Sample records for bicycle helmets

  1. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.


    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Boshevski


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development process of a bicycle helmet through individual research, creation, presentation and analysis of the results of the most important product development stages. The quality of the development and manufacturing process of the protective equipment for extreme sports is an imperative for a successful product and its flawless function. The design of the bicycle helmet is made following the rules of the design in order to create a well-founded and functional product. After creating design sketches, a virtual prototype was developed in "SolidWorks" using the required ergonomic dimensions. 3D printed model of the human head with adapted ergonomic dimensions and the designed bicycle helmet was developed in order to verify the applied ergonomic measures. The virtual model will be used as an input in the finite element analysis of the helmet impact test based on the EN1078 standard and the aerodynamic simulations executed in "SolidWorks Simulation and Flow Simulation", for verification of the impact and aerodynamic properties. Virtual testing of aerodynamic features and the ability of the bicycle helmet to allow ventilation of the user's head indicate that the helmet performs its function in the desired way. Also, the virtual prototype will be used for the production process simulation in "SolidWorks Plastics" in order to analyze the production of the bicycle helmet. The polycarbonate helmet outer shell is subject to a number of simulations for the sake of analyzing the production process in order to obtain the desired characteristics of the polycarbonate outer shell and to avoid the disadvantages that occur in the manufacturing process. The main goal of this paper is to develop a safety bicycle helmet with improved ergonomic, validation of impact, aerodynamic characteristics and production process in order to produce a high quality product for mass use.

  3. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children. (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E


    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  4. In defence of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation: response to Hooper and Spicer. (United States)

    Biegler, Paul; Johnson, Marilyn


    We invoke a triple rationale to rebut Hooper and Spicer's argument against mandatory helmet laws. First, we use the laws of physics and empirical studies to show how bicycle helmets afford substantial protection to the user. We show that Hooper and Spicer erroneously downplay helmet utility and that, as a result, their attack on the utilitarian argument for mandatory helmet laws is weakened. Next, we refute their claim that helmet legislation comprises unjustified paternalism. We show the healthcare costs of bareheaded riding to pose significant third party harms. It follows, we argue, that a utilitarian case for helmet laws can be sustained by appeal to Mill's Harm Principle. Finally, we reject Hooper and Spicer's claim that helmet laws unjustly penalise cyclists for their own health-affecting behaviour. Rather, we show their argument to suffer by disanalogy with medical cases where injustice may be more evident, for example, denial of bypass surgery to smokers. We conclude that mandatory helmet laws offer substantial utility and are entirely defensible within the framework of a liberal democracy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign. (United States)

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian


    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. [Prevalence of helmet use in children and adolescents in Germany and preventable bicycle-related head injuries]. (United States)

    Gutsche, J; Hintzpeter, B; Neuhauser, H; Schlaud, M


    Head injuries are the main cause of death in bicycle-related accidents among children and adolescents. According to a Cochrane Review, the risk of head injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.26-0.37) or brain injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.23-0.42) decreases by 69% if a helmet is worn. This study presents the prevalence of helmet use in cycling children and adolescents in Germany and the proportion of head injuries that could be prevented by wearing helmets. The potential effects of increased helmet wearing rates on the population attributable risk percentage for head injuries (PAR%) are demonstrated. The prevalence of helmet use in children aged 3-17 years was analysed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The percentage of head injuries preventable by helmet use in this group is estimated by calculating PAR%. Prevalence rates of helmet use and odds ratios from a Cochrane Review about the effectiveness of bicycle helmets for the prevention of head injuries were used for analysis. The potential effect of increased helmet use is shown in 3 scenarios by means of differences of PAR% values in the most relevant age groups. The older the children, the less likely they are to wear a helmet: 89.5% (95% CI 88.0%-90.8%) of the 3- to 6-year-old children wear a helmet when cycling but only 11.0% (95% CI 9.3%-12.9%) of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents do. In the youngest group (3-6 years) 19% of bicycle-related head injuries are attributable to the non-use of helmets, but this proportion rises to 67% in the oldest group (14-17 years). The PAR% of head injuries associated with not wearing a helmet may be reduced by more than a third by increasing the helmet wearing rate to 67% (2 out of 3) among adolescents, and may be reduced to half if 75% of adolescents wore a helmet. Particularly older children and adolescents hardly use bicycle helmets, hence the rate of preventable head injury is high. Efforts towards increasing helmet use

  7. Influence of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation for children: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Parkin, Patricia C; Khambalia, Amina; Kmet, Leanne; Macarthur, Colin


    To evaluate the influence of average family income in a geographic area on the effectiveness of helmet legislation on observed helmet use by children (5-14 years). The study was conducted in East York, a health district of Metropolitan Toronto, in collaboration with the East York Health Unit. In 1996, the total population was 107 822, 11 340 of which were children 5 to 14 years. Census data were used to group the 21 census tracts in East York into 7 geographically distinct areas. The boundaries of these areas are natural barriers to travel, such as expressways, ravines, railway tracks, and hydroelectric power lines. The areas were also ranked according to average family income (based on Statistics Canada data). For analytical purposes, areas were defined as low-, mid-, and high-income areas. Census data profiles of the areas have been previously described. For each consecutive year from 1990 to 1997 inclusive, direct observations of children riding bicycles in East York during the months of April through October were made. In 1995, observations were completed before the introduction of the law on October 1, 1995. Only children who were between 5 and 14 years of age and riding a 2-wheeled bicycle were included in the study. In total, 111 sites across all 7 areas were selected for observation. Observational sites included school yards of all elementary and middle schools (kindergarten to grade 8) and all parks in East York. In addition, 5 major intersections and 5 residential streets from each area were randomly selected. Observers were trained and used a standardized data collection form. A pilot study showed that the data collected by observers were reliable and valid. Observers remained at each site for 1 hour and collected data on helmet use and sex. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Hospital for Sick Children Research Ethics Board, the East York Board of Education, and the Metropolitan Separate School Board. The proportion of children who were

  8. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system. (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua


    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  9. Predicting bicycle helmet stage-of-change among middle school, high school, and college cyclists from demographic, cognitive, and motivational variables. (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Okun, Morris; Quay, Nancy


    To apply Prochaska's Transtheoretical model of behavior change to bicycle helmet use among middle school, high school, and college students. A battery of questionnaires was administered to cyclists in the seventh and ninth grades and to college students in Phoenix, Arizona (N=797). The battery included: (1) a question to determine respondent's stage of behavior change in Prochaska's Transtheoretical model; (2) items assessing the perceived pros and cons of helmet use; (3) a bicycle safety knowledge test; and (4) demographic information. Forty-three percent of the students were in "Precontemplation," 17% were in either "Contemplation" or "Preparation," 16% were in either "Action" or "Maintenance," and 24% were in the "Relapse" stage of change. Grade, Sex, Knowledge, Pros, and Cons, and the Grade by sex and the Grade by knowledge interactions were significant predictors of helmet use stages. Compared with students in Precontemplation, students in the Contemplation stage were disproportionately younger and had higher Pro scores, lower Con scores, and more knowledge (except in the ninth grade). The Transtheoretical model of behavior change is a viable theoretical framework for designing interventions aimed at increasing bicycle helmet use in children and adolescents.

  10. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars


    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  11. Helmet blastometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J


    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  12. Helmets or not? Use science correctly. (United States)

    Trégouët, Paul


    In a recent article, Hooper and Spicer make several arguments against legislation that would mandate the use of bicycle helmets. While they present reasonable objections to the utilitarian as well as the justice defence of such legislation, their review of the empirical evidence contains inaccuracies, omissions and a bias in the selection of empirical data. While there are legitimate reasons to argue against mandating helmet legislation, these arguments should still be based on clinically and scientifically sound evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Bicycle safety (United States)

    ... local sporting goods store, sports facility, or bike shop can help make sure your helmet fits properly. ... sidewalks, children need to learn to watch for cars pulling out from driveways and alleys. Also, teach ...

  14. Bicycle Crashes (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving bicyclists in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  15. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  16. Motorcycle helmet use laws (United States)


    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  17. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.


    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  18. The evaluation of speed skating helmet performance through peak linear and rotational accelerations. (United States)

    Karton, Clara; Rousseau, Philippe; Vassilyadi, Michael; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine


    Like many sports involving high speeds and body contact, head injuries are a concern for short track speed skating athletes and coaches. While the mandatory use of helmets has managed to nearly eliminate catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and cerebral haemorrhages, they may not be as effective at reducing the risk of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of speed skating helmets with respect to managing peak linear and peak rotational acceleration, and to compare their performance against other types of helmets commonly worn within the speed skating sport. Commercially available speed skating, bicycle and ice hockey helmets were evaluated using a three-impact condition test protocol at an impact velocity of 4 m/s. Two speed skating helmet models yielded mean peak linear accelerations at a low-estimated probability range for sustaining a concussion for all three impact conditions. Conversely, the resulting mean peak rotational acceleration values were all found close to the high end of a probability range for sustaining a concussion. A similar tendency was observed for the bicycle and ice hockey helmets under the same impact conditions. Speed skating helmets may not be as effective at managing rotational acceleration and therefore may not successfully protect the user against risks associated with concussion injuries.

  19. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide. (United States)

    Bateman-House, Alison


    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  20. Build Your Own Equiluminance Helmet


    Connolly, Salammbo; Connolly, Denis; Cleary, Anne; Herman, Laura; Cavanagh, Patrick


    A wearable ?helmet? version of the S cone isolating technique was constructed to explore vision at equiluminance. For my high school summer science project, I visited parks and streets while wearing the helmet and report that the helmet appears to have captured the main properties described for the large-scale, more cumbersome stage version.

  1. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City. (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria


    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.

  2. Bicycle Safety in Action. (United States)

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  3. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop. (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  4. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations. (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E


    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  6. Impact of Soldier Helmet Configuration on Survivability (United States)


    helmet cannot sit too low, which is evident when the helmet covers the eyebrows and the helmet interferes with eyewear . The helmet should remain in...agencies, academia, and private industry have also aided in model development. ORCA is a high-resolution computerized personnel casualty model that can

  7. Manufacture and impact analysis of bmx helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (United States)



    Helmets are protective head gears wear by bicycle riders for protection against injury in case of the accident. Helmet standards require helmets to be tested with a simple drop test onto an anvil. The purpose of research is to know toughness of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. This research contains report result manufacture and impacts analysis of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite materials strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). The geometric helmet structure consists of shell and liner; both layers have sandwich structure. The shell uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157EX material, chopped strand mat 300 glass fiber reinforce and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) catalyst with the weight composition of 100 gr, 15 gr, and 5 gr. The liner uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157 EX material, EFB fiber reinforces, Polyurethane blowing agent, and MEKPO catalyst with the composition of 275 gr (50%), 27.5 gr (5%), 247 gr (45%), and 27.5 gr (5%). Layers of the helmet made by using hand lay-up method and gravity casting method. Mechanical properties of polymeric foam were the tensile strength (ơt) 1.17 Mpa, compressive strength (ơc) 0.51 MPa, bending strength (ơb) 3.94 MPa, elasticity modulus (E) 37.97 Mpa, density (ρ) 193 (kg/m3). M4A model helmet is the most ergonomic with the thickness 10 mm and the amount of air channel 11. Free fall impact test was done in 9 samples with the thickness of 10 mm with the height of 1.5 m. The result of the impact test was impacted force (Fi) 241.55 N, Impulse (I) 6.28 Ns, impact Strength (ơi) 2.02 Mpa and impact Energy (Ei) 283.77 Joule. The properties of bicycle helmet model BMX-M4A type was 264 mm length, 184 mm width, 154 mm height, 10 mm thick, 580 mm head circle, 331 g mass and 11 wind channels.

  8. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt


    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design......, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educated individuals who were very interested in aesthetics. Furthermore, Wagener was convinced that trikes were...... between order and delivery. From a marketing perspective, one of the differentiating factors of Morten’s product is the quality of the ride (compared to competing products) and so his marketing team coined the slogan “Built-to-Tilt” because even though it’s a trike it feels like riding a two...

  9. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  10. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users are vulnerable on the road and are at high risk of death resulting from head ..... time of injury sustained head injury reflecting its importance in prevention of head .... WHO (2006) Helmets: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-makers and ...

  11. Teaching children about bicycle safety: an evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program. (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Noland, Robert B; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann


    There are multiple health and environmental benefits associated with increasing bicycling among children. However, the use of bicycles is also associated with severe injuries and fatalities. In order to reduce bicycle crashes, a bicycling education program was implemented in selected New Jersey schools and summer camps as part of the New Jersey Safe Routes to School Program. Using a convenience sample of participants to the program, an opportunistic study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two bicycle education programs, the first a more-structured program delivered in a school setting, with no on-road component, and the other a less structured program delivered in a summer camp setting that included an on-road component. Tests administered before and after training were designed to assess knowledge acquired during the training. Questions assessed children's existing knowledge of helmet use and other equipment, bicycle safety, as well as their ability to discriminate hazards and understand rules of the road. Participating children (n=699) also completed a travel survey that assessed their bicycling behavior and their perception of safety issues. Response to individual questions, overall pre- and post-training test scores, and changes in test scores were compared using comparison of proportion, t-tests, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Improvements between the pre-training and post-training test are apparent from the frequency distribution of test results and from t-tests. Both summer camps and school-based programs recorded similar improvements in test results. Children who bicycled with their parents scored higher on the pre-training test but did not improve as much on the post-training test. Without evaluating long-term changes in behavior, it is difficult to ascertain how successful the program is on eventual behavioral and safety outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bicycle Trains, Cycling, and Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster RCT. (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; Jacobs, Maya; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Miller, Josh; Salls, Deb; Todd, Winifred; Madding, Rachel; Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline


    Increasing children's cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students' school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Fourth-fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015-2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3-5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4-6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. This study is registered at NCT02006186. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu


    absence of external signs of trauma. Pulmonary contusion and pneumothorax are frequently present without rib fractures. Pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, and rib fractures are the most common injuries. In order to prevent bicycle accidents; bicycle drivers should have specific education, helmet use must become widespread and special traffic regulations have to be settled. Increasing the education level if family will contribute to the prevention of childhood trauma.

  14. The effectiveness of a bicycle safety program for improving safety-related knowledge and behavior in young elementary students. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Karen A; Glang, Ann


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Bike Smart" program, an eHealth software program that teaches bicycle safety behaviors to young children. Participants were 206 elementary students in grades kindergarten to 3. A random control design was employed to evaluate the program, with students assigned to either the treatment condition (Bike Smart) or the control condition (a video on childhood safety). Outcome measures included computer-based knowledge items (safety rules, helmet placement, hazard discrimination) and a behavioral measure of helmet placement. Results demonstrated that regardless of gender, cohort, and grade the participants in the treatment group showed greater gains than control participants in both the computer-presented knowledge items (p > .01) and the observational helmet measure (p > .05). Findings suggest that the Bike Smart program can be a low cost, effective component of safety training packages that include both skills-based and experiential training.

  15. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica


    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  16. Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance in Vibration Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Suzanne D; Smith, Jeanne A


    ...) and Up (40" elevation, 0" azimuth)], and three helmet CCs were tested. The overall head, helmet, and helmet slippage displacement rotations, and rms tracking error and percent time-on-target were evaluated...

  17. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets. (United States)

    Wester, K


    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  18. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L


    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  19. Statewide analysis of bicycle crashes : [project summary]. (United States)


    An extensive literature review was conducted to locate existing studies in four areas: (1) risk factors that affect the frequency and severity of bicycle crashes; (2) bicycle crash causes, patterns, and contributing factors; (3) network screening met...

  20. Bicycle-Related Shoulder Injuries: Etiology and the Need for Protective Gear. (United States)

    Goldstein, Yariv; Dolkart, Oleg; Kaufman, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rath, Ehud; Mozes, Gavriel; Maman, Eran


    The popularity of bicycle riding for recreation, exercise and transportation has grown enormously in recent years, which has led to an increased incidence of bicycle-related injuries. While these injuries involve mainly the musculoskeletal system, data on shoulder-specific injuries incurred while bike riding are lacking. Classifying these shoulder injuries may provide insight and assistance in the creation and implementation of effective protective gear and measures. To investigate the types and mechanisms of shoulder injuries among cyclists. This study retrospectively examined all cyclists who incurred shoulder injuries while riding and were admitted to the emergency department and shoulder clinic between January 2008 and November 2013. The study included 157 subjects with various bicycle-related shoulder injuries treated with either conservative or surgical measures. Eighty-four percent of injuries were caused by a direct blow to the shoulder, 7% by falling on an outstretched hand, 6% were traction injuries, and 3% were due to hyperabduction. Nine different clinical types of injury were observed; the most common injuries were clavicle fractures (32%), followed by acromioclavicular joint dislocations (22%), rotator cuff tears (22%), and humeral fractures (8%). Fifty-one percent of subjects were managed with conservative care and the remaining patients required surgical interventions. Shoulder injuries incurred while riding a bicycle span the entire spectrum of shoulder injuries and often result in debilitating conditions. Although the use of helmets is increasing, there is currently no effective protective gear or measures to prevent riders from suffering shoulder injuries.

  1. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets (United States)


    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  2. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability. (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q


    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  3. An integrated approach to bicycle safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.


    The advantages of cycling are outlined, as well as the conditions under which use of the bicycle and the safety of cycling can he promoted. Bicycles are an attractive product. The potential to use a bicycle for trips shorter than 5 km is high and it's use can also be substantial for longer

  4. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system. (United States)

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk


    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working.

  5. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against. (United States)

    McCarthy, M


    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.

  6. Helmet Sensor - Transfer Function and Model Development (United States)


    that helmets be examined forensically when estimating the impact direction and location and the electronic HMSS data not be used in that determination... forensic analysis of the helmet itself is therefore recommended to determine the direction and severity of the ballistic impact 5. The helmet shell does...ot83 HTI l ot 8J HT1 lot S ,HTt IOt S , HTI l otiH HTt lotSS HTt l vt85 HTI l o)t 85 HT1 Front Level Acceleration ~~,--~----~--,30’p~g


    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk


    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  8. Bicycle Safety: Sport Education Style (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.; Cole, Amy; Schneulle, Deanna


    Although the benefits of regular physical activity are well-documented and very well known, Americans are still becoming more sedentary and obese. As some experts envision the potential of nonmotorized transport in the future, especially in urban settings, it is not surprising that diverse groups view walking and bicycling as a solution to an…

  9. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rash, Clarence


    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  10. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating? (United States)

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line


    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  11. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States. (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H


    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  12. Application of Auxetic Foam in Sports Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Foster


    Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.

  13. Severe bicycling injury risk factors in children and adolescents: a case-control study. (United States)

    Hagel, Brent E; Romanow, Nicole T R; Enns, Nancy; Williamson, Jacqueline; Rowe, Brian H


    Bicycling is the most common cause of sports and recreation injury in children and adolescents; yet, there is limited evidence on the factors associated with severe bicycling injuries in youth. Case-control study of injured bicyclists less than 18 years old seen in seven emergency departments (EDs) from May 2008 to October 2010. Cases were bicyclists hospitalized after their ED visit (severe injury). Controls were bicyclists seen and discharged from the ED (non-severe injury). Personal, environmental, and crash characteristics were collected by interview. Injury data were collected from medical charts. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression were used to estimate the odds of hospitalization associated with risk factors. Multiple imputation techniques were employed to address missing data. There were 1470 participants including 119 cases. Those ages 13-17 had the highest proportion (23%) of severe injuries resulting from motor vehicle [MV] collision. In models including age, sex and MV collision, being male (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21-3.38), not wearing a helmet (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.43-3.31) and MV collision (OR: 3.91; 95% CI: 2.26-6.78) were significant risk factors for severe injury. Riding on a paved surface (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41-0.97) and utilitarian (school, work) bicycling (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.2-0.94) decreased injury risk. Results were similar, apart from utilitarian bicycling (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.22-1.06), after imputation for missing data. Bicycle-MV collisions increase severe injury risk in youth, and adolescents are often injured in these events. This suggests separating bicyclists from MVs or traffic calming strategies could improve safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bicycle urbanism as competitive advantage in the neoliberal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Mikkel Elkær; Olesen, Kristian


    In the light of the emergent ‘bicycle renaissance’ in the US, this paper analyses the rationale basis of bicycle role model, Portland’s promotion of bicycling. By conceptualizing bicycle promotion as a ‘travelling idea’, the paper discusses the key rationales and discourses structuring how bicycl...

  15. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets. (United States)

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan


    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA.

  16. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries. (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna


    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  17. Design and analysis of sustainable paper bicycle (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik; Nasution, Januar


    This paper presents the design of sustainable paper bicycle which describes the stage by stage in the production of paper bicycle. The objective of this project is to design a sustainable paper bicycles to be used for children under five years old. The design analysis emphasizes in screening method to ensure the design fulfil the safety purposes. The evaluation concept is presented in designing a sustainable paper bicycle to determine highest rating. Project methodology is proposed for developing a sustainable paper bicycle. Design analysis of pedal, front and rear wheel, seat, and handle were presented using AutoCAD software. The design optimization was performed to fulfil the safety factors by modifying the material size and dimension. Based on the design analysis results, it is found that the optimization results met the factor safety. As a result, a sustainable paper bicycle was proposed for children under five years old.

  18. Identification of the mechanical properties of bicycle tyres for modelling of bicycle dynamics (United States)

    Doria, Alberto; Tognazzo, Mauro; Cusimano, Gianmaria; Bulsink, Vera; Cooke, Adrian; Koopman, Bart


    Advanced simulation of the stability and handling properties of bicycles requires detailed road-tyre contact models. In order to develop these models, in this study, four bicycle tyres are tested by means of a rotating disc machine with the aim of measuring the components of tyre forces and torques that influence the safety and handling of bicycles. The effect of inflation pressure and tyre load is analysed. The measured properties of bicycle tyres are compared with those of motorcycle tyres.

  19. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  20. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter .... in line with the global findings that the introduction and enforcement of legislation on helmet .... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students.

  1. Neck Muscle Fatigue Resulting from Prolonged Wear of Weighted Helmets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Hilary L; Caldwell, Erin; ALbery, Christopher B


    .... While these systems undoubtedly increase a pilot's capabilities, one obvious drawback to putting all this equipment on the pilot's helmet is the increase in helmet weight that shifts the combined...

  2. Evaluation electric bicycles; Evaluation velos electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Leovelo service is the first measure in favor of the bicycle to control the air pollution and to conserve energy. It provides in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) a service of bicycle hiring. This document evaluates the project after two years of operating. It provides a technical evaluation (maintenance, equipment, financing) and also the socio-economic impacts. (A.L.B.)

  3. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV


    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  4. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Baten, C.; Buurke, J. H.; Rietman, J. S.


    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied

  5. The environmental benefits of bicycling and walking. (United States)


    Bicycling and walking are the two major non-fuel-consuming, non-polluting : forms of transportation in the United States. Millions of Americans ride : bicycles and/or walk for a wide variety of purposes --- commuting to work, as : part of their job, ...

  6. Trends in the incidence and outcomes of bicycle-related injury in the emergency department: A nationwide population-based study in South Korea, 2012-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trends in the incidence and outcomes of bicycle-related injuries in emergency departments (ED in South Korea.We analysed data from the National Emergency Department Information System database for adult patients (≥20 years with bicycle-related injuries presenting to EDs in South Korea between January 2012 and December 2014. Riders and bicycle passengers whose injuries were associated with bicycle use were included. Serious outcomes were defined as death at the ED, need for emergency operation, or intensive care unit admission.The number of people who commute to work by bicycle increased by 36% from 205,100 in 2005 to 279,544 in 2015. Of 529,278 traffic-related trauma cases, 58,352 (11.0% were bicycle-related, which increased from 7,894 (10.2% in the first half of 2012 to 12,882 (12.2% in the second half of 2014 (p < 0.001. However, the proportion of serious outcomes decreased from 5.0% to 4.2% during the study period (p < 0.001. Serious outcomes were most frequent in the elderly (65-74 years and older elderly (≥75 years groups and decreased for all but the elderly age group from 10.3% to 9.8% (p = 0.204. The helmet use rate increased from 14.2% to 20.3% (p < 0.001 but was the lowest in the older elderly group (3.6% without change during the study period (from 4.7% to 3.7%, p = 0.656. A lack of helmet use was significantly associated with serious outcomes (odds ratio, 1.811; 95% confidence interval, 1.576-2.082.Although the incidence of bicycle-related injuries increased, the proportion of serious outcomes decreased, possibly due to increased helmet use. Public education on safety equipment use is required, especially in elderly populations.

  7. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law. (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B


    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan. (United States)

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy


    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van


    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is

  10. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques. (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E


    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-stress bicycling and network connectivity. (United States)


    For a bicycling network to attract the widest possible segment of the population, its most fundamental attribute should be low-stress connectivity, that is, providing routes between peoples origins and destinations that do not require cyclists to ...

  12. 36 CFR 1004.30 - Bicycles. (United States)


    ... parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1001.5 and 1001.7 of this... consistent with the protection of natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations and management...

  13. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  14. Bicycle-bus conflict area study. (United States)


    Increasing bicycle use and bus ridership are both desirable policy goals : from a sustainability standpoint, but on city streets these two modes of : transport are often in conflict. While occupying opposite ends of the size : and weight spectrum, th...

  15. Bicycles, transportation sustainability, and quality of life. (United States)


    The research presented in this report focuses on the exploration of a variety of objective and subjective quality of life indicators and approaches for bicycle transportation using a mixed methods approach. The authors have created a conceptual frame...

  16. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.


    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  17. Helmet Use and Head Injury in Homer's Iliad. (United States)

    Swinney, Christian


    Homer's detailed descriptions of head injuries inflicted during the Trojan War are of particular interest to individuals in the medical community. Although studies have examined the prevalence of such injuries, none have examined the preventive measures taken to avoid them. An in-depth review of helmet use in Homer's Iliad was conducted to address this previously unexplored facet of the epic. An English translation of Homer's text was reviewed for all references to helmet use. The number of helmet references in each book was recorded, along with other pertinent details for each reference. There were 87 references to helmets (40 combat, 47 noncombat). The helmet belonged to a Greek warrior in 41 cases (47.1%), a Trojan warrior in 38 cases (43.6%), a divinity in 5 cases (5.7%), and a general group of warriors in 3 cases (3.4%). Helmet use provided protective benefit to Greek warriors at a rate of 30.0% (3 of 10) and Trojan warriors at a rate of 11.1% (2 of 18). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). The overall combined protective benefit of helmet use in the text was 17.9% (5 of 28). Helmets belonging to 15 specific Greek warriors and 18 specific Trojan warriors were referenced in the text. Helmets belonging to Hector (n = 12) and Achilles (n = 8) were most frequently mentioned. Helmet use and head injury both play a prominent role in Homer's Iliad. Helmets are frequently used in combat settings but with relatively little success. Helmets are also used in various noncombat settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. GPK helmets protecting from gas and dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' inskii, Eh.G.; Kogan, Yu.A.; Mazanenko, V.P.


    The GPK protective helmet with an integrated respirator system protecting a miner's respiratory system and eyes from gases and dusts is described. The system uses compressed air from the mine compressed air system. Air is supplied to the respirator by an elastic rubber pipe to 30 m long. The air cools the miner's head under the helmet and passes between a protective shield and the miner's face protecting eyes and the respiratory system. Air supply ranges from 100 to 150 l/min. The air supplied to the respirator is cleaned by a filter. The GPK system weighs 1.2 kg. The system has been tested under laboratory conditions and in two coal mines under operational conditions at longwall faces and during mine drivage. Tests showed that the GPK guarantees efficient cooling and protection from dust. Design of the GPK helmet with a respirator is shown in two schemes. Technical specifications of the system are given.

  19. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit


    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: white yellow blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  20. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications. (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A


    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  1. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications. (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade


    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  2. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    helmets in direct impact are well documented and helmets have been found to ... conditions during a drop test and studied the influence of shell stiffness and liner ... the latter authors use a SI (Structural Intensity) approach to study power flow ...

  3. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob


    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  4. Using crowdsourcing to prioritize bicycle network improvements : final report. (United States)


    Effort to improve the bicycle route network using crowdsourced data is a powerful means : of incorporating citizens in infrastructure improvement decisions, which will improve : livability by maximizing the benefit of the bicycle infrastructure fundi...

  5. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, Vera Elisabeth; Beusenberg, Mark; Dubbeldam, Rosemary; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Poelman, Wim; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced

  6. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.


    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  7. Low-stress bicycling and network connectivity : [research brief]. (United States)


    In one sense, a citys or regions bicycling network includes all of its roads and paths on which bicycling is permitted. However, some streets provide such a poor level of safety and comfort for bicycling that the majority of the population cons...

  8. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model (United States)

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.


    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  9. Hydraulic brake-system for a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Frankenhuyzen, J.


    The invention relates to a hydraulic brake system for a bicycle which may or may not be provided with an auxiliary motor, comprising a brake disc and brake claws cooperating with the brake disc, as well as fluid-containing channels (4,6) that extend between an operating organ (1) and the brake

  10. 36 CFR 4.30 - Bicycles. (United States)


    ... road or parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1.5 and 1.7 of this... consistent with the protection of a park area's natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations...

  11. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury. (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D


    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  12. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher


    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.



    Stemy Simon, Divya Kumaran A.K.


    The helmet is the main safety equipment of motorcyclists, but many drivers do not use it. The main aim of this project is to construct an automatic detection of the motorcyclist without helmet from video using OpenCV library tools. If they are not wearing the helmet, the license plate of the motorcycle is focused automatically. By using Computer Vision technique we can detect and recognize the license plate number. We make the training set of different characters of different sizes. Based on ...

  14. The implementation of a municipal indoor ice skating helmet policy: effects on helmet use, participation and attitudes. (United States)

    O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine


    In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (skating experience at indoor rinks during public skating sessions was developed, implemented and evaluated. Supportive activities such as discount coupons, promotional materials, a media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding ... The conclusion is that cyclists need information on the importance of wearing a helmet. ... Leading safety advocates recommend the.

  16. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries. (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A


    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  17. Methodologies for Blunt Trauma Assessment in Military Helmets (United States)


    Assessment; Monorail Drop Tower 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Laboratory Test Procedure for Motorcycle Helmets (TP-218-06) [8]. TP-218-06 specifies a guided monorail drop and provides requirements for how helmets...a hemispherical anvil. The monorail restricts movement to control the impact location, and acceleration is measured using a uniaxial accelerometer

  18. Combat Helmet-Headform Coupling Characterized from Blunt Impact Events (United States)


    Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect of helmet/headform coupling on the blunt impact behavior of ACH helmets using FMVSS...designates its own methods and test equipment: a drop tower ( monorail or twin- wire), headform (DOT, ISO, NOCSAE), headform CG accelerometer (single or...the more anthropomorphic International Standard Organization (ISO) half headform. Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect

  19. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session (United States)


    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  20. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana. (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai


    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  1. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita


    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm 3 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm 2 ) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements

  2. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand. (United States)

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra


    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  3. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines. (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Business Process Reengineering within the bicycle industry


    Bartolomé Rodriguez, David


    Bicycle leader brands have shift production overseas to reduce the cost of labor and to implement new technologies at lower cost. Bike manufacturer both in Asia and Europe employ a traditional way of production  based on economics of scale that aims cost per unit reduction. Where MRP systems and forecasting are part of their day basis operations. This traditional way of operation offers room for innovation that must be seen as a business opportunity. Thus, alternative management approaches ca...

  5. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  6. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl


    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  7. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review. (United States)

    DiGioia, Jonathan; Watkins, Kari Edison; Xu, Yanzhi; Rodgers, Michael; Guensler, Randall


    This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies. Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral tension pneumothorax resulting from a bicycle-to-bicycle collision. (United States)

    Edwin, Frank; Sereboe, Lawrence; Tettey, Mark Mawutor; Aniteye, Ernest; Bankah, Patrick; Frimpong-Boateng, Kwabena


    Bilateral tension pneumothorax occurring as a result of recreational activity is exceedingly rare. A 10-year-old boy with no previous respiratory symptoms was involved in a bicycle-to-bicycle collision during play. He was the only one hurt. A few hours later, he was rushed to the general casualty unit of the emergency department of our institution with respiratory distress, diminished bilateral chest excursions and diminished breath sounds. The correct diagnosis was made after a chest radiograph was obtained in the course of resuscitation at the casualty unit. Pleural space needle decompression was suggestive of tension only on the right. Bilateral tube thoracostomies provided effective relief. He was discharged from hospital after a week in excellent health. This case illustrates the need for children to have safety instruction to reduce the risks of recreational bicycling. Chest radiography may be needed to establish the diagnosis of bilateral tension pneumothorax. Needle thoracostomy decompression is not always effective.

  9. Characterizing the speed and paths of shared bicycles in Lyon


    Jensen , Pablo; Rouquier , Jean-Baptiste; Ovtracht , Nicolas; Robardet , Céline


    Thanks to numerical data gathered by Lyon's shared bicycling system V\\'elo'v, we are able to analyze 11.6 millions bicycle trips, leading to the first robust characterization of urban bikers' behaviors. We show that bicycles outstrip cars in downtown Lyon, by combining high speed and short paths.These data also allows us to calculate V\\'elo'v fluxes on all streets, pointing to interesting locations for bike paths.

  10. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks. (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G


    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  11. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review. (United States)

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P


    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Bicycle: a bioinformatics pipeline to analyze bisulfite sequencing data. (United States)

    Graña, Osvaldo; López-Fernández, Hugo; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; González Pisano, David; Glez-Peña, Daniel


    High-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA is a technique used to measure DNA methylation levels. Although a considerable number of computational pipelines have been developed to analyze such data, none of them tackles all the peculiarities of the analysis together, revealing limitations that can force the user to manually perform additional steps needed for a complete processing of the data. This article presents bicycle, an integrated, flexible analysis pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data. Bicycle analyzes whole genome bisulfite sequencing data, targeted bisulfite sequencing data and hydroxymethylation data. To show how bicycle overtakes other available pipelines, we compared them on a defined number of features that are summarized in a table. We also tested bicycle with both simulated and real datasets, to show its level of performance, and compared it to different state-of-the-art methylation analysis pipelines. Bicycle is publicly available under GNU LGPL v3.0 license at Users can also download a customized Ubuntu LiveCD including bicycle and other bisulfite sequencing data pipelines compared here. In addition, a docker image with bicycle and its dependencies, which allows a straightforward use of bicycle in any platform (e.g. Linux, OS X or Windows), is also available. or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Prehospital emergency removal of football helmets using two techniques. (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Hernandez, Adam E; Decoster, Laura C; Mihalik, Jason P; Burns, Matthew F; Reynolds, Cathryn


    To compare the Eject Helmet Removal (EHR) System with manual football helmet removal. This quasiexperimental counterbalanced study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty certified athletic trainers (17 men and 13 women; mean ± standard deviation age: 33.03 ± 10.02 years; height: 174.53 ± 12.04 cm; mass: 85.19 ± 19.84 kg) participated after providing informed consent. Participants removed a Riddell Revolution IQ football helmet from a healthy model two times each under two conditions: manual helmet removal (MHR) and removal with the EHR system. A six-camera, three-dimensional motion capture system was used to record range of motion (ROM) of the head. A digital stopwatch was used to time trials and to record a split time associated with EHR system bladder insertion. A modified Borg CR10 scale was used to measure the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Mean values were created for each variable. Three pairwise t-tests with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels tested for differences between time for removal, split time, and RPE. A 2 x 3 (condition x plane) totally within-subjects repeated-measures design analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested for differences in head ROM between the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Analyses were performed using SPSS (version 18.0) (alpha = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in perceived difficulty between EHR (RPE = 2.73) and MHR (RPE = 2.55) (t(29) = 0.76; p = 0.45; d = 0.20). Manual helmet removal was, on average, 28.95 seconds faster than EHR (t(29) = 11.44; p football helmets and in helmets used in other sports such as lacrosse, motorsports, and ice hockey.

  14. Bicycle safety education for children from a developmental and learning perspective. (United States)


    When children ride bicycles in and near traffic, they engage in a complicated task of combining motor skills and cognitive skills. In addition to developing bicycle-handling skills, bicycle safety education programs teach children how to ride safely ...

  15. Brain tissue analysis of impacts to American football helmets. (United States)

    Post, Andrew; Kendall, Marshall; Cournoyer, Janie; Karton, Clara; Oeur, R Anna; Dawson, Lauren; Hoshizaki, T Blaine


    Concussion in American football is a prevalent concern. Research has been conducted examining frequencies, location, and thresholds for concussion from impacts. Little work has been done examining how impact location may affect risk of concussive injury. The purpose of this research was to examine how impact site on the helmet and type of impact, affects the risk of concussive injury as quantified using finite element modelling of the human head and brain. A linear impactor was used to impact a helmeted Hybrid III headform in several locations and using centric and non-centric impact vectors. The resulting dynamic response was used as input for the Wayne State Brain Injury Model to determine the risk of concussive injury by utilizing maximum principal strain as the predictive variable. The results demonstrated that impacts that occur primarily to the side of the head resulted in higher magnitudes of strain in the grey and white matter, as well as the brain stem. Finally, commonly worn American football helmets were used in this research and significant risk of injury was incurred for all impacts. These results suggest that improvements in American football helmets are warranted, in particular for impacts to the side of the helmet.

  16. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system (United States)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.


    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  17. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand. (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi


    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  18. [Medical coverage of a road bicycle race]. (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Harding, Ulf; Schüler, Christine; Thoms, Jürgen; Püschel, Klaus; Kappus, Stefan


    Major sport events require adequate expertise and experience concerning medical coverage and support. Medical and ambulance services need to cover both participants and spectators. Likewise, residents at the venue need to be provided for. Concepts have to include the possibility of major incidents related to the event. Using the example of the Hamburg Cyclassics, a road bicycle race and major event for professional and amateur cyclists, this article describes the medical coverage, number of patients, types of injuries and emergencies. Objectives regarding the planning of future events and essential medical coverage are consequently discussed. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.

  19. 40 CFR 52.1162 - Regulation for bicycle use. (United States)


    ... safety education for bicyclists, motorists, children, students, street maintenance personnel and... as for a program of bicycle safety education including the motor vehicle operators license... bicycles share road space with motorized vehicles. (5) Bikeway means bike paths, bike lanes and bike routes...

  20. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, ...

  1. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu


    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  2. An Operator's Guide to Safe and Enjoyable Bicycling. (United States)

    San Jose Dept. of Public Works, CA.

    Addressed to young persons and adults, this booklet delineates the duties and rights applicable to bicyclists as drivers of vehicles. The following topics are discussed: Rules of the road, defensive bicycling techniques, the bicycle as a machine, registration and theft prevention, walking the bike, bike routes, and recreational and group rides.…

  3. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort (United States)

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.


    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  4. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets. (United States)

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T


    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  5. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel. (United States)

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa


    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  6. In-depth analysis of bicycle hydraulic disc brakes (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Györfi, Benedikt; Wrede, Jürgen; Arnold, Timo; Moia, Alessandro


    Hydraulic Disc Brakes (HDBs) represent the most recent and innovative bicycle braking system. Especially Electric Bicycles (EBs), which are becoming more and more popular, are equipped with this powerful, unaffected by environmental influences, and low-wear type of brakes. As a consequence of the high braking performance, typical bicycle braking errors lead to more serious accidents. This is the starting point for the development of a Braking Dynamics Assistance system (BDA) to prevent front wheel lockup and nose-over (falling over the handlebars). One of the essential prerequisites for the system design is a better understanding of bicycle HDBs' characteristics. A physical simulation model and a test bench have been built for this purpose. The results of the virtual and real experiments conducted show a high correlation and allow valuable insights into HDBs on bicycles, which have not been studied scientifically in any depth so far.

  7. Anaerobic Degradation of Bicyclic Monoterpenes in Castellaniella defragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Puentes-Cala


    Full Text Available The microbial degradation pathways of bicyclic monoterpenes contain unknown enzymes for carbon–carbon cleavages. Such enzymes may also be present in the betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans, a model organism to study the anaerobic monoterpene degradation. In this study, a deletion mutant strain missing the first enzyme of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway transformed cometabolically the bicyclics sabinene, 3-carene and α-pinene into several monocyclic monoterpenes and traces of cyclic monoterpene alcohols. Proteomes of cells grown on bicyclic monoterpenes resembled the proteomes of cells grown on monocyclic monoterpenes. Many transposon mutants unable to grow on bicyclic monoterpenes contained inactivated genes of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway. These observations suggest that the monocyclic degradation pathway is used to metabolize bicyclic monoterpenes. The initial step in the degradation is a decyclization (ring-opening reaction yielding monocyclic monoterpenes, which can be considered as a reverse reaction of the olefin cyclization of polyenes.

  8. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry


    , including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle......Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...

  9. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...... are revealed by collection and analysis of historical material and interviews with key stakeholders. The historical material is obtained from libraries, online resources, and reports from professionals including urban designers, transportation engineers, research centres and politicians of the Beijing...



    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  11. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldissera, Paolo; Delprete, Cristiana


    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  12. Finding the Speed of a Bicycle in Circular Motion by Measuring the Lean Angle of the Bicycle (United States)

    Ben-Abu, Yuval; Wolfson, Ira; Yizhaq, Hezi


    We suggest an activity for measuring the speed of a bicycle going in circular motion by measuring the bicycle's lean angle. In this activity students will be able to feel the strength that is being activated on their bodies while they are moving in circular motion. They will also understand that it is impossible to ride in a circle without the…

  13. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle


    of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  14. Severe street and mountain bicycling injuries in adults: a comparison of the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns over 14 years. (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Francis R; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Lall, Rohan N; Ball, Chad G


    Street and mountain bicycling are popular recreational activities and prevalent modes of transportation with the potential for severe injury. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns among adults with severe street versus mountain bicycling injuries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Southern Alberta Trauma Database of all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while street or mountain bicycling between Apr. 1, 1995, and Mar. 31, 2009. Among 11 772 severely injured patients, 258 (2.2%) were injured (mean ISS 17, hospital stay 6 d, mortality 7%) while street (n = 209) or mountain bicycling (n = 49). Street cyclists were often injured after being struck by a motor vehicle, whereas mountain bikers were frequently injured after faulty jump attempts, bike tricks and falls (cliffs, roadsides, embankments). Mountain cyclists were admitted more often on weekends than weekdays (61.2% v. 45.0%, p = 0.040). Injury patterns were similar for both cohorts (all p > 0.05), with trauma to the head (67.4%), extremities (38.4%), chest (34.1%), face (26.0%) and abdomen (10.1%) being common. Spinal injuries, however, were more frequent among mountain cyclists (65.3% v. 41.1%, p = 0.003). Surgical intervention was required in 33.3% of patients (9.7% open reduction internal fixation, 7.8% spinal fixation, 7.0% craniotomy, 5.8% facial repair and 2.7% laparotomy). With the exception of spine injuries, severely injured cyclists display similar patterns of injury and comparable outcomes, regardless of style (street v. mountain). Helmets and thoracic protection should be advocated for injury prevention.

  15. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety. (United States)

    Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey


    The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.

  16. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health. (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald


    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  17. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact. (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R


    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals (United States)

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.


    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  19. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D


    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  20. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts (United States)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  1. Effects of ventilated safety helmets in a hot environment (United States)

    G.A. Davis; E.D. Edmisten; R.E. Thomas; R.B. Rummer; D.D. Pascoe


    Forest workers are likely to remove head protection in hot and humid conditions because of thermal discomfort. However, a recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation revision requires all workers in logging operations to wear safety helmets, thus creating a compliance problem. To determine which factors contribute to forest workers’ thermal...

  2. Helmets: A Threat to the Preservation of Women's Lacrosse (United States)

    Bull, Ashley; Cavanaugh, Lauren


    A recent debate has raised controversy over the implementation of helmets in the game of women's lacrosse. Women have been participating in this game of finesse and skill without the need for safety equipment, yet in the past decade goggles have been mandated to compensate for the technological advancements in equipment that has increased the…

  3. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...

  4. Helmet-Induced Occipital Neuralgia in a Military Aviator. (United States)

    Chalela, Julio A


    Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status. A 24-yr-old door gunner presented with suboccipital pain associated with the wear of his helmet. He described the pain as a paroxysmal stabbing sensation coming in waves. The physical exam and history supported the diagnosis of primary occipital neuralgia. Systemic pharmacological options were discussed with the soldier, but rejected due to his need to remain in flying status. An occipital nerve block was performed with good clinical results, supporting the diagnosis of occipital neuralgia and allowing him to continue as mission qualified. Occipital neuralgia can be induced by helmet wear in military personnel. Occipital nerve block can be performed in the deployed setting, allowing the service member to remain mission capable and sparing him/her from systemic side effects.Chalela JA. Helmet-induced occipital neuralgia in a military aviator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):409-410.

  5. Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data (United States)


    Linked data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) in seven : states was used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as the : basis of a 1996 Report to Congress on the Benefits of Safety Belts and : Motorcycle Helmets (D...

  6. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević


    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  7. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin


    Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...... relevant in a new context – that of the Chinese mainland society in the 21st century. Doreen Massey (2005: 9) defines space as “a simultaneity of stories-so-far”, a space that is constantly exploding and imploding with the influx of new and old stories. Within this theoretical framework Wang Xiaoshuai...

  8. Associations between a walkability index and bicycle use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Christiansen, L.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick


    /day, and important health benefits can accrue from regular commuting cycling. Studies have shown a positive correlation between walkability attributes of neighborhood environments (street connectivity, and use mix, residential density, retail floor area ratio) and cycling. Results from Australia/Belgium show...... associations between measures of walkability and bicycle use for transport and the present study focuses on exploring whether these findings can be applied to a Danish setting where cycling culture differs and bicycle share is much higher (17% of all trips are by bicycle)...

  9. Bicyclic peptide inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Jensen, Berit Paaske; Jiang, Longguang


    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptide-based inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... investigated the solution structures of the bicyclic peptide by NMR spectroscopy to map possible conformations. An X-ray structure of the bicyclic-peptide-uPA complex confirmed an interaction similar to that for the previous upain-1/upain-2-uPA complexes. These physical studies of the peptide...

  10. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon


    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  11. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes. (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L


    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  12. Street Intersection Characteristics and Their Impacts on Perceived Bicycling Safety (United States)


    Safety concern is one of the core issues that deter people from bicycling in the US. Earlier studies have explored the associations between intersection design characteristics and bicyclist safety perceptions. Research shows that there are significan...

  13. Using Smartphones to Collect Bicycle Travel Data in Texas (United States)


    Researchers believed that if smartphones could prove to be an effective tool for collecting bicycle travel data, the information could be used for aiding decision making as to what types of facilities users prefer and guiding decisions about future f...

  14. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars


    Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys......The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic...

  15. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry


    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...... and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate...

  16. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio


    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.


    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the

  18. Finding the speed of a bicycle in circular motion by measuring the lean angle of the bicycle (United States)

    Ben-Abu, Yuval; Wolfson, Ira; Yizhaq, Hezi


    We suggest an activity for measuring the speed of a bicycle going in circular motion by measuring the bicycle’s lean angle. In this activity students will be able to feel the strength that is being activated on their bodies while they are moving in circular motion. They will also understand that it is impossible to ride in a circle without the bicycle leaning at an angle, an action that is performed intuitively.

  19. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan. (United States)

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo


    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  20. Camouflage design and head measurement characteristic of Indonesian armoured vehicle helmet (United States)

    Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma; Sanjaya, K. H.


    In this paper discussed camouflage design helmet for armored vehicles with comparing head measurement of Indonesian anthropometric. Design process conduct with considering of design aspects involves function, materials, operational, technology, user, and appearance (camouflage). As an application of Indonesian National Army that qualifies factors needs: safety, comfort, practical and service. MIL-H-44099A Military Specification: Helmet, Ground Troops And Parachutists is minimum limitation standard of military helmet production. Head measurement for product design process guide is presented. Model simulation and helmet measurement using the design for ego and design for more types ergonomics concept. Appearance shape concept is engaging camouflage towards background and environment to deceive enemy viewpoint. Helmet prototype has tested ergonomically to an Indonesian National Army soldier and stated that the helmet size is a comfort and fitted on the head when in use.

  1. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan


    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  2. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface]. (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A


    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6


    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.


    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  4. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  5. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan. (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito


    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  6. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy (United States)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.


    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  7. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin


    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  8. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli? (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M


    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents. (United States)

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad


    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  10. Neck muscle strain when wearing helmet and NVG during acceleration on a trampoline. (United States)

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Siitonen, Simo


    The helmet-mounted equipment worn by military pilots increases the weight of the helmet system and shifts its center of gravity, increasing the loads on neck structures, especially during acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neck muscle strain with different head-loads during trampoline-induced G loads (0 to +4 G). Under three conditions [no helmet, helmet, helmet with night vision goggles (NVG)], 14 subjects performed trampoline exercises including basic, hand-and-knee, and back bouncing. EMG activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), and thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles. Muscle strain was determined as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). For the three exercises combined, the following significant changes were found: compared to control, the helmet increased muscle strain by 18%, 28%, and 18% in the SCM, CES, and TRA, respectively; NVG produced a further increase of 11% in the SCM and 6% in the CES. During back bouncing, the helmet increased muscle strain by 14% in the SCM and 19% in the CES, and NVG further increased this strain by 14% in the SCM. Hand-and-knee bouncing loaded extensors: the helmet caused increases of 46% in the CES and 29% in the TES, while NVG produced a further 13% increase in CES activation. Helmet weight alone had a large effect on muscular workload. The additional frontal weight of the NVG caused a further increase in the activity of cervical muscles that were already subjected to high strain.

  11. Reviving a ghost in the history of technology: the social construction of the recumbent bicycle. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassaan; Qureshi, Omer Masood; Khan, Abid Ali


    Recumbent bicycles have never truly been associated with international cycling. Conventional safety (upright) bicycles have long been at the center of the cycling world, for both sport and transportation. This is despite the fact that recumbent bicycles are faster, more comfortable, and more efficient than the upright bicycles. The aim of this article is to explain the historical and social perspectives that led to the rejection of the recumbent bicycle by utilizing the theory of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Bijker's two power theory, providing a contrast with the adoption of the safety bicycle.

  12. Achieving all-age helmet use compliance for snow sports: strategic use of education, legislation and enforcement. (United States)

    Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B


    Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes? (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar


    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Dynamics of the Non-holonomic Whipple Bicycle (United States)

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu; Mauny, Johan


    Though the bicycle is a familiar object of everyday life, modeling its full nonlinear three-dimensional dynamics in a closed symbolic form is a difficult issue for classical mechanics. In this article, we address this issue without resorting to the usual simplifications on the bicycle kinematics nor its dynamics. To derive this model, we use a general reduction-based approach in the principal fiber bundle of configurations of the three-dimensional bicycle. This includes a geometrically exact model of the contacts between the wheels and the ground, the explicit calculation of the kernel of constraints, along with the dynamics of the system free of any external forces, and its projection onto the kernel of admissible velocities. The approach takes benefits of the intrinsic formulation of geometric mechanics. Along the path toward the final equations, we show that the exact model of the bicycle dynamics requires to cope with a set of non-symmetric constraints with respect to the structural group of its configuration fiber bundle. The final reduced dynamics are simulated on several examples representative of the bicycle. As expected the constraints imposed by the ground contacts, as well as the energy conservation, are satisfied, while the dynamics can be numerically integrated in real time.

  15. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption. (United States)

    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L


    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Bicycle Compatibility Index : a level of service concept, implementation manual (United States)


    Currently, no methodology is widely accepted by engineers, planners, or bicycle coordinators that will allow them to determine how compatible a roadway is for allowing efficient operation of both bicycles and motor vehicles. Determining how existing ...

  17. Daily Bicycling in Older Adults May Be Effective to Reduce Fall Risks - A Case Control Study. (United States)

    Batcir, Shani; Melzer, Itshak


    Older adults gain many health benefits from riding bicycles regularly. We aimed to explore whether older persons who ride bicycles regularly have better balance than controls. Balance control and voluntary stepping were assessed in 20 older adults aged 65 to 85 who live in an agricultural community village who regularly ride bicycles (BR), and 30 age- and gender-matched non-bicycle riders (NBR). Self-reported function and fear of fall were also assessed. Bicycle riders showed significantly better balance, faster voluntary stepping, and better self-reported advanced lower extremity function compared with NBR. The results might suggest that bicycling regularly preserves balance control and speed of voluntary stepping in older adults because bicycling might maintain specific balance coordination patterns. The results should be treated with caution since BR were older adults who selected an active life style (i.e., bicycling as well as living in an agricultural village) that may bias the results.

  18. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik


    of interventions in bicycle infrastructure on travel choices, safety, design appreciation, and other factors. These clarify under which conditions certain measures are effective or not and inform about the effectiveness of improving a single route versus upgrading a whole network. The information from the studies...... to be still generally valid. In addition to studies that traditionally focus on dedicated bicycle infrastructure, two cases of shared space are discussed, a rather new type of intervention that assumes mixed use of infrastructure. One case is from Denmark, the other from the Netherlands. The paper will so...... uncover the valuable results of the possibly largest evaluations of interventions in bicycle infrastructure ever made, verify these by examining more recent studies, and contribute to the discussion of shared space....

  19. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen


    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  20. Using magnetorheological fluids in an innovative hybrid bicycle damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Y J; Nguyen, T S


    Magnetorheological fluids are capable of changing their viscosity quickly. This can provide good controllability and fast dynamic response. A conventional passive suspension system with air spring or hydraulic damper has simple design and financial benefit for bicycles, but its operation is uncontrollable and non-adaptive. This paper presented a semi-active hybrid bicycle suspension system which combines conventional air spring and a new magnetorheological damping brake together to reduce vibration of a bicycle. A multi-layer magnetorheological brake and linkage mechanism are connected to bike fork to form the adaptive damping part of the innovative hybrid suspension system. The simulation results proved that the semi-active suspension system can reduce bike vibration effectively. (paper)

  1. Characteristics of helmet or knit cap use in head injury of snowboarders. (United States)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro


    The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.

  2. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players. (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P


    There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley


    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  4. Viet Nam’s mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children (United States)

    Pervin, Aaron; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Nam, Nguyen Phuong


    Abstract Objective To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. Methods The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and χ² was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). Findings The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90–99% among adults, from 15–53% among children ≤ 7 years of age, and from 38–53% among children > 7 but ≤ 14. Of the parents surveyed, 67% said the fear of neck injury was the most important reason their children did not wear a helmet. Conclusion Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions. PMID:19551255

  5. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies (United States)

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.


    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  6. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd


    of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...... risk factors among middle-aged men and women....

  7. Wireless controller and smartphone based interaction system for electric bicycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Throughout the last years, great improvements have been made in the automotive industry, a sector with a high impact in both economics and social environments. Many development efforts have targeted on satisfying the need of providing smart environments to the end user in vehicles, such as cars. This paper proposes a brand-new solution in the automotive field, consisting of a new product family which aims to transform the traditional bicycle to an electric bicycle using an architecture that provides an adaptive environment to the user, improving the driving experience enabling value-added services.

  8. Psychological models for development of motorcycle helmet use among students in Vietnam (United States)

    Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh


    A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.

  9. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance. (United States)

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr


    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  10. Long-term use of neonatal helmet-CPAP: a case report. (United States)

    Doglioni, N; Micaglio, M; Zanardo, V; Trevisanuto, D


    In a recent short-term physiological study, we demonstrated a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP) that could be a feasible device for managing preterm infants needing continuous distending pressure with better tolerability than nasal-CPAP. However, its application for a long-term period has never been reported in neonates. Here, we describe the use of neonatal helmet-CPAP in a neonate with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Twenty minutes after neonatal helmet-CPAP placement, the baseline post-ductal tcSaO2 (66%) and alveolar-arterial gradient O2 improved from 66% and 648 mmHg to 100% and 465 mmHg, respectively. The neonatal helmet-CPAP was applied for 48 hours and was well-tolerated by the patient without complications. Long-term use of neonatal helmet-CPAP appears feasible and well-tolerated. Comparative trials are needed.

  11. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald


    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  12. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.


    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  13. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic. (United States)

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M


    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  14. preparation of bicyclic lactones using lewis acids catalyzed ene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The synthesis of the cis-fused bicyclic lactones relies extensively on the Lewis acid ... having an allylic hydrogen (an"ene") and a compound containing an electron .... observed that the lithium enolate obtained from 3-methyl-2(5H)- furanone ...

  15. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.


    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  16. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    and bicycling. The study shows that instruments that improve the cyclists’ speed and increase the car drivers’ time consumption and costs will influence the competition conditions significantly. The total transfer potential will be between 12 and 16 % of the car trips in case of short tours, equivalent to 1...

  17. A strategic approach to [6,6]-bicyclic lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Glibstrup, Emil; Crestey, Francois Louis Jean


    We report an effective synthetic protocol to access [6,6]-bicyclic lactone moieties through a regio- and stereoselective intramolecular Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction followed by a 6π-electrocyclization. This method enabled the first synthesis of the elusive CD fragment of the Erythrina...

  18. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele


    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  19. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard


    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  20. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.


    for scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  1. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson


    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  2. Costs and benefits of bicycling investments in Portland, Oregon. (United States)

    Gotschi, Thomas


    Promoting bicycling has great potential to increase overall physical activity; however, significant uncertainty exists with regard to the amount and effectiveness of investment needed for infrastructure. The objective of this study is to assess how costs of Portland's past and planned investments in bicycling relate to health and other benefits. Costs of investment plans are compared with 2 types of monetized health benefits, health care cost savings and value of statistical life savings. Levels of bicycling are estimated using past trends, future mode share goals, and a traffic demand model. By 2040, investments in the range of $138 to $605 million will result in health care cost savings of $388 to $594 million, fuel savings of $143 to $218 million, and savings in value of statistical lives of $7 to $12 billion. The benefit-cost ratios for health care and fuel savings are between 3.8 and 1.2 to 1, and an order of magnitude larger when value of statistical lives is used. This first of its kind cost-benefit analysis of investments in bicycling in a US city shows that such efforts are cost-effective, even when only a limited selection of benefits is considered.

  3. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.


    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  4. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study. (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen


    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Accidents With or Without Helmet Use. (United States)

    Dagher, Jehane H; Costa, Camille; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra


    To determine if health outcomes and demographics differ according to helmet status between persons with cycling-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI). This is a retrospective study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital following a TBI that occurred while cycling from 2007-2011. Information was collected from the Quebec trauma registry and the coroner's office in cases of death from cycling accidents. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated were length of stay (LOS), extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOS-E), injury severity scale (ISS), discharge destination and death. 25% of cyclists wore a helmet. The helmet group was older, more likely to be university educated, married and retired. Unemployment, longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, severe intracranial bleeding and neurosurgical interventions were more common in the no helmet group. There was no significant association between the severity of the TBI, ISS scores, GOS-E or death and helmet wearing. The median age of the subjects who died was higher than those who survived. Cyclists without helmets were younger, less educated, single and unemployed. They had more severe TBIs on imaging, longer LOS in ICU and more neurosurgical interventions. Elderly cyclists admitted to the hospital appear to be at higher risk of dying in the event of a TBI.

  6. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms. (United States)

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P


    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  7. A Discussion of the Issue of Football Helmet Removal in Suspected Cervical Spine Injuries (United States)

    Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie


    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. ImagesFig. 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6. PMID:16558244

  8. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A.; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R. Dawn; Boden, Barry P.


    Background: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Hypothesis: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Results: Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P < 0.001); had more symptoms (5.34 vs 4.54, P = 0.004); and had longer symptom duration (P = 0.04). Athletes with helmets lined with an air bladder had greater rates of sensitivity to light (RR, 1.13; P = 0.02), sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.25; P = 0.009), and longer symptom duration (P = 0.004) compared with foam or gel liners. Conclusion: An improperly fitted football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder–lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Clinical Relevance: Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. PMID:27005467

  9. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP. (United States)

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V


    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim


    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; plegislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim


    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  12. Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD) for simulator applications (United States)

    Sisodia, Ashok; Riser, Andrew; Bayer, Michael; McGuire, James P.


    The Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD), augmented reality visual system first presented at last year's Cockpit and Future Displays for Defense and Security conference, has now been evaluated in a number of military simulator applications and by L-3 Link Simulation and Training. This paper presents the preliminary results of these evaluations and describes current and future simulator and training applications for HMD technology. The AHMD blends computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) with the actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD is designed specifically for highly mobile deployable, minimum resource demanding reconfigurable virtual training systems to satisfy the military's in-theater warrior readiness objective. A description of the innovative AHMD system and future enhancements will be discussed.

  13. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays (United States)

    Parise, Michael J.


    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  14. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat. (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I


    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  16. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation. (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan M


    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football. (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C


    In cases of possible cervical spine injury, medical professionals must be prepared to achieve rapid airway access while concurrently restricting cervical spine motion. Face mask removal (FMR), rather than helmet removal (HR), is recommended to achieve this. However, no studies have been reported that compare FMR directly with HR. The purpose of this study was to compare motion, time, and perceived difficulty in two commonly used American football helmets between FMR and HR techniques, and when helmet air bladders were deflated before HR compared with inflated scenarios. The study incorporated a repeated measures design and was performed in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants included 22 certified athletic trainers (15 men and seven women; mean age, 33.9±10.5 years; mean experience, 11.4±10.0 years; mean height, 172±9.4 cm; mean mass, 76.7±14.9 kg). All participants were free from upper extremity or central nervous system pathology for 6 months and provided informed consent. Dependent variables included head excursion in degrees (computed by subtracting the minimum position from the maximum position) in each of the three planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse), time to complete the required task, and ratings of perceived exertion. To address our study purposes, we used two-by-two repeated-measures analysis of variance (removal technique×helmet type, helmet type×deflation status) for each dependent variable. Independent variables consisted of removal technique (FMR and HR), helmet type (Riddell Revolution IQ [RIQ] and VSR4), and helmet deflation status (deflated [D], inflated, [I]). After familiarization, participants conducted two successful trials for each of six conditions in random order (RIQ-FMR, VSR4-FMR, RIQ-HR-D, VSR4-HR-D, RIQ-HR-I, and VSR4-HR-I). Face masks, helmets, and shoulder pads were removed from a live model wearing a properly fitted helmet and shoulder pads. The participant and an investigator stabilized the model's head. A six

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response During Lateral +Gy Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Chris


    .... A series of tests was conducted by AFRL/HEPA on a horizontal impulse accelerator using human subjects to investigate the effects of helmet inertial properties on human response to short duration...

  19. Aerodynamic study of time-trial helmets in cycling racing using CFD analysis. (United States)

    Beaumont, F; Taiar, R; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Grappe, F


    The aerodynamic drag of three different time-trial cycling helmets was analyzed numerically for two different cyclist head positions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to investigate the detailed airflow patterns around the cyclist for a constant velocity of 15 m/s without wind. The CFD simulations have focused on the aerodynamic drag effects in terms of wall shear stress maps and pressure coefficient distributions on the cyclist/helmet system. For a given head position, the helmet shape, by itself, obtained a weak effect on a cyclist's aerodynamic performance (CFD results have also shown that both helmet shape and head position significantly influence drag forces, pressure and wall shear stress distributions on the whole cyclist's body due to the change in the near-wake behavior and in location of corresponding separation and attachment areas around the cyclist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the Radial Artery After a Bicycle Fall. (United States)

    Ratschiller, Thomas; Müller, Hannes; Schachner, Thomas; Zierer, Andreas


    We report a case of a 64-year-old man who developed a painful pulsatile mass in the distal forearm after a bicycle fall with fracture of the wrist. Ultrasonography confirmed a 2.5-cm large pseudoaneurysm of the radial artery. The patient underwent surgical exploration. The pseudoaneurysm was resected and the defect in the arterial wall was reconstructed with an autologous saphenous vein patch. We suggest that the double arterial supply of the hand should be preserved whenever possible.

  1. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush. (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P


    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintaining neutral sagittal cervical alignment after football helmet removal during emergency spine injury management. (United States)

    Decoster, Laura C; Burns, Matthew F; Swartz, Erik E; Murthi, Dinakar S; Hernandez, Adam E; Vailas, James C; Isham, Linda L


    Descriptive laboratory study. To determine whether the placement of padding beneath the occiput after helmet removal is an effective intervention to maintain neutral sagittal cervical spine alignment in a position comparable with the helmeted condition. Current on-field recommendations for managing football athletes with suspected cervical spine injuries call for face mask removal, rather than helmet removal, because the combination of helmet and shoulder pads has been shown to maintain neutral cervical alignment. Therefore, in cases when helmet removal is required, recommendations also call for shoulder pad removal. Because removal of equipment causes motion, any technique that postpones the need to remove the shoulder pads would reduce prehospital motion. Four lateral radiographs of 20 male participants were obtained (age = 23.6 ± 2.7 years). Radiographs of participants wearing shoulder pads and helmet were first obtained. The helmet was removed and radiographs of participants with occipital padding were obtained immediately and 20 minutes later and finally without occipital padding. Cobb angle measurements for C2-C6 vertebral segments were determined by an orthopedic spine surgeon blinded to the study's purpose. Intraobserver reliability was determined using intraclass coefficient analysis. Measurements were analyzed using a 1×4 repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction. Intraobserver analysis showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.999-1.0). Repeated-measures analysis of variance detected significant differences (F(3,17) = 13.34; P football helmet in the field, occipital padding (along with full body/head immobilization techniques) may be used to limit cervical lordosis, allowing safe delay of shoulder pad removal.

  3. Design of a Helmet Liner for Improved Low Velocity Impact Protection (United States)


    FIGURE 14. MONORAIL DROP TEST WITH DOT-SIZE C HEADFORM AND HEMISPHERICAL ANVIL ........................... 14  FIGURE 15. ACH PAD CONFIGURATION. LEFT...materials. In this project, the monorail drop test device, used for the helmeted headform drop test, was modified for material testing as shown in Figure...a guided free fall drop test using a monorail drop test apparatus as shown in Figure 14. All helmets tested in this study were ACH-Size Large and

  4. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi


    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  5. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.


    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  6. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding. (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank


    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  7. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine. (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M


    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  8. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival (United States)

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong


    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  9. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.


    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  10. Implementation of an all-ages mandatory helmet policy for ice skating. (United States)

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Fenerty, Lynne; Wheadon-Hore, Kathie; Walling, Simon; Cusimano, Michael D; Clarke, David B


    Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. Observations of helmet use, falls and skater demographics were conducted prior to education/implementation and after policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; 361 skaters were observed pre-implementation, while 358 were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours. Pre-implementation, helmet use ranged from 97% among children under 12 to 10% among adults; post-implementation use in all skaters was 99%. Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged 4-12. An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam. (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc


    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  12. The Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of Take Shared Bicycles as Connecting to Public Transit (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Sun, H.; Li, P. F.; Li, C. C.


    Shared bicycles as an important way of connecting public transport, have few literature to evaluate its effectiveness.This paper taking Beijing city as an example, make anevaluationfor the six types of travel combinations which are commonly used by the citizens. The author selects four quantitative indicators: fuel consumption, economic cost, total time spent, and CO2 emission. And two qualitative indicators: degree of comfort and convenience. The relative efficiency of quantitative indicators is obtained by data envelopment analysis (DEA) and fuzzification and then take fuzzy synthetic evaluation with qualitative indicators.It was found that the choice of shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles and shared bicycles has good comprehensive benefits in medium distance travel. The findings also suggest that shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles is the best choice in the utilitarian trips. The conclusions not only provide suggestions for the travellers to select travel modes, but also can adjust the relevant factors to increase the proportion of green travel.

  13. Improvement of Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease by Imagining Bicycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kikuchi


    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is one of the factors that reduce the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Imagining bicycling before gait start provided improvement in FOG in 2 PD patients. Imagining and mimicking bicycling after the initiation of gait allowed the rhythmic gait to continue without interruption. We suggest that imagining and mimicking bicycling, which are nonexternal cues, could serve as a helpful therapeutic approach for the intractable freezing and interruption of gait of PD patients.

  14. Facial asymmetry correction with moulded helmet therapy in infants with deformational skull base plagiocephaly. (United States)

    Kreutz, Matthias; Fitze, Brigitte; Blecher, Christoph; Marcello, Augello; Simon, Ruben; Cremer, Rebecca; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Kunz, Christoph; Mayr, Johannes


    The recommendation issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the early 1990s to position infants on their back during sleep to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dramatically reduced the number of deaths due to SIDS but has also markedly increased the prevalence of positional skull deformation in infants. Deformation of the base of the skull occurs predominantly in very severe deformational plagiocephaly and is accompanied by facial asymmetry, as well as an altered ear position, called ear shift. Moulded helmet therapy has become an accepted treatment strategy for infants with deformational plagiocephaly. The aim of this study was to determine whether facial asymmetry could be corrected by moulded helmet therapy. In this retrospective, single-centre study, we analysed facial asymmetry of 71 infants with severe deformational plagiocephaly with or without deformational brachycephaly who were undergoing moulded helmet therapy between 2009 and 2013. Computer-assisted, three-dimensional, soft-tissue photographic scanning was used to record the head shape before and after moulded helmet therapy. The distance between two landmarks in the midline of the face (i.e., root of the nose and nasal septum) and the right and left tragus were measured on computer-generated indirect and objective 3D photogrammetry images. A quotient was calculated between the two right- and left-sided distances to the midline. Quotients were compared before and after moulded helmet therapy. Infants without any therapy served as a control group. The median age of the infants before onset of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 3-16 months). The median duration of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 1-16 months). Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment quotients of the left vs. right distances measured between the tragus and root of the nose (n = 71) and nasal septum (n = 71) revealed a significant reduction of the asymmetry (Tragus-Nasion-Line Quotient: 0

  15. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z


    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  16. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian


    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles. (United States)

    Wall, Stephen P; Lee, David C; Frangos, Spiros G; Sethi, Monica; Heyer, Jessica H; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; DiMaggio, Charles J


    We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS) into none/mild (0-8) versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8) and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars), painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.33). Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-4.15). Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85-2.71) and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85-3.22) times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  18. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Wall


    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  19. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. (United States)

    Esquinas Rodriguez, Antonio M; Papadakos, Peter J; Carron, Michele; Cosentini, Roberto; Chiumello, Davide


    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO₂ rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  20. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients. (United States)

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M


    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  1. Injury rates from walking, gardening, weightlifting, outdoor bicycling, and aerobics. (United States)

    Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M


    The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.

  2. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.


    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  3. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... travelling information with GPS loggers, compared to self-reported RP data, is more accurate geographic locations and routes. Also, the GPS traces give more reliable information on times and prevent trip underreporting, and it is possible to collect information on many trips by the same person without...

  4. Injuries to Cyclists due to a Dog-Bicycle Interaction. (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Yaacoub, Alan P


     Both dogs and bicycles are common in our society and thus a dog-bicycle interaction resulting in an injury to a cyclist is possible. It was the purpose of this study to investigate such injuries.  The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data for the 10-year period from 2006 through 2015 associated with bicycles were accessed. Injuries involving dogs were identified and the mechanism of injury determined. Due to the stratified and weighted nature of the NEISS data, statistical analyses were performed with SUDAAN 10 software (RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States). A p  dogs were involved in 35,254 (0.67%) cases. The average age for those involved with a dog was 33.2 years and it was 25.5 years for those in which dogs were not involved. There were more females in the dog group (34.1 vs. 27.6%). Dog involvement increased from ages 0 to 14 years, then decreased until the age of 20 years and then progressively increased. Dog-associated injuries most frequently occurred away from home, involved the knee and distal lower extremity, 49.1% sustaining dog bites. Dog bites were more common in younger individuals. Four injury mechanisms (chased by a dog, hit/collided with a dog, swerved/tried to avoid a dog or riding with a dog) accounted for 97.5% of the injuries. Those chased by a dog were younger, more commonly released from the emergency department, had an injury involving the lower extremity and frequently sustained a bite. The most severe injuries were in those who swerved/tried to avoid a dog or hit a dog.  Approximately 1% of injuries to bicyclists are associated with dogs; one-half sustained a bite. Potential/proposed prevention strategies could be educational materials regarding bicycles and dogs to owners, dog restraint, student/parent education and educational materials in waiting rooms of veterinarians, paediatricians, family practice physicians and emergency rooms. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  5. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala. (United States)

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S


    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  6. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Renske M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  7. How the Netherlands became a bicycle nation : users, firms and intermediaries, 1860-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, S.E.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Davids, M.


    In 1925, the Netherlands was a country of cyclists and cycle producers, as all classes cycled and almost all cycles were produced domestically. The bicycle was not a Dutch invention and the country had an open economy, and this raises the question ‘how did the Netherlands become a bicycle nation?’

  8. Children's Perception of Gap Affordances: Bicycling Across Traffic-Filled Intersections in an Immersive Virtual Environment (United States)

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.


    This study examined gap choices and crossing behavior in children and adults using an immersive, interactive bicycling simulator. Ten- and 12-year-olds and adults rode a bicycle mounted on a stationary trainer through a virtual environment consisting of a street with 6 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic traveling at 25mph…

  9. The different ways to get on and off a bicycle for young and old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Baten, C. T.M.; Straathof, P.T.C.; Buurke, J. H.; Rietman, J. S.


    In the Netherlands, each year 12,000 older cyclists require medical attention due to a single-bicycle accident where no other party is directly involved. Most of these accidents occur at low cycling velocities and 20% occur during (dis)mounting the bicycle. Little is known about the strategies and

  10. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix


    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has ...... varied quite a lot....

  11. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.


    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing

  12. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes. (United States)


    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  13. Bicycle Design : A different approach to improving on the world human powered speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, H.K.; Van den Brand, S.; Gregoor, W.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Pereboom, H.P.; Wielemaker, D.C.; Van der Zweep, C.J.


    The current International Human Powered Vehicle Association world records for faired bicycles stand at 133.284km/h for the 200m flying start speed record and 91.562 km for the hour record. Traditionally the recumbent bicycles that have been developed for breaking one of either of these records have

  14. On the influence of tyre and structural properties on the stability of bicycles (United States)

    Doria, Alberto; Roa Melo, Sergio Daniel


    In recent years the Whipple Carvallo Bicycle Model has been extended to analyse high speed stability of bicycles. Various researchers have developed models taking into account the effects of front frame compliance and tyre properties, nonetheless, a systematic analysis has not been yet carried out. This paper aims at analysing parametrically the influence of front frame compliance and tyre properties on the open loop stability of bicycles. Some indexes based on the eigenvalues of the dynamic system are defined to evaluate quantitatively bicycle stability. The parametric analysis is carried out with a factorial design approach to determine the most influential parameters. A commuting and a racing bicycle are considered and numerical results show different effects of the various parameters on each bicycle. In the commuting bicycle, the tyre properties have greater influence than front frame compliance, and the weave mode has the main effect on stability. Conversely, in the racing bicycle, the front frame compliance parameters have greater influence than tyre properties, and the wobble mode has the main effect on stability.

  15. Comparison of five bicycle facility designs in signalized intersections using traffic conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk


    Highlights •Traffic conflict study comparing cyclists’ relative risk for five bicycle layouts. •Watchdog video analysis software applied to reduce video data. •Video analysis software necessary to conduct larger conflict studies. •Recessed bicycle track seems to provide the highest safety level...

  16. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.


    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  17. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Pu


    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  18. The effect of helmet use on injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. (United States)

    Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.

  19. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the problems that the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow rates. Materials and Methods: Sound pressure levels generated by neonatal helmet CPAP delivery were measured at different gas flows (20, 30, and 40 l/min with and without a breathing filter. Noise intensity was measured by installing microphones in the inner ear of dummy heads wearing helmets. Results: The sound pressure level increased by 38% at a gas flow of 40 l/min, as compared to a gas flow of 20 l/min {74 dBA [interquartile range (IQR 2,2] vs 52 dBA (IQR 5,9, respectively}. Using the breathing filter as a diffuser has a variety of effects on sound pressure levels according to the gas flow rate. Conclusion: The intensity of the noise generated by helmet delivery of positive airway pressure depends on the type of helmet used, gas flow, and use or not of a diffuser filter. Breathing filters with gas flows over 30 l/min might not be recommended since they would not attenuate but will rather amplify sound pressure.

  20. Head position in the MEG helmet affects the sensitivity to anterior sources. (United States)

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E


    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people's heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential "invisibility" of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position ("front" vs. "back") secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the "visibility" of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks.

  1. Investigation of the reasons for not using helmet among motorcyclists in Kerman, Iran. (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Aliasghar; Boostani, Dariush; Rafeiee, Manoochehr


    This study was carried out to investigate reasoning and interpretation of motorcyclists for not using helmet utilizing qualitative methodology of 'grounded theory'. The field of the study was Kerman, a cultural-historical city at the south-east of Iran. Participants were 21 young male motorcyclists. Two sampling strategies were used: maximum variation and snowball sampling. To collect data, in-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted. Data analysis yielded seven categories: fatalism; a barrier to social relationships; peer group pressure and negative labelling; messing up the appearance; disturbance in hearing and vision; barrier to normal breathing; and heaviness and superfluity of helmet. Based on the findings of the current study, it could be concluded that socio-cultural contexts, motorcyclists' worldview and partly helmet-related problems are of the main factors which affect motorcycling. Therefore, the studies, policy-makings, and intervening programmes to control injury and to promote safety among motorcyclists should be focused on socio-cultural barriers to helmet use in general and changing the motorcyclists' standpoints toward fatalism in particular. Helmet-related problems should be considered, too.

  2. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT. (United States)

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo


    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. The relationship between bicycle commuting and perceived stress: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Avila-Palencia, Ione; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Jerrett, Michael; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J


    Active commuting - walking and bicycling for travel to and/or from work or educational addresses - may facilitate daily, routine physical activity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between active commuting and commuting stress; however, there are no studies examining the relationship between solely bicycle commuting and perceived stress, or studies that account for environmental determinants of bicycle commuting and stress. The current study evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting, among working or studying adults in a dense urban setting, and perceived stress. A cross-sectional study was performed with 788 adults who regularly travelled to work or study locations (excluding those who only commuted on foot) in Barcelona, Spain. Participants responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour from June 2011 through to May 2012. Participants were categorised as either bicycle commuters or non-bicycle commuters, and (based on the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) as either stressed or non-stressed. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance models of stress status based on exposures with bicycle commuting were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. Bicycle commuters had significantly lower risk of being stressed than non-bicycle commuters (Relative Risk; RR (95% CI)=0.73 (0.60 to 0.89), p=0.001). Bicycle commuters who bicycled 4 days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.42 (0.24 to 0.73), p=0.002) and those who bicycled 5 or more days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.57 (0.42 to 0.77), pstressed than those who bicycled less than 4 days. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual and environmental confounders and when using different cut-offs of perceived stress. Stress reduction may be an important consequence of routine bicycle use and should be considered by decision makers as another potential benefit of its promotion. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  4. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie


    Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen......’s bicycle infrastructure and explores how the development corresponds to other processes of urban transformation. The study builds on historical maps of bicycle infrastructure that are digitised into geographical information, which allows for a comprehensive analysis of the formation of the network....... In search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  5. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu


    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  6. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Waruguru Mburu

    Full Text Available Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  7. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK. (United States)

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco


    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  8. A multi-modal network approach to model public transport accessibility impacts of bicycle-train integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; van Weperen, Sander


    In the Netherlands, the bicycle plays an important in station access and, to a lesser extent, in station egress. There is however fairly little knowledge in the potential effects of bicycle-train integration policies. The aim of this paper is to examine the impacts of bicycle-train integration

  9. Hydrolysis of strained bridgehead bicyclic vinyl ethers and sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwang, W.K.; Kresge, A.J.; Wiseman, J.R.


    Rates of hydrolysis of the bridgehead bicyclic vinyl ether 9-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-1-ene(6) and its vinyl sulfide counterpart 9-thiabicyclo[3.3.1]non-1-ene(7), catalyzed by the hydronium ion, were measured in H 2 O and in D 2 O solution. These data give isotope effects, k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 2.4 and 1.9 respectively, which show that these reactions occur by the normal, rate-determining carbon protonation, mechanism. The vinyl ether 6 is less reactive than its olefin analogue, bicyclo[3.3.1]non-1-ene (relative rate 1:1/1400), as may have been expected for a constrained bicyclic system such as this, where stabilization of the bridgehead carbocation intermediate by conjugation with oxygen is severely impaired. The vinyl sulfide 7, however, is even less reactive than the vinyl ether (relative rates 1:1/140); this is a remarkable result in view of the fact that conjugation between the sulfur atom and the cationic center is presumably also strongly inhibited. 1 figure, 3 tables

  10. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya


    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  11. Determination of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet relative output factor using a variety of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.


    Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques

  12. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J


    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  13. The Association Between Risk-taking Behavior and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclist (United States)

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi


    The central aim of the research was to examine speeding behavior without helmet wearing among motorcycle riders in Ho Chi Minh City. The research model expanded the Theory of Planned Behavior by both psychological flow theory and sensation-seeking. 268 motorcyclists were involved in the research. A Confirmatory factor analysis and a Structural equation modeling were employed for model specification. The findings indicated a significant effect between predictors and the intention of speeding without helmet wearing. In addition, there was direct relation between intention and actual behavior. Also, sensation-seeking proved to be important in moderating predictors between the low-sensation-seeking motorcyclists and high-sensation-seeking ones. A deeper understanding of why motorcycle riders exceed the speed limit without wearing helmet played key role in changing their behavior.

  14. Feasibility of nitric oxide administration by neonatal helmet-CPAP: a bench study. (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Zanardo, Vincenzo


    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may have a role in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure. We evaluated the feasibility of administering NO therapy by a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP). While maintaining a constant total flow of 8, 10, and 12 l.min(-1), NO concentrations were progressively increased to 5, 10, 20, and 40 p.p.m. in the neonatal helmet-CPAP pressure chamber (5 cmH2O). NO, NO2, and O2 concentrations were measured in the pressure chamber and the immediate external environment. In the chamber, NO2 levels remained low (neonatal helmet-CPAP system. This method allows the delivery of accurate NO levels and high O2 concentrations avoiding NO2 accumulation. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed.

  15. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process (United States)

    McFarland, Shane


    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  16. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov


    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  17. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia. (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B


    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  18. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Dadkhah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  19. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.


    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  20. Development of a helmet-mounted PLZT thermal/flash protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.O. Jr.; Cutchen, J.T.; Pfoff, B.J.


    Sandia Laboratories is developing PLZT thermal/flash protective devices (TFPD's) goggles to prevent exposure and resultant eye damage from nuclear weapon detonations. The primary emphasis of the present program is to transfer technology and establish production capability for helmet-mounted PLZT/TFPD goggles for USAF flight crews, with a non-helmet-mounted configuration to follow. The first production units are anticipated in the fall of 1977. The operating principles of the PLZT/TFPD goggle device are briefly outlined, and the device configuration and operational characteristics are described

  1. The differences between storms driven by helmet streamer CIRs and storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs


    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Denton, Michael


    A corotating interaction region (CIR) is formed when fast coronal hole origin solar wind overtakes slow solar wind and forms a region of compressed plasma and magnetic field. The slow wind upstream of the coronal hole fast wind can be either of helmet streamer origin or pseudostreamer origin. For a collection of 125 CIR-driven geomagnetic storms, the slow wind ahead of each CIR is examined; for those storm not containing ejecta, each CIR is categorized as a helmet streamer CIR (74 of the 125 ...

  2. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu


    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  3. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)


    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  4. Sociodemographic Factors, Population Density, and Bicycling for Transportation in the United States. (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W


    Transportation bicycling is a behavior with demonstrated health benefits. Population-representative studies of transportation bicycling in United States are lacking. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors, population density, and transportation bicycling and described transportation bicyclists by trip purposes, using a US-representative sample. This cross-sectional study used 2009 National Household Travel Survey datasets. Associations among study variables were assessed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. On a typical day in 2009, 1% of Americans older than 5 years of age reported a transportation bicycling trip. Transportation cycling was inversely associated with age and directly with being male, with being white, and with population density (≥ 10,000 vs transportation. Twenty-one percent of transportation bicyclists reported trips to work, whereas 67% reported trips to social or other activities. Transportation bicycling in the United States is associated with sociodemographic characteristics and population density. Bicycles are used for a variety of trip purposes, which has implications for transportation bicycling research based on commuter data and for developing interventions to promote this behavior.

  5. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai


    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated

  6. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law. (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J


    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  7. Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation. (United States)

    Ranky, Richard G; Sivak, Mark L; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos


    Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. In this paper a mechatronic rehabilitation bicycling system with an interactive virtual environment, called Virtual Reality Augmented Cycling Kit (VRACK), is presented. Novel hardware components embedded with sensors were implemented on a stationary exercise bicycle to monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants while immersing them in an augmented reality simulation providing the user with visual, auditory and haptic feedback. This modular and adaptable system attaches to commercially-available stationary bicycle systems and interfaces with a personal computer for simulation and data acquisition processes. The complete bicycle system includes: a) handle bars based on hydraulic pressure sensors; b) pedals that monitor pedal kinematics with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and forces on the pedals while providing vibratory feedback; c) off the shelf electronics to monitor heart rate and d) customized software for rehabilitation. Bench testing for the handle and pedal systems is presented for calibration of the sensors detecting force and angle. The modular mechatronic kit for exercise bicycles was tested in bench testing and human tests. Bench tests performed on the sensorized handle bars and the instrumented pedals validated the measurement accuracy of these components. Rider tests with the VRACK system focused on the pedal system and successfully monitored kinetic and kinematic parameters of the rider's lower extremities. The VRACK system, a virtual reality mechatronic bicycle

  8. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities. (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad


    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  9. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... or by reduction using lithium aluminum hydride. The piperidines were subjected to hydrogenation to remove the N-benzyl group. The compounds were tested for hypoglycaemic activity by Novo Nordisk, but no activity was observed.Another approach towards a synthetic piperidine monoterpene was attempted. The strategy...... involved preparation of a diol, which through treatment of its ditosyl derivative with an amine would afford a piperidine monoterpene. Antirrhinoside was protected as its 5,6-O-monoacetonide via its 5,6:4',6'-O-diacetonide. The 5,6-O-isopropylidene-derivative was hydrogenated to give the 3,4-dihydro...

  10. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang


    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  11. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of novel bicyclic heterocycle derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Perlovich, German L.; Proshin, Alexey N.


    Highlights: • The vapor pressures of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • Thermodynamic functions of sublimation were calculated. • The influence of substituent structure and chemical nature on the vapor pressure was studied. -- Abstract: The vapor pressures of five novel bicyclic heterocycle derivatives were measured over the temperature 341.15 to 396.15 K using the transpiration method by means of an inert gas carrier. From these results the standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation at the temperature 298.15 K were calculated. The effects of alkyl- and chloro-substitutions on changes in the thermodynamic functions have been investigated. Quantitative structure–property relationship on the basis HYBOT physico-chemical descriptors for biologically active compounds have been developed to predict the sublimation enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of the compounds studied

  12. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland


    In lignocellulosic biorefinery processes involving enzyme catalysed reactions it is a challenge that enzyme inhibiting compounds are generated and liberated during pretreatment of the biomass. In this study the contribution to cellulase inhibition from xylooligosaccharides and newly discovered...... oligophenolic compounds from pilot scale pretreated wheat straw was assessed at two different pretreatment severities. An increase in severity of the pretreatment led to more oligophenol compounds and in turn the total overall cellulase inhibition increased. When the xylooligosaccharides were enzymatically...... degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC...

  13. Continuous variable transmission and regenerative braking devices in bicycles utilizing magnetorheological fluids (United States)

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Liao, Wei-Hsin


    The use of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its controllable nature, which gives automotive designers more dimensions of freedom in functional designs. However, not much attention has been paid to apply it to bicycles. This paper is aimed to study the feasibility of applying MR fluids in different dynamic parts of a bicycle such as the transmission and braking systems. MR continuous variable transmission (CVT) and power generator assisted in braking systems were designed and analyzed. Both prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate their performances. Experimental results showed that the proposed designs are promising to be used in bicycles.

  14. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products. (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike


    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  15. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)


    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their

  16. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts. (United States)

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine


    Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.

  17. X-ray, synchrotron, and neutron diffraction analysis of Roman cavalry parade helmet fragment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrcok, L.; Petrik, I.; Langer, V.; Filinchuk, Y.; Beran, Přemysl


    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2010), s. 1025-1031 ISSN 0232-1300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : archaeometry * Roman helmet * phase analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2010

  18. The motivational safety helmet : Redesign suggestions improving the intrinsic motivation of construction site workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)


    In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a

  19. Impact of Helmet Use on Severity of Epidural Hematomas in Cambodia. (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Iv, Vycheth; Sam, Nang; Vuthy, Din; Klaric, Katherine; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B


    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often necessitating neurosurgical intervention to evacuate intracranial bleeding. Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been undergoing a rapid increase in motorcycle transit and in road traffic accidents, but the prevalence of helmet usage remains low. Epidural hematomas are severe traumatic brain injuries that can necessitate neurosurgical intervention. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents who presented to a major national tertiary care center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients were diagnosed with computed tomography of the head. In this cohort, 21.6% of patients in motorcycle accidents presented with epidural hematoma and 89.1% of patients were men, 47.6% were intoxicated, and were 87.8% were not wearing helmets at the moment of impact. Not wearing a helmet was associated with a 6.90-fold increase in odds of presenting with a moderate-to-severe Glasgow coma scale score and a 3.76-fold increase in odds of requiring craniotomy or craniectomy for evacuation of hematoma. Male sex was also associated with increased odds of higher clinical severity at presentation and indication for craniotomy or craniectomy, and alcohol intoxication at the time of accident was not associated with either. Helmet usage is protective in reducing the severity of presentation and need for neurosurgical intervention for patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of humidification on comfort during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet. (United States)

    Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji


    To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.

  1. Randomized Comparison of Helmet CPAP Versus High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Pediatric Respiratory Distress. (United States)

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele


    The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Revealed Preference Methods for Studying Bicycle Route Choice—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pritchard


    Full Text Available One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists. Two electronic databases were systematically searched for a selection of keywords pertaining to bicycle and route choice. In total seven families of methods are identified: GPS devices, smartphone applications, crowdsourcing, participant-recalled routes, accompanied journeys, egocentric cameras and virtual reality. The study illustrates a trade-off in the quality of data obtainable and the average number of participants. Future additional methods could include dockless bikeshare, multiple camera solutions using computer vision and immersive bicycle simulator environments.

  3. Physiological responses and exercise preference between the Trikke and the bicycle ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T.C. Lam


    Conclusion: Participants were more efficient in using the Trikke than the bicycle ergometer. The Trikke may be an enjoyable alternative for those individuals, particularly women, who have lost interest in traditional forms of exercise.

  4. Integration of bicycling and walking facilities into the infrastructure of urban communities. (United States)


    Several manuals, handbooks and web resources exist to provide varied guidance on planning for and designing bicycle and pedestrian facilities, yet there are no specific indications about which of the varied treatments in these guides work well for us...

  5. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety (United States)


    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  6. Associations Between Bicycling and Fall Related Physical Performance in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.


    Falls among older adults remains a significant public health issue. Bicycling positively influences falls risk factors including reduced balance, muscle weakness, and low self-perceived confidence in maintaining balance. However, this association has not been systematically examined. We recruited

  7. Evaluating Bicycle, Pedestrian, Transit and Economic Data Collection Needs and Measures of Effectiveness in Pennsylvania (United States)


    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the current data collection procedures for bicycle and pedestrian projects utilized by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and Pennsylvania's Metropolitan Planning Organizations...

  8. 2002 bicycle transportation user survey ; developing intermodal connections for the 21st century (United States)


    The Rhode Island Department of Transportation (RIDOT) has been on the forefront in recognizing the potential for bicycle travel to provide mobility, reduce congestion, improve environmental quality, and promote healthy lifestyles. An important compon...

  9. Aging road user, bicyclist, and pedestrian safety : effective bicycling signs and preventing left-turn crashes. (United States)


    Task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in version...

  10. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz


    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  11. Traumatic Globe Subluxation and Intracranial Injury Caused by Bicycle Brake Handle


    Poroy; Cibik; Yazici


    Introduction Penetration of a bicycle brake handle into the orbit is a rare and serious type of trauma. Globe subluxation due to such trauma has not been previously reported. Case Presentation A 10-year-old girl presented after falling from a bicycle, which resulted in the handbrake penetrating her right upper eyelid. On examination, the globe was subluxated anteriorly, there was no light perception, and the pupilla was fixed and ...

  12. Stereocontrolled synthesis of polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidines as a new class of iminosugars. (United States)

    Malinowski, Maciej; Hensienne, Raphaël; Kern, Nicolas; Tardieu, Damien; Bodlenner, Anne; Hazelard, Damien; Compain, Philippe


    We report herein the development of a stereodivergent route towards polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidine scaffolds, namely 6-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane derivatives. The strategy hinges on a common bicyclic β-lactam precursor, which is forged by way of a rare example of a cationic Dieckmann-type reaction, followed by IBX-mediated desaturation. Substrate-controlled diastereoselective oxidations then allow the divergent preparation of novel iminosugar mimics.

  13. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan


    Full Text Available Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the CA model using the genetic algorithm. Traffic flow features between simulations of several CA models and field observations were compared. The results showed that our modified CA model produced more accurate simulation for the fundamental diagram and the passing events in mixed bicycle traffic flow. Based on our model, the bicycle traffic flow features, including the fundamental diagram, the number of passing events, and the number of lane changes, were analyzed. We also analyzed the traffic flow features with different traffic densities, traffic components on different travel lanes. Results of the study can provide important information for understanding and simulating the operations of mixed bicycle traffic flow.

  14. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao


    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  15. Evaluation of the dispersion effect in through movement bicycles at signalized intersection via cellular automata simulation (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Ma, Yongjian; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Guozhou; Wang, Dongwei


    At signalized intersection areas, bicycle traffic presents a dispersion feature which may influence the movements of vehicles during peak period. The primary objective of this study is to simulate the dispersion effect in through-movement bicycle traffic at intersection areas and evaluate its influence on through-movement traffic. A cellular automata (CA) model is developed and validated to simulate the operations of through-movement bicycle traffic departing from two types of intersection approaches. Simulation results show that bicycles benefit from the dispersion effect when they depart from the approach with an exclusive right-turn vehicle lane. But when bicycles travel from the approach with a shared right-turn and through vehicle lane, the dispersion effect will result in friction interference and block interference on through-movement vehicles. Bicycle interferences reduce the vehicle speed and increase the delay of through-movement vehicles. The policy implications in regard to the dispersion effect from two types of approaches are discussed to improve the performance of through-movement traffic operations at signalized intersections.

  16. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp


    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  17. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children


    Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.


    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submer...

  18. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.


    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  19. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam


    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  20. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam


    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  1. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout


    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  2. The Bicycle as a Tool of Ecological Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Ploštajner


    Full Text Available Sustainable development and ecological politics too often act as a mechanism for strengthening alienated state institutions or as a way for developing new market niches for the accumulation of capital. The article tries to offer a critique of technocratic visions of sustainable development by using the bike as a tool of emancipatory politics, and think about political ecology as means for building a community. The bicycle can be seen as an autonomous means of transportation stimulating the construction of ecological urban landscape, which is oriented towards users and community. It stimulates compressed and rationally used urban space, enforces heterogeneous urban plans, increases mixing of diverse practices and needs, liberates public space, which is now subordinated to parking spots and roads, and promotes rights and powers of the users, their autonomy and spontaneity, by enabling the development of open public streets, which are more than just a movement channel. The city, at present subordinated to ecological and social devastation of automobility, is—through extensive usage of bike—re-created as a space for the construction of social, autonomous and ecological community.

  3. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador


    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. On the Implications of Sense of Control over Bicycling : Design of a Physical Stamina-Aware Bike


    Lee, Chao-Lung; Lee, Da; Cheng, Yun-Maw; Sandnes, Frode Eika; Chen, Li-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Chia


    Bicycling has become a mainstream activity among the environmental aware generation. Bicycling communities have gradually shown interests in quantitative data of the bicycling experiences such as road roughness, inclination, pollution, etc. Bikers utilize these data to infer the possible stamina cost and quality of surroundings. This supports them to make a better decision. This study assumes that fitness level indexed by stamina cost could enhance a biker's sense of c...

  5. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California. (United States)

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao


    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bicycle-friendly infrastructure planning in Beijing and Copenhagen - between adapting design solutions and learning local planning cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick


    Abstract Cities around the world are constructing bicycle infrastructure to increase cycling. However, identifying efficient design solutions and determining how bicycle infrastructure planning knowledge can be integrated into comprehensive policy remains a challenge. The objective of this paper...... is to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of current bicycle infrastructure planning in both an experienced city, Copenhagen, and in a less experienced city, Beijing. The paper examines how local design solutions are identified, how efficient they are and to what extent bicycle infrastructure planning...

  7. The use of bicycle workstations to increase physical activity in secondary classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fedewa


    Full Text Available Background To date, the majority of interventions have implemented classroom-based physical activity (PA at the elementary level; however, there is both the potential and need to explore student outcomes at high-school level as well, given that very few studies have incorporated classroom-based PA interventions for adolescents. One exception has been the use of bicycle workstations within secondary classrooms. Using bicycle workstations in lieu of traditional chairs in a high school setting shows promise for enhancing adolescents’ physical activity during the school day. Participants and procedure The present study explored the effects of integrating bicycle workstations into a secondary classroom setting for four months in a sample of 115 adolescents using an A-B-A-B withdrawal design. The study took place in one Advanced Placement English classroom across five groups of students. Physical activity outcomes included average heart rate, and caloric expenditure. Behavioural outcomes included percentage of on-task/off-task behaviour and number of teacher prompts in redirecting off-task behaviour. Feasibility and acceptability data of using the bicycle workstations were also collected. Results Findings showed significant improvements in physical activity as measured by heart rate and caloric expenditure, although heart rate percentage remained in the low intensity range when students were on the bicycle workstations. No effects were found on students’ on-task behaviour when using the bicycle workstations. Overall, students found the bikes acceptable to use but noted disadvantages of them as well. Conclusions Using bicycle workstations in high-school settings appears promising for enhancing low-intensity physical activity among adolescents. The limitations of the present study and implications for physical activity interventions in secondary schools are discussed.

  8. Material property determination of the lining layers of a versatile helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottner Radek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with material property identification of a helmet lining consisting of an outer layer of an expanded polystyrene (EPS and inner layer of an open-closed cell foam (OCCF. A combined numerical simulation and experimental testing was used for the material property identification. Compression and drop tests were performed. The ABAQUS finite element commercial code was used for numerical simulations in which the OOCF was modelled as a rate dependent viscoelastic material, while the EPS as a crushable foam. The reaction force time histories coming from the numerical simulation and the experiment have been used as a criterion for material parameter determination. After the identification of the material properties, numerical drop-tests were used to study the behaviour of a plate and a conical composite OOCF and EPS liners to decide which of them suits more for the helmet.

  9. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W


    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Predictions of Helmet Pad Suspension System Performance using Isolated Pad Impact Results (United States)


    Equation 2 and Equation 3, respectively. 3. METHOD The primary method of data collection for this report is detailed in the 2008 Joint Live Fire ...tests and the helmet system tests (see Figure 3). All testing was performed with a monorail drop tower (see Figure 4) at three conditioning...right) and system test setup (right and center left) Figure 5. MEP monorail drop test setup with a hemispherical impactor (left and center left

  11. Comparison of an in-helmet temperature monitor system to rectal temperature during exercise. (United States)

    Wickwire, P Jason; Buresh, Robert J; Tis, Laurie L; Collins, Mitchell A; Jacobs, Robert D; Bell, Marla M


    Body temperature monitoring is crucial in helping to decrease the amount and severity of heat illnesses; however, a practical method of monitoring temperature is lacking. In response to the lack of a practical method of monitoring the temperature of athletes, Hothead Technologies developed a device (HOT), which continuously monitors an athlete's fluctuations in body temperature. HOT measures forehead temperature inside helmets. The purpose of this study was to compare HOT against rectal temperature (Trec). Male volunteers (n = 29, age = 23.5 ± 4.5 years, weight = 83.8 ± 10.4 kg, height = 180.1 ± 5.8 cm, body fat = 12.3 ± 4.5%) exercised on a treadmill at an intensity of 60-75% heart rate reserve (HRR) (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 28.7° C) until Trec reached 38.7° C. The correlation between Trec and HOT was 0.801 (R = 0.64, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.25, p = 0.00). One reason for this relatively high correlation is the microclimate that HOT is monitoring. HOT is not affected by the external climate greatly because of its location in the helmet. Therefore, factors such as evaporation do not alter HOT temperature to a great degree. HOT was compared with Trec in a controlled setting, and the exercise used in this study was moderate aerobic exercise, very unlike that used in football. In a controlled laboratory setting, the relationship between HOT and Trec showed favorable correlations. However, in applied settings, helmets are repeatedly removed and replaced forcing HOT to equilibrate to forehead temperature every time the helmet is replaced. Therefore, future studies are needed to mimic how HOT will be used in field situations.

  12. The physiological demands of horseback mustering when wearing an equestrian helmet. (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Dyer, Rodd


    The hottest months on northern Australian cattle stations are from September to November, and it is during these months that horseback cattle mustering occurs. Stockmen wear clothing that restricts heat loss, and protective helmets have recently been introduced. Anecdotal evidence points to the possibility that helmets may increase the probability of developing heat illness, or reducing workplace performance. In this project, we quantified the working (thermal) environment on such cattle stations, and measured the metabolic demands on, and concurrent physiological strain in stockmen during mustering, whilst wearing an equestrian helmet. During horseback work, the average heart rate was 102.0 beats min(-1) (SD 14.0), with almost 90% of the time (238 min) spent working at intensities <50% of the heart rate reserve. The projected metabolic heat production during mustering ranged between 178 and 333 W (women), and between 212 and 542 W (men). The average core temperature was 37.6 degrees C, while the mean skin temperature averaged 34.1 degrees C. It was concluded that the working environment is, on average, thermally uncompensable during the mustering season. However, horseback mustering per se is a relatively low-intensity activity, interspersed with short periods of high-intensity work. This activity level was reflected within core temperatures, which rarely climbed above values associated with light-moderate exercise. Thus, whilst the climatic state was uncompensable, stockmen used behavioural strategies to minimise the risk of heat illness. Finally, it was observed that the helmet, though unpleasant to wear, did not appear to increase thermal strain in a manner that would disadvantage stockmen.

  13. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau M Andersen

    Full Text Available The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  14. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency. (United States)

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin


    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics.

  15. Automatic helmet-wearing detection for law enforcement using CCTV cameras (United States)

    Wonghabut, P.; Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Ung-arunyawee, R.; Leelapatra, W.


    The objective of this research is to develop an application for enforcing helmet wearing using CCTV cameras. The developed application aims to help law enforcement by police, and eventually resulting in changing risk behaviours and consequently reducing the number of accidents and its severity. Conceptually, the application software implemented using C++ language and OpenCV library uses two different angle of view CCTV cameras. Video frames recorded by the wide-angle CCTV camera are used to detect motorcyclists. If any motorcyclist without helmet is found, then the zoomed (narrow-angle) CCTV is activated to capture image of the violating motorcyclist and the motorcycle license plate in real time. Captured images are managed by database implemented using MySQL for ticket issuing. The results show that the developed program is able to detect 81% of motorcyclists on various motorcycle types during daytime and night-time. The validation results reveal that the program achieves 74% accuracy in detecting the motorcyclist without helmet.

  16. Structural Equation Modelling in Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Naida


    Full Text Available Motorcycle is one of private transportation which has been widely used in many countries including Malaysia. However, motorcycles are the most dangerous form of motorized transport. Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM statistics recorded that motorcycle is the highest vehicle (45.9% involved in traffic accident compared to other vehicles. The potential cause of the death to the motorcyclist was due to the head injury. One of strategy to mitigate this problem is through proper usage of safety helmet. Therefore, this paper was introduce a new approach on motorcyclist safety by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM with additional determinants that contribute to behavioral intention and to increase the proper usage of safety helmets among Malaysian motorcyclists. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was used to test the structural TAM proposed. The evaluation for structural model showed the goodness of fit indices are excellent fit. This study found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and social norm are significant towards behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo


    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  18. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A


    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  19. Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation (United States)


    Background Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. Methods In this paper a mechatronic rehabilitation bicycling system with an interactive virtual environment, called Virtual Reality Augmented Cycling Kit (VRACK), is presented. Novel hardware components embedded with sensors were implemented on a stationary exercise bicycle to monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants while immersing them in an augmented reality simulation providing the user with visual, auditory and haptic feedback. This modular and adaptable system attaches to commercially-available stationary bicycle systems and interfaces with a personal computer for simulation and data acquisition processes. The complete bicycle system includes: a) handle bars based on hydraulic pressure sensors; b) pedals that monitor pedal kinematics with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and forces on the pedals while providing vibratory feedback; c) off the shelf electronics to monitor heart rate and d) customized software for rehabilitation. Bench testing for the handle and pedal systems is presented for calibration of the sensors detecting force and angle. Results The modular mechatronic kit for exercise bicycles was tested in bench testing and human tests. Bench tests performed on the sensorized handle bars and the instrumented pedals validated the measurement accuracy of these components. Rider tests with the VRACK system focused on the pedal system and successfully monitored kinetic and kinematic parameters of the rider’s lower extremities. Conclusions The VRACK

  20. Societal cost of traumatic brain injury: A comparison of cost-of-injuries related to biking with and without helmet use. (United States)

    Costa, Camille K; Dagher, Jehane H; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra


    The goal of this study is to determine if a difference in societal costs exists from traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in patients who wear helmets compared to non-wearers. This is a retrospective cost-of-injury study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital (MGH) following a TBI that occurred while cycling between 2007-2011. Information was collected from Quebec Trauma Registry. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated societal costs. The median costs of hospitalization were significantly higher (p = 0.037) in the no helmet group ($7246.67 vs. $4328.17). No differences in costs were found for inpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.525), outpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.192), loss of productivity (p = 0.108) or death (p = 1.000). Overall, the differences in total societal costs between the helmet and no helmet group were not significantly different (p = 0.065). However, the median total costs for patients with isolated TBI in the non-helmet group ($22, 232.82) was significantly higher (p = 0.045) compared to the helmet group ($13, 920.15). Cyclists sustaining TBIs who did not wear helmets in this study were found to cost society nearly double that of helmeted cyclists.

  1. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem


    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  2. Investigation of Bicycle Travel Time Estimation Using Bluetooth Sensors for Low Sampling Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei


    Full Text Available Filtering the data for bicycle travel time using Bluetooth sensors is crucial to the estimation of link travel times on a corridor. The current paper describes an adaptive filtering algorithm for estimating bicycle travel times using Bluetooth data, with consideration of low sampling rates. The data for bicycle travel time using Bluetooth sensors has two characteristics. First, the bicycle flow contains stable and unstable conditions. Second, the collected data have low sampling rates (less than 1%. To avoid erroneous inference, filters are introduced to “purify” multiple time series. The valid data are identified within a dynamically varying validity window with the use of a robust data-filtering procedure. The size of the validity window varies based on the number of preceding sampling intervals without a Bluetooth record. Applications of the proposed algorithm to the dataset from Genshan East Road and Moganshan Road in Hangzhou demonstrate its ability to track typical variations in bicycle travel time efficiently, while suppressing high frequency noise signals.

  3. Assessing the Bicycle Network in St. Louis: A PlaceBased User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Boettge


    Full Text Available To transition towards sustainability and increase low-impact transportation, city planners are integrating bicycle infrastructure in urban landscapes. Yet, this infrastructure only promotes cycling according to how well it is sited within a specific city. How to best site bicycle facilities is essential for sustainability planning. We review approaches to assessing and siting new bicycle facilities. Following sustainability science, we argue that active cyclists should be consulted to incorporate users’ site-specific knowledge into bicycle infrastructure assessments. We then pilot an approach that surveys cyclists concerning level of stress along routes ridden in St. Louis, MO, USA. Among the active cyclists surveyed (n = 89, we found stress correlates with speed limit, roadway classification, and number of lanes. Although cyclists surveyed in St. Louis prefer roads with bike lanes over roads with sharrows or no infrastructure, the presence of bicycle infrastructure had no correlation with reported levels of stress. The piloted survey and spatial analytic tool are transferable to other localities. For planners, the maps generated by this participant data approach identify high-stress routes as targets of new infrastructure or information to direct cyclists to safer routes. For bicyclists, the maps generated identify low-stress routes for recreation and commuting.

  4. Accident rates amongst regular bicycle riders in Tasmania, Australia. (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew J; Si, Lei; Gordon, Jared M; Saul, Tim; Curry, Beverley A; Otahal, Petr; Hitchens, Peta L


    To characterise the demographics, cycling habits and accident rates of adult cyclists in Tasmania. Volunteers ≥18 years of age who had cycled at least once/week over the previous month provided information on demographics; cycling experience; bicycles owned; hours/km/trips cycled per week; cycling purpose; protective equipment used; and major (required third-party medical treatment or resulted ≥1 day off work) or minor (interfered with individuals' regular daily activities and/or caused financial costs) accidents while cycling. Over 8-months, 136 cyclists (70.6% male) completed the telephone survey. Mean (standard deviation) age was 45.4 (12.1) years with 17.1 (11.4) years of cycling experience. In the week prior to interview, cyclists averaged 6.6 trips/week (totalling 105.7km or 5.0h). The most common reason for cycling was commuting/transport (34% of trips), followed by training/health/fitness (28%). The incidence of major and minor cycling accidents was 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.0) and 3.7 (2.3-5.0) per 100,000km, respectively. Male sex was associated with a significantly lower minor accident risk (incidence rate ratio=0.34, p=0.01). Mountain biking was associated with a significantly higher risk of minor accident compared with road or racing, touring, and city or commuting biking (phealth and wellbeing; cyclists also contributed substantially to the local economy. Accident rates are higher in this sample than previously reported in Tasmania and internationally. Mountain biking was associated with higher risks of both major and minor accidents compared to road/racing bike riding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding bicycling in cities using system dynamics modelling. (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Woodcock, James


    Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) of cycling in three contrasting contexts: Auckland, London and Nijmegen. We combined qualitative interviews and workshops to develop the CLDs. We used the three CLDs to compare and contrast influences on cycling at different points on a "cycling trajectory" and drew out policy insights. The three CLDs consisted of feedback loops dynamically influencing cycling, with significant overlap between the three diagrams. Common reinforcing patterns emerged: growing numbers of people cycling lifts political will to improve the environment; cycling safety in numbers drives further growth; and more cycling can lead to normalisation across the population. By contrast, limits to growth varied as cycling increases. In Auckland and London, real and perceived danger was considered the main limit, with added barriers to normalisation in London. Cycling congestion and "market saturation" were important in the Netherlands. A generalisable, dynamic causal theory for urban cycling enables a more ordered set of policy recommendations for different cities on a cycling trajectory. Participation meant the collective knowledge of cycling stakeholders was represented and triangulated with research evidence. Extending this research to further cities, especially in low

  6. Investigation of the optimal detector arrangement for the helmet-chin PET – A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdella M., E-mail:; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga, E-mail:


    High sensitivity and high spatial resolution dedicated brain PET scanners are in high demand for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. To meet the demand, we have proposed the helmet-chin PET geometry which has a helmet detector and a chin detector. Our first prototype scanner used 54 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The helmet detector of the scanner had three detector rings with different radii arranged on a surface of a hemisphere (with a radius of 126.5 mm) and a top cover detector. Therefore, in this study, for our next development, we propose a spherical arrangement, in which the central axis of each detector points toward the center of the hemisphere, and we optimize the size of the detector crystal block to be arranged on the helmet detector. We simulate the spherical arrangement with the optimized crystal block size and compare its imaging performance with the multi-ring arrangement, which has a similar detector arrangement to that of our first prototype. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to model the scanners having the 4-layer DOI detectors which consist of LYSO crystals. A dead space of 2 mm is assumed on each side of the crystal blocks such as for wrapping. The size of the crystal block is varied from 4×4 mm{sup 2} to 54×54 mm{sup 2} while fixing the thickness of the crystal block to 20 mm. We find that the crystal block sized at 42×42 mm{sup 2} has the highest sensitivity for a hemispherical phantom. The comparison of the two arrangements with the optimized crystal blocks show that, for the same number of crystal blocks, the spherical arrangement has 17% higher sensitivity for the hemispherical phantom than the multi-ring arrangement. We conclude that the helmet-chin PET with the spherical arrangement constructed from the crystal block sized at 42×42×20 mm{sup 3} has better imaging performance especially at the upper part of the brain compared to the multi-ring arrangement while keeping similar

  7. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square. (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R


    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Exploring the Chemistry of Bicyclic Isoxazolidines for the Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycomimetic Building Blocks. (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Lutz, Martin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom


    Starting from a chiral furanone, the nitrone-olefin [3 + 2] cycloaddition can be used to obtain bicyclic isoxazolidines for which we report a set of reactions to selectively modify each functional position. These synthetically versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines allowed us to obtain complex glycomimetic building blocks, like iminosugars, via multicomponent chemistry. For example, a library of 20 pipecolic acid derivatives, a recurring motif in various prescription drugs, could be obtained via a one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Ugi three-component reaction of a bicyclic isoxazolidine-derived azido-hemiacetal. Notably, specific pipecolic acids in this library were obtained via hydrolysis of an unique tricyclic imidate side product of the Ugi reaction. The azido-hemiacetal was also converted into an aza-C-glycoside iminosugar via an unprecendented one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Mannich reaction.

  9. Influence of the cognitive workload on bicycle safety at four-legged intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels


    is the influence of workload capacity on bicyclists spatial behaviour in a natural environment of four-legged intersections. Method: Due to the traffic safety of test participants, the study is divided in two phases. In the first phase, the actual physical environment of the four-legged intersection and bicyclists......-legged intersection. The eye tracking glasses will be used to make video and audio recording of visible field of where or how long bicyclists are allocating their visual attention while riding a bicycle and facing obstacles when crossing the four-legged intersection. On the second phase, a bicycle riding simulator...... riding task. This will allow to understand the allocation of bicyclists attention between primary and secondary tasks, to reveal the limit of the information processing capacity during biking. Results expected: Two experimental results will be incorporated to gain in-depth knowledge on bicycle accidents...

  10. Investigation of the role of bicyclic peroxy radicals in the oxidation mechanism of toluene. (United States)

    Birdsall, Adam W; Andreoni, John F; Elrod, Matthew J


    The products of the primary OH-initiated oxidation of toluene were investigated using the turbulent flow chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique under different oxygen, NO, and initial OH radical concentrations as well as a range of total pressures. The bicyclic peroxy radical intermediate, a key proposed intermediate species in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) for the atmospheric oxidation of toluene, was detected for the first time. The toluene oxidation mechanism was shown to have a strong oxygen concentration dependence, presumably due to the central role of the bicyclic peroxy radical in determining the stable product distribution at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. The results also suggest a potential role for bicyclic peroxy radical + HO(2) reactions at high HO(2)/NO ratios. These reactions are postulated to be a source of the inconsistencies between environmental chamber results and predictions from the MCM.

  11. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius


    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  12. A Remote Power Management Strategy for the Solar Energy Powered Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsing Chao


    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar energy powered bicycle by a wireless sensor network (WSN far-end network monitoring solar energy to transfer the electrical energy storage and the effectiveness analysis is proposed. In order to achieve this goal, an embarked ZigBee by a solar-powered bicycle the far-end wireless network supervisory system is setup. Experimental results prove that our prototype, the solar energy powered bicycle, can manage the solar energy for charging two Lead-Acid batteries pack. As a result, the user by the wireless network in parking period knows the data on the amount of immediate solar radiation, the degree of illumination, the ambient temperature, and electrical energy storage capacity information by the internet interface.

  13. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.


    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  14. Traumatic Globe Subluxation and Intracranial Injury Caused by Bicycle Brake Handle. (United States)

    Poroy, Ceren; Cibik, Cansu; Yazici, Bulent


    Penetration of a bicycle brake handle into the orbit is a rare and serious type of trauma. Globe subluxation due to such trauma has not been previously reported. A 10-year-old girl presented after falling from a bicycle, which resulted in the handbrake penetrating her right upper eyelid. On examination, the globe was subluxated anteriorly, there was no light perception, and the pupilla was fixed and dilated. Radiologic studies revealed orbitonasal fractures, hemorrhage, emphysema in the orbit and cranium, and rupture of the extraocular muscles. The globe was replaced into the orbit with the help of lateral cantholysis and orbital septotomy. During 22 months of follow-up, the globe remained intact, but total loss of vision, blepharoptosis, and extraocular motility restriction persisted. This case and previous reports show that bicycle brake handles can cause severe, penetrating orbital and cerebral traumas that can result in vision loss or fatality. Brake handles should be designed to protect bicyclists from such injuries.

  15. [Abortion using a bicycle pump on the mistress and unusual suicide of a blind man]. (United States)

    Holzer, F J


    In Tyrol a case of fatal air embolism after an abortion attempt with a bicycle pump, performed by a blind man who later committed suicide, is described. The bicycle tube was inserted into the vagina and air and a soapy solution were pumped in. Autopsies revealed internal bleeding, gas embolisms in the veins of the ovaries and heart, a bloody foamy liquid in the lungs, and an intact 14 cm male fetus. 3 similar cases of fatal air embolisms after abortion attempts with bicycle pumps are described. In 1 case a soapy solution had been injected. Abortion attempts with a pipe and a rubber catheter, reported here, also resulted in rapidly fatal air embolisms. In 1 case death occurred a few seconds after a partner blew air with his mouth into his pregnant mistress' vagina. It is concluded that under some conditions filling the vagina with air (tightly) can cause fatal air embolisms.

  16. Automatic Stabilization of a Riderless Bicycle using the Active Disturbance Rejection Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baquero-Suárez


    Full Text Available This work proposes an ADRC (Active Disturbance Rejection Control strategy by disturbance extended observers to stabilize a moving riderless bicycle with a variant forward speed. Although the bicycle has an unstable and non-linear dynamics when in its upright position, which can be modeled as a LPV (Linear-Parameter-Varying system that depends on the forward speed, a simplified time-invariant and lumped-parameter model, with an nominal constant forward speed is used in the controller design. ADRC scheme groups discrepancies between the simplified model and the plant, with external disturbances into an equivalent additive unified disturbance signal at input, which is estimated via the observer and rejected through a linear control law. The effectiveness of this strategy is validated by a co-simulation between ADAMS and MATLAB, which exhibits a high performance and robustness in a virtual dynamic model of the bicycle, submitted to severe external disturbances and parameter variations.

  17. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.


    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  18. The Politics of Bicycle Innovation: Comparing the American and Dutch Human-Powered Vehicle Movements, 1970s—present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, M.; Oldenziel, R; Trischler, H


    This paper deals with the history of the international Human-Powered Vehicle (HPV) movement, originally launched in the 1970s by engineers and scientists who believed that bicycle innovation could give a major impetus to a coveted western bicycle renaissance. Based on a reading of magazines and

  19. An experiment on rider stability while mounting : comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Platteel, S. & Lovegrove, G.R.


    Pedelecs, popular among elderly cyclists, are associated with a higher injury risk than conventional bicycles. About 17% of these injuries are due to falls while (dis)mounting. Using instrumented bicycles, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to the stability of self-chosen mounting

  20. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In

  1. Development of a solar-powered electric bicycle in bike sharing transportation system (United States)

    Adhisuwignjo, S.; Siradjuddin, I.; Rifa'i, M.; Putri, R. I.


    The increasing mobility has directly led to deteriorating traffic conditions, extra fuel consumption, increasing automobile exhaust emissions, air pollution and lowering quality of life. Apart from being clean, cheap and equitable mode of transport for short-distance journeys, cycling can potentially offer solutions to the problem of urban mobility. Many cities have tried promoting cycling particularly through the implementation of bike-sharing. Apparently the fourth generation bikesharing system has been promoted utilizing electric bicycles which considered as a clean technology implementation. Utilization of solar power is probably the development keys in the fourth generation bikesharing system and will become the standard in bikesharing system in the future. Electric bikes use batteries as a source of energy, thus they require a battery charger system which powered from the solar cells energy. This research aims to design and implement electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. It is necessary to develop an electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. The study was conducted by means of experimental method which includes the design, manufacture and testing controller systems. The designed fuzzy algorithm have been planted in EEPROM microcontroller ATmega8535. The charging current was set at 1.2 Amperes and the full charged battery voltage was observed to be 40 Volts. The results showed a fuzzy logic controller was able to maintain the charging current of 1.2 Ampere with an error rate of less than 5% around the set point. The process of charging electric bike lead acid batteries from empty to fully charged was 5 hours. In conclusion, the development of solar-powered electric bicycle controlled using fuzzy logic controller can keep the battery charging current in solar-powered electric bicycle to remain stable. This shows that the fuzzy algorithm can be used as

  2. The Effects of the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT) and the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) with and without PVS-14 Night Vision Goggles (NVG) on Neck Biomechanics During Dismounted Soldier Movements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaFiandra, Michael; Harman, Everett; Cornelius, Nancy; Frykman, Peter; Gutekunst, David; Nelson, Gabe


    Kevlar helmets provide the soldier with basic ballistic and impact protection. However, the helmet has recently become a mounting platform for devices such as night-vision goggles, drop down displays, weapon-aiming systems, etc...

  3. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying eZhang


    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a signature injury in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH, a finite element (FE study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP in the head ranged from 0.68-1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44% was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%. The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves

  4. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material




    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  5. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S


    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  6. Generation of Polar Semi-Saturated Bicyclic Pyrazoles for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Campaigns. (United States)

    Luise, Nicola; Wyatt, Paul


    Synthesising polar semi-saturated bicyclic heterocycles can lead to better starting points for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) programs. This communication highlights the application of diverse chemistry to construct bicyclic systems from a common intermediate, where pyrazole, a privileged heteroaromatic able to bind effectively to biological targets, is fused to diverse saturated counterparts. The generated fragments can be further developed either after confirmation of their binding pose or early in the process, as their synthetic intermediates. Essential quality control (QC) for selection of small molecules to add to a fragment library is discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian


    -economic variables of a representative sample of the population. The investigated sample includes 11,072 observations. The model considers five alternatives (i.e., car driver, car passenger, public transport, walk and obviously bike), for which level of service variables are calculated through assignment procedures...... relevance of the cost for short trips. Expectedly, the selection of bicycle as mode for short trips is positively related to owning a bicycle and negatively linked to owning one or more cars. Urban density has also positive correlation with the selection of sustainable transport modes....

  8. Device and method to determine perineal artery occlusion during road bicycling. (United States)

    Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hotaling, James M; Ohlander, Samuel J; Baftiri, Amit P; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S


    Greater than 60 million American men who ride bicycles are at risk of developing erectile dysfunction. One possible reason is occlusion of the perineal arteries. Researchers relied on indirect methods and stationary models to study this problem. We developed a novel system to quantify occlusion among bicycle riders during a road bike ride. Our verification and validation activities show that this system can be safely used on human subjects to measure perineal artery occlusion. The method described in this paper provides a valuable tool to the researchers to study or to develop new solutions that alleviate this problem. The outcomes of these efforts will help millions of cyclists worldwide.

  9. Investigation on the applicability of dust protection helmets in the mining industry. Untersuchungen ueber die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Staubschutzhelmen im Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.D.; Werner, W.; Fuerst, E.


    In case of static ambient air, leakages for volumes of 25 x 1,5 l/min and air supplies >= 120 l/min or 25 x 2,0 l/min and >= 160 l/min do not occur. The increasing flow rate of moving ambient air leads to an increase of leakages. They show their largest extensions in case of lateral flow. In addition, they expand together with increasing physiological load. Therefore, the inherent air supply should not be below 160 l/min. The comparison of the dust protection helmet 'Airstream AH 1' with two respirators revealed the lowest additional physiological load for the dust protection helmet. Applicability tests in situ resulted in the following principal objections: contamination and scratches on the visor leading to visibility restriction of the wearer, bad fit, weight distribution and helmet dimensions, pressure sores and chafes of sealing parts and edges, lamp installation. Air supply and movement were felt as too high in case of low ambient temperatures, and in case of high temperatures and physiological strain it was considered as too low. There were only few objections against fan noise, weight and impediment by cable and battery. Based on the results, a specification including monitoring and maintenance of the helmet was made and additional tests for DIN design 58 645, item 7, were induced. Furthermore, a proposal regarding helmet optimisation was made.

  10. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads. (United States)

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G


    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced.

  11. The Current Practices in Injury Prevention and Safety Helmet Use in an Air Force Medical Center (United States)


    skateboarding . Findings from the DoD survey (1995) suggest that additional effort is necessary to meet Healthy People 2000 objectives in the area of...rollerblading or skateboarding . Primary care provider A family or individual goes to a primary care provider initially for medical care and the management...related head injury was considered a head injury that occurred while the subject was riding either a bicycle, motorcycle, rollerblading or skateboarding

  12. Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children. (United States)

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Clendaniel, Lindsay Dillinger; Law, Emily F; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D


    To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Forty-one children, aged 6-14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited.

  13. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children (United States)

    Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.


    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Results Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

  14. Does helmet CPAP reduce cerebral blood flow and volume by comparison with Infant Flow driver CPAP in preterm neonates? (United States)

    Zaramella, Patrizia; Freato, Federica; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Saraceni, Elisabetta; Vianello, Andrea; Chiandetti, Lino


    We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral NICU. Assessment of CBF and DeltaCBV in 17 very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress (median age 5 days) treated with two CPAP devices at a continuous distending pressure of 4 mbar. Neonates were studied for two consecutive 60-min periods with helmet CPAP and with IFD CPAP. Basal chromophore traces enabled DeltaCBV changes to be calculated. CBF was calculated in milliliters per 100 grams per minute from the saturation rise integral and rate of rise O(2)Hb-HHb. Median (range) CBF with helmet CPAP was 27.37 (9.47-48.20) vs. IFD CBF 34.74 (13.59-60.10)(p=0.049) and DeltaCBV 0.15 (0.09-0.28) with IFD and 0.13 (0.07-0.27) with helmet CPAP (NS). Using helmet and IFD CPAP, the neonates showed no difference in mean physiological parameters (transcutaneous carbon dioxide and oxygen tension, pulse oximetry saturation, heart rate, breathing rate, mean arterial blood pressure, desaturation rate, axillary temperature). Assessing CBF and DeltaCBV measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with two CPAP devices revealed no differences in relative blood volume, but CBF was lower with helmet CPAP. Greater active vasoconstriction and/or passive capillary and/or venous vessel compression seem the most likely reason, due to a positive pressure around the head, neck, and shoulders by comparison with the airway pressure.

  15. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  16. Helmet-mounted displays: why haven't they taken off? (United States)

    Havig, P.; Goff, C.; McIntire, J.; Franck, D.


    Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) technologies have been developing for over 3 decades and have been studied for multiple applications ranging from military aircraft, to virtual reality, augmented reality, entertainment and a host of other ideas. It would not be unreasonable to assume that after this much time they would be employed in our daily lives as ubiquitously as the common desktop monitor. However, this is simply not the case. How can this be when they can be used in so many ways for so many tasks? Throughout this work we will look at some of the reasons why as well of some of the ways they can be used.

  17. Successful Removal of Football Helmet Face-Mask Clips After 1 Season of Use (United States)

    Scibek, Jason S.; Gatti, Joseph M.; McKenzie, Jennifer I.


    Context Whereas many researchers have assessed the ability to remove loop straps in traditional face-mask attachment systems after at least 1 season of use, research in which the effectiveness of the Riddell Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System clip after 1 season has been assessed is limited. Objective To examine the success rate of removing the QR clips after 1 season of use at the Football Championship Subdivision level. We hypothesized that 1 season of use would negatively affect the removal rate of the QR clip but repeated clip-removal trials would improve the removal rate. Design Retrospective, quasi-experimental design. Setting Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-three football helmets from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university located in western Pennsylvania used during the 2008 season were tested. Intervention(s) Three certified athletic trainers (2 men, 1 woman; age = 31.3 ± 3.06 years, time certified = 9.42 ± 2.65 years) attempted to remove the QR clips from each helmet with the tool provided by the manufacturer. Helmets then were reassembled to allow each athletic trainer to attempt clip removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were total left clips removed (TCR-L), total right clips removed (TCR-R), and total clips removed (TCR). Success rate of clip removal (SRCR) also was assessed. Results Percentages for TCR-L, TCR-R, and TCR were 100% (189 of 189), 96.30% (182 of 189), and 98.15% (371 of 378), respectively. A paired-samples t test revealed a difference between TCR-R and TCR-L (t188 = −2.689, P = .008, μd = 0.037, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.064, −0.010). The percentage for SRCR was 96.30% (n = 182), whereas SRCR percentages for trials 1, 2, and 3 were 95.24% (n = 60), 98.41% (n = 62), and 95.24% (n = 60), respectively, and did not represent a difference (F2,186 = 0.588, P = .56, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99). Conclusions Our results indicated favorable and

  18. What Factors Explain Bicycling and Walking for Commuting by ELSA-Brasil Participants? (United States)

    de Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Dos Santos, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Rogerio Tosta; da Silva, Ianne Tayrine Martins; Griep, Rosane Harter; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Patrão, Ana Luísa; Aquino, Estela M L


    To analyze the factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking in adult participants from ELSA-Brasil (Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). Cross-sectional. Six teaching/research institutions throughout Brazil. A total of 15 105 civil servants. Commuting by bicycling and walking was analyzed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A hierarchical model containing possible factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking was constructed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Considering the 2 forms of commuting, 66% of the participants were being considered inactive or insufficiently active. In women, being "heavier," feeling unsafe practicing physical activity, and being a former smoker were factors negatively associated with commuting by bicycling and walking. In men, active commuting was less common among those who were overweight or had abdominal obesity, those with a negative perception of safety, and those reporting that there was nowhere suitable in the neighborhood to practice physical activity. Obesity and negative perceptions in the neighborhood are associated with inactive or insufficiently active commuting. The relevance of this finding for public health is reinforce developing policies aimed at promoting health in Brazil and in other countries with similar characteristics.

  19. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo


    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  20. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks.We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98, a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions.The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  1. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft. (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Nott, Kenneth; Bateson, Melissa


    Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks. We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98), a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions. The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  2. Validity of a device designed to measure braking power in bicycle disc brakes. (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Macdermid, Paul William; Perry, Blake G; Stannard, Stephen R


    Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event. Strong linear relationships between the total energy removed from the bicycle-rider system through braking and the change in kinetic energy were observed on the tar-sealed road (r 2  = 0.989; p brake torque and angular velocity sensors are valid for calculating brake power on the disc brakes of a bicycle in field conditions. Such a device may be useful for investigating cyclists' ability to traverse through various terrains.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deleenheer


    Full Text Available By means of a development of an e-bike sharing system the Electromobility Project wants to provide an alternative way of comfortable transportation for students and staff of the CTU, primarily to commute between different campuses. The research for this project contains at least three different fields of study, namely electric vehicle and docking station development, intelligent transport systems and management and economics of transportation and telecommunication. After briefly stating general requirements for the sharing system, this paper focuses on the development of the electric bicycle. First an ideal bike design is defined. Then necessary motor power and battery capacity are calculated by estimating characteristics of cycling in Prague. A prototype was developed by converting a normal bicycle to an electric bicycle. Being equipped with devices for e-bike monitoring, controlling and data recording for a post trip analysis, this prototype is also intended to have an educational value for future students in the project. Results consist of an electrical bicycle configuration that matches the requirements and a sketch of an ideal e-bike for this project.

  4. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University (United States)

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  5. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou


    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  6. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred


    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  7. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.


    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  8. 76 FR 52046 - Final Policy Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements Under Federal... (United States)


    ... important for pedestrian comfort and safety. The most successful and useful public transportation systems... could take light rail, a bus, or ride a bike.'' \\4\\ As the Secretary further described, ``livable...; (G) Eligible Activities; (H) Bicycle Sharing Programs; (I) Planning Issues; (J) Safety Concerns; (K...

  9. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling (United States)


    ... hiking and equestrian trail that originates at the Loma Alta Trailhead and travels east through the..., including hiking, equestrian, and bicycle use. Shortly after acquiring the land, the NPS closed the route to... leadership after an adequate analysis of the benefits, impacts, and economic cost of alternative courses of...

  10. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route (United States)


    ..., preserve, and interpret the monument's resources, and to provide for education and benefit to the public... worldwide as an icon of the American Southwest. The Hope Camp Trail is a 2.8 mile long hiking and equestrian... the route to be used for recreational purposes, including hiking, equestrian and bicycle use. Shortly...

  11. Optimal Test Characteristics for Maximal Anaerobic Work on the Bicycle Ergometer (United States)

    Katch, Victor; And Others


    Data from two separate experiments conducted to ascertain the optimum protocol for a maximum anaerobic work output test on the bicycle ergometer indicated that the test duration needs to be approximately forty seconds and the optimal frictional resistance five to six kilograms. (MB)

  12. The Synthesis of cis- and trans-Fused Bicyclic Sugar Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risseeuw, Martijn D.P.; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tuin, Adriaan W.; Leeuwenburgh, Michiel A.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Overhand, Mark


    Four isomeric bicyclic sugar amino acids (SAAs) were prepared from an α-acetylenic-C-glucoside by employing a Petasis olefination and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key steps. The applicability of the resulting SAAs in solid-phase peptide synthesis was demonstrated by the synthesis of a

  13. Effect of bicycle saddle designs on the pressure to the perineum of the bicyclist. (United States)

    Lowe, Brian D; Schrader, Steven M; Breitenstein, Michael J


    Increasing awareness of an association between bicycling and male sexual dysfunction has led to the appearance of a variety of bicycle saddles that share the design objective of reducing pressure in the groin of the cyclist by removal of the narrow protruding nose of the saddle. This study compared three of these saddle designs to a traditional sport/road racing saddle with a narrow protruding nose in terms of pressure in the region of the perineum (groin) of the cyclist. Saddle, pedal, and handlebar contact pressure were measured from 33 bicycle police patrol officers pedaling a stationary bicycle at a controlled cadence and workload. Pressure was characterized over the saddle as a whole and over a region of the saddle assumed to represent pressure on the cyclist's perineum located anteriorly to the ischial tuberosities. The traditional sport/racing saddle was associated with more than two times the pressure in the perineal region than the saddles without a protruding nose (P perineum of the bicyclist.

  14. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Alveano-Aguerrebere


    Full Text Available México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001. For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development.

  15. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico (United States)

    Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés; Farvid, Maryam; Lusk, Anne


    México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development. PMID:29271873

  16. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline


    , intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...

  17. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Van Paepegem, Wim; Loccufier, Mia


    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  18. The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan and road safety : measures to be taken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Blokpoel, A.


    The Bicycle Master Plan was launched in 1990 and concluded in 1996. To mark its conclusion, a study was carried out to assess developments in road safety for cyclists. An overview of future measures was also compiled. Since 1950, there have been three broad periods: (1) 1950-1975: an increase in the

  19. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.


    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental

  20. Aminocyclopentanols as sugar mimics. Synthesis from unsaturated bicyclic lactones by Overman rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge


    Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminid...

  1. The Bicycle Illusion: Sidewalk Science Informs the Integration of Motion and Shape Perception (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Dodd, Michael D.; Enns, James T.


    The authors describe a new visual illusion first discovered in a natural setting. A cyclist riding beside a pair of sagging chains that connect fence posts appears to move up and down with the chains. In this illusion, a static shape (the chains) affects the perception of a moving shape (the bicycle), and this influence involves assimilation…

  2. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico. (United States)

    Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés; Javier Ayvar-Campos, Francisco; Farvid, Maryam; Lusk, Anne


    México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development.

  3. Biomechanical Evaluation of an Electric Power-Assisted Bicycle by a Musculoskeletal Model (United States)

    Takehara, Shoichiro; Murakami, Musashi; Hase, Kazunori

    In this study, we construct an evaluation system for the muscular activity of the lower limbs when a human pedals an electric power-assisted bicycle. The evaluation system is composed of an electric power-assisted bicycle, a numerical simulator and a motion capture system. The electric power-assisted bicycle in this study has a pedal with an attached force sensor. The numerical simulator for pedaling motion is a musculoskeletal model of a human. The motion capture system measures the joint angles of the lower limb. We examine the influence of the electric power-assisted force on each muscle of the human trunk and legs. First, an experiment of pedaling motion is performed. Then, the musculoskeletal model is calculated by using the experimental data. We discuss the influence on each muscle by electric power-assist. It is found that the muscular activity is decreased by the electric power-assist bicycle, and the reduction of the muscular force required for pedaling motion was quantitatively shown for every muscle.

  4. Investigation of Influential Factors for Bicycle Crashes Using a Spatiotemporal Model (United States)

    Gill, G.; Sakrani, T.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, J.


    Despite the numerous potential advantages of indulging in bicycling, such as elevation of health and environment along with mitigation of congestion, the cyclists are a vulnerable group of commuters which is exposed to safety risks. This study aims to investigate the explanatory variables at transportation planning level which have a significant impact on the bicycle crashes. To account for the serial changes around the built environment, the linear time trend as well as time-varying coefficients are utilized for the covariates. These model modifications help account for the variations in the environment which may escape the incorporated variables due to lack of robustness in data. Also, to incorporate the interaction of roadway, demographic, and socioeconomic features within a Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ), with the bicycle crashes of that area, a spatial correlation is integrated. This spatial correlation accounts for the spatially structured random effects which capture the unobserved heterogeneity and add towards building more comprehensive model with relatively precise estimates. Two different age groups, the student population in the TAZs, the presence of arterial roads and bike lanes, were observed to be statistically significant variables related with bicycle crashes. These observations will guide the transportation planning organizations which focus on the entity of TAZ while developing policies. The results of the current study establish a quantifies relationship between the significant factors and the crash count which will enable the planners to choose the most cost-efficient, yet most productive, factors which needs to be addressed for mitigation of crashes.

  5. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves. (United States)

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz


    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study.

  6. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen


    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  7. An Association Rule Based Method to Integrate Metro-Public Bicycle Smart Card Data for Trip Chain Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Zhao


    Full Text Available Smart card data provide valuable insights and massive samples for enhancing the understanding of transfer behavior between metro and public bicycle. However, smart cards for metro and public bicycle are often issued and managed by independent companies and this results in the same commuter having different identity tags in the metro and public bicycle smart card systems. The primary objective of this study is to develop a data fusion methodology for matching metro and public bicycle smart cards for the same commuter using historical smart card data. A novel method with association rules to match the data derived from the two systems is proposed and validation was performed. The results showed that our proposed method successfully matched 573 pairs of smart cards with an accuracy of 100%. We also validated the association rules method through visualization of individual metro and public bicycle trips. Based on the matched cards, interesting findings of metro-bicycle transfer have been derived, including the spatial pattern of the public bicycle as first/last mile solution as well as the duration of a metro trip chain.

  8. Biking for Health: Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Impact of a Bicycling Intervention on Lower-Income Adults. (United States)

    Bernstein, Rebecca; Schneider, Robert; Welch, Whitney; Dressel, Anne; DeNomie, Melissa; Kusch, Jennifer; Sosa, Mirtha


    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a bicycling intervention targeting inactive, low-income, overweight adults on reducing perceived barriers to bicycling, increasing physical activity, and improving health. A nonblinded 2-site randomized controlled trial was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in summer 2015. Participants included members from 1 largely Latino community and a second primarily African American neighborhood. A certified bicycling instructor led a 12-week bicycling intervention. Outcome measures including biking-related attitudes, self-reported physical activity, fitness as measured by the 6-minute step test, and biometric data were collected at baseline, 12 weeks, and 20 weeks. Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Barriers to bicycling declined significantly among intervention group participants at 12 weeks with some declines persisting to 20 weeks. Bicycling for leisure or non work transportation increased significantly more in the intervention than control group from baseline to 12 weeks but this difference attenuated by 20 weeks. Both groups increased their fitness between baseline and 12 weeks, with a trend towards greater gains in the bicycling intervention group. No significant change in biometric measurements was seen at either 12 weeks or 20 weeks. Despite the small study size, this bicycling intervention decreased perceived barriers to bicycling and increased bicycling activity in low-income minority participants. These findings support a larger-scale study to measure fitness and health changes from bicycling interventions.

  9. Safety in numbers in Australia: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. (United States)

    Robinson, Dorothy L


    Overseas research shows that fatality and injury risks per cyclist and pedestrian are lower when there are more cyclists and pedestrians. Do Australian data follow the same exponential 'growth rule' where (Injuries)/(Amount of cycling) is proportional to ((Amount of cycling)-0.6)? Fatality and injury risks were compared using three datasets: 1) fatalities and amounts of cycling in Australian States in the 1980s; 2) fatality and injury rates over time in Western Australia as cycling levels increased; and 3) deaths, serious head injuries and other serious injuries to cyclists and pedestrians in Victoria, before and after the fall in cycling with the helmet law. In Australia, the risks of fatality and injury per cyclist are lower when cycling is more prevalent. Cycling was safest and most popular in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Queensland and Western Australia (WA). New South Wales residents cycled only 47% as much as residents of Queensland and WA, but had 53% more fatalities per kilometre, consistent with the growth rule prediction of 52% more for half as much cycling. Cycling also became safer in WA as more people cycled. Hospitalisation rates per 10,000 regular cyclists fell from 29 to 15, and reported deaths and serious injuries from 5.6 to 3.8 as numbers of regular cyclists increased. In Victoria, after the introduction of compulsory helmets, there was a 30% reduction in cycling and it was associated with a higher risk of death or serious injury per cyclist, outweighing any benefits of increased helmet wearing. As with overseas data, the exponential growth rule fits Australian data well. If cycling doubles, the risk per kilometre falls by about 34%; conversely, if cycling halves, the risk per kilometre will be about 52% higher. Policies that adversely influence the amount of cycling (for example, compulsory helmet legislation) should be reviewed.

  10. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto. (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen


    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An expert judgment model applied to estimating the safety effect of a bicycle facility. (United States)

    Leden, L; Gårder, P; Pulkkinen, U


    This paper presents a risk index model that can be used for assessing the safety effect of countermeasures. The model estimates risk in a multiplicative way, which makes it possible to analyze the impact of different factors separately. Expert judgments are incorporated through a Bayesian error model. The variance of the risk estimate is determined by Monte-Carlo simulation. The model was applied to assess the safety effect of a new design of a bicycle crossing. The intent was to gain safety by raising the crossings to reduce vehicle speeds and by making the crossings more visible by painting them in a bright color. Before the implementations, bicyclists were riding on bicycle crossings of conventional Swedish type, i.e. similar to crosswalks but delineated by white squares rather than solid lines or zebra markings. Automobile speeds were reduced as anticipated. However, it seems as if the positive effect of this was more or less canceled out by increased bicycle speeds. The safety per bicyclist was still improved by approximately 20%. This improvement was primarily caused by an increase in bicycle flow, since the data show that more bicyclists at a given location seem to benefit their safety. The increase in bicycle flow was probably caused by the new layout of the crossings since bicyclists perceived them as safer and causing less delay. Some future development work is suggested. Pros and cons with the used methodology are discussed. The most crucial parameter to be added is probably a model describing the interaction between motorists and bicyclists, for example, how risk is influenced by the lateral position of the bicyclist in relation to the motorist. It is concluded that the interaction seems to be optimal when both groups share the roadway.

  12. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States. (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn


    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  13. Football helmet drop tests on different fields using an instrumented Hybrid III head. (United States)

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael


    An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of -2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1') intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC(15) from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC(15) and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

  14. Cost Analysis of Noninvasive Helmet Ventilation Compared with Use of Noninvasive Face Mask in ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng


    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016 showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43.3% absolute reduction in intubation rates. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent cost reductions. Projected annual cost savings, assuming the current prevalence of ARDS, were $237538 in ICU costs and $291682 in hospital costs. At a national level, using yearly incidence of ARDS cases in American ICUs, this represents $449 million in savings. Helmet NIV, compared to face mask NIV, in nonintubated patients with ARDS, reduces ICU and hospital direct-variable costs along with intubation rates, LOS, and mortality. A large-scale cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to validate the findings.

  15. The European, Japanese and US protective helmet, gloves and boots for firefighters: thermoregulatory and psychological evaluations. (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Yamamoto, Yota; Oe, Riichi; Son, Su-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the European, Japanese (JPN) and US firefighters' helmet, gloves and boots for international standardisation. Three experimental conditions were evaluated (clothing mass: 9.4, 8.2 and 10.1 kg for the three conditions, respectively) at the air temperature of 32°C and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference among the three conditions in oxygen consumption, heart rate, total sweat rate, rectal temperature and mean skin temperature, whereas peripheral temperatures and subjective perceptions were lower in the JPN condition than in the other conditions (P < 0.05). These results indicate that a 0.5-kg reduction in helmet mass and a 1.1-kg reduction in boot mass during exercise resulted in a significant decrease in head and leg temperatures and subjective perceptions, while a 1.9-kg reduction in total clothing mass had insignificant influences on the metabolic burden and overall body temperature.

  16. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.


    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  17. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture. (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A


    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  18. Children should wear helmets while ice-skating: a comparison of skating-related injuries. (United States)

    McGeehan, Jennifer; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A


    This study compares injuries, especially head injuries, among ice-skaters with those among skateboarders, rollerskaters, and in-line skaters, to determine the need for helmet use during recreational ice-skating by children. A comparative study of a consecutive series of patients. The emergency department of a large, urban, academic, children's hospital. Children treated for injuries related to recreational ice-skating, skateboarding, rollerskating, and in-line skating. During a 31-month period, 419 consecutive children were evaluated in the emergency department for skating-related injuries. Children were predominantly male (53.9%), with a mean age of 10.0 years (SD: 3.0 years; median: 10.0 years; range: 1-18 years). The most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall. Overall, 76.5% of children (215 of 281 children) were reported to be wearing no protective equipment, such as a helmet or padding on the elbows or knees, at the time of injury. Ice-skaters were more likely to have adult supervision than were skateboarders (relative risk [RR]: 5.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13-12.46), rollerskaters (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35), and in-line skaters (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.72-2.51). Ice-skaters were at greater risk of injury to the head (20.0%) than were in-line skaters (4.9%) (RR: 4.09; 95% CI: 1.81-9.23); a weak difference was noted between ice-skaters and rollerskaters (9.9%) (RR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.04-4.57), with no significant difference in head injuries between ice-skaters and skateboarders (15.9%) (RR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.54-2.93). Ice-skaters demonstrated lacerations to the head in 68.8% of abnormal head examinations, compared with 37.0% for rollerskaters (RR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.08-3.20) and 50.0% for in-line skaters (RR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.35-3.16); however, there was no significant difference in lacerations to the head between ice-skaters and skateboarders (53.3%) (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.76-2.19). Injuries to ice-skaters occurred more often in an indoor skating facility (92

  19. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  20. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  1. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  2. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  3. Simulation study comparing the helmet-chin PET with a cylindrical PET of the same number of detectors (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdella M.; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yamaya, Taiga


    There is a growing interest in developing brain PET scanners with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. Sensitivity of the PET scanner can be improved by increasing the solid angle. However, conventional PET scanners are designed based on a cylindrical geometry, which may not be the most efficient design for brain imaging in terms of the balance between sensitivity and cost. We proposed a dedicated brain PET scanner based on a hemispheric shape detector and a chin detector (referred to as the helmet-chin PET), which is designed to maximize the solid angle by increasing the number of lines-of-response in the hemisphere. The parallax error, which PET scanners with a large solid angle tend to have, can be suppressed by the use of depth-of-interaction detectors. In this study, we carry out a realistic evaluation of the helmet-chin PET using Monte Carlo simulation based on the 4-layer GSO detector which consists of a 16  ×  16  ×  4 array of crystals with dimensions of 2.8  ×  2.8  ×  7.5 mm3. The purpose of this simulation is to show the gain in imaging performance of the helmet-chin PET compared with the cylindrical PET using the same number of detectors in each configuration. The sensitivity of the helmet-chin PET evaluated with a cylindrical phantom has a significant increase, especially at the top of the (field-of-view) FOV. The peak-NECR of the helmet-chin PET is 1.4 times higher compared to the cylindrical PET. The helmet-chin PET provides relatively low noise images throughout the FOV compared to the cylindrical PET which exhibits enhanced noise at the peripheral regions. The results show the helmet-chin PET can significantly improve the sensitivity and reduce the noise in the reconstructed images.

  4. North Central Texas Council of Governments peer exchange on bicycle and pedestrian count programs : a TPCB peer exchange (United States)


    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on bicycle and pedestrian count programs, held on May 29 and May 30, 2013 in Arlington, Texas. The North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) reque...

  5. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety. (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils


    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  6. Bicycles May Use Full Lane” Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety (United States)


    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to “get out of the way” to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” and “Share the Road” signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. “Share the Road” signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing “Share the Road” with “Bicycles May Use Full Lane” signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited. PMID

  7. Bicycle physics and biomechanics. Techniques - formulas - laws. 9. rev. and enl. ed.; Fahrradphysik und Biomechanik. Technik - Formeln - Gesetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gressmann, M.


    Michael Gressmann explains the physical aspects of bicycle riding by numerous concrete examples: Acceleration and velocity, friction and rolling resistance, steering-gear angle and displacement, under- and override, bicycle gear/chain gear, muscle activity in the pedaling, energy and power balance. From this follow many interesting hints for the riding technique and the selection of the technical material. Especially valuable for the practitioner: Considerations and calculations on aerial resistance, gyro forces, frame geometry, seat position, and pedaling frequency.

  8. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  9. Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam. (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Ederer, David; Vo, Van Anh Ha; Pham, An Van; Mounts, Anthony; Nolen, Leisha D; Sugerman, David


    Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.

  10. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nonuse of Seatbelts in Cars and Helmets on Motorcycles among People Living in Kurdistan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Malekafzali Ardakani, Hossein; Majdzadeh, Reza; Bidarpour, Farzam; Mohammad, Kazem; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh


    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic inequalities in nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in Kurdistan Province, west of Iran, 2009. The data used in this study was collected from the data gathered in non-communicable disease surveillance system (NCDSS) in 2009 in Kurdistan. A total of 1000 people were included in this study. The outcome variable of this study was the nonuse of seatbelts and helmets. The socio-economic status (SES) was calculated based on participants' residential area and assets using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The concentration index, concentration curve, and comparison of Odds Ratio (OR) in different SES groups were used to measure the socioeconomic inequalities using logistic regression. In order to determine the contribution of determinants of inequality, decomposition analysis was used. The prevalence of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles were 47.5%, 95%CI [44%, 55%], respectively. The Concentration index was -0.097, CI [-0.148, -0.046]. The OR of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in the richest group compared with the poorest group was 0.39, 95%CI [0.23, 0.68]. The results of the decomposition analysis showed that 34% of inequalities were due to SES, 47% were due to residential area, and 12% were due to unknown factors. There is a reverse association between SES and nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles. This issue must be considered while planning to reduce traffic accidents injuries.

  11. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube. (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki


    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  12. Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad


    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  13. Sonographic Analysis of Changes in Skull Shape After Cranial Molding Helmet Therapy in Infants With Deformational Plagiocephaly. (United States)

    Kwon, Dong Rak


    -The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in skull shape on sonography after cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. -Twenty-six infants who were treated with cranial molding helmet therapy were recruited. Caliper and sonographic measurements were performed. The lateral length of the affected and unaffected sides of the skull and cranial vault asymmetry index were measured with calipers. The occipital angle, defined as the angle between lines projected along the lambdoid sutures of the skull, was calculated by sonography. The occipital angle difference and occipital angle ratio were also measured. All caliper and sonographic measurements were performed in each infant twice before and twice after treatment. -The study group included 12 male and 14 female infants with a mean age ± SD of 6.2 ± 3.5 months. The mean treatment duration was 6.0 ± 2.5 months. The difference in lateral length before and after helmet therapy was significantly greater on the affected skull than the unaffected skull (16.7 ± 12.7 versus 9.0 ± 13.4 mm; P skull than the unaffected skull (-5.7° ± 7.3° versus 4.2° ± 7.9°; P < .01). The cranial vault asymmetry index and occipital angle ratio were significantly reduced after helmet therapy (cranial vault asymmetry index, 9.3% ± 2.3% versus 3.5% ± 3.0%; occipital angle ratio, 1.07 ± 0.05 versus 1.01 ± 0.01; P < .05). -These results suggest that occipital angle measurements using sonography, combined with cephalometry, could provide a better understanding of the therapeutic effects of cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. A Novel Electric Bicycle Battery Monitoring System Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxue Song


    Full Text Available The battery monitoring system (BMS plays a crucial role in maintaining the safe operation of the lithium battery electric bicycle and prolonging the life of the battery pack. This paper designed a set of new battery monitoring systems based on the Android system and ARM single-chip microcomputer to enable direct management of the lithium battery pack and convenient monitoring of the state of the battery pack. The BMS realizes the goal of monitoring the voltage, current, and ambient temperature of lithium batteries, estimating the state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH, protecting the battery from abuse during charging or discharging, and ensuring the consistency of the batteries by integrating the passive equalization circuit. The BMS was proven effective and feasible through several tests, including charging/discharging, estimation accuracy, and communication tests. The results indicated that the BMS could be used in the design and application of the electric bicycle.

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency of an Autonomous Bicycle with Adaptive Controller Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Rosa


    Full Text Available A method is proposed to achieve lateral stability of an autonomous bicycle with only the rotation of the front wheel. This can be achieved with a classic controller. However, if the energy consumption of the bicycle also has to be minimized, this solution is not valid. To solve this problem, an adaptive controller has been designed, which modifies its gains according to the bicycle’s forward velocity, adapting its response with minimum energy consumption and satisfying the design specifications. The study demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed control, achieving an energy saving of 73 . 8 % in trajectory tracking with respect to a conventional proportional-integral ( P I controller. These results show the importance of designing energy-efficient controllers, not only for autonomous vehicles but also for any automatic system where the energy consumption can be minimized.

  16. Does the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond Affect the Spectroscopic Properties of Bicyclic Diazole Heterocycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Misiak


    Full Text Available The formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-1(2H-one bicyclic diazoles was analyzed, and the influence of N-substitution on HB formation is discussed in this study. B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations were performed for the diazole, and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM approach as well as the natural bond orbital (NBO method was applied to analyze the strength of this interaction. It was found that the intramolecular hydrogen bond that closes an extra ring between the C=O proton acceptor group and the CH proton donor, that is, C=O⋯H–C, influences the spectroscopic properties of pyrrolopyrazine bicyclic diazoles, particularly the carbonyl frequencies. The influence of N-substitution on the aromaticity of heterocyclic rings is also discussed in this report.

  17. On the Effects of Tube Butting on the Structural Performance of Steel Bicycle Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Covill


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown how finite element analysis (FEA can be used to support designers and frame builders in the selection of butted tubes to tune the stiffness and strength behaviour of steel bicycles. The aim of this paper was therefore to analyse the effects of tube butting on the stiffness, stress distribution and energy absorption behaviour of bicycle frames using numerical simulations. Butted tubes were shown to provide a highly effective means to decrease mass whilst producing a disproportionately small change in stress compared with a straight gauge tubeset with a maximum material condition although there was no added benefit in terms of stiffness or strain energy. Conversely, decreasing the wall thickness produced an increase in stress at the tube ends that was disproportionate to the change in mass. This work can now be extended to analyse a fuller set of butted profiles for a range of tube types.

  18. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from pyrolysis of Bangladeshi bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Rofiqul; Tushar, M.S.H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)


    Tire wastes in the form of used bicycle/rickshaw tires available in Bangladesh were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields and liquid product composition. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtain liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly. (author)

  19. Structure-activity relationship of antiparasitic and cytotoxic indoloquinoline alkaloids, and their tricyclic and bicyclic analogues. (United States)

    Van Baelen, Gitte; Hostyn, Steven; Dhooghe, Liene; Tapolcsányi, Pál; Mátyus, Péter; Lemière, Guy; Dommisse, Roger; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Hajós, György; Riedl, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Ildikó; Maes, Bert U W; Pieters, Luc


    Based on the indoloquinoline alkaloids cryptolepine (1), neocryptolepine (2), isocryptolepine (3) and isoneocryptolepine (4), used as lead compounds for new antimalarial agents, a series of tricyclic and bicyclic analogues, including carbolines, azaindoles, pyrroloquinolines and pyrroloisoquinolines was synthesized and biologically evaluated. None of the bicyclic compounds was significantly active against the chloroquine-resistant strain Plasmodium falciparum K1, in contrast to the tricyclic derivatives. The tricyclic compound 2-methyl-2H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (9), or 2-methyl-beta-carboline, showed the best in vitro activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.45 microM against P. falciparum K1, without apparent cytotoxicity against L6 cells (SI>1000). However, this compound was not active in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. Structure-activity relationships are discussed and compared with related naturally occurring compounds.

  20. A comparative study on the crystal structure of bicycle analogues to the natural phytotoxin helminthosporins (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo; Nogueira, Leonardo Brandão; Maltha, Celia Regina Alvares; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos; Martins, Felipe Terra


    Herein we described structural insights of a series of analogues to helminthosporin phytotoxins. The key reaction used to prepare the compounds corresponded to the [3 + 4] cycloaddition between the oxyallyl cation generated from 2,4-dibromopentan-3-one and different furans. Their structures were confirmed upon IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses. While bicycles 7, 8 and 9 crystallize in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/c, compound 10 was solved in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group P212121. The solid materials obtained were shown to be racemic crystals (7, 8, 9) or racemic conglomerate (10). In all compounds, there is formation of a bicycle featured by fused tetrahydropyranone and 2,5-dihydrofuran rings. They adopt chair and envelope conformations, respectively. Crystal packing of all compounds is stabilized through C-H•••O contacts. Conformational aspects as well as similarities and differences among the crystal structures of the synthesized analogues are discussed.

  1. Understanding the preconditions for revitalizing bicycle transport in Beijing, with a reference study from Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli

    of transport and planning research by strengthening the knowledge base on the conditions that affect the use of bicycles in the megacities of developing world as well as by exploring the factors governing the populations’ attitudes towards their future mobility. Furthermore, the study contributes...... for accelerating the identification of effective solutions in specific cities and in specific planning cultures. For Beijing residents, the bicycle is currently a mode of transport for those with limited education and limited financial resources. The young Beijingers are least likely to cycle. This age difference...... is likely to be partly due to a cohort difference and, thus, indicates a growing problem for cycling in Beijing. On the other hand, clear associations with density and other urban form variables indicate that the proximity environment and urban development policies can also affect cycling. The effect...

  2. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle. (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas


    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

  3. Methodological proposal for the implementation of shared bicycle applied to the Brazilian context


    BARBOSA, PHILIPPE; Modesto de Sousa, Adriana; Azevedo Oliveira, Rodrigo; ESPANA, JUAN


    [EN] The main objective of this study is to analyze the bicycle rental system in the Federal District "Bike Brasilia". It aims to identify guidelines that supported the application process and consensus, disagreements and guidelines established by the Institute for Policies and Development in Transportation - ITDP and relate those listed by Zhang regarding rented bikes systems. This is an exploratory study based on the strategy of document analysis and its secondary sources: institutional doc...

  4. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities. (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo


    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents. (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Schipperijn, Jasper; Conway, Terry L; Frank, Lawrence D; Chapman, Jim E; Glanz, Karen; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F


    To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking. Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology (United States)

    Collaert, Robin


    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  7. Methodological proposal for the implementation of shared bicycle applied to the Brazilian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, J.P.; Barbosa, P.


    The main objective of this study is to analyze the bicycle rental system in the Federal District {sup B}ike Brasilia{sup .} It aims to identify guidelines that supported the application process and consensus, disagreements and guidelines established by the Institute for Policies and Development in Transportation - ITDP and relate those listed by Zhang regarding rented bikes systems. This is an exploratory study based on the strategy of document analysis and its secondary sources: institutional documents, basic design, procurement and other official documents made exclusively for this study. To support the discussion, a systematic literature review of the rules describing specially: sustainability, transport, urban mobility, bicycle rental and environment. The results reveal that while some of the parameters and indicators of efficiency are met on time, the bicycle sharing system of the city of Brasilia, has weaknesses that can lead to inefficiency and impracticality of maintaining and expanding such services. On the other hand, Bike Brasilia partially fulfills the principles enumerated by Zhang and lacks improvement in the steps for the successful operation of the system. (Author)

  8. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  9. Peptides derivatized with bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags. Sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Setner, Bartosz; Rudowska, Magdalena; Klem, Ewelina; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew


    Improving the sensitivity of detection and fragmentation of peptides to provide reliable sequencing of peptides is an important goal of mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides derivatized by bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags: 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), are characterized by an increased detection sensitivity in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and longer retention times on the reverse-phase (RP) chromatography columns. The improvement of the detection limit was observed even for peptides dissolved in 10 mM NaCl. Collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of peptides showed dominant a- and b-type ions, allowing facile sequencing of peptides. The bicyclic ionization tags are stable in collision-induced dissociation experiments, and the resulted fragmentation pattern is not significantly influenced by either acidic or basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. Obtained results indicate the general usefulness of the bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags for ESI-MS/MS sequencing of peptides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Study for Adjustable Riding Position of the Innovation Bicycle Design (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Che; Huang, Tai-Shen


    This research is about the analysis and design of the user in a wheelchair use posture can be changed. So user can through different sitting posture changes to provide different needs, so the folding design patents for the existing data collection and classification, through the analysis of advantages and disadvantages, further to find the innovative design approach. Finally through the multi linkage mechanism system, change the seat, handlebars and rear position, provide different posture context. In order to reduce the cost, this study is designed to integrate the innovation input mechanism, multi linkage system, through the construction of 10 joints and degrees of freedom of the bicycle frame. Then use 3D software to design of bicycle the size of the frame of innovation, through the three-dimensional CAD model to simulate the mechanism between movement and interference, and to evaluate the 3D The virtual prototype can meet the requirement. It will also enable CAE to analyze and determine the strength and the safety of the bicycle frame structure of ANSYS11.0 stress. Finally, we have integrated design through CAID to make a product appearance, the focus of research is mainly a study of CAD, CAE, CAID integration the production and the completion of a prototype.

  11. Usage Patterns of Electric Bicycles: An Analysis of the WeBike Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gorenflo


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of data collected through the Waterloo WeBike project: a field trial in which over 30 sensor-equipped electric bicycles (e-bikes were given to members of the University of Waterloo for personal use. Our dataset includes e-bike trips and battery charging sessions spanning nearly three years, from summer 2014 until spring 2017. We also conducted three surveys both before and during the trial. Our main findings were that the primary purpose of the e-bikes in our trial was for commuting, with most trips lasting less than 20 minutes and most trips taking place in the summer months. Our battery charging analysis revealed no evidence of range anxiety, and our analysis of survey results showed little correlation between anticipated and actual use. Furthermore, when asked about their opinions about various modes of transportation, our participants rated regular bicycles higher than e-bikes even after becoming familiar with e-bikes through the field trial. Based on our analysis, we draw several conclusions, including the fact that the general population in Canada is still unaware of e-bikes and their potential. Moreover, e-bike manufacturers should target sales to nonbike users, such as seniors, rather than trying to displace sales of regular bicycles.

  12. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet. (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R


    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  13. A universal and smart helmet-mounted display of large FOV (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Weng, Dongdong; Wang, Yongtian; Li, Xuan; Liu, Youhai


    HMD (head-mounted display) is an important virtual reality device, which has played a vital role in VR application system. Compared with traditional HMD which cannot be applied in the daily life owing to their disadvantage on the price and performance, a new universal and smart Helmet-Mounted Display of large FOV uses excellent performance and widespread popularity as its starting point. By adopting simplified visual system and transflective system that combines the transmission-type and reflection-type display system with transflective glass based on the Huggens-Fresnel principle, we have designed a HMD with wide field of view, which can be easy to promote and popularize. Its resolution is 800*600, and field of view is 36.87°(vertical)* 47.92°(horizontal). Its weight is only 1080g. It has caught up with the advanced world levels.

  14. Helmet-mounted displays in long-range-target visual acquisition (United States)

    Wilkins, Donald F.


    Aircrews have always sought a tactical advantage within the visual range (WVR) arena -- usually defined as 'see the opponent first.' Even with radar and interrogation foe/friend (IFF) systems, the pilot who visually acquires his opponent first has a significant advantage. The Helmet Mounted Cueing System (HMCS) equipped with a camera offers an opportunity to correct the problems with the previous approaches. By utilizing real-time image enhancement technique and feeding the image to the pilot on the HMD, the target can be visually acquired well beyond the range provided by the unaided eye. This paper will explore the camera and display requirements for such a system and place those requirements within the context of other requirements, such as weight.

  15. Designing safer composite helmets to reduce rotational accelerations during oblique impacts. (United States)

    Mosleh, Yasmine; Cajka, Martin; Depreitere, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos; Ivens, Jan


    Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts. The ability of composite foam in the mitigation of rotational head movement is studied by performing finite element (FE) simulations of oblique impact on flat and helmet shape specimens. The performance of composite foam with respect to parameters such as compliance of the matrix foam and the number, size and cross-sectional shape of the foam columns is explored in detail, and subsequently an optimized structure is proposed. The simulation results show that using composite foam instead of single-layer foam, the rotational acceleration and velocity of the headform can be significantly reduced. The parametric study indicates that using a more compliant matrix foam and by increasing the number of columns in the composite foam configuration, the rotation can be further mitigated. This was confirmed by experimental results. The simulation results were also analyzed based on global head injury criteria such as head injury criterion, rotational injury criterion, brain injury criterion and generalized acceleration model for brain injury threshold which further confirmed the superior performance of composite foam versus single-layer homogeneous expanded polystyrene foam. The findings of simulations give invaluable information for design of protective helmets or, for instance, headliners for the automotive industry.

  16. Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children. (United States)

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Law, Emily F; Sil, Soumitri; Herbert, Linda Jones; Horn, Susan Berrin; Wohlheiter, Karen; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag


    This study examined the effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality (VR) type head-mounted display helmet for children undergoing cold pressor pain. Fifty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered via a VR helmet or without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvements in pain threshold and pain tolerance during both distraction conditions. However, the two distraction conditions did not differ in effectiveness. Using the VR helmet did not result in improved pain tolerance over and above the effects of interactive videogame distraction without VR technology. Clinical implications and possible developmental differences in elementary school-aged children's ability to use VR technology are discussed.

  17. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey. Design Features, Design and Combat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov


    Full Text Available The article describes the helmets of the Crimean Tatar nobility stored in the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Republic of Turkey. Based on the analysis of design and system design determined that hats were made of Circassian masters of the XVIII century. Helmet No. 1/810 in shape of the dome relates to the type of bevel. Forged a gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, pads, conical pommel, and ringed barmitsa Persian type. In Cherkessia similar hats were known as Tang (from the Arab. "the Taj", i.e. "crown". It is most likely that the owner of the helmet was the last Noureddine Crimean khanate, Bahadir Giray (1789-1792 was the son of MuminGirei (?-1747 and grandson of Khan Saadet Giray IV (1717-1724. Helmet No. 1/812по the shape of a dome refers to the type of conal. Forged iron gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, plates and funnel-shaped topping. Dome placed on the manufacture date of the helmet – "1180 of the Hijra" (i.e., 1766-1767 in the Gregorian calendar, as well as the inscription: "Owner Sultan Ali", "Muhammad Giray", "Mansour". Helmet No. 1/811по the shape of a dome refers to the type of cylindrical. Faceted iron supplemented gilt crown ornamented Hoop, conical pommel and Aventail Persian type. On the front of hats placed the inscription, "Sultan Mohammed Ibn AdilGiray". This suggests that the owner of the helmet could be the son of Nureddin (1718, serasker Budjaka and Editcol (1727-1728 Adil Ibn Selim I Giray or seraskier EditcolAdil Ibn Selim III Giray (1766-1767. In the framework of the interdisciplinary research were made copies of these helmets, which have become the object of scientific experiments aimed at the study of the functional properties of the considered hats. According to the results of the experimental tests it was found that all three of the helmet provide very reliable protection of the head and neck of the warrior from the cutting and cut-and-cutting blows of the enemy. The saber blade

  18. The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour. (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael


    Issue addressed A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour. Methods Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices. Results Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations. Conclusion Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data. So what? The use of smartphone GPS data with other data sources is recommended for assessing how infrastructure improvements influence cycling behaviour.

  19. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis. (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong


    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  20. Elevated Extravascular Lung Water Index (ELWI) as a Predictor of Failure of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Via Helmet (Helmet-CPAP) in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Major Surgery. (United States)

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Bejarano Ramirez, Natalia; Uña Orejon, Rafael; Villazala Garcia, Ruben; Yuste Peña, Ana Sofia; Belda, Francisco Javier


    NIV is increasingly used for prevention and treatment of respiratory complications and failure. Some of them are admitted to the PACU with advanced hemodynamic monitors which allow quantification of Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) by transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability (PVP) providing information on lung edema. The objective of this study was to ascertain if EVLW Index and PVP Index may predict failure (intubation) or success (non-intubation) in patients developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the postoperative period following major abdominal surgery, where the first line of treatment was non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure via a helmet. Hemodynamic variables, EVLWI and PVPI were monitored with a transpulmonary thermodilution hemodynamic monitor device (PiCCO™) before and after the application of CPAP. Avoidance of intubation was observed in 66% of patients with Helmet-CPAP. In these patients after the first hour of application of CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased (303.33±65.2 vs. 141.6±14.6, P<.01). Before starting Helmet-CPAP values of EVLWI and PVPI were significantly lower in non-intubated patients (EVLWI 8.6±1.08 vs. 11.8±0.99ml/kg IBW, P<.01 and PVPI 1.7±0.56 vs. 3.0±0.88, P<.01). An optimal cut-off value for EVLWI was established at 9.5, and at 2.45 for PVPI (sensitivity of 0.7; specificity of 0.9, P<.01). In this type of patient the physiological parameters that predict the failure of Helmet-CPAP with the greatest accuracy were the value of the EVLWI and PVPI before Helmet-CPAP institution and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the respiratory rate after one hour of CPAP. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.


    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  2. Asymmetric Catalytic Aza-Diels-Alder/Ring-Closing Cascade Reaction Forming Bicyclic Azaheterocycles by Trienamine Catalysis. (United States)

    Li, Yang; Barløse, Casper; Jørgensen, Julie; Carlsen, Bjørn Dreiø; Jørgensen, Karl Anker


    An asymmetric catalytic aza-Diels-Alder/ring-closing cascade reaction between acylhydrazones and in situ formed trienamines is presented. The reaction proceeds through a formal aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition, followed by a ring-closing reaction forming the hemiaminal ring leading to chiral bicyclic azaheterocycles in moderate to good yield (up to 71 %), good enantio- (up to 92 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to >20:1 d.r.). Furthermore, transformations are presented to show the potential application of the formed product. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Gold-catalyzed Bicyclization of Diaryl Alkynes: Synthesis of Polycyclic Fused Indole and Spirooxindole Derivatives. (United States)

    Cai, Ju; Wu, Bing; Rong, Guangwei; Zhang, Cheng; Qiu, Lihua; Xu, Xinfang


    An unprecedented gold-catalyzed bicyclization reaction of diaryl alkynes has been developed for the synthesis of indoles in good to high yields. Mechanistically, this alkyne bifunctionalization transformation was terminated by a stepwise formal X-H insertion reaction to furnish the corresponding polycyclic-frameworks with structural diversity, and the key intermediate 3 H-indole was isolated and characterized for the first time. In addition, further transformation of these generated tetracyclic-indoles with PCC as the oxidant provided straightforward access to the spirooxindoles in high yields.

  4. Synthesis of fused bicyclic piperidines: potential bioactive templates for medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglan; Campbell-Conroy, Erica L; Silina, Alina; Uy, Johnny; Pierre, Fabrice; Hurley, Dennis J; Hilgraf, Nicole; Frieman, Bryan A; DeNinno, Michael P


    An array of six pyridyl-substituted fused bicyclic piperidines was prepared as novel cores for medicinal chemistry. For maximum diversity, the size of the fused ring varied from three to six atoms and contained up to two oxygen atoms. The pyridine ring was incorporated to improve physicochemical properties and to challenge the robustness of the chemistry. The presence of the pyridine did interfere with our initial approaches to these molecules, and in several instances, a blocking strategy had to be employed. These new scaffolds possess high sp3 character and may prove useful in multiple medicinal chemistry applications.

  5. Two Pilot Studies of the Effect of Bicycling on Balance and Leg Strength among Older Adults


    Rissel, Chris; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Merom, Dafna


    Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Methods. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited...

  6. Relationship between the Pedaling Biomechanics and Strain of Bicycle Frame during Submaximal Tests


    Manolova, Aneliya; Crequy, Samuel; Lestriez, Philippe; Debraux, Pierre; Bertucci, William


    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of forces applied to pedals and cranks on the strain imposed to an instrumented bicycle motocross (BMX) frame. Using results from a finite element analysis to determine the localisation of highest stress, eight strain gauges were located on the down tube, the seat tube and the right chain stay. Before the pedaling tests, static loads were applied to the frame during bench tests. Two pedaling conditions have been analysed. In the first, the rider...

  7. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette


    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  8. Wittig Reaction: Domino Olefination and Stereoselectivity DFT Study. Synthesis of the Miharamycins' Bicyclic Sugar Moiety. (United States)

    Cachatra, Vasco; Almeida, Andreia; Sardinha, João; Lucas, Susana D; Gomes, Ana; Vaz, Pedro D; Florêncio, M Helena; Nunes, Rafael; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José; Rauter, Amélia P


    2-O-Acyl protected-d-ribo-3-uloses reacted with [(ethoxycarbonyl)methylene]triphenylphosphorane in acetonitrile to afford regio- and stereoselectively 2-(Z)-alkenes in 10-60 min under microwave irradiation. This domino reaction is proposed to proceed via tautomerization of 3-ulose to enol, acyl migration, tautomerization to the 3-O-acyl-2-ulose, and Wittig reaction. Alternatively, in chloroform, regioselective 3-olefination of 2-O-pivaloyl-3-uloses gave (E)-alkenes, key precursors for the miharamycins' bicyclic sugar moiety.

  9. Ergonomic Analysis of UI’s BicyclesUsing Posture Evaluation Index (PEI Method in Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Muslim


    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study ergonomic aspect from University of Indonesia bicycle in virtual environment. Software Jack 6.0 was used to analyze it. PEI was used as approach that integrated the results of three methods: Lower Back Analysis, Ovako Working Posture Analysis, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment. The research objective is to evaluate existing design of University of Indonesia bicycle and to determine the most ergonomic redesign which concern with handlebar height and saddle height modification. The result showed that the most ergonomic design of University of Indonesia bicycle is the one with the highest handlebar height (22 cm and the lowest saddle height (11 cm.

  10. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems. (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W


    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  11. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.


    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  12. The Economic Impact of Helmet Use on Motorcycle Accidents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature from the Past 20 Years. (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Dai, Feng; Leslie, Michael P


    The incidence and cost of motorcycle accidents are projected to increase. Motorcycle helmets are accepted as an effective strategy for reducing the morbidity and therefore the cost of motorcycle accidents. Despite this, states have continued to repeal helmet laws in the past 20 years. In addition, variations in the methodologies and outcomes of published reports have contributed to uncertainty regarding the health care dollars saved due to motorcycle helmet use. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify the economic impact of motorcycle helmet use. Our primary source was Medline. Search terms included "motorcycle," "motorbike," "motorcycle helmet," "head protective devices," and "cost and cost analysis." The review only included articles that were primary studies, written in English, evaluations of periods after 1994, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Two independent authors extracted data using predefined data fields. Meta-analysis was done using the R-metafor package. Twelve papers met the criteria for inclusion. Meta-analysis demonstrated that nonhelmeted patients required $12,239 more in hospital costs per patient. Nonhelmeted patients also required more postdischarge care and were more likely to use publicly funded insurance. Studies also found lower injury severity and better hospital course in the helmeted population. Study limitations included selection bias, unclear statistical assumptions, lack of precision measures, confounding variables, and lack of standardization to a common year. Meta-analysis demonstrated an I2 of 67%, attributing a significant proportion of outcome variation to study differences. Motorcycle helmet use reduces morbidity and contributes to significant health care cost savings. Continuing antihelmet legislation will impose a substantial economic burden to the health care system, the government, and the public.

  13. Exercise capacity in non-specific chronic low back pain patients : A lean body mass-based Astrand bicycle test; Reliability, validity and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Objective Measurement of exercise capacity is essential in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the conventional Astrand bicycle test is not feasible in patients with a very poor aerobic capacity. Therefore the Astrand bicycles test for non-specific CLBP patients based

  14. Assessing and Mapping of Road Surface Roughness based on GPS and Accelerometer Sensors on Bicycle-Mounted Smartphones (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Wan, Mi; Shi, Jiafeng


    The surface roughness of roads is an essential road characteristic. Due to the employed carrying platforms (which are often cars), existing measuring methods can only be used for motorable roads. Until now, there has been no effective method for measuring the surface roughness of un-motorable roads, such as pedestrian and bicycle lanes. This hinders many applications related to pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. In recognizing these research gaps, this paper proposes a method for measuring the surface roughness of pedestrian and bicycle lanes based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer sensors on bicycle-mounted smartphones. We focus on the International Roughness Index (IRI), as it is the most widely used index for measuring road surface roughness. Specifically, we analyzed a computing model of road surface roughness, derived its parameters with GPS and accelerometers on bicycle-mounted smartphones, and proposed an algorithm to recognize potholes/humps on roads. As a proof of concept, we implemented the proposed method in a mobile application. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the proposed method. The results of the experiments show that the IRI values measured by the proposed method were strongly and positively correlated with those measured by professional instruments. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm was able to recognize the potholes/humps that the bicycle passed. The proposed method is useful for measuring the surface roughness of roads that are not accessible for professional instruments, such as pedestrian and cycle lanes. This work enables us to further study the feasibility of crowdsourcing road surface roughness with bicycle-mounted smartphones. PMID:29562731

  15. From Dalek half balls to Daft Punk helmets: Mimetic fandom and the crafting of replicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Hills


    Full Text Available Mimetic fandom is a surprisingly understudied mode of (culturally masculinized fan activity in which fans research and craft replica props. Mimetic fandom can be considered as (inauthentic and (immaterial, combining noncommercial status with grassroots marketing or brand reinforcement as well as fusing an emphasis on material artifacts with Web 2.0 collective intelligence. Simply analyzing mimetic fandom as part of fannish material culture fails to adequately assess the nonmaterial aspects of this collaborative creativity. Two fan cultures are taken as case studies: Dalek building groups and Daft Punk helmet constructors. These diverse cases indicate that mimetic fandom has a presence and significance that moves across media fandoms and is not restricted to the science fiction, fantasy, and horror followings with which it is most often associated. Mimetic fandom may be theorized as an oscillatory activity that confuses binaries and constructions of (academic/fan authenticity. This fan practice desires and pursues a kind of ontological bridging or unity—from text to reality—that is either absent or less dominant in many other fan activities such as cosplay, screen-used prop collecting, and geographical pilgrimage. Fan studies may benefit from reassessing the place of mimesis, especially in order to theorize fan practices that are less clearly transformative in character.

  16. Thermal performance curves under daily thermal fluctuation: A study in helmeted water toad tadpoles. (United States)

    Bartheld, José L; Artacho, Paulina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo


    Most research in physiological ecology has focused on the effects of mean changes in temperature under the classic "hot vs cold" acclimation treatment; however, current evidence suggests that an increment in both the mean and variance of temperature could act synergistically to amplify the negative effects of global temperature increase and how it would affect fitness and performance-related traits in ectothermic organisms. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on thermal performance curves of swimming speed in helmeted water toad tadpoles (Calyptocephalella gayi). Acclimation treatments were 20°C ± 0.1 SD (constant) and 20°C ± 1.5 SD (fluctuating). We draw two key findings: first, tadpoles exposed to daily temperature fluctuation had reduced maximal performance (Z max ), and flattened thermal performance curves, thus supporting the "vertical shift or faster-slower" hypothesis, and suggesting that overall swimming performance would be lower through an examination of temperatures under more realistic and ecologically-relevant fluctuating regimens; second, there was significant interindividual variation in performance traits by means of significant repeatability estimates. Our present results suggest that the widespread use of constant acclimation temperatures in laboratory experiments to estimate thermal performance curves (TPCs) may lead to an overestimation of actual organismal performance. We encourage the use of temperature fluctuation acclimation treatments to better understand the variability of physiological traits, which predict ecological and evolutionary responses to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal forehead edema in 4p- deletion: the 'Greek warrior helmet' profile revisited. (United States)

    Levaillant, J M; Touboul, C; Sinico, M; Vergnaud, A; Serero, S; Druart, L; Blondeau, J R; Abd Alsamad, I; Haddad, B; Gérard-Blanluet, M


    Deletion of short arm of chromosome 4 is difficult to ascertain prenatally, and can be missed. A prenatal suspicion of 4p- syndrome was thoroughly investigated by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional sonography, with a description of the fetal face dysmorphological pattern. The cytogenetic confirmation, obtained by karyotype and FISH technique, allowed a precise description of the prenatal abnormalities. Post-termination tridimensional helicoidal scanner of the fetal face was performed. The main anomaly discovered using two-dimensional sonography was the presence of a strikingly thick prefrontal edema (8 mm, twice the normal values, at 22 weeks: 3.81 +/- 0.62 mm). Three-dimensional sonography showed the classical postnatal profile, with the phenotypic aspect of a 'Greek warrior helmet'. Nasal bones were normal in size and placement, confirmed by helicoidal scanner. Prenatal diagnosis of 4p deletion syndrome can be difficult, and it is the presence of prefrontal edema, associated with more subtle facial anomalies (short philtrum, microretrognathia) which should trigger cytogenetic investigation for 4p- deletion, even with only borderline growth retardation. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. CPAP by helmet for treatment of acute respiratory failure after pediatric liver transplantation. (United States)

    Chiusolo, F; Fanelli, V; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Conti, G; Tortora, F; Pariante, R; Ravà, L; Grimaldi, C; de Ville de Goyet, J; Picardo, S


    ARF after pediatric liver transplantation accounts for high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. The role of CPAP in postoperative period is still unknown. The aim of the study was to describe current practice and risk factors associated with the application of helmet CPAP. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 119 recipients were divided into two groups based on indication to CPAP after extubation. Perioperative variables were studied, and determinants of CPAP application were analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Sixty patients (60/114) developed ARF and were included in the CPAP group. No differences were found between the two groups for primary disease, graft type, and blood product transfused. At multivariate analysis, weight 148 mL/kg (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.6-10.1; P = .004) were the main determinants of CPAP application. In the CPAP group, five patients (8.4%) needed reintubation. Pediatric liver recipients with lower weight, higher need of inotropes/vasopressors, higher positive fluid balance after surgery, and lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 before extubation were at higher odds of developing ARF needing CPAP application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mathematical model for studying cyclist kinematics in vehicle-bicycle frontal collisions (United States)

    Condrea, OA; Chiru, A.; Chiriac, RL; Vlase, S.


    For the development of effective vehicle related safety solutions to improve cyclist protection, kinematic predictions are essential. The objective of the paper was the elaboration of a simple mathematical model for predicting cyclist kinematics, with the advantage of yielding simple results for relatively complicated impact situations. Thus, the use of elaborated math software is not required and the calculation time is shortened. The paper presents a modelling framework to determine cyclist kinematic behaviour for the situations in which a M1 category vehicle frontally hits the rear part of a bicycle. After the primary impact between the vehicle front bumper and the bicycle, the cyclist hits the vehicle’s bonnet, the windscreen or both the vehicle’s bonnet and the windscreen in short succession. The head-windshield impact is often the most severe impact, causing serious and potentially lethal injuries. The cyclist is represented by a rigid segment and the equations of motion for the cyclist after the primary impact are obtained by applying Newton’s second law of motion. The impact time for the contact between the vehicle and the cyclist is yielded afterwards by formulating and intersecting the trajectories for two points positioned on the cyclist’s head/body and the vehicle’s windscreen/bonnet while assuming that the cyclist’s equations of motion after the primary impact remain the same. Postimpact kinematics for the secondary impact are yielded by applying linear and angular momentum conservation laws.

  20. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children? (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura


    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effect of the structure, solid state and lipophilicity on the solubility of novel bicyclic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Volkova, Tatyana V.; Proshin, Alexey N.; Perlovich, German L.


    Highlights: • The solubility in buffer pH 7.4 of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • The influence of melting parameters and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied. • The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated. - Abstract: Novel bicyclic derivatives have been synthesized. The solubility of drug-like substances in phosphate buffer rH 7.4 has been measured within the range of (9.02 · 10 −5 to 1.05 · 10 −4 ) mol/l. The relationship between the chemical nature and the structure of the aryl substituents and the solubility parameter was investigated. The fusion temperatures, enthalpies and entropies have been determined experimentally. The influence of thermophysical characteristics and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied using regression analysis. The calculations by the solubility/lipophilicity equation showed an overall improvement of the predictions equal to 0.5 log units. It was concluded that the solvation has a considerable influence on the solubility of the compounds under consideration. It was also determined that the alkyl- and halogen-derivatives solubility values correlate with HYBOT descriptors characterizing the (donor + acceptor) properties of the substances. The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated using the temperature dependences. The study also revealed that the solubility of the bicyclic compounds is characterized by high endothermicity of the processes and negative entropies

  2. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level. (United States)

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S


    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  3. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.


    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C 15 and C 16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  4. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič


    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. The new approach brings a completely different view on planning cycling infrastructure, while rather than physical infrastructure characteristics, humans are placed at the forefront of the cycling infrastructure design as the most important measure of its quality. Since the complexity of human beings cannot be controlled with only one science or profession, solving the problem of bicycle traffic is not just a technical problem, but its design and management also lend a multidisciplinary character. From the perspective of different cycling infrastructure users, the study will define integrated multidisciplinary methodology for evaluating the quality of cycling infrastructure, which will equally include the criteria of sensing and perceiving of space. The new approach seeks a system of criteria, which enables the integrated planning of cycling infrastructure in all spatial, organizational, sectoral, and professional levels. All theoretical findings will be tested and demonstrated on the pilot case of the long-distance cycling connection in the area of four Slovenian coastal municipalities, namely Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran.

  5. Differential specificity in the glomerular response profiles for alicyclic, bicyclic and heterocyclic odorants (United States)

    Johnson, Brett A.; Xu, Zhe; Pancoast, Paige; Kwok, Jennifer; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael


    As part of our ongoing effort to relate stimulus to response in the olfactory system, we tested the hypothesis that the unique chemical structures and odors of various cyclic odorants would be associated with unique spatial response patterns in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb. To this end, rats were exposed to sets of odorants including monocyclic hydrocarbons, bicyclic compounds, and various heterocyclic structures containing oxygen or nitrogen in the ring. Relative activity across the entire layer was assessed by mapping uptake of 2-deoxyglucose into anatomically standardized data matrices. Whereas monocyclic hydrocarbons evoked patterns similar to those evoked by open-chained hydrocarbon odorants, a set of bicyclic compounds with structures and odors similar to camphor evoked uptake in paired ventral domains not previously associated with any other odorant chemical structures. Despite their unique odors as judged by humans, heterocyclic odorants either evoked uptake in previously characterized areas corresponding to their functional groups or stimulated weak or patchy patterns involving isolated glomeruli. While the patchiness of the patterns may be partly related to the rigidity of the compounds, which would be expected to restrict their interactions to only a few receptors, the weakness of the patterns suggests the possibility of species-specific odorant representations. We conclude that whereas some of the novel cyclic structures indeed were represented by unique patterns in the rat bulb, other unique structures were poorly represented, even when they evoked intense and unique odors in humans. PMID:16958095

  6. Solution Structure of a Novel C2-Symmetrical Bifunctional Bicyclic Inhibitor Based on SFTI-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaulent, Agnes M.; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.


    A novel bifunctional bicyclic inhibitor has been created that combines features both from the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) proteins, which have two distinct inhibitory sites, and from sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1), which has a compact bicyclic structure. The inhibitor was designed by fusing together a pair of reactive loops based on a sequence derived from SFTI-1 to create a backbone-cyclized disulfide-bridged 16-mer peptide. This peptide has two symmetrically spaced trypsin binding sites. Its synthesis and biological activity have been reported in a previous communication [Jaulent and Leatherbarrow, 2004, PEDS 17, 681]. In the present study we have examined the three-dimensional structure of the molecule. We find that the new inhibitor, which has a symmetrical 8-mer half-cystine CTKSIPP'I' motif repeated through a C 2 symmetry axis also shows a complete symmetry in its three-dimensional structure. Each of the two loops adopts the expected canonical conformation common to all BBIs as well as SFTI-1. We also find that the inhibitor displays a strong and unique structural identity, with a notable lack of minor conformational isomers that characterise most reactive site loop mimics examined to date as well as SFTI-1. This suggests that the presence of the additional cyclic loop acts to restrict conformational mobility and that the deliberate introduction of cyclic symmetry may offer a general route to locking the conformation of β-hairpin structures

  7. A Visual Analysis Approach for Inferring Personal Job and Housing Locations Based on Public Bicycle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Shi


    Full Text Available Information concerning the home and workplace of residents is the basis of analyzing the urban job-housing spatial relationship. Traditional methods conduct time-consuming user surveys to obtain personal job and housing location information. Some new methods define rules to detect personal places based on human mobility data. However, because the travel patterns of residents are variable, simple rule-based methods are unable to generalize highly changing and complex travel modes. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis approach to assist the analyzer in inferring personal job and housing locations interactively based on public bicycle data. All users are first clustered to find potential commuting users. Then, several visual views are designed to find the key candidate stations for a specific user, and the visited temporal pattern of stations and the user’s hire behavior are analyzed, which helps with the inference of station semantic meanings. Finally, a number of users’ job and housing locations are detected by the analyzer and visualized. Our approach can manage the complex and diverse cycling habits of users. The effectiveness of the approach is shown through case studies based on a real-world public bicycle dataset.

  8. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai‘i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database (United States)

    Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan


    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai‘i between 2007–2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured. PMID:27980882

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel dioxa-bicycle C-aryl glucosides as SGLT2 inhibitors. (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Ding, Ning; Li, Yingxia


    A series of novel C-aryl glucosides containing dioxa-bicycle were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition activity against hSGLT2. Among the compounds tested, compound 6a showed moderate SGLT2 inhibition activities at 700 nM. The results could benefit the discovery of new SGLT2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : concept of operations plan. (United States)


    This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...

  11. Understanding and measuring bicycling behavior : a focus on travel time and route choice, final report, December 2008. (United States)


    With rates of obesity, heart disease, and related health problems increasing in the U.S., many policy makers are looking for ways to increase : physical activity in everyday life. Using a bicycle instead of a motor vehicle for a portion of everyday t...

  12. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle... (United States)


    ... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...

  13. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes (United States)


    ...: Significant health benefits can be derived from bicycling and trail users at the park would benefit from..., foster mental and physical health, and promote learning and personal growth. The health benefits derived... Parks'' initiative of the NPS and the President's ``America's Great Outdoors'' initiative. White Oak...

  14. A Bayesian Network Model on the Public Bicycle Choice Behavior of Residents: A Case Study of Xi’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Wang


    Full Text Available In order to study the main factors affecting the behaviors that city residents make regarding public bicycle choice and to further study the public bicycle user’s personal characteristics and travel characteristics, a travel mode choice model based on a Bayesian network was established. Taking residents of Xi’an as the research object, a K2 algorithm combined with mutual information and expert knowledge was proposed for Bayesian network structure learning. The Bayesian estimation method was used to estimate the parameters of the network, and a Bayesian network model was established to reflect the interactions among the public bicycle choice behaviors along with other major factors. The K-fold cross-validation method was used to validate the model performance, and the hit rate of each travel mode was more than 80%, indicating the precision of the proposed model. Experimental results also present the higher classification accuracy of the proposed model. Therefore, it may be concluded that the resident travel mode choice may be accurately predicted according to the Bayesian network model proposed in our study. Additionally, this model may be employed to analyze and discuss changes in the resident public bicycle choice and to note that they may possibly be influenced by different travelers’ characteristics and trip characteristics.

  15. Barriers to and Facilitators of Walking and Bicycling to School: Formative Results from the Non-Motorized Travel Study (United States)

    Ahlport, Kathryn N.; Linnan, Laura; Vaughn, Amber; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.


    Barriers to and facilitators of walking and bicycling to school were explored through 12 focus groups made up of fourth- and fifth-grade students and their parents who lived near their respective schools. The barriers and facilitators reported by parents and children generally fell into one of three categories: intrapersonal and interpersonal…

  16. Examining the potential for modal change : motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.


    The paper examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. The research shows that these factors have different effects on people depending on the stage of

  17. Modelling the potential for bicycle in access trips to bus, train and metro in Rio de Janeiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho de Souza, Flavia; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Brussel, M.J.G.; Orrico, R.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.


    Most studies that address the integration of cycling and public transport (PT) focus on developed countries and deal with multi-modal bicycle-train trips. Little is known about the integration of cycling and other main modes such as bus and metro, especially in developing countries, where entirely

  18. Synthesis of novel N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids and evaluation of their interaction with glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni; di Ventimiglia, Samuele Joppolo


    N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids (S)-9a-9c and (R)-9a-9c, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested for activity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors...

  19. Practical Example of Introductory Engineering Education Based on the Design Process and Teaching Methodology Using a Gyro Bicycle (United States)

    Higa, Yoshikazu; Shimojima, Ken


    This report describes a workshop on the Dynamics of Machinery based on the fabrication of a gyro- bicycle in a summer school program for junior high school students. The workshop was conducted by engineering students who had completed "Creative Research", an engineering design course at the National Institute of Technology, Okinawa…

  20. Præventiv effekt af cykelhjelme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Larsen, C F; Nordentoft, E


    %. Several investigations from abroad and from Denmark have demonstrated that protection of the head can reduce the number of deaths and of acute brain injuries due to bicycle accidents. On the basis of the literature, it is concluded that bicycle helmets provide good protection of the head in connection......The total number of persons injured following bicycle accidents in Denmark is estimated to be more than 50,000 annually. In half of the injured cyclists, lesions localized to the region of the head occur. Bicycle helmets provide considerable protection against brain injuries which constitute 13...... with bicycle accidents. When a bicycle helmet is purchased, it is important to ensure that the helmet fits the head, that vision is not impeded and that the chinstrap secures the helmet correctly. Legislation is necessary to ensure that bicycle helmets sold in Denmark fulfill the minimum safety requirements....