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry, and material stiffness. We find that: (1) The football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily-relevant impact scenarios; (2) Optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy; and (3) Thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be significantly reduced. Keywords: helmet,...

  13. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  14. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  15. The fastest bicycle in the world; how a team of Delft students is building a bicycle to break the world speed record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annega, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is a country known for its extensive use of bicycles as a means of everyday transport. However, while it has existed for about two centuries, todays bicycles only differ from those of the 19th century in relatively small details. Human Power Team Delft is building a whole new type of

  16. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymery Constant

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. METHODS: We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. RESULTS: Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5] and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. CONCLUSION: Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  17. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay;

    With a growing interest in sustainable transport systems, the interest has increased on encouraging more cycling. To encourage cycling, it is important to identify which network attributes influence cyclists route choice and evaluate the trade-offs among these attributes. To analyse travel...... behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... that might produce inconsistent estimates. There have been some studies on bicycle route choice set generation reported in the literature, whereof few studies focussed on route choice models for bicyclist estimated from GPS observations. Menghini et al. [3] successfully applied a Breadth First Search on Link...

  18. Simultaneous optimization of transit network and public bicycle station network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 朱宁; 马寿峰

    2015-01-01

    The traditional manner to design public transportation system is to sequentially design the transit network and public bicycle network. A new public transportation system design problem that simultaneously considers both bus network design and public bicycle network design is proposed. The chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is designed to solve the problem. A shortcoming of CRO is that, when the two-molecule collisions take place, the molecules are randomly picked from the container. Hence, we improve CRO by employing different mating strategies. The computational results confirm the benefits of the mating strategies. Numerical experiments are conducted on the Sioux-Falls network. A comparison with the traditional sequential modeling framework indicates that the proposed approach has a better performance and is more robust. The practical applicability of the approach is proved by employing a real size network.

  19. [Electrically assisted bicycles: health enhancement or "green" gadget?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J; Cornuz, J; Gojanovic, B

    2012-07-25

    Electrically assisted bicycles (EAB) are flourishing in cities throughout the world and capitalize on ecological and practical advantages, helping in the fight against pollution, CO2 emissions and traffic jam. Human power is necessary to activate the electrical support, so that it equals to a moderate intensity physical activity (> 3 MET), or a vigorous one on hilly courses (>6 MET). The ecological benefits are obvious and transportation departments tend to support citizens who purchase one. EAB offer increased mobility at speeds of 15 to 25 km/h depending on hills and fitness of the rider, but could cause more accidents. EAB is linked to a real physical activity beneficial for health, but potentially more dangerous than a traditional bicycle. PMID:22913003

  20. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2012-04-01

    As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

  1. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to obje...

  2. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik; van Nes, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Today the interest in cycling is increasing worldwide and in many countries authorities are faced with the question how cycling can be promoted efficiently. In the Netherlands and Denmark, this question came up already in the 1970s when the downsides of the rapidly increasing motorisation became evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in ...

  3. Methodology for a global bicycle real world accidents reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    The use of the bicycle on a large scale encouraged in the context to develop an eco friendly environment is facing today on a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of th...

  4. In-depth real-world bicycle accident reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Use of bicycles on a large scale, encouraged in the context to develop an eco-friendly environment, is facing today a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of this work ...

  5. Mobile cockpit system for enhanced electric bicycle use

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, José A.; Afonso, João L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the project of a Mobile Cockpit System (MCS) for smartphones, which provides assistance to Electric Bicycle (EB) cyclists in Smart Cities’ environment. The presented system introduces a mobile application (MCS App) with the goal to provide useful personalized information to the cyclist related with the EB’s use, including EB range prediction considering the intended path, management of the cycling effort performed by the cyclist, handling of the battery charging process an...

  6. The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Maria; ELIASSON, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that ...

  7. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Priya; Jeongjin Yeo; Yoonseok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study p...

  8. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  9. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  10. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  11. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  12. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  13. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  14. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  15. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet.

  16. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  17. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaonian Shan; Zhibin Li; Xiaohong Chen; Jianhong Ye

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA) for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the C...

  18. "The Mechanisms. Light and Miraculous": The Convivial Bicycle in Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, J. Josh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the prevalent representation of the bicycle as a liberatory figure in theoretical texts, novels, films, and poetry. Because the bicycle confers unexpected creativity and autonomy, it alters definitions of technology, modernity, and identity. Chapter one recuperates and employs Ivan Illich's concept of conviviality in order to re-examine the inheritance of the project of modernity and question the definition of technology in the twenty-first century bicycle epoch. Fo...

  19. Automated Analysis Methods for the Assessment of Bicycle Infrastructure and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkevich, Anton

    2013-01-01

    A first phase of the research activity has been related to the study of the state of art of the infrastructures for cycling, bicycle use and methods for evaluation. In this part, the candidate has studied the "bicycle system" in countries with high bicycle use and in particular in the Netherlands. Has been carried out an evaluation of the questionnaires of the survey conducted within the European project BICY on mobility in general in 13 cities of the participating countries. The questionn...

  20. Development of New Chiral Bicyclic Ligands : Applications in Catalytic Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation, Epoxidations, and Epoxide Rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Gayet, Arnaud

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and application of new chiral bicyclic ligands and their application in asymmetric catalysis. The studies involved: [i] The development of novel chiral bicyclic amino sulfur ligands and their use in transfer hydrogenation. [ii] The development of the kinetic resolution of racemic epoxide through the use of chiral lithium amides. [iii] The synthesis and application of chiral bicyclic amine in the organocatalysed epoxidation of alkenes. [iv] Development and a...

  1. Motorcycle-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries: Helmet Use and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ogbonna Nnanna Nnadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. With increasing use of motorcycle as means of transport in developing countries, traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle crashes have been increasing. The only single gadget that protects riders from traumatic brain injury is crash helmet. Objective. The objectives were to determine the treatment outcome among traumatic brain injury patients from motorcycle crashes and the rate of helmet use among them. Methods. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study of motorcycle-related traumatic brain injury patients managed in our center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were managed using our unit protocol for traumatic brain injuries. Data for the study were collected in accident and emergency, intensive care unit, wards, and outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed using Environmental Performance Index (EPI info 7 software. Results. Ninety-six patients were studied. There were 87 males. Drivers were 65. Only one patient wore helmet. Majority of them were between 20 and 40 years. Fifty-three patients had mild head injuries. Favorable outcome among them was 84.35% while mortality was 12.5%. Severity of the injury affected the outcome significantly. Conclusion. Our study showed that the helmet use by motorcycle riders was close to zero despite the existing laws making its use compulsory in Nigeria. The outcome was related to severity of injuries.

  2. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...

  3. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and...

  5. Effects of police enforcement of protection devices and moped helmet use and red light running.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Not wearing a seat belt or moped helmet, and red light running lead to a higher crash rate or a more serious crash. That is why they have been spearheads of intensified police enforcement in the Netherlands since 1999. The extra seat belt enforcement together with large-scale media campaigns have le

  6. Using Structural Equation Modeling and the Behavioral Sciences Theories in Predicting Helmet Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarudin Ambak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, according to road accidents data statistics motorcycle users contributes more than 50% of fatalities in traffic accidents, and the major cause due to head injuries. One strategy that can be used to reduce the severity of head injuries is by proper usage of helmet. Although the safety helmet is the best protective equipment to prevents head injury, majority motorcycle user did not use or did not fasten properly. In understanding this problem, the behavioral sciences theory and engineering aspect are needed to provide better explanation and comprehensive insights into solutions. The Theory Planned Behavior (TPB and Health Belief Model (HBM were used in predicting the behavioral intention toward proper helmet usage among motorcyclist. While, a new intervention approach were used in Technology Acceptance Model (TAM that based on the perception of a conceptual system called Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR. Results show that the constructs variables are reliable and statistically significant with the exogenous and endogenous variables. The full structured models were proposed and tested, thus the significant predictors were identified. A multivariate analysis technique, known as Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in modeling exercise.  Finally, the good-of-fit models were used in interpreting the implication of intervention strategy toward motorcyclist injury prevention program.

  7. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  8. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  9. Evaluation of the Performance of New Laminated Composite Shells for Motorcycle Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin M. Aly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycles are considered a cost-effective and major means of transportation, particularly in the developing countries. However, motorcyclists are at higher risk of head and brain injuries in road crashes, which is the primarily cause of most of the fatalities occurred. Wearing a protective helmet is an efficient way for the safety of the motorcyclist, since it reduces the severity of head injuries through absorbing the impact energy during accidents. The main components of the helmet are the outer shell and the shock absorbing foam liner. The helmet performance depends to a great extent on the enhancement of the properties of the materials used to provide protection. This paper studied experimentally the protection performance of new laminated composite shells compared with that of an Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS shell. The shell prototypes were fabricated in the form of an open face helmet, composed of a laminated composite structure reinforced with various fabric performs and materials. Expanded polystyrene foam was used for the shock absorbing liner and its compressive properties were examined. The shell prototypes including the foam liner were tested mechanically to investigate their damage behaviour under applying low velocity impacts and penetration loads. Non Destructive Inspection (NDI methods were used, such as visual inspection and X-ray radiography to detect and evaluate the damages found in the prototypes. It was illustrated that, the laminated composite shell reinforced with the polyester/glass woven fabric and glass fiber mat achieved the best performance, can sustain impact loads and provide better protection to the head from penetration. When compared it with the ABS helmet, it approaches to its effectiveness in protection and the produced shell prototypes are promising for using in motorcycling.

  10. Use of suitable helmet and its relation with maxillofacial and skull fractures in motorcyclists in Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Jesús Alberto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accidents of motorcyclists constitute a growing cause of dead and injuries in the cities being most of them attack if they are fulfilled the effective traffic norms and it is used a helmet of facial protection appropriately. Objective: The main objective of the investigation is the relationship that exists among fractures of the maxillofacial area and the use of a helmet adapted in motorcyclists in the city of Cali to settle down. Study design: We design a prospective study gathering the information in the emergency rooms of the University Hospitals of the Valley, San Juan of God and Clinical Rafael Uribe Uribe of the city of Cali, Colombia. The period of the study was of one year with a field work carried out among November from 2.001 to June of 2.002. The statistical package EPIINFO version was used 6.04. Results and conclusion: The size of the sample belonged to 108 people, 88 men (81.5% and 20 women (18.5%. The most important conclusion in this investigation is that most (57=52.8% of the motorcyclists that had fractures they didn’t use helmet in the moment of the collision, and that the 51 motorcyclists that if they used it, only 3 (5.8% they used a helmet that fulfills the effective norms and that he/she allows to give appropriate protection to the user. It is for this reason that the causes should be investigated of the why don’t use of a helmet adapted in uneven motorcyclists to implement massive campaigns directed to counteract this behavior with the purpose of diminishing remarkable.

  11. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles: A controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J C O; Andersen, T; Lahrmann, H S

    2013-01-01

    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates - number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month - for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle running lights reduces the occurrence of multiparty accidents involving cyclists significantly. In the study the bicycle accidents were recorded trough self-reporting on the Internet. Possible shortcomings and problems related to this accident recording are discussed and analysed. PMID:22884376

  13. Advocating Green Transport and Promoting Healthy Urban Development: Strategies for Bicycle Transport Development in Jinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>As a green transport means,the bicycle has a history of over two hundred years.Since the 1970s,due to the inf luence of energy crisis and the consciousness of environment protection,the bicycle has regained its popularity in the public for its

  14. Use of Adapted Bicycles on the Learning of Conventional Cycling by Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tammy L.; Porretta, David L.; Klein, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of adapted bicycles on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of conventional cycling by seven children with mild mental retardation. Feedback was used in addition to the adapted bicycles and consisted of pedal rate, head position, and steering participation. A multiple probe design was used. Participants…

  15. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL...—Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device EC03OC91.074...

  16. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) is proposing to designate the Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (Park). The National Park Service general regulation at 36 CFR 4.30(b) requires promulgation of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes outside of developed areas and special use...

  17. [A specific sign of the injury inflicted by the front wheel of a bicycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V; Pinchuk, P V; Molchanov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical expertise of the injury inflicted by the front wheel of a bicycle that revealed a new specific sign of the contact between the protruding part of the wheel of the bicycle (the brake disk) and the pedestrian's body. PMID:27070037

  18. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing n

  19. Bicycle Design: A different approach to improving on the world human powered speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, H.K.; Van den Brand, S.; Gregoor, W.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Pereboom, H.P.; Wielemaker, D.C.; Van der Zweep, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    The current International Human Powered Vehicle Association world records for faired bicycles stand at 133.284km/h for the 200m flying start speed record and 91.562 km for the hour record. Traditionally the recumbent bicycles that have been developed for breaking one of either of these records have

  20. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  1. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix

    2001-01-01

    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has...

  2. The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Godefrooij, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transpor

  3. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuneke J. L.; Ugwuegbu D. C.; Sinebe J. E.; Enyi L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically use...

  4. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, intellectual activity, and social function. Methods: On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties, or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results: Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5% had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions: The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults.

  5. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  6. A traumatic superficial temporal artery aneurysm after a bicycle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Egbert J D; Poelmann, Floris B; IJpma, Frank F A

    2014-01-01

    A male cyclist presented with a swelling on the forehead. Six weeks before, he fell of his bike and smashed his head on the ground while wearing a helmet. A smooth lump of 1 cm had evolved on the temporal side of his forehead in a few weeks. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated vessel with a minor defect in the luminal wall. Surgical exploration revealed an aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aneurysm was surgically removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. Owing to its superficial course, the STA is vulnerable to blunt head trauma. Traumatic aneurysms of the STA should be a differential diagnostic consideration in patients with a history of trauma and a swelling on their head. PMID:25352578

  7. A traumatic superficial temporal artery aneurysm after a bicycle accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Egbert J.D.; Poelmann, Floris B.; IJpma, Frank F.A.

    2014-01-01

    A male cyclist presented with a swelling on the forehead. Six weeks before, he fell of his bike and smashed his head on the ground while wearing a helmet. A smooth lump of 1 cm had evolved on the temporal side of his forehead in a few weeks. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated vessel with a minor defect in the luminal wall. Surgical exploration revealed an aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aneurysm was surgically removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. Owing to its superficial course, the STA is vulnerable to blunt head trauma. Traumatic aneurysms of the STA should be a differential diagnostic consideration in patients with a history of trauma and a swelling on their head. PMID:25352578

  8. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  9. Study for verification testing of the helmet-mounted display in the Japanese Experimental Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Yamamoto, I; Kato, H; Inokuchi, S; Nemoto, M

    2000-02-01

    Our purpose is to propose a research and development project in the field of telemedicine. The proposed Multimedia Telemedicine Experiment for Extra-Vehicular Activity will entail experiments designed to support astronaut health management during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Experiments will have relevant applications to the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) operated by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for the International Space Station (ISS). In essence, this is a proposal for verification testing of the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD), which enables astronauts to verify their own blood pressures and electrocardiograms, and to view a display of instructions from the ground station and listings of work procedures. Specifically, HMD is a device designed to project images and data inside the astronaut's helmet. We consider this R&D proposal to be one of the most suitable projects under consideration in response to NASDA's open invitation calling for medical experiments to be conducted on JEM.

  10. Effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L

    1998-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visual information presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment.

  11. Incorporating Human Body Mass in Standards of Helmet Impact Protection against Traumatic Brain Injury

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Impact induced traumatic brain injury (ITBI) describes brain injury from head impact not necessarily accompanied by skull fracture. For sufficiently abrupt head impact decelerations, ITBI results from brain tissue stress incurred as the brain crashes into the inside of the skull wall, displacing the surrounding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Proper helmet cushioning can damp the impact force and reduce ITBI. But force is mass times acceleration and commonly used helmet blunt impact standards are based only on acceleration thresholds. Here I show how this implies that present standards overestimate the minimum acceleration onset for ITBI by implicitly assuming that the brain is mechanically decoupled from the body. I quantify how an arbitrary orientation of the body with respect to impact direction increases the effective mass that should be used in calculating the required damping force and injury threshold accelerations. I suggest a practical method to incorporate the body mass and impact angle into ITBI helme...

  12. Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used...... for severity of initial deformity. Surfaces were spatially registered to a symmetric template, which was deformed to achieve detailed right-to-left point correspondence for every point on the head surface. A ratio-metric asymmetry value was calculated for each point relative to its contralateral counterpart....... Maximum and mean asymmetry values were determined. Change in mean and maximum asymmetry with treatment was the basis for group comparison. RESULTS: The helmeted group had a larger reduction than the repositioned group in both maximum (4.0% vs 2.5%; P = .02) and mean asymmetry (0.9% vs 0.5%; P = .02...

  13. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data. PMID:8133740

  14. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  15. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged. PMID:24448470

  16. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged.

  17. 78 FR 42930 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 114-Peoria, Illinois; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... safety helmets, baby seats for bicycles and bicycle car carrier racks. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ..., football and baseball helmets; bicycle baby seats; and, bicycle car carrier racks (duty rate ranges from... include: tape, stickers, plastic bags, stoppers, water bottles, plastic helmet parts, rubber...

  18. Virtual MEG Helmet: Computer Simulation of an Approach to Neuromagnetic Field Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovsky, Mordekhay; Nenonen, Jukka; Koptelova, Alexandra; Butorina, Anna; Paetau, Ritva; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Ahonen, Antti; Simola, Juha; Gazit, Tomer; Taulu, Samu

    2016-03-01

    Head movements during an MEG recording are commonly considered an obstacle. In this computer simulation study, we introduce an approach, the virtual MEG helmet (VMH), which employs the head movements for data quality improvement. With a VMH, a denser MEG helmet is constructed by adding new sensors corresponding to different head positions. Based on the Shannon's theory of communication, we calculated the total information as a figure of merit for comparing the actual 306-sensor Elekta Neuromag helmet to several types of the VMH. As source models, we used simulated randomly distributed source current (RDSC), simulated auditory and somatosensory evoked fields. Using the RDSC model with the simulation of 360 recorded events, the total information (bits/sample) was 989 for the most informative single head position and up to 1272 for the VMH (addition of 28.6%). Using simulated AEFs, the additional contribution of a VMH was 12.6% and using simulated SEF only 1.1%. For the distributed and bilateral sources, a VMH can provide a more informative sampling of the neuromagnetic field during the same recording time than measuring the MEG from one head position. VMH can, in some situations, improve source localization of the neuromagnetic fields related to the normal and pathological brain activity. This should be investigated further employing real MEG recordings.

  19. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics. PMID:27391273

  20. Structural Equation Modelling in Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Naida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle is one of private transportation which has been widely used in many countries including Malaysia. However, motorcycles are the most dangerous form of motorized transport. Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM statistics recorded that motorcycle is the highest vehicle (45.9% involved in traffic accident compared to other vehicles. The potential cause of the death to the motorcyclist was due to the head injury. One of strategy to mitigate this problem is through proper usage of safety helmet. Therefore, this paper was introduce a new approach on motorcyclist safety by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM with additional determinants that contribute to behavioral intention and to increase the proper usage of safety helmets among Malaysian motorcyclists. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was used to test the structural TAM proposed. The evaluation for structural model showed the goodness of fit indices are excellent fit. This study found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and social norm are significant towards behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR.

  1. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated

  2. Bicycle Guidelines and Crash Rates on Cycle Tracks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F.; Willett, Walter C.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied state-adopted bicycle guidelines to determine whether cycle tracks (physically separated, bicycle-exclusive paths adjacent to sidewalks) were recommended, whether they were built, and their crash rate. Methods. We analyzed and compared US bicycle facility guidelines published between 1972 and 1999. We identified 19 cycle tracks in the United States and collected extensive data on cycle track design, usage, and crash history from local communities. We used bicycle counts and crash data to estimate crash rates. Results. A bicycle facility guideline written in 1972 endorsed cycle tracks but American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines (1974–1999) discouraged or did not include cycle tracks and did not cite research about crash rates on cycle tracks. For the 19 US cycle tracks we examined, the overall crash rate was 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.0) per 1 million bicycle kilometers. Conclusions. AASHTO bicycle guidelines are not explicitly based on rigorous or up-to-date research. Our results show that the risk of bicycle–vehicle crashes is lower on US cycle tracks than published crashes rates on roadways. This study and previous investigations support building cycle tracks. PMID:23678920

  3. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)

    2015-10-16

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  4. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  5. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials. PMID:22269506

  6. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  7. [Prognostic significance of bicycle ergometry test in patients with myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalova, R F; Borodina, V I

    1992-04-01

    A total of 42 patients with rheumatic carditis were examined in the acute-subacute period and following 3-5 years. Seventeen patients were diagnosed as having primary rheumatic carditis, 9 presented with tonsillogenic rheumatic carditis, and 16 had viral rheumatic carditis. The diagnosis of myocarditis was established on the basis of clinical, immunological, and virological findings. The study involved ECG, PhCG, PCG, and bicycle ergometer testing recordings. Groups of patients with good and poor prognosis were identified. Low threshold exercise, exercise-inadequate tachycardia, complex cardiac arrhythmias, phasic myocardial hypodynamic syndrome and volume exercise syndrome that are formed during performance are prognostically poor indicators. More profound electric and mechanic dysfunctions were observed in patients with tonsillogenic or viral myocarditis.

  8. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... alkaloid was prepared from antirrhinoside by means of an enzymatic cleavage to afford the aglucone, followed by a double reductive amination with benzylamine hydrochloride and sodium cyanoborohydride. The resulting piperidine was modified by opening of the epoxide on the cyclopropane ring by azide...... strategy was therefore abandoned.A one-pot reaction involving ozonolysis and subsequent reduction of the 5,6-O-isopropylidene-2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl antirrhinoside yielded a diol, which was considered a potential intermediate in the preparation of enantiopure 3-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octane alkaloids...

  9. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... are willing to pay a premium for these types of birds. The factors which significantly influence the price of chicken are the breed of the bird, the plumage color, the meatiness and the age of the bird. Consumers are willing to pay a price premium for meatier birds of traditional breeds with white plumage...... color and aged between six and twelve months. Thus, efforts to improve local breeds should stress these preferred traits....

  10. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-01

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues. PMID:26377931

  11. Brain Response to Primary Blast Wave Using Validated Finite Element Models of Human Head and Advanced Combat Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Makwana, Rahul; Sharma, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a “signature injury” in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), a finite element (FE) study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27–0.66 MPa) from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP) in the head ranged from 0.68 to 1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10–35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44%) was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%). The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence “iso-damage” curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen

  12. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: -0.368, 95% CI: -0.559 to -0.177 and coefficient: -0.235, 95% CI: -0.459 to -0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  13. Prevalence and evolution of helmet use in motorcycle riders in an Argentine city (Mar del Plata, 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremías David Tosi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962, 2008 (n=977, 2012 (n=2,542, and 2014 (n=2,466. The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.

  14. Synthesis and screening of bicyclic carbohydrate-based compounds: a novel type of antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Steven; Ruttens, Bart; Hubrecht, Idzi; Smans, Gert; Blom, Petra; Sas, Benedikt; Van hemel, Johan; Vandenkerckhove, Jan; Van der Eycken, Johan

    2006-03-15

    A small library of bicyclic carbohydrate derivatives was synthesized and screened. A strong and selective activity against cytomegalovirus was found. Structure-activity relationship for this new type of antivirals is discussed.

  15. Prioritization of Integrated Bicycle Network Clusters in Istanbul Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Çol Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of the integration of nonmotorized transport and public transport on hypermobility was evaluated. The role of bicycle in non-motorized transportation, and its contribution to sustainable travel goals were examined. A decision support model was established in order to plan the phases of a bicycle network integrated with the public transport sytem in Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Data such as public transport routes planned for the target year 2023, locations of transfer centers, number of passengers at transfer centers, and a revised bicycle network were used as layers for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS map produced. Based on the survey data collected from the experts, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP which is a multi-criteria decision-making procedure that contains both qualitative and quantitative factors was used to prioritize the bicycle network clusters integrated with public transport system in Istanbul.

  16. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  17. Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Bicycle Accidents and Slip and Fall Injuries in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate associations between sleep time and bicycle accidents, falls under various circumstances, and dental injuries in adolescents.A total of 61,696 participants ranging from 12 to 18 years of age who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS in 2013 were enrolled in this study. Bicycle riding accidents were analyzed for 17,232 bicycle-riding participants. Data were collected regarding the weekday sleep duration for the most recent 7 days, which was categorized as the 5.5-6.5 h group > the 6.5-7.5 h group. There was no significant relationship between sleep deprivation and dental injury.This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation among Korean adolescents was associated with bicycle accidents and falls at home and school. Thus, adequate sleep may be needed to prevent accidents and falls.

  18. Physiological responses and exercise preference between the Trikke and the bicycle ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T.C. Lam

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Participants were more efficient in using the Trikke than the bicycle ergometer. The Trikke may be an enjoyable alternative for those individuals, particularly women, who have lost interest in traditional forms of exercise.

  19. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  20. Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?%Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Bufton; Florian Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The humble bicycle was once the predominant mode of transport in Beijing and it can be argued that the city has previously been one of the best bicycle cities in the world. Now the streets are littered with rusting old bikes and it seems as if Beijing has turned its back on the bicycle in its quest for modernity and evolution. The resultant re-configuration of the city and the rapid speed of development of modern transportation systems (particularly the lightening growth of personal automobiles) have created a complex set of issues and challenges which now put the city under pressure such as sustainability, air quality, health and traffic congestion problems.

  1. Modeling and simulation of the transmission system for a chainless electric bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Farreny, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This project, entitled Modeling and Simulation of the Transmission System for a Chainless Electric Bicycle, consists in the design of the controllers’ logics governing a chainless electric bicycle’s transmission in order to accomplish certain behavior in front of inputs such as pedaling torque, slope gradient, frontal wind, gear selected, etc. To better understand it, a chainless electric bicycle replaces the conventional mechanical transmission (chain) by two electric mac...

  2. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the CA model using the genetic algorithm. Traffic flow features between simulations of several CA models and field observations were compared. The results showed that our modified CA model produced more accurate simulation for the fundamental diagram and the passing events in mixed bicycle traffic flow. Based on our model, the bicycle traffic flow features, including the fundamental diagram, the number of passing events, and the number of lane changes, were analyzed. We also analyzed the traffic flow features with different traffic densities, traffic components on different travel lanes. Results of the study can provide important information for understanding and simulating the operations of mixed bicycle traffic flow.

  3. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  4. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  5. Target detection performance in helmet-mounted and conventional dome displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, L J; Nelson, W T; Haas, M W

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and a conventional flight simulation dome display. Measures of workload and mood were also obtained. Participants in both viewing conditions scanned an area 120 degrees vertical by 240 degrees horizontal while attempting to locate targets that appeared to be approaching them from one of a possible 18 locations. Results indicated significantly superior performance in the conventional dome display. Workload and mood measures also showed a significant advantage for the dome display. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the design and use of HMD systems as components of airborne virtual environment interfaces.

  6. Astronaut Dunbar adjusts CCA before donning EMU helmet in JSC's WETF Bldg 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), adjusts the communications carrier assembly (CCA) ('Snoopy' cap) microphones before donning EMU helmet. Dunbar is preparing for an underwater simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. When fully suited, Dunbar will be lowered into the pool to rehearse planned and contingency extravehicular activities (EVAs). NOTE: Since this photograph was taken, Dunbar has been named as the payload commander (PLC) for STS-50 United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) mission aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  7. Traumatic tentorial hematoma in two-wheeler riders: Correlation with helmet use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak; Dawar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tentorial hematoma is frequently seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, especially in motorized two-wheeler riders following head injury. However its relevance and prognostic significance are not known. Objective: To evaluate patients of TBI with tentorial hematoma using a simple grading system and attempt to correlate this grading with factors like helmet use and neurological outcome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study over a 1-year period included patients with TBI who had tentorial hematoma in the initial plain head. Patients were divided into three grades based on the initial CT findings: Grade I: Isolated tentorial hematoma, grade II: tentorial hematoma with midline shift but open cisterns and grade III: Tentorial hematoma with effaced cisterns. Clinical and radiological records of patients including admission GCS and GOS at discharge were assessed in all cases. Observations: A total of 1786 patients of TBI were admitted during the study period. Of these, 106 (5.9%) patients had tentorial hematoma. 84.9% (n = 90) were male and 15.1% (n = 16) were female with the mean age being 36.5 years (range 2-66 years). The mean admission GCS was 13, 11 and 8 in patients with grade I, II and III tentorial hematoma respectively. 43.4% (n = 46) of the patients had grade I, 32.1% (n = 34) had grade II and 24.5% (n = 26) patients had grade III tentorial hematoma. Seventy-one patients (84.5%) were riding motorized two wheelers with 63 (89%) wearing helmets. The majority of the patients wearing helmets (58.8%) had grade I hematoma with 35% (n = 22) having grade II hematoma and only 6.3% (n = 4) having grade III hematoma. Overall, there were 20 deaths. 50% (n = 10) of the deaths were in patients with grade III hematoma and 40% (n = 8) of the deaths were in patients with grade II hematoma. There were two (10%) deaths in patients with grade I hematoma (both unrelated to head injury). The mean GOS at the time of discharge was 5, 4.1 and 2.2 in patients

  8. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  9. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study. PMID:25413615

  10. The Effects of Surface-Induced Loads on Forearm Muscle Activity During Steering a Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Önder C.; Soylu, Abdullah R.

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  11. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  12. The Kabuto, or the Japanese helmet: evolution from war implement to status symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Jun-ichiro; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2002-10-01

    WARRIORS THROUGHOUT THE AGES have considered the unprotected head to be particularly vulnerable. The traditional Japanese helmet, the Kabuto, was the part of a protective suit of armor that reflected the wearer's character and personality. Over time, it changed from a primarily protective device to a vehicle for the expression of a distinctly Japanese sense of magnificent artistry. Each Kabuto was custom-made, and these helmets remain without peer in the world. They were designed and crafted to answer the demands of their era, and thus they provide historical evidence not only of the state of Japanese warfare, but also of social organization, metallurgical knowledge, artisanship, and aesthetic sensibility. Even now, during the national Golden Week Festival in early May, Kabuto are displayed in the alcoves of Japanese homes as a petition that the boys in the house be granted courage and good health. Thus, even in modern Japan, the Kabuto represents a talisman. We present an overview of the evolution of the Kabuto, with special reference to the Japanese sword and the warrior tradition. PMID:12234393

  13. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to objects. If the distance to other objects reduces, an acoustic signal is sent. Additionally, a self-created force plate was fixed on the pedal to evaluate the muscle performances during biking. An experiment with the ultrasound warning system confirmed that acoustic feedback was helpful in avoiding obstacles. The measurement of the blood pressure, the heart frequency and the pedaling force during biking approved that the training condition of the test person can be registered and enables tuning the power of the electric motor to individual requirements. The results demonstrate that an adapted E-bike can be improved to provide better space orientation for people with perceptual disorders and to measure training conditions of patients. Moreover, these enable individual adjustment of the electric motor power to optimize comfort and therapy effect. PMID:25485189

  14. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  15. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. R. Romanow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV or with severe injuries (hospitalized. Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27], intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14], retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98], and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]. Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96] and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82] were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety.

  16. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  17. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Elen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second. Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. 

  18. On the closure of the extended bicyclic semigroup

    CERN Document Server

    Fihel, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we study the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ which is a generalization of the bicyclic semigroup. We describe main algebraic properties of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ and prove that every non-trivial congruence $\\mathfrak{C}$ on the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a group congruence, and moreover the quotient semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}/\\mathfrak{C}$ is isomorphic to a cyclic group. Also we show that the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ as a Hausdorff semitopological semigroup admits only the discrete topology. Next we study the closure $\\operatorname{cl}_T(\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}})$ of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological semigroup $T$. We show that the non-empty remainder of $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological inverse semigroup $T$ consists of a group of units $H(1_T)$ of $T$ and a two-sided ideal $I$ of $T$ in the case when $H(1_T)\

  19. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  20. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to objects. If the distance to other objects reduces, an acoustic signal is sent. Additionally, a self-created force plate was fixed on the pedal to evaluate the muscle performances during biking. An experiment with the ultrasound warning system confirmed that acoustic feedback was helpful in avoiding obstacles. The measurement of the blood pressure, the heart frequency and the pedaling force during biking approved that the training condition of the test person can be registered and enables tuning the power of the electric motor to individual requirements. The results demonstrate that an adapted E-bike can be improved to provide better space orientation for people with perceptual disorders and to measure training conditions of patients. Moreover, these enable individual adjustment of the electric motor power to optimize comfort and therapy effect.

  1. Heparin-induced circular dichroism of an achiral, bicyclic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Floyd E; Warner, Andrew M; McWilliams, Kayla M; Stalcup, Apryll M

    2011-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs have shown potential in suppressing the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the pathology of prion protein conformational disorders (e.g. "Mad Cow" disease) by competing for sites of electrostatic interaction. In this study, circular dichroism (CD) and UV/Visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the interactions between N-methyl-N'-(7-chloro-4-quinolyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (QD), an achiral, bicyclic compound similar to previously investigated antimalarial drugs, and heparin, a complex GAG that is frequently used as a clinical anticoagulant. Relatively intense heparin-induced CD features were observed for QD and were noted to be radically different from previous studies using related chiral drugs, underscoring the importance of the Pfieffer effect on this and similar heparin research. Additionally, the induced CD for QD was observed to be highly dependent upon drug concentration, heparin concentration, system pH, equilibration time, and ionic strength. These results, in connection with recent work, provide new insight into the nature of the association between GAGs and antimalarial species. PMID:21125690

  2. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  3. Head injury resulting from scooter accidents in Rome: Differences before and after implementing a universal helmet law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. La Torre (Giuseppe); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); G. Bertazzoni (Giuliano); W. Ricciardi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the incidence rates and related determinants of head injuries before and after the implementation of a new universal helmet law in Italy. Methods: The investigation took place in the Emergency Room of the Accident and Emergency Department, Teaching Hospital 'Umber

  4. Impact of North Carolina's motorcycle helmet law on hospital admissions and charges for care of traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Rebecca B; Marshall, Stephen W; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Austin, Anna; Creppage, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND North Carolina requires motorcyclists of all ages to wear federally approved safety helmets. The purpose of this article is to estimate the impact of this state law in terms of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated hospital charges. METHODS Hospital admissions of North Carolina motorcyclists with TBIs and associated hospital charges in 2011 were extracted from the North Carolina Hospital Discharge Data system. We estimated hospital admissions and charges for the same year under the counterfactual condition of North Carolina without a universal motorcycle helmet law by using various substitutes (Florida, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina residents treated in North Carolina). RESULTS North Carolina's universal helmet law prevented an estimated 190 to 226 hospital admissions of North Carolina motorcyclists with TBI in 2011. Averted hospital charges to taxpayer-funded sources (ie, government and public charges) were estimated to be between $9.5 million and $11.6 million for 2011, and total averted hospital charges for 2011 were estimated to be between $25.3 million and $31.0 million. LIMITATIONS Cost estimates are limited to inpatients during the initial period of hospital care. This study was unable to capture long-term health care costs and productivity losses incurred by North Carolina's TBI patients and their caregivers. CONCLUSIONS North Carolina's universal motorcycle helmet law generates health and economic benefits for the state and its taxpayers.

  5. Illumination-parameter adjustable and illumination-distribution visible LED helmet for low-level light therapy on brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Xiao; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been clinically applied. Recently, more and more cases are reported with positive therapeutic effect by using transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs) illumination. Here, we developed a LLLT helmet for treating brain injuries based on LED arrays. We designed the LED arrays in circle shape and assembled them in multilayered 3D printed helmet with water-cooling module. The LED arrays can be adjust to touch the head of subjects. A control circuit was developed to drive and control the illumination of the LLLT helmet. The software portion provides the control of on and off of each LED arrays, the setup of illumination parameters, and 3D distribution of LLLT light dose in human subject according to the illumination setups. This LLLT light dose distribution was computed by a Monte Carlo model for voxelized media and the Visible Chinese Human head dataset and displayed in 3D view at the background of head anatomical structure. The performance of the whole system was fully tested. One stroke patient was recruited in the preliminary LLLT experiment and the following neuropsychological testing showed obvious improvement in memory and executive functioning. This clinical case suggested the potential of this Illumination-parameter adjustable and illuminationdistribution visible LED helmet as a reliable, noninvasive, and effective tool in treating brain injuries.

  6. Innovation and the Interrelatedness of Core Competencies: How Taiwan's Giant Bicycles broke into the US Bicycle Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Phineas Upham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that capabilities and barriers to entry are, in certain circumstances, interconnected in such a way that sacrificing one of them can lead to the subsequent vulnerability or erosion of another capability or barrier to entry. I illustrate this through a study of the US bicycle market in the 1980's in general, and Schwinn Corporation and Giant Manufacturing in particular, arguing that both the barriers to entry and the firm capabilities were interrelated. A specific set of decisions by Schwinn had broad and unanticipated effects that went beyond the capacity they explicitly relinquished. In this case manufacturing and distribution were tightly linked in such a way that without some form of tight link between them successful incremental innovation became difficult. Seemingly unrelated capabilities and strengths become mutually reinforcing or interconnected. Instead of being able to choose to add a single capability, or choose to discard one, companies may instead be choosing between sets, groups of interlinked, or patterned capabilities. A seemingly small change may require a major reorganization of other core capabilities that its ostensible status belies.

  7. Evaluating the Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raghavan; McKnight, Claire E.; Ewing, Reid; Roe, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of on-street bicycle lanes installed prior to 2007 on different categories of crashes (total crashes, bicyclist crashes, pedestrian crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, and injurious or fatal crashes) occurring on roadway segments and at intersections in New York City. Methods. We used generalized estimating equation methodology to compare changes in police-reported crashes in a treatment group and a comparison group before and after installation of bicycle lanes. Our study approach allowed us to control confounding factors, such as built environment characteristics, that cannot typically be controlled when a comparison group is used. Results. Installation of bicycle lanes did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. The most likely explanations for the lack of increase in crashes are reduced vehicular speeds and fewer conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists after installation of these lanes. Conclusions. Our results indicate that characteristics of the built environment have a direct impact on crashes and that they should thus be controlled in studies evaluating traffic countermeasures such as bicycle lanes. To prevent crashes at intersections, we recommend installation of “bike boxes” and markings that indicate the path of bicycle lanes across intersections. PMID:22095351

  8. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  9. Lateral Drift Behavior Analysis in Mixed Bicycle Traffic: A Cellular Automaton Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle movements are always associated with lateral drifts. However, the impacts of lateral drift behavior, as well as variable lateral clearance maintaining behavior due to the variation of drift intensity, on mixed bicycle flow are not clear. This paper establishes a new cellular automata model to study typical characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic induced by lateral drift and its accompanying behavior. Based on derived positive correlation between passing speed and drift speed through survey, the occurrence probability of lateral drift and the degree of maintained lateral clearance are both introduced in accordance with the variance of passing speed. Then, in whole density region, firm conformity between simulation results and actual survey data is reached, which has seldom been achieved in previous studies. It is further verified that speed distortions in intermediate and high density region induced by assumption of constant lateral clearance requirements can be revised by introducing its variability characteristics. In addition, two contrastive impacts of lateral drift behavior are observed. That is, it causes speed fluctuation in low density while alleviating the speed fluctuation in relatively high density. These results are expected to be helpful to improve the simulation performance of mixed bicycle flow as well as depict more realistic vehicle-bicycle conflicts and so on.

  10. Measurement of Hybrid III Head Impact Kinematics Using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope System in Ice Hockey Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mari A; Kang, Yun Seok; Maltese, Matthew R; Bolte, John H; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2015-08-01

    Helmet-based instrumentation is used to study the biomechanics of concussion. The most extensively used systems estimate rotational acceleration from linear acceleration, but new instrumentation measures rotational velocity using gyroscopes, potentially reducing error. This study compared kinematics from an accelerometer and gyroscope-containing system to reference measures. A Hybrid III (HIII) adult male anthropometric test device head and neck was fit with two helmet brands, each instrumented with gForce Tracker (GFT) sensor systems in four locations. Helmets were impacted at various speeds and directions. Regression relationships between GFT-measured and reference peak kinematics were quantified, and influence of impact direction, sensor location, and helmet brand was evaluated. The relationship between the sensor output and the reference acceleration/velocity experienced by the head was strong. Coefficients of determination for data stratified by individual impact directions ranged from 0.77 to 0.99 for peak linear acceleration and from 0.78 to 1.0 for peak rotational velocity. For the data from all impact directions combined, coefficients of determination ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 for peak resultant linear acceleration and 0.83 to 0.91 for peak resultant rotational velocity. As expected, raw peak resultant linear acceleration measures exhibited large percent differences from reference measures. Adjustment using regressions resulted in average absolute errors of 10-15% if regression adjustments were done by impact direction or 25-40% if regressions incorporating data from all impact directions were used. Average absolute percent differences in raw peak resultant rotational velocity were much lower, around 10-15%. It is important to define system accuracy for a particular helmet brand, sensor location, and impact direction in order to interpret real-world data.

  11. 感应头盔可用意识发短信%Sensor helmet can send messages by thought waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A kind of sensor helmet is devised to receive messages from people's consciousness. "We are trying to enter a world of consciousness," said the designer of this helmet -- inventor Kevin Brown in IBM. The sensor API in this helmet can perceive people's moods such as boredom or excitement. The smartest characteristic of the helmet is the description of the brain wave with the acquiring of the encephalogram. The helmet leads the field in the development of sensor technology and this technology will be used in communication extensively in the near future.%目前,一款能“阅读”人类大脑思想的头盔装置正被设计研发当中,“我们正准备进入意识控制世界”。IBM公司资深发明家凯文·布朗(KevinBrown)最新设计了一种头盔装置(Emotiv头盔).能够探测感知人们的情绪.无论是我们感到厌烦或者兴奋,是集中精力地处理工作任务.还是处于放松休闲状态。同时.该装置还能通过大脑发现人体肌肉的状态.因而探测到笑容或者皱眉以及一些相应的动作反应。

  12. 75 FR 27734 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... manufacture or import bicycle helmets subject to the standard. There are an estimated 200 different models of... for Bicycle Helmets AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer... of bicycle helmets. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of information...

  13. 75 FR 53680 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... follows. Approximately 30 firms manufacture or import bicycle helmets subject to the standard. There are...; Comment Request; Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION..._submission@omb.eop.gov . Written comments should be captioned ``Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets.''...

  14. 16 CFR 1203.32 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203.32 Definitions. The following definitions shall apply to this subpart: (a) Foreign manufacturer means an entity that manufactured a bicycle helmet outside the... manufactured a helmet in the United States or imported a helmet manufactured outside the United States....

  15. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ring closing metathesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Nurul Islam; Md Shahidul Islam; Md Ashraful Hoque; Tamaki Kato; Norikazu Nishino

    2015-09-01

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, two cyclization steps, namely, peptide cyclization and fusion of aliphatic side chains by ring closing metathesis (RCM) were involved. In the course of these syntheses, we have established two facts: a lower limit of aliphatic loop length and better synthetic route for bicyclic tetrapeptide synthesis. It was found that nine methylene loop length is the lower limit for aliphatic loop and the synthetic route selection depended on the configuration of amino acids in the cyclic tetrapeptide scaffold. RCM followed by peptide cyclization was the proper route for LDLD configuration and the reverse route was suitable for LLLD configuration.

  16. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  17. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  18. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Methods: Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density......, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...... for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Results: Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time...

  19. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen....... In search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...... and safety (first cycling city); the flow for cars (car city); urban liveability for soft transport (liveable city); and, finally, to improve the flow for cyclists as part a strategic re-design of urban space (liveable cycling city)....

  20. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In rece

  1. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  2. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  3. Synthesis of a Library of 1,5,2-Dithiazepine 1,1-Dioxides. Part 2: Routes to Bicyclic Sultams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Zhou, Aihua; Knudtson, Chris A.; Bi, Danse; Basha, Fatima Z.; Hanson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a library of bicyclic sultams incorporating the 1,5,2-dithiazepine 1,1-dioxide moiety is reported. Following scaffold synthesis via a one-pot sulfonylation/intramolecular thia-Michael protocol, several additional cyclization strategies have been realized enabling access to new bicyclic sultams. PMID:24385680

  4. Mediorhynchus gallinarum (Acanthocephala: Gigantorhynchidae) in Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    Mediorhynchus gallinarum was recovered from the small intestines of 36 of 50 Helmeted guineafowls sampled from August 1988 to May 1989. The intensity of infection ranged from 1-141 worms per host, with a mean intensity of 23.2 (+/- 34) and a median intensity of 5. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test revealed no significant differences between the mean worm burdens of male and female birds at the 5% level (P > 0.05). Slightly more female than male acanthocephalans were collected. The majority (63.4%) of females had eggs with fully-developed embryos, 9% had immature eggs, 21.2% had no eggs and the egg status of 6.4% could not be determined. No seasonal pattern of intensity of infection emerged from the data, but worm burdens were markedly higher after good rains in February 1989. South Africa constitutes a new geographic record for M. gallinarum.

  5. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A New Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, William C; Blackman, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become the signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI on society are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various mechanisms, including impacts caused by the blast, have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. Through the use of hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. This mechanism has implications for the diagnosis of TBI in soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  6. Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-14

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  7. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  8. Orthogonal ring-closing alkyne and olefin metathesis for the synthesis of small GTPase-targeting bicyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromm, Philipp M; Schaubach, Sebastian; Spiegel, Jochen; Fürstner, Alois; Grossmann, Tom N; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Bicyclic peptides are promising scaffolds for the development of inhibitors of biological targets that proved intractable by typical small molecules. So far, access to bioactive bicyclic peptide architectures is limited due to a lack of appropriate orthogonal ring-closing reactions. Here, we report chemically orthogonal ring-closing olefin (RCM) and alkyne metathesis (RCAM), which enable an efficient chemo- and regioselective synthesis of complex bicyclic peptide scaffolds with variable macrocycle geometries. We also demonstrate that the formed alkyne macrocycle can be functionalized subsequently. The orthogonal RCM/RCAM system was successfully used to evolve a monocyclic peptide inhibitor of the small GTPase Rab8 into a bicyclic ligand. This modified peptide shows the highest affinity for an activated Rab GTPase that has been reported so far. The RCM/RCAM-based formation of bicyclic peptides provides novel opportunities for the design of bioactive scaffolds suitable for the modulation of challenging protein targets. PMID:27075966

  9. Orthogonal ring-closing alkyne and olefin metathesis for the synthesis of small GTPase-targeting bicyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromm, Philipp M; Schaubach, Sebastian; Spiegel, Jochen; Fürstner, Alois; Grossmann, Tom N; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-04-14

    Bicyclic peptides are promising scaffolds for the development of inhibitors of biological targets that proved intractable by typical small molecules. So far, access to bioactive bicyclic peptide architectures is limited due to a lack of appropriate orthogonal ring-closing reactions. Here, we report chemically orthogonal ring-closing olefin (RCM) and alkyne metathesis (RCAM), which enable an efficient chemo- and regioselective synthesis of complex bicyclic peptide scaffolds with variable macrocycle geometries. We also demonstrate that the formed alkyne macrocycle can be functionalized subsequently. The orthogonal RCM/RCAM system was successfully used to evolve a monocyclic peptide inhibitor of the small GTPase Rab8 into a bicyclic ligand. This modified peptide shows the highest affinity for an activated Rab GTPase that has been reported so far. The RCM/RCAM-based formation of bicyclic peptides provides novel opportunities for the design of bioactive scaffolds suitable for the modulation of challenging protein targets.

  10. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  11. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  12. Device and method to determine perineal artery occlusion during road bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hotaling, James M; Ohlander, Samuel J; Baftiri, Amit P; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Greater than 60 million American men who ride bicycles are at risk of developing erectile dysfunction. One possible reason is occlusion of the perineal arteries. Researchers relied on indirect methods and stationary models to study this problem. We developed a novel system to quantify occlusion among bicycle riders during a road bike ride. Our verification and validation activities show that this system can be safely used on human subjects to measure perineal artery occlusion. The method described in this paper provides a valuable tool to the researchers to study or to develop new solutions that alleviate this problem. The outcomes of these efforts will help millions of cyclists worldwide. PMID:25570811

  13. Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics Analysis of Bicyclic 4-Nitroimidazole Analogs in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Helena I M Boshoff; Joseph Cherian; Sindhu Ravindran; Anne Goh; Jan Jiricek; Mahesh Nanjundappa; Amit Nayyar; Meera Gurumurthy; Ramandeep Singh; Thomas Dick; Francesca Blasco; Barry, Clifton E.; Ho, Paul C.; Manjunatha, Ujjini H

    2014-01-01

    PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC ). In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the eff...

  14. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  15. Bicycle-related genitourinary injuries in the USA from 2002–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Appa, Ayesha A; Bagga, Herman S; Blaschko, Sarah; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2014-01-01

    Among children, the incidence of bicycle-related genitourinary (GU) injuries was 448 per 100 000 (95% CI 383 to 514) and, among adults, was 53 per 100 000 (95% CI 36 to 71). Although children sustained more injuries, adults were more likely to being admitted to the hospital for the GU injury (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.37). Children sustain nearly 10 times more GU injuries due to bicycles than adults, but adults have higher odds of sustaining injuries requiring admission. PMID:24618096

  16. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  17. Aminocyclopentanols as sugar mimics. Synthesis from unsaturated bicyclic lactones by Overman rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminid......Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta...

  18. Knights of death: introducing bicycles and motor vehicles to Turin, 1890-1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraglio, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate, through a case study from the city of Turin, the reaction to the arrival of bicycles and automobiles in Italy. It focuses on the early years of bicycle and automobile use, using municipal council minutes, local newspapers, and satirical magazines as sources. The introduction of velocipedes and cars disrupted the traditional use of roads as public spaces, generating protests against the new transport devices, especially with regard to safety concerns resulting from the transgression of traditional uses of urban streets, the speed of vehicles, and the anonymity of riders and drivers. PMID:26005084

  19. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey. Design Features, Design and Combat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the helmets of the Crimean Tatar nobility stored in the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Republic of Turkey. Based on the analysis of design and system design determined that hats were made of Circassian masters of the XVIII century. Helmet No. 1/810 in shape of the dome relates to the type of bevel. Forged a gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, pads, conical pommel, and ringed barmitsa Persian type. In Cherkessia similar hats were known as Tang (from the Arab. "the Taj", i.e. "crown". It is most likely that the owner of the helmet was the last Noureddine Crimean khanate, Bahadir Giray (1789-1792 was the son of MuminGirei (?-1747 and grandson of Khan Saadet Giray IV (1717-1724. Helmet No. 1/812по the shape of a dome refers to the type of conal. Forged iron gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, plates and funnel-shaped topping. Dome placed on the manufacture date of the helmet – "1180 of the Hijra" (i.e., 1766-1767 in the Gregorian calendar, as well as the inscription: "Owner Sultan Ali", "Muhammad Giray", "Mansour". Helmet No. 1/811по the shape of a dome refers to the type of cylindrical. Faceted iron supplemented gilt crown ornamented Hoop, conical pommel and Aventail Persian type. On the front of hats placed the inscription, "Sultan Mohammed Ibn AdilGiray". This suggests that the owner of the helmet could be the son of Nureddin (1718, serasker Budjaka and Editcol (1727-1728 Adil Ibn Selim I Giray or seraskier EditcolAdil Ibn Selim III Giray (1766-1767. In the framework of the interdisciplinary research were made copies of these helmets, which have become the object of scientific experiments aimed at the study of the functional properties of the considered hats. According to the results of the experimental tests it was found that all three of the helmet provide very reliable protection of the head and neck of the warrior from the cutting and cut-and-cutting blows of the enemy. The saber blade

  20. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a rejoinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris

    2012-03-01

    This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis and the lack of data beyond a few years before the introduction of legislation, the failure to adequately account for the effect of the phasing in of the legislation, the effect of the marked reduction in child cyclists, and the non-comparability of the pedestrian and cycling injuries and related lack of consideration of the severity of head injuries. The extent to which helmet legislation deters people from cycling is discussed. PMID:22269491

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  2. Use of automated video analysis for the evaluation of bicycle movement and interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaddle, Heather; Schendzielorz, Tobias; Fakler, Oliver; Amini, Sasan

    2014-03-01

    With the purpose of developing valid models of microscopic bicycle behavior, a large quantity of video data is collected at three busy urban intersections in Munich, Germany. Due to the volume of data, the manual processing of this data is infeasible and an automated or semi-automated analysis method must be implemented. An open source software, "Traffic Intelligence", is used and extended to analyze the collected video data with regard to research questions concerning the tactical behavior of bicyclists. In a first step, the feature detection parameters, the tracking parameters and the object grouping parameters are calibrated, making it possible to accurately track and group the objects at intersections used by large volumes of motor vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians. The resulting parameters for the three intersections are presented. A methodology for the classification of road users as cars, bicycles or pedestrians is presented and evaluated. This is achieved by making hypotheses about which features belong to cars, or bicycles and pedestrians, and using grouping parameters specified for that road user group to cluster the features into objects. These objects are then classified based on their dynamic characteristics. A classification structure for the maneuvers of different road users is presented and future applications are discussed.

  3. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  4. A Study of Bicycle and Passenger Car Collisions Based on Insurance Claims Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden, bicycle crashes are under-reported in the official statistics that are based on police reports. Statistics from hospital reports show that cyclists constitute the highest percentage of severely injured road users compared to other road user groups. However, hospital reports lack detailed information about the crash. To get a more comprehensive view, additional data are needed to accurately reflect the casualty situation for cyclists. An analysis based on 438 cases of bicycle and passenger car collisions is presented, using data collected from insurance claims. The most frequent crash situations are described with factors as to where and when collisions occur, age and gender of the involved cyclists and drivers. Information on environmental circumstances such as road status, weather- and light conditions, speedlimits and traffic environment is also included. Based on the various crash events, a total of 32 different scenarios have been categorized, and it was found that more than 75% were different kinds of intersection related situations. From the data, it was concluded that factors such as estimated impact speed and age significantly influence injury severity. The insurance claims data complement the official statistics and provide a more comprehensive view of bicycle and passenger car collisions by considering all levels of crash and injury severity. The detailed descriptions of the crash situations also provide an opportunity to find countermeasures to prevent or mitigate collisions. The results provide a useful basis, and facilitates the work of reducing the number of bicycle and passenger car collisions with serious consequences. PMID:23169111

  5. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist. PMID:27209153

  6. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  7. [Changes in ECG indicators during bicycle ergometry in patients having suffered myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Z N

    1984-01-01

    Altogether 218 patients with a history of myocardial infarction were subjected to bicycle ergometry. The ECG recorded at the height of the exercise showed a significant increase in the heart rate and in the amplitudes of P and R waves. The diastole and electric systole shortened. As the load was raised, the rate of A-B conduction was relatively decelerated.

  8. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  9. Design of an aluminium bicycle path integrated in a steel bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Burggraaf, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the aluminium structure of a bicycle path which is mounted on an existing steel brige. The benefits of aluminium, being low self weight, freedom in design obtained by extrusion and good corrosion resistance were maximal utilized. One of the main drawbacks of alumin

  10. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  11. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  12. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.; Heinen, E.; Methorst, R.; Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  13. Balance and control of a rear-wheel steered speed-record recumbent bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, A.L.; Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Human Power Team from the TU Delft and the Free University of Amsterdam is to break the world speed record in unpaced cycling (Sam Whittingham, 133.28 km/h). The design of such a faired recumbent bicycle is a challenge. The Delft design, called VeloX (Human Power Team (2013)), is a f

  14. Building the fastest bicycle in the world; a year with the Human Power Team Delft & Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, M.; Roks, G.

    2014-01-01

    “Third time lucky” is the saying, but for the third Human Power Team it almost turned out as a year for nothing. The team has been attempting to set the world record for the fastest bicycle powered only by human muscles for two years already. This endeavor to let a Dutchman be the fastest human on e

  15. Assessing and Prioritizing bicycle projects in Denmark: the CPP-Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang

    2011-01-01

    billion DKK in the period from 2009-2014. This presentation will mainly focus upon the modelling aspect of the prioritization of different bicycle applications for the funds and the experiences from the latter. Accordingly, the modelling approach is based upon the collaborative work between the Technical...

  16. Comparison of dipyridamole-handgrip test and bicycle exercise test for thallium tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huikuri, H.V.; Korhonen, U.R.; Airaksinen, J.; Ikaeheimo, M.J.H.; Heikkilae, J.T.; Takkunen, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Seventy-three patients with angina pectoris and 20 with atypical chest pain, who underwent coronary angiography, were examined by single-photon emission computed thallium tomography (TI-SPECT) using a combined dipyridamole-handgrip stress test. Perfusion defects were detected in 78 of 81 patients with angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (sensitivity 96%). In 9 of 12 patients without CAD, the thallium images were normal (specificity 75%). Thirty-five patients with CAD were reexamined by TI-SPECT using a dynamic bicycle exercise stress test. The sensitivity of the dipyridamole-handgrip test did not differ from the bicycle exercise test in diagnosing the CAD (97% vs 94%). Multiple thallium defects were seen in 19 of 22 (86%) patients with multivessel CAD by the dipyridamole-handgrip test but only in 14 of 22 (64%) by the bicycle exercise test. Noncardiac side-effects occurred in 17 of 93 (18%) patients after dipyridamole infusion. Cardiac symptoms were less common during the dipyridamole-handgrip test than during the bicycle exercise (15% vs 76%, p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the dipyridamole-handgrip test is a useful alternative stress method for thallium perfusion imaging, particularly in detecting multivessel CAD.

  17. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... and adopted by NPS leadership after an adequate analysis of the benefits, impacts, and economic cost... Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (77 FR 12761). The proposed rule was... solitude and wilderness-like aesthetics that are long-standing attributes in this area and the primary...

  18. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  19. Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

    2011-08-01

    To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE-INDUCED LOADS ON FOREARM MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING STEERING A BICYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Arpinar-Avsar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB and Mountain Bike (MTB are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction. During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider

  1. Impact Evaluation of a Public Bicycle Share Program on Cycling: A Case Example of BIXI in Montreal, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Fournier, Michel; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between residential exposure to BIXI (BIcycle-taXI)—a public bicycle share program implemented in Montreal, Quebec, in 2009, which increases accessibility to cycling by making available 5050 bicycles at 405 bicycle docking stations—and likelihood of cycling (BIXI and non-BIXI) in Montreal over the first 2 years of implementation. Methods. Three population-based samples of adults participated in telephone surveys. Data collection occurred at the launch of the program (spring 2009), and at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) seasons of implementation. Difference in differences models assessed whether greater cycling was observed for those exposed to BIXI compared with those not exposed at each time point. Results. We observed a greater likelihood of cycling for those exposed to the public bicycle share program after the second season of implementation (odds ratio = 2.86; 95% confidence interval = 1.85, 4.42) after we controlled for weather, built environment, and individual variables. Conclusions. The implementation of a public bicycle share program can lead to greater likelihood of cycling among persons living in areas where bicycles are made available. PMID:23327280

  2. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  3. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    Water entered the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) helmet during extravehicular activity (EVA) no. 23 aboard the International Space Station on July 16, 2013, resulting in the termination of the EVA approximately 1 hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5 liters of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronaut's hearing, vision, and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based test, tear-down, and evaluation of the affected EMU hardware components determined that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator degassing function, which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, migrating around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing shortcomings of the Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery (ALCLR) Ion Filter Beds, which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware, and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  4. Enantioselective Recognition of Calix [4] arene Derivative Bearing Bicyclic Guanidinium for D/L Amino Acid Zwitterions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 陆国元; 何卫江; 王震生; 朱龙根

    2001-01-01

    The p-tetra-tert-butyl calix[4]arene derivatives ( 3 and 4 )with(S,S) chiral bicyclic guanidinium, as the receptors of amino acid zwitterions, have been synthesized via a O-alkylation reaction of p-tetra-tert-rutyi calix [4] arene with chloromethly chiral bicyclic guanidinium 2 in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3 in acetonitrile.The results obtained from liquid-liquid competitive extraction experiments indicate that the two receptors may selectively recognize L-aromatic amino acids, and that the enantioselective recognizability of the receptor 4 with two chiral bicyclic guanidinium units reachs up to about 90% for L-Phe.

  5. Bicycle transport as an object of ecological marketing and innovations in urban transportations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Teletov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In the modern world society is faced with problems of growing population, increasing environmental problems, lack of minerals and social-economic globalization when necessity of both individual and humanity survival is becoming extremely important. By next few years 80% of the world’s population will live in the cities. This is the main reason which force us to think about the more effective usage of urban space and transport people in cities. Nowadays ecological pollution and increased costs on transport service highlight the importance of seeking alternative types of transport. The youth of many European countries prefer bikes as main transport. Usage of bicycles in Europe is constantly growing due to European and local urban and mobility policies. Therefore, we may consider an opportunity to promote bicycle transport in Ukraine, that requires complex investigation of this question. The purpose of the article is to define features and the ways of bicycle transport implementation in Ukrainian cities as a priority for youth; it includes the best world practices of bicycle transport implementation into urban space and searching for possible ways to apply the European experience in Ukraine. The results of the analysis. As a part of our research we considered investigating international experience of cycling in Europe as an alternative to the public transport and as an example of ecological marketing. The best methods of usage cycling in the urban space were described and analysed. Moreover, we identified the main problems (and the potential solutions with implementation of cycling infrastructure in urban space based on international and national experience (special signs, traffic lights etc.. In the article different opportunities for realization in city Sumy were proposed. Our focus was on atomized network of bike rental services and we confirmed the effectiveness of such program in this city. The bicycle infrastructure

  6. A Helmet-type MEG System with 1st order SQUID Gradiometer Located in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated a helmet type magnetoencephalogrphy(MEG) with a 1st order gradiometer in vacuum to improve the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) and the boil-off rate of liquid helium(LHe). The axial type first-order gradiometer was fabricated with a double relaxation oscillation SQUID(DROS) sensor which was directly connected with a pickup coil. The neck space of LHe dewar was made to be smaller than that of a conventional dewar, but the LHe boil-off ratio appeared to increase. To reduce the temperature of low Tc SQUID sensor and pickup coil to 9 K, a metal shield made of, such as copper, brass or aluminum, have been usually used for thermal transmission. But the metal shield exhibited high thermal noise and eddy current fluctuation. We quantified the thermal noise and the eddy current fluctuation of metal. In this experiment, we used the bobbin which was made of an alumina to wind Nb superconductive wire for pickup coil and the average noise of coil-in-vacuum type MEG system was 3.5 fT/Hz1/2. Finally, we measured the auditory evoked signal to prove the reliability of coil-in-vacuum type MEG system.

  7. A revision of African helmeted terrapins (Testudines: Pelomedusidae: Pelomedusa), with descriptions of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Alice; Vargas-Ramírez, Mario; Kehlmaier, Christian; Vamberger, Melita; Branch, William R; Preez, Louis Du; Hofmeyr, Margaretha D; Meyer, Leon; Schleicher, Alfred; Siroký, Pavel; Fritz, Uwe

    2014-05-15

    Using nearly range-wide sampling, we analyze up to 1848 bp of mitochondrial DNA of 183             helmeted terrapins and identify a minimum of 12 deeply divergent species-level clades. Uncorrected p distances of these clades equal or clearly exceed those between the currently recognized species of Pelusios, the genus most closely related to Pelomedusa. We correlate genetic discontinuities of Pelomedusa with data on morphology and endoparasites and describe six new Pelomedusa species. Moreover, we restrict the name Pelomedusa subrufa (Bonnaterre, 1789) to one genetic lineage and resurrect three further species from its synonymy, namely P. galeata (Schoepff, 1792), P. gehafie (Rüppell, 1835), and P. olivacea (Schweigger, 1812). In addition to these ten Pelomedusa species, we identify two further clades from Cameroon and Sudan with similar levels of genetic divergence that remain unnamed candidate species. We also note that some problematical terrapins from South Africa and Somalia may represent two additional candidate species. Some of the Pelomedusa species are morphologically distinctive, whilst others can only be identified by molecular markers and are therefore morphologically cryptic taxa.

  8. Perceptual issues for color helmet-mounted displays: luminance and color contrast requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Lattimore, Morris R.; Statz, Jonathan; Martin, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Color is one of the latest design characteristics of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). It's inclusion in design specifications is based on two suppositions: 1) color provides an additional method of encoding information, and 2) color provides a more realistic, and hence more intuitive, presentation of information, especially pilotage imagery. To some degree, these two perceived advantages have been validated with head-down panel-mounted displays, although not without a few problems associated with visual physiology and perception. These problems become more prevalent when the user population expands beyond military aviators to a general user population, of which a significant portion may have color vision deficiencies. When color is implemented in HMDs, which are eyes-out, see-through displays, visual perception issues become an increased concern. A major confound with HMDs is their inherent see-through (transparent) property. The result is color in the displayed image combines with color from the outside (or in-cockpit) world, possibly producing a false perception of either or both images. While human-factors derived guidelines based on trial and error have been developed, color HMD systems still place more emphasis on colorimetric than perceptual standards. This paper identifies the luminance and color contrast requirements for see-through HMDs. Also included is a discussion of ambient scene metrics and the choice of symbology color.

  9. Image tiling for a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Russell M.; Pradhan, Ranjit D.; Aye, Tin M.; Chua, Kang-Bin; Tengara, Indra; Tun, Nay; Win, Tin; Holmstedt, Jason; Schindler, Axel; Hergert, Steffen

    2005-05-01

    Head-mounted or helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have long proven invaluable for many military applications. Integrated with head position, orientation, and/or eye-tracking sensors, HMDs can be powerful tools for training. For such training applications as flight simulation, HMDs need to be lightweight and compact with good center-of-gravity characteristics, and must display realistic full-color imagery with eye-limited resolution and large field-of-view (FOV) so that the pilot sees a truly realistic out-the-window scene. Under bright illumination, the resolution of the eye is ~300 μr (1 arc-min), setting the minimum HMD resolution. There are several methods of achieving this resolution, including increasing the number of individual pixels on a CRT or LCD display, thereby increasing the size, weight, and complexity of the HMD; dithering the image to provide an apparent resolution increase at the cost of reduced frame rate; and tiling normal resolution subimages into a single, larger high-resolution image. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) is developing a 5120 × 4096 pixel HMD covering 1500 × 1200 mr with resolution of 300 μr by tiling 20 subimages, each of which has a resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels, in a 5 × 4 array. We present theory and results of our preliminary development of this HMD, resulting in a 4k × 1k image tiled from 16 subimages, each with resolution 512 × 512, in an 8 × 2 array.

  10. Helmet-mounted acoustic array for hostile fire detection and localization in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2008-04-01

    The detection and localization of hostile weapons firing has been demonstrated successfully with acoustic sensor arrays on unattended ground sensors (UGS), ground-vehicles, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Some of the more mature systems have demonstrated significant capabilities and provide direct support to ongoing counter-sniper operations. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is conducting research and development for a helmet-mounted system to acoustically detect and localize small arms firing, or other events such as RPG, mortars, and explosions, as well as other non-transient signatures. Since today's soldier is quickly being asked to take on more and more reconnaissance, surveillance, & target acquisition (RSTA) functions, sensor augmentation enables him to become a mobile and networked sensor node on the complex and dynamic battlefield. Having a body-worn threat detection and localization capability for events that pose an immediate danger to the soldiers around him can significantly enhance their survivability and lethality, as well as enable him to provide and use situational awareness clues on the networked battlefield. This paper addresses some of the difficulties encountered by an acoustic system in an urban environment. Complex reverberation, multipath, diffraction, and signature masking by building structures makes this a very harsh environment for robust detection and classification of shockwaves and muzzle blasts. Multifunctional acoustic detection arrays can provide persistent surveillance and enhanced situational awareness for every soldier.

  11. Enhanced flight symbology for wide-field-of-view helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Steven P.; Asbury, Charles N.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan P.

    2003-09-01

    A series of studies was conducted to improve the Army aviator's ability to perform night missions by developing innovative symbols that capitalize on the advantages of new wide field-of-view (WFOV) helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). The most important outcomes of the research were two new symbol types called the Cylinder and the Flight Path Predictor. The Cylinder provides a large symbolic representation of real-world orientation that enables pilots to maintain the world frame of reference even if the visibility of the world is lost due to dust, smoke, snow, or inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Furthermore, the Cylinder is peripherally presented, supporting the "ambient" visual mode so that it does not require the conscious attention of the viewer. The Flight Path Predictor was developed to show the predicted flight path of a maneuvering aircraft using earth-referenced HMD symbology. The experimental evidence and the pilot interview results show that the new HMD symbology sets are capable of preventing spatial disorientation, improving flight safety, enhancing flight maneuver precision, and reducing workload so that the pilot can more effectively perform the critical mission tasks.

  12. 双圈图的代数连通度%On the algebraic connectivity of bicyclic graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁西英; 张丽; 孙玉芹

    2007-01-01

    Bicyclic graphs are connected graphs in which the number of edges equals the number of vertices plus one.The aothors study the algebraic connectivity α(G)of a bicyclic graph G on n vertices and prove that α(G)≤1 for all bicyclic graphs G on n(n≥10)vertices.Funhermore they determine all the bicyclic graphs G on n(,n≥10)vertices such that α(G)=1.%边数等于点数加1的连通图称为双圈图.研究双圈图G的代数连通度,记作α(G),证明了结论:对所有的n(n≥10)阶双圈图G都有α(G)≤1成立,并且确定了满足α(G)=1的所有,n(n≥10)阶双圈图.

  13. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  14. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  15. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle Across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications – bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic coming from opposing directions. Opportunities for crossing were divided into aligned (far gap opens with or before near gap) and rolli...

  16. The risk of pediatric bicycle handlebar injury compared with non-handlebar injury: a retrospective multicenter study in Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Tomoya; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shimazaki, Junya; Shiono, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hitoshi; Wakai, Akinori; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bicycle accidents are one of the major causes of unintentional traumatic injury in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics and risks of handlebar injury in childhood. Methods We conducted a more than 5-year retrospective survey of patients under 15 years of age with bicycle-related injuries admitted to eight urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka, Japan. Patients were divided into the direct-impact handlebar injury (HI) group and the non-handlebar inj...

  17. The Bicycle – Future’s Solution for an Eco-friendly Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciovică

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though more and more cities across the globe impose restrictive measures regarding theuse of cars and offer instead incentives in order to choose alternative means of transport, they do not slowdown their economic growth, but on the contrary they prove their skills towards providing citizens a betterlife. Under these circumstances, the bicycle appears as a viable solution for most of us, and the publicprograms that support its use have started to develop globally, at European level, and in Romania as well.The current paper wishes to point out the stimulating perspectives brought by the slight increase in thenumber of bicycles sold in our country in recent years towards the future of urban transport.

  18. Study of Drive Mechanisms of Bicycle, Tricycle or Like Vehicles to Optimize Operating Performance - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul U. Urunkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cycle or cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport. Cycle rickshaws are human-powered, a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver. Tricycles are used primarily for commercial transportation. Various locally made configurations of bicycle or tricycle are available. The present form of cycle has many shortcomings. One of the major problems faced by available bicycle or tricycle is its less efficiency or mechanical advantage. This paper reviews patent (which are now open for public access and experimental work brought by researchers on drive mechanism of cycle in order to optimize its operating performance. An individual idea or any possible combination of different ideas can be used for optimizing performance of driving mechanism for cycle.

  19. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. PMID:26739323

  20. Optimal design parameters of the bicycle-rider system for maximal muscle power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihuku, Y; Herzog, W

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal values of design parameters for a bicycle-rider system (crank length, pelvic inclination, seat height, and rate of crank rotation) which maximize the power output from muscles of the human lower limb during bicycling. The human lower limb was modelled as a planar system of five rigid bodies connected by four smooth pin joints and driven by seven functional muscle groups. The muscles were assumed to behave according to an adapted form of Hill's equation. The dependence of the average power on the design parameters was examined. The instantaneous power of each muscle group was studied and simultaneous activity of two seemingly antagonistic muscle groups was analyzed. Average peak power for one full pedal revolution was found to be around 1100 W. The upper body position corresponding to this peak power output was slightly reclined, and the pedalling rate was 155 rpm for a nominal crank length of 170 mm.

  1. Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Breaud, Autumn; Burns, Sean; Margulies, Jared; Romano, Max; Lawrence, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Maryland (MD) recently became one of fourteen states in the United States to enact a traffic law requiring motor vehicles to pass bicyclists at a distance of greater than three feet. To our knowledge, motorist compliance with the law has never been assessed. This study measured the distance between overtaking motor vehicles and cyclists [e.g. vehicle passing distance (VPD)], to develop baseline metrics for tracking implementation of the three-foot passing law in Baltimore, MD and to assess risk factors for dangerous passes. During September and October 2011, cyclists (n=5) measured VPD using a previously published video technique (Parkin and Meyers, 2010). Cyclists logged a total of 10.8h of video footage and 586 vehicle passes on 34 bicycle commuting trips. The average trip lasted 19.5±4.9 min and cyclists were passed on average 17.2±11.8 times per trip. VPDs of three feet or less were common when cycling in standard lanes (17%; 78 of 451 passes) and lanes with a shared lane marking (e.g. sharrows) (23%; 11 of 47 passes). No passes of three feet or less occurred in bicycle lanes (0 of 88 passes). A multiple linear regression model was created, which explained 26% of the variability in VPD. Significant model variables were lane width, bicycle infrastructure, cyclist identity, and street identity. Interventions, such as driver education, signage, enforcement, and bicycle infrastructure changes are needed to influence driving behavior in Baltimore to increase motorist compliance with the three-foot law. PMID:22664711

  2. Automatic control of cycling effort using electric bicycles and mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Afonso; Rodrigues, Filipe J.; Delfim Pedrosa; Joao L. Afonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a novel effort control system for cycling, which contributes to promote the users’ mobility and physical health. This system provides automatic control of the motor assistance level of an electric bicycle in order to ensure that the cyclist’s effort remains inside the desired target zone, regardless of changes in other variables which normally affect the effort, such as the slope of the road. The system presented in this paper controls th...

  3. A Universal Design Method for Reflecting Physical Characteristics Variability: Case Study of a Bicycle Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masato; Suzuki, Wataru; Yamada, Shuho; Inoue, Masato

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a Universal Design, designers must consider diverse users' physical and functional requirements for their products. However, satisfying these requirements and obtaining the information which is necessary for designing a universal product is very difficult. Therefore, we propose a new design method based on the concept of set-based design to solve these issues. This paper discusses the suitability of proposed design method by applying bicycle frame design problem. PMID:27534334

  4. The Regional Response to Federal Fundingfor Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects: Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Barbara; McRee, Lanier; Handy, Susan L; Meharg, Emily; Bailey, Linda; Ewing, Reid; Ernst, Michelle; Wright, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Since its initiation in the early 20th century, the federal transportation funding program has focused on highway construction for automobile travel. In the last few decades, public transportation has received 20% of federal resources, a significant share, but non-motorized modes such as bicycling and walking have historically received very limited funding. Over the past three decades, however, views of non-motorized modes and the federal interest in promoting them have changed dramatically. ...

  5. A simple, enaminone-based approach to some bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates

    OpenAIRE

    František Josefík; Markéta Svobodová; Valerio Bertolasi; Petr Šimůnek

    2013-01-01

    Easily obtainable cyclic enaminones (piperidin-2-ylidenealkanones) can be transformed into substituted bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates upon treatment with corresponding diazonium salts. The transformation can be performed either in a one-pot way or in a two-step process with the isolation of single azo-coupled enaminone as the intermediate. The former method is superior. Under the optimized conditions, a number of pyridazinium salts substituted with both electron-donating and electro...

  6. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98, a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  7. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  8. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, James; Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate ...

  9. Synthesis and Structure of A Novel Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel caged bicyclic phosphate flame retardant tri(1-oxo-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane-methyl) phosphate (Trimer) was synthesized from 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) and phosphorus oxychloride in this paper.Its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  10. ω-Extension of Bicyclic Semigroup%双循环半群的ω扩张

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雯; 詹亮

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we discussed ω-extension of bicyclic semigroups.Two types of this extension are proposed.In §2 we discussed strong semilattice extension and the structure of the extension is well presented.In §3 we discussed another order extension.We proved that congruence lattice of this extension semigroups is union set of two sublattice.One is the group congruence semilattice,the other is the pure idempotent congruence semilattice.

  11. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  12. 车锁式打气筒设计%Design of Bicycle Lock Type Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 司慧

    2012-01-01

    The design combines a bicycle lock with a pump, realizing a uniform structure of the two. The application of a dual-pump structure makes the pumping process more efficient. In order to facilitate bicycle riders' relaxation, the air pump can also serve as a stool. Compared with carrying a single air pump or a single bicycle lock, this kind of air pump features lost air pumping cost, easy use, low space requirements, convenience to carry steady and reliable operation.%本设计将自行车车锁与打气筒巧妙地结合在一起,实现了二者结构形式的统一。应用双注气杆式打气结构,使打气效率优于现有的便携式打气筒,为了方便骑行者能够就地休息又附加了凳子的功能。与单独携带气筒、单独使用车锁相比,合二为一的车锁式打气筒成本低,使用、携带方便,节省空间,工作过程稳定、可靠。

  13. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole analogs in a murine model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Lakshminarayana

    Full Text Available PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC. In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the efficacy of diverse nitroimidazole analogs ranged between 0.5 and 2.3 log CFU reduction compared to untreated controls. Further, a retrospective analysis was performed for a set of seven nitroimidazole analogs to identify the PK parameters that correlate with in vivo efficacy. Our findings show that the in vivo efficacy of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles correlated better with lung PK than with plasma PK. Further, nitroimidazole analogs with moderate-to-high volume of distribution and Lung to plasma ratios of >2 showed good efficacy. Among all the PK-PD indices, total lung T>MIC correlated the best with in vivo efficacy (rs = 0.88 followed by lung Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC. Thus, lung drug distribution studies could potentially be exploited to guide the selection of compounds for efficacy studies, thereby accelerating the drug discovery efforts in finding new nitroimidazole analogs.

  14. Influence of roadway geometric elements on driver behavior when overtaking bicycles on rural roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Chapman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine what influence geometric design elements of roadway may have on driver behavior during the overtaking maneuver. This was part of a larger research effort to eliminate crashes (and the resulting fatalities and injuries between bicycles and motorized vehicles. The data collection process produced 1151 observations with approximately 40 different independent variables for each data point through direct observation, sensor logging, or derivation from other independent variables. Prior research by the authors developed a means to collect real-time field data through the use of a bicycle-mounted data collection system. The collected data was then used to model lateral clearance distance between vehicles and bicycles. The developed model confirmed field observations that the lateral clearance distance provided by drivers changes with vehicle speed and oncoming vehicle presence. These observations were presented by the authors previously. The model shows that driver behavior can be adjusted by the inclusion, or exclusion, of geometric elements. Evaluating roadways (or roadway designs based on this model will enable stakeholders to identify those roadway segments where a paved shoulder would prove an effective safety countermeasure. This research will also enable roadway designers to better identify during the design phase those roadway segments that should be constructed with a paved shoulder.

  15. Boris Loutzky – Creator of the world's first motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Firsov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to creation of the first motor vehicles with internal combustion engines. The purpose of article is to establish the name of the designer who was the first to create the world's motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine. This article describes the construction of the first motorized vehicles Gottlieb Daimler, Edward Butler, Felix Millet, Giuseppe Murniotti, Edward Pennington, Alois Wolfmüller and Hans Geisenhof. based on the analysis of structures of motor vehicles. It’s stated that none of the vehicles can be called a «prototype» of modern mopeds and motorcycles. Based on the research it was found that in Germany Russian engineer B. Loutzky was engaged in creation of motorized vehicles with internal combustion engines even before Hildebrand and Pennington. These motorized vehicles were exhibited in Palermo, Erfurt, Vienna, Prague, Lamberg, Stuttgart and other cities in Europe, and were acknowledged and rewarded with gold medals. The paper describes the design of the first motorized bicycle with a classic layout by B. Loutzky and design of the unique internal combustion engines, which B. Loutzky used in his first vehicles. Overall, based on the analysis of patents for inventions, literary and archival sources, the priority of the Russian engineer B. Loutzky in creation of the motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine is established.

  16. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing. PMID:26609666

  17. A Geo-Aware and VRP-Based Public Bicycle Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Bicycle System (PBS has been developed for short-distance transportation as a part of the mass transportation system. The supply and demand of bikes in PBS is usually unbalanced at different stations and needs to be continuously and widely monitored and redistributed. The bicycle redistribution is a part of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. We can apply solutions to the VRP to redistribute bicycle efficiently. However, most solutions to the VRP use the Euclidean distance as the condition factor, which does not take road conditions, traffic regulations, and geographical factors into account, resulting in unnecessary waste of delivery time and human resources. In this work, we propose an actual path distance optimization method for the VRP to adapt the several additional constraints of road problems. We also implement a system that integrates real-time station information, Web GIS, the urban road network, and heuristics algorithms for PBS. The system includes a simulator inside that can assist PBS managers to do the route planning efficiently and find the best scheduling strategy to achieve hotspot analysis and the adjustment of station deployment strategies to reduce PBS operation cost.

  18. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  19. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  20. Study of electrode slice forming of bicycle dynamo hub power connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dyi-Cheng; Jao, Chih-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan's bicycle industry has been an international reputation as bicycle kingdom, but the problem in the world makes global warming green energy rise, the development of electrode slice of hub dynamo and power output connector to bring new hope to bike industry. In this study connector power output to gather public opinion related to patent, basis of collected documents as basis for design, structural components in least drawn to power output with simple connector. Power output of this study objectives connector hope at least cost, structure strongest, highest efficiency in output performance characteristics such as use of computer-aided drawing software Solid works to establish power output connector parts of 3D model, the overall portfolio should be considered part types including assembly ideas, weather resistance, water resistance, corrosion resistance to vibration and power flow stability. Moreover the 3D model import computer-aided finite element analysis software simulation of expected the power output of the connector parts manufacturing process. A series of simulation analyses, in which the variables relied on first stage and second stage forming, were run to examine the effective stress, effective strain, press speed, and die radial load distribution when forming electrode slice of bicycle dynamo hub.

  1. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing.

  2. A solid solution to a conjecture on the maximal energy of bipartite bicyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Bofeng; Li, Xueliang; Shi, Yongtang

    2011-01-01

    The energy of a simple graph $G$, denoted by $E(G)$, is defined as the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. Let $C_n$ denote the cycle of order $n$ and $P^{6,6}_n$ the graph obtained from joining two cycles $C_6$ by a path $P_{n-12}$ with its two leaves. Let $\\mathscr{B}_n$ denote the class of all bipartite bicyclic graphs but not the graph $R_{a,b}$, which is obtained from joining two cycles $C_a$ and $C_b$ ($a, b\\geq 10$ and $a \\equiv b\\equiv 2\\, (\\,\\textmd{mod}\\, 4)$) by an edge. In [I. Gutman, D. Vidovi\\'{c}, Quest for molecular graphs with maximal energy: a computer experiment, {\\it J. Chem. Inf. Sci.} {\\bf41}(2001), 1002--1005], Gutman and Vidovi\\'{c} conjectured that the bicyclic graph with maximal energy is $P^{6,6}_n$, for $n=14$ and $n\\geq 16$. In [X. Li, J. Zhang, On bicyclic graphs with maximal energy, {\\it Linear Algebra Appl.} {\\bf427}(2007), 87--98], Li and Zhang showed that the conjecture is true for graphs in the class $\\mathscr{B}_n$. However, they could not...

  3. Development and Validation of a Space Suit Helmet Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdash, O.; Norcross, J.; Meginnis, I.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Korona, F. A.; Abercromby, A. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Providing adequate washout of carbon dioxide (CO2) from within a space suit helmet is essential to maintaining a safe operating environment for astronauts using space suits. A valid and reliable method for quantification of inspired CO2 inside space suits is required to ensure the health and performance of suited crewmembers. With this objective, several different methods for measuring the concentration of CO2 in a space suit helmet were evaluated. A nasal cannula was compared with respirator style masks worn by suited test subjects, with air drawn into gas analyzers to measure the concentration of CO2 in the immediate vicinity of the mouth and nose. The respirator style masks, some being commercially available products and some novel designs, did not provide repeatable results based on initial pilot testing in three subjects. Based on the analysis of those studies, the decision was made to down-select to a commercially available nasal cannula as the primary sampling device to be used in follow-on testing in the MKIII (n = 8) and Z2 (n = 6) prototype space suits, with five subjects performing tests in both suits allowing for repeated measures comparisons. Subjects were tasked with achieving target metabolic rates of 293, 586, and 879 Watts (1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/h) and at air supply flow rates of 3.4, 6.8, and 10.2 Am(sup 3)/hr. (2, 4, and 6 ACFM). Each test condition was performed twice; once with subjects instructed to breathe however they felt comfortable, and once with subjects instructed to breathe only through their nose. Inspired CO2 values were determined by the lowest points, or troughs, within each breath of the respiratory trace. This method provides multiple inspired CO2 samples at known metabolic rates for each test condition and provides a larger data set for analysis than possible through gross averaging of the minimum inspired CO2. Results indicate that reliable measures are achievable under both breathing conditions but that restricting subjects

  4. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  5. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cripton Peter A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists. Methods We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. The results were tabulated within two categories of infrastructure, namely that at intersections (e.g. roundabouts, traffic lights or between intersections on "straightaways" (e.g. bike lanes or paths. To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes (collisions and/or falls. Results The literature to date on transportation infrastructure and cyclist safety is limited by the incomplete range of facilities studied and difficulties in controlling for exposure to risk. However, evidence from the 23 papers reviewed (eight that examined intersections and 15 that examined straightaways suggests that infrastructure influences injury and crash risk. Intersection studies focused mainly on roundabouts. They found that multi-lane roundabouts can significantly increase risk to bicyclists unless a separated cycle track is included in the design. Studies of straightaways grouped facilities into few categories, such that facilities with potentially different risks may have been classified within a single category. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths was associated with the lowest

  6. Helmet-mounted display requirements: just another head-up display (HUD) or a different animal altogether?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Haworth, Loran A.

    1994-06-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. The present study reviewed the state-of-the-art in HMDs and identified a number of issues applying to HMDs. Several are identical to head-up display (HUD) issues: symbol standardization, excessive clutter, and the need for integration with other cockpit displays and controls. Other issues are unique to the head-mounted display: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and field-of-view (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. Symbol stabilization is critical. In the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. The underlying cause is the absence of design criteria for HMDs. The existing military standard does not reflect the current state of technology. In addition, there are inadequate test and evaluation guidelines. The situation parallels the situation for HUDs several years ago.

  7. A Comparison of Static and Dynamic Measures of Lower Limb Joint Angles in Cycling: Application to Bicycle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bini Rodrigo Rico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Configuration of bicycle components to the cyclist (bicycle fitting commonly uses static poses of the cyclist on the bicycle at the 6 o’clock crank position to represent dynamic cycling positions. However, the validity of this approach and the potential use of the different crank position (e.g. 3 o’clock have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study compared lower limb joint angles of cyclists in static poses (3 and 6 o’clock compared to dynamic cycling. Methods. Using a digital camera, right sagittal plane images were taken of thirty cyclists seated on their own bicycles mounted on a stationary trainer with the crank at 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions. Video was then recorded during pedalling at a self-selected gear ratio and pedalling cadence. Sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles were digitised. Results. Differences between static and dynamic angles were large at the 6 o’clock crank position with greater mean hip angle (4.9 ± 3°, smaller knee angle (8.2 ± 5° and smaller ankle angle (8.2 ± 5.3° for static angles. Differences between static and dynamic angles (< 1.4° were trivial to small for the 3 o’clock crank position. Conclusions. To perform bicycle fitting, joint angles should be measured dynamically or with the cyclist in a static pose at the 3 o’clock crank position.

  8. Præventiv effekt af cykelhjelme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Larsen, C F; Nordentoft, E

    1990-01-01

    with bicycle accidents. When a bicycle helmet is purchased, it is important to ensure that the helmet fits the head, that vision is not impeded and that the chinstrap secures the helmet correctly. Legislation is necessary to ensure that bicycle helmets sold in Denmark fulfill the minimum safety requirements.......The total number of persons injured following bicycle accidents in Denmark is estimated to be more than 50,000 annually. In half of the injured cyclists, lesions localized to the region of the head occur. Bicycle helmets provide considerable protection against brain injuries which constitute 13......%. Several investigations from abroad and from Denmark have demonstrated that protection of the head can reduce the number of deaths and of acute brain injuries due to bicycle accidents. On the basis of the literature, it is concluded that bicycle helmets provide good protection of the head in connection...

  9. 基于网络的农业运输车头盔定制系统%Customization System of Helmets for Agricultural Transporters Based on Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕群华; 郭彩玲; 时君伟

    2009-01-01

    通过分析农业运输车头盔的现状和特点,提出了个性化网络定制系统对于农业运输车头盔销售和购买的重要意义.探讨了农业运输车头盔定制系统的结构和系统实施路线.研究了系统实现的2项%The status and characters of the helmets for agricultural transporters are analyzed.The personalized customization system based on network plays important roles in selling and purchasing the helmets for agricultural transporters.The structure and implementation route of customization system of helmets for agricultural transporters are discussed.Two key technologies to realize the system including network database technology and network virtual presentation technology are studied.The prototype system of the network customization and presentation of the helmets for agricultural transporters is developed.

  10. Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: an in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Summala, H

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight bicycle-car accidents in four cities were studied by multidisciplinary in-depth analysis. The sample was representative of the national accident statistics. All the accidents were analyzed in detail to reconstruct the actual movements of those involved and to assess detection of the other party. In 37% of collisions, neither driver nor cyclist realized the danger or had time to yield. In the remaining collisions, the driver (27%), the cyclist (24%) or both (12%) did something to avert the accident. Two common mechanisms underlying the accidents were identified. First, allocation of attention such that others were not detected, and second, unjustified expectations about the behavior of others. These mechanisms were found to be closely related to the system of two-way cycle tracks and to the fact that the general priority rule is applied to the crossings of a cycle track and a roadway. The most frequent accident type among collisions between cyclists and cars at bicycle crossings was a driver turning right and a bicycle coming from the driver's right along a cycle track. The result confirmed an earlier finding (Accident Analysis and Prevention 28, 147-153, 1996) that drivers turning right hit cyclists because they looked left for cars during the critical phase. Only 11% of drivers noticed the cyclist before impact. Cyclists' behavior was in marked contrast to that of drivers. In these cases, 68% of cyclists noticed the driver before the accident, and 92% of those who noticed believed the driver would give way as required by law. Cyclists with a driving license and those who cycled daily through the accident site were involved in different accident types to other cyclists. PMID:9678219

  11. Deaths of bicycle riders in Brazil: characteristics and trends during the period of 2000 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Posenato Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, bicycle use has been increasing. Accidents involving cyclists are important causes of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality of cyclists injured in transport accidents in Brazil, the characteristics of the victims and of the occurrence, and to investigate its trends during the period between 2000 and 2010. METHODS: A descriptive study with data from the Mortality Information System (SIM was conducted in the period of 2000 - 2010. Crude and age-standardized corrected mortality rates were calculated for Brazil, its macro-regions and states. Linear regression was used to study the trends. RESULTS: In the period of 2000 - 2010, 32,422 bicycle-related deaths were identified in Brazil. In 2010, there were, on average, 8.8 bicycle-related deaths per day. Age-standardized mortality rates for the country were 15.3 and 15.9 deaths per million inhabitants in 2000 and 2010, respectively (p = 0.725. During the whole period, the Center-Western region showed the highest rates, though stable, corresponding to 23.4 deaths per million inhabitants in 2010. Men accounted for 85.4% of deaths, with death risk 5 times higher than women. CONCLUSION: In spite of the stable rates for the country, there was an increase trend in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while a decreasing trend was observed in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The risk of death was higher among men, elderly, and people living in large cities and at the Center-Western region.

  12. A wearable ECG-HR detector and its application to automatic assist-mode selection of an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akinori; Miyashita, Osamu; Yoshida, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Lataire, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an electrically assisted bicycle has been widely used in daily life and becomes very popular. The user selects the stepwise assist-mode to determine the assistive torque for pleasurable running. From the viewpoint of improvement of health by exercise, the electrically assisted bicycle can be an exercise machine like a treadmill. The heart rate (HR) is regarded as an indication of exercise load. This paper presents an automatic assist-mode selection system based on the HR of the bicycle user. The HR is obtained from the R-waves measured by the proposed wearable electrocardiograph on the user. The mode-selection system is simply implemented by a personal computer, USB-connected interface, and some electronic switching circuits. The running experiments confirm that the proposed assist-mode selection method has practicability. PMID:22255925

  13. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  14. [The electrical stimulation bicycle: a neuroprosthesis for the everyday use of paraplegic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Fiegel, M; Krafczyk, S; Straube, A; Quintern, J; Brandt, Th

    2004-06-24

    Until recently, few patients with complete paraplegia could walk or stand with the help of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the leg muscles regularly at home. In comparison, FES cycling with an adapted tricycle is easy to put into practice because the legs remain connected to the pedals and through the use of a tricycle or stationary bicycle, the balancing problems of the patient recedes into the background. In the first German feasibility studies for paraplegic cycling, eleven completely paraplegic patients have been tested so far. The goal is to make FES cycling a daily activity in the lives of as many patients as possible.

  15. Feasibility study on a perceived fatigue prediction dependent power control for an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Minagawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Several types of electric motor assists have been developed, as a result, it is important to control muscular fatigue on-site in terms of health promotion and motor rehabilitation. Predicting the perceived fatigue by several biosignal-related variables with the multiple regression model and polynomial approximation, we try to propose a self control design for the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB). We also determine the meaningful muscles during pedaling by muscle synergies in relation to the motion maturity. In field experiments, prediction of ongoing perceived physical fatigue could have the potential of suitable control of EAB.

  16. Enantiospecific Synthesis of All Four Stereoisomers of Novel Bicyclic Arylacetamides as κ—Opioid Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙亚秋; 牟奇勇; 仇达萍; 吴瑞琴

    2002-01-01

    Conformationally constrained bicyclic derivatives of the potent and selective κ-opioid receptor agonist 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(1S)-1-Phenyl-2-(1-Pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl]acetamide(3,ICI-199,441)were designed to explore the effect of the conformational restriction and stereochemistry of the pharmacophoric ethylenediamine incorporated into the pyrrolidine on the affinity and κ-selectivity.A facile enantiosipecitfic synthetic route was extablished to afford all four stereoisomers starting from readily available amino acids through mild cyclization and amide formation.

  17. Enantiospecific Synthesis of All Four Stereoisomers of Novel Bicyclic Arylacetamides as κ-Opioid Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG,Ya-Qiu(龙亚秋); MOU,Qi-Yong(牟奇勇); QIU,Da-Ping(仇达萍); WU,Rui-Qin(吴瑞琴)

    2002-01-01

    Conformationally constrained bicyclic derivatives of the potent and selective κ-opioid receptor agonist 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl- N- [ (1S ) - 1-phenyl-2- (1-pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl] acetamide (3, ICI-199,441) were designed to explore the effect of the conformational restriction and stereochemistry of the pharmacophoric ethylenediamine incorporated into the pyrrolidine on the affinity and κ-selectivity. A facile enantiospecific synthetic route was established to afford all four stereoisomers starting from readily available amino acids through mild cyclization and amide formation.

  18. Feasibility study on a perceived fatigue prediction dependent power control for an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Minagawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Several types of electric motor assists have been developed, as a result, it is important to control muscular fatigue on-site in terms of health promotion and motor rehabilitation. Predicting the perceived fatigue by several biosignal-related variables with the multiple regression model and polynomial approximation, we try to propose a self control design for the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB). We also determine the meaningful muscles during pedaling by muscle synergies in relation to the motion maturity. In field experiments, prediction of ongoing perceived physical fatigue could have the potential of suitable control of EAB. PMID:24110131

  19. [The electrical stimulation bicycle: a neuroprosthesis for the everyday use of paraplegic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Fiegel, M; Krafczyk, S; Straube, A; Quintern, J; Brandt, Th

    2004-06-24

    Until recently, few patients with complete paraplegia could walk or stand with the help of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the leg muscles regularly at home. In comparison, FES cycling with an adapted tricycle is easy to put into practice because the legs remain connected to the pedals and through the use of a tricycle or stationary bicycle, the balancing problems of the patient recedes into the background. In the first German feasibility studies for paraplegic cycling, eleven completely paraplegic patients have been tested so far. The goal is to make FES cycling a daily activity in the lives of as many patients as possible. PMID:15529690

  20. Unexpected involvement of staple leads to redesign of selective bicyclic peptide inhibitor of Grb7

    OpenAIRE

    Menachem J. Gunzburg; Ketav Kulkarni; Gabrielle M. Watson; Ambaye, Nigus D.; Del Borgo, Mark P.; Rebecca Brandt; Stephanie C. Pero; Patrick Perlmutter; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2016-01-01

    The design of potent and specific peptide inhibitors to therapeutic targets is of enormous utility for both proof-of-concept studies and for the development of potential new therapeutics. Grb7 is a key signaling molecule in the progression of HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers. Here we report the crystal structure of a stapled bicyclic peptide inhibitor G7-B1 in complex with the Grb7-SH2 domain. This revealed an unexpected binding mode of the peptide, in which the staple forms a...

  1. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S;

    1999-01-01

    transporter-1 (GAT-1), GAT-2, -3 or -4. It was found that 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(4,5-c)pyridin-3-ol (THPO) and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-isoxazolo[4,5-c]azepin-3-ol (THAO) displayed some inhibitory activity on GAT-1 and GAT-2, where the compounds exhibited a slightly lower potency on GAT-2 compared to GAT-1...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  2. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Candiota coal samples: novel series of bicyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C.M.L.; Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used to analyse aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from nine samples taken from two different seams of five boreholes in the Candiota coalfield (Lower Permian). The occurrence of certain tetracyclic diterpenoids among the aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the tricyclic diterpenoids simonellite and retene in the aromatic hydrocarbon concentrates, suggest an important input from conifers to the sedimentary biomass. This may explain the origin of a novel series of saturated and aromatic bicyclic compounds detected in the extracts which may be structurally related to the same precursor, possibly a conifer resin-derived tricyclic diterpenoid.

  3. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  4. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  5. 双圈图的Laplacian Spread%The Laplacian Spread of Bicyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 王立庆

    2011-01-01

    Laplacian spread的概念在刻画图的整体性质方面非常重要.近年来,Fan等分别刻画了树中具有极大和极小Lap|acian spread的图.另外Bao等确定了在所有单圈图中具有极大Laplacian spread的图.边数减去顶点数目为1的连通图称为双圈图.令召。是所有有几个顶点构成的双圈图集合.对n≥11,本文确定了Bn中所有具有极大Laplacian spread的那些图.%The notion of Laplacian spread is very important in characterizing the global structural property of graphs. Recently, Fan et al. showed that K1,n-1 and Pn are the only trees with the maximal and the minimal Laplacian spread among all trees with n vertices, respectively. Furthermore, Bao etal. determined the graph with the maximal Laplacian spread among all unicyclic graphs. Connected graphs in which the number of edges equals the number of vertices plus one are called bicyclic graphs. Let Bn be the set of all bicyclic graphs with n vertices. In this paper, we continue the work on Laplacian spread of graphs, and determine those graphs with the maximal Laplacian spread in Bn for n≥11.

  6. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:27074628

  7. The Structure of Spatial Networks and Communities in Bicycle Sharing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltz Austwick, Martin; O’Brien, Oliver; Strano, Emanuele; Viana, Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems exist in hundreds of cities around the world, with the aim of providing a form of public transport with the associated health and environmental benefits of cycling without the burden of private ownership and maintenance. Five cities have provided research data on the journeys (start and end time and location) taking place in their bicycle sharing system. In this paper, we employ visualization, descriptive statistics and spatial and network analysis tools to explore system usage in these cities, using techniques to investigate features specific to the unique geographies of each, and uncovering similarities between different systems. Journey displacement analysis demonstrates similar journey distances across the cities sampled, and the (out)strength rank curve for the top 50 stands in each city displays a similar scaling law for each. Community detection in the derived network can identify local pockets of use, and spatial network corrections provide the opportunity for insight above and beyond proximity/popularity correlations predicted by simple spatial interaction models. PMID:24040320

  8. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  9. The structure of spatial networks and communities in bicycle sharing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zaltz Austwick

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing systems exist in hundreds of cities around the world, with the aim of providing a form of public transport with the associated health and environmental benefits of cycling without the burden of private ownership and maintenance. Five cities have provided research data on the journeys (start and end time and location taking place in their bicycle sharing system. In this paper, we employ visualization, descriptive statistics and spatial and network analysis tools to explore system usage in these cities, using techniques to investigate features specific to the unique geographies of each, and uncovering similarities between different systems. Journey displacement analysis demonstrates similar journey distances across the cities sampled, and the (outstrength rank curve for the top 50 stands in each city displays a similar scaling law for each. Community detection in the derived network can identify local pockets of use, and spatial network corrections provide the opportunity for insight above and beyond proximity/popularity correlations predicted by simple spatial interaction models.

  10. Injuries Due to Wedging of Bicycle Wheels in On-road Tram Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Jaap; Harmsen, Annelieke M. K.; Schonhuth, Casper P.; Bloemers, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In cities with trams as public transportation, tram tracks are often on public roads, creating a shared road situation with other road participants like cyclists. Beside the risk of direct collisions, this situation can also lead to bicycle wheels getting wedged in tram tracks, causing cyclists to fall. Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the injury pattern of this trauma mechanism and to draw attention to the risks of the infrastructural situation with on-road tram tracks. Patients and Methods: A one-year, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. All patients admitted after presentation to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center, who got injured because their bicycle wheels got wedged in tram tracks, were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, type of injury and treatment. Results: Ten patients were included. Six were male. The mean age was 38 years. Six patients required surgery, mostly because of extremity injuries. Mean duration of admission was 4 days. Mean injury severity score was 13. One patient died as a result of the injuries sustained in the accident. Conclusions: Tram tracks on public roads are potentially dangerous and can lead to serious injuries and even mortality amongst cyclist. Operative intervention is frequently needed. PMID:25685751

  11. Long-term use of computerized bicycle ergometry for spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipski, M L; Alexander, C J; Harris, M

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-eight spinal cord injured subjects who participated in an electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry home program were surveyed to determine perceived benefits, home exercise adherence, and predictors of continued home exercise with electrical stimulation. Subjects were classified as users or nonusers depending upon if they used the electrical stimulation ergometry on a regular basis in the home during the past four months. Nineteen subjects qualified as users and nine were nonusers. Ninety-five percent of the users cycled at least twice per week whereas the majority of the nonusers stopped regular home exercise within one month postclinic discharge. All subjects generally perceived increases in muscle bulk and endurance. Users and nonusers perceived inconsistent results related to spasticity. Minimal effects were noted with neurogenic pain and swelling. Adherence to the home exercise program was significantly related to sex of subject and pre-injury exercise habits. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry in the home.

  12. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. PMID:25336037

  13. Solution and Structural Investigations of Ligand Preorganization in Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes of Bicyclic Malonamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Bevin W.; Gilbertson, Robert D.; Hutchison, J. E.; Rather Healey, Elisabeth; Weakley, Timothy J R; Rapko, Brian M.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Broker, Grant A.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2006-02-20

    This report describes an investigation into the coordination chemistry of trivalentlanthanides in solution and the solid state with acyclic and preorganized bicyclic malonamide ligands. Two experimental investigations were performed: solution bindingaffinities were determined through single-phase spectrophotometric titrations and the extent of conformational change upon binding was investigated with single-crystal X-raycrystallography. Both experimental methods compare the bicyclic malonamide (BMA), which is designed to be preorganized for binding trivalent lanthanides, to an analogousacyclic malonamide. Results from the spectrophotometric titrations indicate that BMA exhibits a 10-100 times increase in binding affinity to Ln(III) over acyclic malonamide.In addition, BMA forms compounds with high ligand-metal ratios, even when competing with water and nitrate ligands for binding sites. The crystal structures exhibit nosignificant differences in the nature of the binding between Ln(III) and the BMA or acyclic malonamide. These results support the conclusion that rational ligand design canlead to compounds that enhance the binding affinities within a ligand class.

  14. Energy cost and mechanical efficiency of riding a human-powered recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Carlo; Ardigo, Luca Paolo; Schena, Federico; Zamparo, Paola

    2008-10-01

    When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify the capability of converting metabolic energy in useful mechanical work by measuring mechanical efficiency. In this study, net mechanical efficiency (eta) of riding a recumbent bicycle on flat terrain and at constant speeds (v, 5.1-10.0 m/s) was calculated dividing mechanical work (w, J/m) by the corresponding energy cost (C(c), J/m). w and C(c) increased linearly with the speed squared: w = 9.41 + 0.156 . v(2); C(c) = 39.40 + 0.563 . v(2). eta was equal to 0.257 +/- 0.0245, i.e. identical to that of concentric muscular contraction. Hence, i) eta seems unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the human-vehicle system; ii) the efficiency of transmission seems to be close to 100%, suggesting that the particular biomechanical arrangement does not impair the transformation of metabolic energy in mechanical work. When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify mechanical efficiency (eta) of locomotion. eta of riding a recumbent bicycle was calculated dividing the mechanical work to the corresponding energy cost of locomotion; it was practically identical to that of concentric muscular contraction (0.257 +/- 0.0245), suggesting that the power transmission from muscles to pedals is unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the vehicle.

  15. Long-term use of computerized bicycle ergometry for spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipski, M L; Alexander, C J; Harris, M

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-eight spinal cord injured subjects who participated in an electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry home program were surveyed to determine perceived benefits, home exercise adherence, and predictors of continued home exercise with electrical stimulation. Subjects were classified as users or nonusers depending upon if they used the electrical stimulation ergometry on a regular basis in the home during the past four months. Nineteen subjects qualified as users and nine were nonusers. Ninety-five percent of the users cycled at least twice per week whereas the majority of the nonusers stopped regular home exercise within one month postclinic discharge. All subjects generally perceived increases in muscle bulk and endurance. Users and nonusers perceived inconsistent results related to spasticity. Minimal effects were noted with neurogenic pain and swelling. Adherence to the home exercise program was significantly related to sex of subject and pre-injury exercise habits. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry in the home. PMID:8439248

  16. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. The new approach brings a completely different view on planning cycling infrastructure, while rather than physical infrastructure characteristics, humans are placed at the forefront of the cycling infrastructure design as the most important measure of its quality. Since the complexity of human beings cannot be controlled with only one science or profession, solving the problem of bicycle traffic is not just a technical problem, but its design and management also lend a multidisciplinary character. From the perspective of different cycling infrastructure users, the study will define integrated multidisciplinary methodology for evaluating the quality of cycling infrastructure, which will equally include the criteria of sensing and perceiving of space. The new approach seeks a system of criteria, which enables the integrated planning of cycling infrastructure in all spatial, organizational, sectoral, and professional levels. All theoretical findings will be tested and demonstrated on the pilot case of the long-distance cycling connection in the area of four Slovenian coastal municipalities, namely Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran.

  17. 150 bicycle injuries in children: a comparison with accidents due to other causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, C M; Noble, D; Bell, D; Kemn, I; Roche, C; Pascoe, J

    1981-07-01

    One hundred and fifty bicycle accidents seen at the Children's Hospital Sheffield over a 6-month period from mid-August 1979 were analysed and 9.3 per cent of the cases were admitted. Twenty-two per cent had fractures, 20 per cent had soft tissue injuries of face or scalp, 8 children having damaged their teeth. Of the accidents 17.3 per cent were due to hitting an obstruction, 30.7 per cent were due to loss of control on a hill or corner and 8 per cent were of mechanical origin. Eighty-eight per cent had cycling experience of a year or more, and 32.7 per cent had had previous cycling accidents. Comparison with other types of accidents previously studied at the hospital, involving skateboards, playground equipment or road traffic accidents affecting child pedestrians, showed that by far the most serious were those involving child pedestrians. The injuries from bicycle accidents were similar in severity to those involving skateboards.

  18. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety. PMID:23339779

  19. Do 'Surgical Helmet Systems' or 'Body Exhaust Suits' Affect Contamination and Deep Infection Rates in Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Zhu, Mark; Shirley, Otis C; Wu, Qing; Spangehl, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examined whether negative-pressure Charnley-type body exhaust suits (BES) or modern positive-pressure surgical helmet systems (SHS) reduce deep infection rates and/or contamination in arthroplasty. For deep infection, four studies (3990 patients) gave adjusted relative risk for deep infection of 0.11 (P = 0.09) against SHS. Five of 7 (71%) studies found less air contamination and 2 of 4 studies (50%) less wound contamination with BES. One of 4 (25%) found less air contamination with SHS and 0 of 1 (0%) less wound contamination. In contrast to BES, modern SHS designs were not shown to reduce contamination or deep infection during arthroplasty.

  20. PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF A LONG-ACTING FENTANYL SOLUTION AFTER TRANSDERMAL ADMINISTRATION IN HELMETED GUINEAFOWL (NUMIDA MELEAGRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Lynnette; Knych, Heather; Cole, Gretchen; D'Agostino, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of a long-acting fentanyl solution in helmeted guineafowl ( Numida meleagris ) after transdermal administration. Twenty-one guineafowl received a single administration of 5 mg/kg of fentanyl transdermal solution. No adverse effects on behavior were appreciated. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of protein-precipitated samples. Mean maximum plasma concentration was 228.8 ng/ml at 4 hr. The mean plasma terminal half-life was 33.2 hr. At 168 hr the mean plasma concentration was 1.3 ng/ml. A single topical dose of 5 mg/kg appears to be safe for use in this species and maintained plasma concentrations above those reported to be analgesic in dogs for at least 7 days. PMID:27468018