WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicycle helmet legislation

  1. Long-Term Effects of Education and Legislation Enforcement on All-Age Bicycle Helmet Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Sherry; Fenerty, Lynne; Kureshi, Nelofar; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; LeBlanc, John C; Clarke, David B; Walling, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Bicycle-related injuries are a leading cause of child and youth hospitalizations in Canada. The use of helmets while bicycling reduces the risk of brain injuries. This study investigated the long-term effect of legislation coupled with enforcement to improve helmet use rates. We conducted a longitudinal observational study of helmet use at 9, 11, and 14 years after bicycle helmet legislation was enacted. Data were compared to baseline observations collected after legislation was passed in 1997. A comprehensive enforcement and educational diversion program, Operation Headway-Noggin Knowledge (OP-NK), was developed and implemented in partnership with regional police during the study period. Helmet use was sustained throughout the post-legislation period, from 75.3 % in the year legislation was enacted to 94.2 % 14 years post-legislation. The increase in helmet use was seen among all age groups and genders. Helmet legislation was not associated with changes in bicycle ridership over the study years. OP-NK was associated with improved enforcement efforts as evidenced by the number of tickets issued to noncompliant bicycle riders. This observational study spans a 16-year study period extending from pre-legislation to 14 years post all-age bicycle helmet legislation. Our study results demonstrate that a comprehensive approach that couples education and awareness with ongoing enforcement of helmet legislation is associated with long-term sustained helmet use rates. The diversion program described herein is listed among best practices by the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  2. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes confoundin

  3. Prevalence of helmet use by users of bicycles, push scooters, inline skates and skateboards in Toronto and the surrounding area in the absence of comprehensive legislation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jessica L; Macpherson, Alison K; Middaugh-Bonney, Tara; Tator, Charles H

    2012-04-01

    Legislation in the province of Ontario, Canada, mandates users under the age of 18 to wear a helmet when they ride a bicycle, and legislation has been shown to significantly increase rates of bicycle helmet use. Legislation does not exist in Ontario for older bicyclists or for users of other non-motorised modes of transportation, and there are no current data available regarding rates of helmet use in these categories. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of helmet use among users of bicycles, skateboards, push scooters and inline skates in Toronto, Ontario, and the surrounding area. Further analysis was performed to examine factors associated with helmet use. We performed a cross-sectional, observational study. Three trained, stationary observers captured 6038 users of bicycles (5783), skateboards (77), inline skates (165) and push scooters (13) in the summer of 2009. Observations were separated into three time periods capturing commuters, midday users and recreational users. A general linear model was used to assess the factors associated with helmet use among bicyclists. Helmets were worn by 48.9% of all users observed and 50.0% of all bicyclists. Among bicyclists, females were more likely to wear helmets than males (prevalence ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.36), while children were significantly more likely to wear helmets than adults (prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.15). Significant behavioural variation was observed among users during the three observation periods (pstrategies to increase helmet use, such as the introduction of legislation encompassing all ages and all equipment, is required.

  4. The Effect of an All-Ages Bicycle Helmet Law on Bicycle-Related Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett, Paula; Rivara, Frederick; Gomez, Anthony; Kirk, Annie Phare; Yantsides, Christina

    2016-12-01

    In 2003, Seattle implemented an all-ages bicycle helmet law; King County outside of Seattle had implemented a similar law since 1994. For the period 2000-2010, the effect of the helmet legislation on helmet use, helmet-preventable injuries, and bicycle-related fatalities was examined, comparing Seattle to the rest of King County. Data was retrieved from the Washington State Trauma Registry and the King County Medical Examiner. Results comparing the proportions of bicycle related head injuries before (2000-2002) and after (2004-2010) the law show no significant change in the proportion of bicyclists admitted to the hospital and treated for head injuries in either Seattle (37.9 vs 40.2 % p = 0.75) nor in the rest of King County (30.7 vs 31.4 %, p = 0.84) with the extension of the helmet law to Seattle in 2003. However, bicycle-related major head trauma as a proportion of all bicycle-related head trauma did decrease significantly in Seattle (83.9 vs 64.9 %, p = 0.04), while there was no significant change in King County (64.4 vs 57.6 %, p = 0.41). While the results do not show an overall decrease in head injuries, they do reveal a decrease in the severity of head injuries, as well as bicycle-related fatalities, suggesting that the helmet legislation was effective in reducing severe disability and death, contributing to injury prevention in Seattle and King County. The promotion of helmet use through an all ages helmet law is a vital preventative strategy for reducing major bicycle-related head trauma.

  5. Heat transfer variations of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, P A; Buyan, M; Huber, R; Bogerd, C P; Sznitman, J; Graf, S F; Rösgen, T

    2006-09-01

    Bicycle helmets exhibit complex structures so as to combine impact protection with ventilation. A quantitative experimental measure of the state of the art and variations therein is a first step towards establishing principles of bicycle helmet ventilation. A thermal headform mounted in a climate-regulated wind tunnel was used to study the ventilation efficiency of 24 bicycle helmets at two wind speeds. Flow visualization in a water tunnel with a second headform demonstrated the flow patterns involved. The influence of design details such as channel length and vent placement was studied, as well as the impact of hair. Differences in heat transfer among the helmets of up to 30% (scalp) and 10% (face) were observed, with the nude headform showing the highest values. On occasion, a negative role of some vents for forced convection was demonstrated. A weak correlation was found between the projected vent cross-section and heat transfer variations when changing the head tilt angle. A simple analytical model is introduced that facilitates the understanding of forced convection phenomena. A weak correlation between exposed scalp area and heat transfer was deduced. Adding a wig reduces the heat transfer by approximately a factor of 8 in the scalp region and up to one-third for the rest of the head for a selection of the best ventilated helmets. The results suggest that there is significant optimization potential within the basic helmet structure represented in modern bicycle helmets.

  6. Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L

    1996-07-01

    The first year of the mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Australia saw increased helmet wearing from 31% to 75% of cyclists in Victoria and from 31% of children and 26% of adults in New South Wales (NSW) to 76% and 85%. However, the two major surveys using matched before and after samples in Melbourne (Finch et al. 1993; Report No. 45, Monash Univ. Accident Research Centre) and throughout NSW (Smith and Milthorpe 1993; Roads and Traffic Authority) observed reductions in numbers of child cyclists 15 and 2.2 times greater than the increase in numbers of children wearing helmets. This suggests the greatest effect of the helmet law was not to encourage cyclists to wear helmets, but to discourage cycling. In contrast, despite increases to at least 75% helmet wearing, the proportion of head injuries in cyclists admitted or treated at hospital declined by an average of only 13%. The percentage of cyclists with head injuries after collisions with motor vehicles in Victoria declined by more, but the proportion of head injured pedestrians also declined; the two followed a very similar trend. These trends may have been caused by major road safety initiatives introduced at the same time as the helmet law and directed at both speeding and drink-driving. The initiatives seem to have been remarkably effective in reducing road trauma for all road users, perhaps affecting the proportions of victims suffering head injuries as well as total injuries. The benefits of cycling, even without a helmet, have been estimated to outweigh the hazards by a factor of 20 to 1 (Hillman 1993. Cycle helmets-the case for and against. Policy Studies Institute, London). Consequently, a helmet law, whose most notable effect was to reduce cycling, may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. Despite the risk of dying from head injury per hour being similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, cyclists alone have been required to wear head protection. Helmets for motor

  7. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets.

  8. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  9. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  10. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  11. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the ...

  12. Predicting bicycle helmet wearing intentions and behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Frances V; Nausbaum, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Cycling accidents in Australia, especially those resulting in head injuries, are a substantive cause of death and disability; but despite legislation and evidence that helmets reduce the risk of head injury, few adolescents wear them. This study employed a revised version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211]) to investigate the determinants of helmet use among a sample of adolescents. Participants in the initial data collection were 294 high school students in Year 8 and Year 11, with 266 completing a follow-up questionnaire measuring behavior over the previous two weeks. Social norms, perceptions of control, and past behavior significantly predicted intentions to use helmets and perceptions of control and past behavior predicted actual helmet use. Strengthening the routine of helmet use and building young people's confidence that they can overcome any perceived barriers to helmet use will improve adherence to helmet wearing behavior.

  13. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  14. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-05-25

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  15. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds.

  16. Age has a Minimal Effect on the Impact Performance of Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Chimich, Dennis D; Bakal, Jeff A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-08-01

    Helmet manufacturers recommend replacing a bicycle helmet after an impact or after anywhere from 2 to 10 years of use. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of helmet age on peak headform acceleration during impact attenuation testing of field-used bicycle helmets. Helmets were acquired by donation from consumers and retail stores, and were included in the study if they were free of impact-related damage, had a legible manufacture date label, and were certified to at least one helmet standard. Helmets (n = 770) spanning 0-26 years old were drop tested to measure peak linear headform acceleration during impacts to the right and left front regions of the helmets at two impact speeds (3.0 and 6.2 m/s). General linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of age and three covariates (helmet style, size and certification impact speed) on peak acceleration. Overall, age was related to either no difference or a statistically significant but small increase (≤0.76 g/year of helmet age) in peak headform acceleration. Extrapolated across 20 years, age-related differences were less than both style- (traditional vs. BMX) and size-related differences. The age-related differences were also less than the variability observed between different helmets after accounting for style, size and certification effects. These findings mean that bicycle helmets (up to 26-year-old traditional helmets and 13-year-old BMX helmets) do not lose their ability to attenuate impacts with age; however, other helmet features that may change with age were not evaluated in this study.

  17. Factors associated with bicycle-helmet use among 8-16 years aged Turkish children: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secginli, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Nahcivan, Nursen O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the rates of helmet and to examine variables related to bicycle helmet use in a sample of 8-16 year old Turkish children. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 1180 students who self-identified as cyclists and 1128 parents or guardians in two state primary schools in two urban municipalities in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that self-reported helmet use was found prevalent in 4.4% of the children. The most cited reasons for not wearing a helmet were: 'don't own one', 'helmets are uncool', and 'uncomfortable'. Significant differences between helmet users and non-users correlated to gender, age, owning a bicycle helmet, wearing a friend's bicycle helmet and parents or guardian's bicycle helmet use while riding. Only three variables--helmet ownership (OR = 10.028, 95% CI 5.08, 19.79), parents' helmet use (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22, 5.66) and friends' helmet use (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) emerged as significant predictors of the likelihood of helmet use. The relatively low helmet use prevalence points to an urgent need for a multipronged campaign, including strategies such as raising awareness, educating primarly parents and friends, and distributing bicycle helmets for free or at a reduced cost.

  18. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists.

  19. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E

    1993-04-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  20. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (pbicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required.

  1. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; Pchin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  2. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  3. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  5. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hwang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre. Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001 and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001 as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.67-3.00, P=0.36 was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  6. Twenty-five years of bicycle helmet promotion for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Diana Stark; Ekman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe some of the results of a long-term bicycle helmet campaign for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden. The hospital discharge data for bicycle-related injuries occurring in children under the age of 15 were reviewed, to assess changes in patterns for head and other body injuries. The study shows that head injuries to children as a result of bicycle injuries were reduced between 94 and 99% in the study areas. The tremendous gains in safety for children who ride bicycles in Skaraborg District were the result of not only national policy changes that occurred in the latter half of this study period but also the result of local collaborations based on the Safe Communities model, which were organised during the first part of the study period.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of compulsory bicycle helmets in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P; Scuffham, P A

    1995-10-01

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness for primary school children (age 5-12 years), secondary school children (13-18 years) and adults (over 18 years) of the legislation enacted on 1 January 1994 requiring road-cyclists in New Zealand to wear helmets. The cost to cyclists not in possession of a helmet before they became compulsory of either obtaining one or quitting cycling was compared with the number of deaths and hospitalisations expected to be prevented over the average life of a helmet. Corresponding to Victorian and United States estimates of the efficacy of cycle helmets at preventing serious head injuries, the cost per life saved was $88 379 to $113 744 for primary school children, $694 013 to $817 874 for secondary school children, and $890 041 to $1 014 850 for adults (New Zealand dollars = approximately 0.95 Australian dollars). The cost per hospitalisation avoided was $3304 to $4252, $17 207 to $20 278, and $49 143 to $56 035 respectively. These estimates are extremely sensitive to the estimated efficacy of helmets at protecting cyclists. Mainly anecdotal evidence for New Zealand suggests that they are not to be very effective at preventing serious head injuries; future research into the change in injury patterns as a result of the helmet regulation would be valuable. Nonetheless, the ranking of the abovementioned estimates does not contradict the policy in some parts of the world requiring helmets for children and/or teenagers, but not adults.

  8. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripton, Peter A; Dressler, Daniel M; Stuart, Cameron A; Dennison, Christopher R; Richards, Darrin

    2014-09-01

    Cycling is a popular form of recreation and method of commuting with clear health benefits. However, cycling is not without risk. In Canada, cycling injuries are more common than in any other summer sport; and according to the US National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 52,000 cyclists were injured in the US in 2010. Head injuries account for approximately two-thirds of hospital admissions and three-quarters of fatal injuries among injured cyclists. In many jurisdictions and across all age levels, helmets have been adopted to mitigate risk of serious head injuries among cyclists and the majority of epidemiological literature suggests that helmets effectively reduce risk of injury. Critics have raised questions over the actual efficacy of helmets by pointing to weaknesses in existing helmet epidemiology including selection bias and lack of appropriate control for the type of impact sustained by the cyclist and the severity of the head impact. These criticisms demonstrate the difficulty in conducting epidemiology studies that will be regarded as definitive and the need for complementary biomechanical studies where confounding factors can be adequately controlled. In the bicycle helmet context, there is a paucity of biomechanical data comparing helmeted to unhelmeted head impacts and, to our knowledge, there is no data of this type available with contemporary helmets. In this research, our objective was to perform biomechanical testing of paired helmeted and unhelmeted head impacts using a validated anthropomorphic test headform and a range of drop heights between 0.5m and 3.0m, while measuring headform acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). In the 2m (6.3m/s) drops, the middle of our drop height range, the helmet reduced peak accelerations from 824g (unhelmeted) to 181g (helmeted) and HIC was reduced from 9667 (unhelmeted) to 1250 (helmeted). At realistic impact speeds of 5.4m/s (1.5m drop) and 6.3m/s (2.0m drop), bicycle helmets changed the

  9. Age Does Not Affect the Material Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Liners in Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Bonin, Stephanie J; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-04-01

    Bicycle helmet foam liners absorb energy during impacts. Our goal was to determine if the impact attenuation properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used in bicycle helmets change with age. Foam cores were extracted from 63 used and unused bicycle helmets from ten different models spanning an age range of 2-20 yrs. All cores were impact tested at a bulk strain rate of 195 s(-1). Six dependent variables were determined from the stress-strain curve derived from each impact (yield strain, yield stress, elastic modulus, plateau slope, energy at 65% compression, and stress at 65% compression), and a general linear model was used to assess the effect of age on each dependent variable with density as a covariate. Age did not affect any of the dependent variables; however, greater foam density, which varied from 58 to 100 kg/m(3), generated significant increases in all of the dependent variables except for yield strain. Higher density foam cores also exhibited lower strains at which densification began to occur, tended to stay within the plateau region of the stress-strain curve, and were not compressed as much compared with the lower density cores. Based on these data, the impact attenuation properties of EPS foam in field-used bicycle helmets do not degrade with the age.

  10. Bicycle helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    One third of the cyclists who are admitted to hospital with serious injury after a road crash are diagnosed with head or brain injury. Approximately three-quarters of the head and brain injuries among cyclists are caused by crashes that do not involve motorized traffic; as many as nine out of ten yo

  11. Bicycle helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    One third of the cyclists who are admitted to hospital with serious injury after a road crash are diagnosed with head or brain injury. Approximately three-quarters of the head and brain injuries among cyclists are caused by crashes that do not involve motorized traffic; as many as nine out of ten yo

  12. Legislation and research in The Netherlands in the field of traffic safety regarding seat belts and crash helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Legislation on seat belts and crash helmets has been introduced since 1975. Safety belts are used by 50-75% of car drivers and passengers. Crash helmets are used by virtually all motorcyclists and moped riders. Fatalities have been reduced due to the use of seat belts by 60%, and due to the helmets

  13. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra; Coleman, Emily; Zwolakowski, Dorothy; Lauwers, Bert; Cass, Dan

    2012-11-20

    The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury. We used a case-control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner's review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet. Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-10.2). Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths.

  14. Bicycle helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing: a re-analysis of Walker, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Olivier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To re-analyse bicycle overtaking data collected by Walker (2007 with a view to assess factors associated with close passing (<1 m, to adjust for other observed factors in a multivariable analysis, and to assess the extent to which the sample size in the original analysis may have contributed to spurious results. METHOD: A re-analysis of 2,355 motor vehicle passing events recorded by Walker that includes information on cyclist's distance to the kerb, vehicle size and colour, city of observation, time of day, whether the event occurred while in a bikelane and helmet wearing. Each variable was considered for a final, multivariable model using purposeful selection of variables. The analysis was repeated using multiple logistic regression with passing distance dichotomised by the one metre rule. Bootstrap p-values were computed using sample sizes computed from conventional values of power and effect size. RESULTS: The previously observed significant association between passing distance and helmet wearing was not found when dichotomised by the one metre rule. Other factors were found to be significantly associated with close passing including cyclists' distance to the kerb, vehicle size and city of observation (Salisbury or Bristol, UK. P-values from bootstrap samples indicate the significance of helmet wearing resulted from an overly large sample size. CONCLUSIONS: After re-analysis of Walker's data, helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing. The results, however, highlight other more important factors that may inform effective bicycle safety strategies.

  15. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified.

  16. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  17. Can social psychological models be used to promote bicycle helmet use among teenagers? A comparison of the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior and the Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Timo; Räsänen, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    The bicycle helmet use rate is still low among teenagers despite the cumulating evidence that bicycle helmets can prevent cyclists from serious injuries and death. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the Health Belief Model (HBM; Health Education Monographs, 2 (1974) (1), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Open University Press, Milton Keynes) and Locus of Control model (LC; Psychological Monographs, (1966) (80) in understanding the intention to use bicycle helmet use among bicycle helmet owners. Data were collected at two schools in Helsinki, Finland. Students (N=965) completed a questionnaire including three social psychological models applied to helmet use. Models were compared by structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that the TPB and LC model fitted the data well, whereas fit of the HBM model was lower than the fit of TPB and LC models. All components of TPB and external LC orientation were significantly related to the intention to use a helmet. TPB together with LC model provide a promising theoretical framework for helmet use promotion campaigns. Practical suggestions for future bicycle helmet campaigns were provided.

  18. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a rejoinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris

    2012-03-01

    This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis and the lack of data beyond a few years before the introduction of legislation, the failure to adequately account for the effect of the phasing in of the legislation, the effect of the marked reduction in child cyclists, and the non-comparability of the pedestrian and cycling injuries and related lack of consideration of the severity of head injuries. The extent to which helmet legislation deters people from cycling is discussed.

  19. Corrigendum to: “Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: a re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001” [Accid. Anal. Prev. 43 (2011) 1245–1251].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a corrigendum to the previously published paper: “Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001” [Accid. Anal. Prev. (2011) 1245–1251]. This corrigendum was prepared to correct errors in data and analysis in the previously published paper. Like the previously published paper, this paper confirms that the meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy reported by Attewell, Glase and McFadden (Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2001, 345–352) was influenced by publication bias and time-trend bias that was not controlled for. As a result, the analysis reported inflated estimates of the effects of bicycle helmets. This paper presents a re-analysis of the study. The re-analysis included: (1) Ensuring the inclusion of all published studies by means of continuity corrections of estimates of effect relying on zero counts; (2) detecting and adjusting for publication bias by means of the trim-and-fill method; (3) detecting and trying to account for a time-trend bias in estimates of the effects of bicycle helmets; (4) updating the study by including recently published studies evaluating the effects of bicycle helmets. The re-analysis shows smaller safety benefits associated with the use of bicycle helmets than the original study.

  20. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  1. Traffic safety behaviour among young people in different residential settings: the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets, and reflectors by young people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Erika

    2009-12-01

    This study examines if, and how, the size of the community in which people live may contribute to explaining differences in traffic safety behaviour (self-reported behaviour regarding the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets and reflectors) among young people in Sweden. The study is based on a Swedish nationwide traffic safety survey with a net sample of 2854 respondents aged 16-25. Ordered logit regressions were performed, and place of residence is shown to have an impact on traffic safety behaviour. The results are presented and discussed in relation to risk exposure and traffic safety facilities in different settings. The implications of the study are considered, and the importance of investigating the way in which young people see traffic safety behaviour is emphasised.

  2. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety.

  3. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  4. Challenges in the Accurate Surveillance of Booster Seat and Bicycle Helmet Usage by Children: Lessons from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Pankratz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle collisions and bicycle collisions and falls are a leading cause of death by preventable injury for children. In order to design, implement and evaluate campaigns and programs aimed at improving child safety, accurate surveillance is needed. This paper examined the challenges that confront efforts to collect surveillance data relevant to child traffic safety, including observation, interview, and focus group methods. Strategies to address key challenges in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of surveillance methods were recommended. The potential for new technology to enhance existing surveillance methods was also explored.

  5. Using social marketing to increase the use of helmets among bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Timothy D; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n=15) as peer agents. These agents provided bicycle helmet information and asked fellow bicyclists to sign a pledge card to wear a helmet. They gave a coupon for a free helmet to those who pledged to wear a helmet. The authors received a total of 379 pledge cards and distributed 259 helmets. Bicycle helmet use rose from a baseline mean of 27.6% to a mean of 49.3% by the last week of the intervention.

  6. Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Carol C.; Heanue, Anne A.; Adler, Allan R.

    1998-01-01

    Two reports discuss legislation and regulations affecting libraries in 1997, (funding, government information, intellectual freedom and property, Next Generation Internet, postal rates, telecommunications) and publishing in 1997 (intellectual property, freedom of expression, new technology, postal rates). (PEN)

  7. Fietsongevallen bij kinderen in Nederland in 1990/1991: tijd voor fietshelmen [Bicycle accidents of children in the Netherlands in 1990/1991; time for cycle helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1994-01-01

    Objective. To assess the possibility of preventing consequences of bicycle accidents. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. The Netherlands. Material and method. The data on mortality and hospital admissions of children aged 0-14 years were analysed. The data on traffic accident fatalities were

  8. A comparison of motorcycle and bicycle accidents in oral and maxillofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Sergio Monteiro Lima; Santos, Saulo Ellery; Kluppel, Leandro Eduardo; Asprino, Luciana; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes; de Moraes, Márcio

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to present a large series of motorcycle- and bicycle-related traumas to the face in an attempt to identify the injury pattern in motorcyclists and bicyclists. Data were collected from patients during a 10-year period (1999 through 2009), which included demographic data, diagnosis of facial fractures, use of protective devices, dentoalveolar trauma, and facial soft tissue injuries. There were 556 patients with bicycle accidents and 367 with motorcycle accidents. Men were involved in 79% (436) of bicycles accidents and 82% (299) of motorcycle accidents. Young male patients were more frequent in bicycle and motorcycle accidents. Two hundred fifty bicyclists showed 311 maxillofacial fractures. Two hundred twenty-one motorcyclists showed 338 maxillofacial fractures. Motorcycle accidents caused multiple fractures in more patients. Seventy-six percent of motorcyclists were using helmets at the time of the accidents, whereas 6% of cyclists were using helmets. Motorcyclists showed a larger number of lacerations, whereas bicyclists showed a larger number of abrasions. Avulsion was the most common dentoalveolar injury for these accident types. Hospital stays were 3.8 days for motorcyclists and 1.3 days for bicyclists. The high-impact collisions typically observed in motorcycle accidents is directly related to larger percentages of soft tissue lacerations and facial fractures. The low-impact trauma that is observed in bicycle accidents is more commonly associated with soft tissue abrasion, hematoma, and dentoalveolar fractures. This stresses the need for compulsory legislation for helmet use with face-guards for cyclists and motorcyclists. It is important to take measures to alert the public regarding the severity of injuries likely to occur in bicycle- and motorcycle-related accidents and ways to prevent them. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Bicycle Safety Education Program for Parents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…

  10. A study on bicycle-related injuries and their costs in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Rahim, Yousif; Zhou, De-Ding

    2011-01-01

    China is known as the Bicycle Kingdom, but the nature, extent, and costs of bicycle-related injuries remain largely unknown. The authors' findings showed that the bicycle-related mortality rate increased 99% from 1992 to 2004, and it increased with age, from 0.64 per 100,000 population in the 0-14 age group to 5.93 per 100,000 population in the 65 and older age group. Labor force groups represented the majority of fatalities (70.8%) and nonfatal injuries (81.5%). The male mortality rate was 2.4 times higher than the female mortality rate. Head injuries accounted for 71.9% of fatalities and 33.1% of the hospitalizations. People with lower levels of education had higher injury rates. The poorer districts located in the countryside had the highest mortality rates compared to those located in the central, wealthier regions. The total annual cost of bicycle-related injuries was 1.1 billion CHY (Chinese Yuan) (over $137 million U.S.). To reduce bicycle-related injuries, mandatory helmet legislations, environmental modifications, and representative monitoring systems in China are required.

  11. Bicycle safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... states have bike lanes and laws that protect bicycle riders. But riders are still at risk of ... stop or take evasive action. While riding your bicycle: Watch for opening car doors, potholes, children, and ...

  12. 77 FR 39927 - Vehicles and Traffic Safety-Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... bicycle trails for beautiful scenery, exercise, and adventure. People bicycle alone, with friends, or with... through a written determination, remain in effect, and the new rule does not require that they be reissued..., and Wyoming). Studies show that helmet use while riding decreases the risk of head and brain injury...

  13. Helmet blastometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  14. Limiting Performance of Helmets for the Prevention of Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Q. Cheng

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the theoretical optimal (limiting performance of helmets for the prevention of head injury. A rigid head injury model and a two-mass translational head injury model are employed. Several head injury criteria are utilized, including head acceleration, the head injury criterion (HIC, the energy imparted to the brain which is related to brain injury, and the power developed in the skull that is associated with skull fracture. A helmeted head hitting a rigid surface and a helmeted head hit by a moving object such as a ball are considered. The optimal characteristics of helmets and the impact responses of the helmeted head are investigated computationally. An experiment is conducted on an ensemble of bicycle helmets. Computational results are compared with the experimental results.

  15. Helmets in sport: fact and fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries and the prevention of both the short-term and long-term consequences have received heightened awareness in recent years. Education and legislative efforts have promoted both appropriate treatment of concussion and pushed the use of helmets for protection from head injuries. Current scientific data would suggest that helmets are effective at decreasing the risk of serious head injuries. However there is no evidence to suggest that helmets are protective against concussive injuries or the long-term impact of repetitive head trauma.

  16. The biomechanics of helmets and helmet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R D; Daniel, W W

    1985-04-01

    To better understand motion in the cervical spine related to helmet wearing and removal, normal volunteers underwent videotaped fluoroscopy during helmet removal and lateral spine X-rays in various positions. There was a tendency towards increased flexion in the supine position in the helmeted volunteers which disappeared with minimal traction. In forced hyperextension, the posterior lip of the helmet did not guillotine the cervical spine. There was no significant difference in cervical spine motion between a one-person and two-person technique of helmet removal, and in both techniques, a minimum amount of flexion occurred in clearing the occiput.

  17. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  18. Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic bicycle wheel developed by two DuPont engineers and a California company incorporates research into NASA airfoils. Computer modeling was accomplished with MSC/NASTRAN. Each of the three spokes in the wheel is, in effect, an airfoil, maximizing aerodynamic efficiency for racing.

  19. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  20. Electric-bicycle-related injury: a rising traffic injury burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiying; Raghuwanshi, Rakesh P; Xu, Zigang; Huang, Dayong; Zhang, Chong; Jin, Tao

    2010-12-01

    To examine the rising casualty rate related to electric bicycle usage. Analysis of the Hangzhou Police Bureau's data on electric-bicycle-related injuries and deaths. Hangzhou, China, 2004-2008. PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS: Electric-bicycle riders. Electric-bicycle-related casualty rates in Hangzhou from 2004 to 2008. There was a significant average annual increase in electric-bicycle-related casualty rates of 2.7 per 100,000 population (95% CI 1.5 to 3.9, p=0.005). At the same time, overall road traffic and manual-bicycle-related deaths and injuries decreased. As it is difficult to ban the use of electric bicycles in China, laws, rules and regulations need to be reinforced and strengthened. New regulations should be created for the safety of electric bicycle riders and others on the road, and mandatory helmet use should be considered.

  1. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older...

  2. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  3. A transient finite element study reveals the importance of the bycicle helmet material properties on head protection during an impact

    OpenAIRE

    Asiminei, Aida Georgeta; Van der Perre, Georges; Verpoest, Ignace; Goffin, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on understanding the mechanism that gives the bicycle helmet the role of protecting the head during an impact. The finite element method is used here as a first step in the helmet optimisation and improvement process. The relation between different helmet mechanical parameters and the risk of head injury during the impact is described using MSC Marc Mentat finite element software. The reduction in resulting head linear acceleration by more than 80% and in resulting stres...

  4. Orthopedic injury in electric bicycle-related collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Yun, Zhe; Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yucai; Yang, Tongtao; Zheng, Lianhe; Qian, Jixian

    2017-05-19

    Although electric bicycle-related injuries have become the most common reason for hospitalization due to a road crash in China, no study has comprehensively investigated electric bicycle collisions and their impact on orthopedic injuries; such a study may provide evidence to support a new road safety policy. A retrospective review of orthopedic injuries from electric bicycle collisions was performed in an urban trauma center. We collected variables including age, gender, location of fracture, presence of open or closed fractures, concomitant vascular, and neurologic injuries. A total of 2,044 cases were involved in electric bicycle collisions. The orthopedic injury victims were predominantly male and middle aged. The most common orthopedic injury was a femur fracture. Open fractures frequently involved the forearm and tibia/fibula. Male patients were more likely to suffer from multiple fractures and associated injuries than female patients. Fewer patients age 60 years old or older wore helmets at the time of the accident compared to those in other age groups. Orthopedic injuries from electric bicycle-related accidents cause patients substantial suffering that could lead to serious social consequences. Helmet use and protective clothing or similar safety gear, especially for electric bicycle users, should be required to provide greater protection.

  5. Crash helmets for moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Paar, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    Research has been done into the requirements for crash helmets for moped drivers not only in relation to their comfort but also to their protection. It is stated that any helmet is better than no helmet.

  6. Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger-Franks, G; Machala, M; Goodale, K; Gerberding, S

    2000-04-01

    Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate in the contest. Eight schools addressed increasing helmet use, four schools also addressed increasing seat belt use and rear seating, and one school addressed safety in general. A $1,000 prize was awarded to each of four schools judged to have the highest levels of student and community involvement, outreach, creativity, and changes in safety behavior (based on perceptions of outside judges). In 1997, baseline observations were collected for 1) seat belt use and rear seating for children in 28 schools, and for 2) bicycle helmet use among children in 25 schools. In 1998, follow up data were collected for 1) seat belt and rear seating in 42 schools, and 2) bicycle helmet use in 35 schools. Data were analyzed using SAS. Adjusting for differences in baseline rates, regression analysis was used to compare 1997 and 1998 rates for seat belt use, rear seating, and bicycle helmet use for those schools having baseline data. Results showed that although there was no significant difference between participating and non-participating schools in rear-seating behaviors, there was an increase in seat belt and bicycle helmet use for participating schools. Since schools self-selected participation, it is unknown whether those schools were fundamentally different from nonparticipating schools.

  7. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  8. Lost Kingdom of Bicycles?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For most people born in the 1950s and '60s, the bicycle was a faithful companion of their youth, when China was known as a kingdom of bicycles. A bicycle ride was a favorite pastime during a colorful spring day or in the crisp

  9. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data fr

  10. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. Final report of Working Group 2: Traffic psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, D. Bogerd, C.P. Chliaoutakis, J. Cavallo, V. Crundall, D. Dias, J. Haworth, N. Holt, N. Houtenbos, M. Kuklane, K. Lajunen, T. Morandi, A. Oron-Gilad, T. Orsi, C. Papadakaki, M. Parkkari, K. Rus, D. Saplioglu, M. Tzamalouka, G. Valero-Mora, P. Walker, I. Wardlow, M. & Weber, T.

    2015-01-01

    The HOPES workgroup of Traffic Psychology is concerned with the social, behavioral, and perceptual aspects that are associated with use and non-use of bicycle helmets, in their various forms and under various cycling conditions. The objectives of WG2 are to (1) share current knowledge among the peop

  11. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data fr

  12. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. Final report of Working Group 2: Traffic psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, D. Bogerd, C.P. Chliaoutakis, J. Cavallo, V. Crundall, D. Dias, J. Haworth, N. Holt, N. Houtenbos, M. Kuklane, K. Lajunen, T. Morandi, A. Oron-Gilad, T. Orsi, C. Papadakaki, M. Parkkari, K. Rus, D. Saplioglu, M. Tzamalouka, G. Valero-Mora, P. Walker, I. Wardlow, M. & Weber, T.

    2015-01-01

    The HOPES workgroup of Traffic Psychology is concerned with the social, behavioral, and perceptual aspects that are associated with use and non-use of bicycle helmets, in their various forms and under various cycling conditions. The objectives of WG2 are to (1) share current knowledge among the peop

  13. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  14. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  15. Bicycle Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Noel

    2001-01-01

    A bicycle braking system for permitting controlled rotation and continuous power to the wheels of a bicycle during braking of the bicycle to enhance control of the bicycle during braking includes a cylindrical brake pad that is spring loaded within angled slots in a casing. The brake pad is positioned proximate the rim of a wheel and a cable assembly is coupled to the brake pad for urging the brake pad towards an end of the angled slots and against the rim of the wheel to slow rotation of the...

  16. Effects of Wearing a Helmet on Thermal Balance While Cycling in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisolfi, C V; Rohlf, D P; Navarude, S N; Hayes, C L; Sayeed, S A

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Many cyclists refuse to wear helmets because they produce discomfort and drag. To determine the effects of wearing a helmet on thermal balance and rating of perceived exertion while cycling in the heat, six male competitive cyclists aged 19 to 32 rode a stationary bicycle attached to a road-racing simulator in an environmentally controlled chamber for two hours at 70% V O2 max. Measurements were taken of rectal and skin temperatures, V O2, heart rate, sweat rate, and rating of perceived exertion. The results showed that (under the experimental conditions used) wearing a helmet while cycling in the heat does not alter thermal balance or cardiovascular strain compared with not wearing a helmet.

  17. Bicycles made to measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2007-01-01

    For almost a century and a half, mathematicians have been racking their brains about the bike. How can a rolling bicycle be so stable of its own accord? Delft researchers now say they have completed the model to end all models. Bicycle manufacturer Batavus intends to use it to make better bikes for

  18. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  19. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  20. Determinants of safety helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeesha C Haran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motorcycles account for a large proportion of road traffic accidents in India and the riders of these vehicles run a high risk of injuries or death. This study aims to explore the determinants of helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in Kerala, India, over a period of six months. 309 motorcyclists in Kerala were interviewed for this study using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Among 309 motorcyclists, 80% were less than 40 years of age, and only 24% were females. Among the total, only 31.4% used a helmet. There was a statistically significant association between the use of helmet and gender, marital status, drunken driving, use of alcohol and attitude towards implementing legislative measures. Odds Ratios observed were 5.3 for female gender compared to male, 4.5 for those with a positive attitude towards the implementation of legislative measures on helmet use, 3.7 for those who were not drunk while driving and 2.3 for unmarried compared to married persons. Conclusions: The study concludes that the determinants associated with the practice of helmet use were gender, drunken driving, marital status and positive attitude towards legal measures.

  1. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males.

  2. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  3. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Haigh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities.

  4. Quantifying bicycle network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Loh, Tracy Hadden

    2017-02-01

    The intent of this study was to compare bicycle network connectivity for different types of bicyclists and different neighborhoods. Connectivity was defined as the ability to reach important destinations, such as grocery stores, banks, and elementary schools, via pathways or roads with low vehicle volumes and low speed limits. The analysis was conducted for 28 neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington under existing conditions and for a proposed bicycle master plan, which when complete will provide over 700 new bicycle facilities, including protected bike lanes, neighborhood greenways, and multi-use trails. The results showed different levels of connectivity across neighborhoods and for different types of bicyclists. Certain projects were shown to improve connectivity differently for confident and non-confident bicyclists. The analysis showed a positive correlation between connectivity and observed utilitarian bicycle trips. To improve connectivity for the majority of bicyclists, planners and policy-makers should provide bicycle facilities that allow immediate, low-stress access to the street network, such as neighborhood greenways. The analysis also suggests that policies and programs that build confidence for bicycling could greatly increase connectivity.

  5. [E-bikers are more often seriously injured in bicycle accidents: results from the Groningen bicycle accident database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, H P A M; Lefarth, T L; Harbers, J S; Wendt, K W; El Moumni, M; Reininga, I H F

    2017-01-01

    Analysing injury types, injury severity and mortality in victims of accidents with electric bicycles in comparison with conventional bicycles. Prospective cohort study. Data of patients treated at the Accident & Emergency Department of the University Medical Center Groningen after a bicycle accident are being entered in a database since 2014. We have analysed this database for accidents with electric bicycles (e-bikes) and conventional bicycles occurring among adult patients for the period of July 2014 to May 2016. 'Propensity score matching' was used to match e-bikers to conventional cyclists, based on age, gender and the presence of comorbidities. 107 of the 475 included victims were riding an e-bike. Average age of e-bikers and conventional cyclists was 65 years and 39 years respectively. Comorbidity was more common in e-bikers. E-bikers were injured significantly more severely than conventional cyclists. They had more severe injuries of the head and face, and upper and lower extremities. E-bikers were also admitted to the hospital more often, and for longer periods, and they underwent surgery more often. Mortality was the same. Propensity score matching revealed that e-bikers had multiple severe injuries (ISS > 15) twice as often as conventional cyclists, that they had more severe head injuries and were admitted for longer periods than conventional cyclists. E-bikers who had a bicycle accident had more severe injuries, more frequently had multiple injuries and had more severe head injuries than conventional cyclists. This resulted in a greater need for care. Preventive measures such as riding lessons and helmet use should be encouraged. Care providers should pay extra attention to the possibility of severe injuries when a patient had a bicycle accident with an e-bike.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  7. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  8. On a Bicycle in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RON ROSSI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Other expats here in Beijing have all bought bicycles.One friend who was excited about his new bicycle told me he spent about 2,100 yuan($300).Another mentioned he had spent what would be equivalent to $500.

  9. Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Rodarius, C.; Mordaka, J.K.; Versmissen, A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Much attention is being paid to pedestrian safety by international working groups such as EEVC WG17, in research projects such as APROSYS (www.aprosys.com) and consumer organisations like Euro NCAP (www.euroncap.com). In addition legal requirements are in place, like the EU directive 2003/102/EC. However, it can be seen from the BRON (Bestand geRegistreerde Ongevallen Nederland) accident database that in the Netherlands more people get killed or injured while riding a bicycle than as a pedest...

  10. Consequences of Underestimating Impalement Bicycle Handlebar Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Irizarry, Carmen T; Swain, Shakeva; Troncoso-Munoz, Samantha; Duncan, Malvina

    Impalement bicycle handlebar trauma injuries are rare; however, on initial assessment, they have the potential of being underestimated. We reviewed our prospective trauma database of 3,894 patients for all bicycle injuries from January 2010 to May 2015. Isolated pedal bike injuries were reported in 2.6% (N = 101) of the patients who were admitted to the trauma service. Fifteen patients suffered direct handlebar trauma. Patients were grouped into blunt trauma (n = 12) and impalement trauma (n = 3). We examined gender, age, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale score, use of protective devices, need for surgical intervention, need for intensive care (ICU), and hospital length of stay. Mean age was 9.6 years. All children with penetrating injuries were males. Mean ISS was less than 9 in both groups. None of the children were wearing bicycle helmets. Three patients who sustained blunt injuries required ICU care due to associated injuries. All of the children with impalement injuries required several surgical interventions. These injuries included a traumatic direct inguinal hernia, a medial groin and thigh laceration with resultant femoral hernia, and a lateral deep thigh laceration. Impalement bicycle handlebar injuries must be thoroughly evaluated, with a similar importance given to blunt injuries. A high index of suspicion must be maintained when examining children with handlebar impalement injuries, as they are at risk for missed or underestimation of their injuries.

  11. Bicycle Trailers Increase Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of an exceptional parent who always takes his daughter for rides in a CycleTote special needs bicycle trailer. Dennis Foster, an exceptional parent from Commerce, Oklahoma, found that taking his twenty-eight-year-old daughter Hasha for rides has made her happy. Hasha has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

  12. Bicycles and Valentines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shanghai municipality's announcement late last year that bicycles were to be banned from the city's main thoroughfares was ill received by many residents. The measure was taken to relieve traffic congestion and reflects how traditional modes of transport fail to meet the changing needs of Chinese contemporary life.

  13. The safety of electrically assisted bicycles compared to classic bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Fishman, E; den Hertog, P; Wolt, K Klein; Schwab, A L

    2014-12-01

    Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case-control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is needed and injury consequences for electric bicycles to classic bicycles in the Netherlands among users of 16 years and older. Data were gathered through a survey of victims treated at emergency departments. Additionally, a survey of cyclists without any known crash experience, drawn from a panel of the Dutch population acted as a control sample. Logistic regression analysis is used to compare the risk of crashes with electric and classical bicycles requiring treatment at an emergency department. Among the victims treated at an emergency department we compared those being hospitalized to those being send home after the treatment at the emergency department to compare the injury consequences between electric and classical bicycle victims. The results suggest that, after controlling for age, gender and amount of bicycle use, electric bicycle users are more likely to be involved in a crash that requires treatment at an emergency department due to a crash. Crashes with electric bicycles are about equally severe as crashes with classic bicycles. We advise further research to develop policies to minimize the risk and maximize the health benefits for users of electric bicycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt...) Years of Age and Older ER10MR98.004...

  15. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-03-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is 'risky' or 'only for sporty people'. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling 'role models' visible.

  16. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    , maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educated individuals who were very interested in aesthetics. Furthermore, Wagener was convinced that trikes were......Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design...... between order and delivery. From a marketing perspective, one of the differentiating factors of Morten’s product is the quality of the ride (compared to competing products) and so his marketing team coined the slogan “Built-to-Tilt” because even though it’s a trike it feels like riding a two...

  17. Land of Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHua; LuRucai

    2004-01-01

    There are currently more than 500 million cyclists in China,10million of them in Bejing.Despite efficient bus networks,legions of taxis and surging private car ownership,the bicycle remains a firm fixture in Chinese daily life.But it is much more than just a means of transport to cyclists today,who demand a afr greater chioce of design and function than ever before.

  18. Bicycle-riding circumstances and injuries in school-aged children. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturia, Y D; Morehead, T; LeBailly, S; Horwitz, E; Kharasch, M; Fisher, J; Christoffel, K K

    1997-05-01

    To identify bicycle-riding circumstances associated with bicycle-related injury among school-aged children. Case-control. One metropolitan emergency department and 3 suburban emergency departments. Consecutive sample of children aged 7 through 18 years who experienced bicycle-related trauma and control children seen for non-bicycle-related trauma (matched for age within 1 year, sex, and area of residence [urban vs suburban]). Parents and case children were interviewed by telephone about the bicycle ride resulting in their visit to the emergency department. Parents and control children were interviewed about their most recent bicycle ride. The survey instrument addressed the following potential risk factors: helmet use, bicycle speed, road conditions, riding location, bicycle condition, an adult presence, riding destination, bicycle style, and stunt riding. Interviews were completed with 47 (73%) of 64 eligible case children and 42 (69%) of 61 control children with the following age distribution: 27 (30%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 7 to 9 years, 40 (45%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 10 to 14 years, and 22 (25%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 15 to 18 years. Fourteen children (16%) were wearing helmets. There was a high degree of agreement between parent and child responses, higher for case children than for control children. In univariate analyses, injury was associated with riding with other children (vs riding alone or with adults), riding fast or slow (vs normal speed), riding a BMX-style (motocross) bicycle (vs another standard or multispeed style bicycle), playing on the bicycle (vs going to school or other purposeful or nonpurposeful trip), and riding only on the sidewalk (vs in the street). More case children than control children were farther than 3/4 mile (> 1.2 km) from home (38% vs 19%, P = .05). Multiple logistic regression identified' slow riding speed (odds ratio, 10.3;95% confidence

  19. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  20. Requirements for crash helmets for moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    In proposals for the legal obligation for riders of motorised two-wheelers to wear helmets, requirements will be included for the construction of the helmet relating to protection against injuries in accidents, without the risk of causing other serious injuries. In order to make the helmet

  1. Requirements for crash helmets for moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    In proposals for the legal obligation for riders of motorised two-wheelers to wear helmets, requirements will be included for the construction of the helmet relating to protection against injuries in accidents, without the risk of causing other serious injuries. In order to make the helmet acceptab

  2. Combat Helmets and Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and the prominence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, mostly from improvised explosive devices, have focused attention on the effectiveness of combat helmets. Purpose: This paper examines the importance of TBI, the role and history of the development of combat helmets, current helmet designs and effectiveness, helmet design methodology, helmet sensors, future research and recommendations. Method: A literature review was conducted using search terms – combat helmets, traumatic brain injury, concussion, Iraq, Afghanistan and helmet sensors, searching PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Conclusions: At present, no existing helmet is able to fully protect against all threats faced on the battlefield. The prominence of traumatic brain injury from improvised explosive devices in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has highlighted the limitations in knowledge about blast and how to provide protection from it. As a result, considerable research is currently occurring in how to protect the head from blast over-pressure. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Some new combat helmets may be able to protect against rifle rounds, but may result in injuries occurring behind body armour. Optimal combat helmet design requires a balance between the need for protection from trauma and the comfort and practicality of the helmet for the user to ensure the best outcomes.

  3. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  4. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  5. Teaching children about bicycle safety: an evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Noland, Robert B; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple health and environmental benefits associated with increasing bicycling among children. However, the use of bicycles is also associated with severe injuries and fatalities. In order to reduce bicycle crashes, a bicycling education program was implemented in selected New Jersey schools and summer camps as part of the New Jersey Safe Routes to School Program. Using a convenience sample of participants to the program, an opportunistic study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two bicycle education programs, the first a more-structured program delivered in a school setting, with no on-road component, and the other a less structured program delivered in a summer camp setting that included an on-road component. Tests administered before and after training were designed to assess knowledge acquired during the training. Questions assessed children's existing knowledge of helmet use and other equipment, bicycle safety, as well as their ability to discriminate hazards and understand rules of the road. Participating children (n=699) also completed a travel survey that assessed their bicycling behavior and their perception of safety issues. Response to individual questions, overall pre- and post-training test scores, and changes in test scores were compared using comparison of proportion, t-tests, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Improvements between the pre-training and post-training test are apparent from the frequency distribution of test results and from t-tests. Both summer camps and school-based programs recorded similar improvements in test results. Children who bicycled with their parents scored higher on the pre-training test but did not improve as much on the post-training test. Without evaluating long-term changes in behavior, it is difficult to ascertain how successful the program is on eventual behavioral and safety outcomes.

  6. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Laura; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Epidemiological research details a high rate of horse-related injury, despite technical countermeasures being widely available and largely affordable. Whilst barriers to engaging in preventative behavior such as helmet-use have been identified, less attention has been given to enabling factors. These factors could contribute to the design of more effective injury prevention interventions. To identify barriers as well as enablers in an Australian context, we explored how riders discussed helmet use amongst one another in an online setting. Our analysis revealed that social relations heavily influenced safety behavior. In particular, we identified three attitudes that affected helmet use: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Abstract Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the

  7. 36 CFR 13.914 - Bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycle use. 13.914 Section... § 13.914 Bicycle use. The use of a bicycle is prohibited— (a) On the Savage River Loop Trail; the... in public parking areas, or on trails and areas designated for bicycle use by the Superintendent....

  8. 15 CFR 265.22 - Bicycle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle traffic. 265.22 Section 265.22... Bicycle traffic. No person shall ride a bicycle other than in a manner exercising due caution for pedestrian and other traffic. No person shall ride a bicycle on sidewalks or inside any building, nor...

  9. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  10. Bicycle Trains, Cycling, and Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; Jacobs, Maya; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Miller, Josh; Salls, Deb; Todd, Winifred; Madding, Rachel; Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    Increasing children's cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students' school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Fourth-fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015-2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3-5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4-6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02006186. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    absence of external signs of trauma. Pulmonary contusion and pneumothorax are frequently present without rib fractures. Pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, and rib fractures are the most common injuries. In order to prevent bicycle accidents; bicycle drivers should have specific education, helmet use must become widespread and special traffic regulations have to be settled. Increasing the education level if family will contribute to the prevention of childhood trauma.

  12. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  13. Bicycle Use and Cyclist Safety Following Boston’s Bicycle Infrastructure Expansion, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Bellows, Alexandra L.; Taylor, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate changes in bicycle use and cyclist safety in Boston, Massachusetts, following the rapid expansion of its bicycle infrastructure between 2007 and 2014. Methods. We measured bicycle lane mileage, a surrogate for bicycle infrastructure expansion, and quantified total estimated number of commuters. In addition, we calculated the number of reported bicycle accidents from 2009 to 2012. Bicycle accident and injury trends over time were assessed via generalized linear models. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with bicycle injuries. Results. Boston increased its total bicycle lane mileage from 0.034 miles in 2007 to 92.2 miles in 2014 (P cyclist safety. PMID:27736203

  14. Præventiv effekt af cykelhjelme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Larsen, C F; Nordentoft, E

    1990-01-01

    The total number of persons injured following bicycle accidents in Denmark is estimated to be more than 50,000 annually. In half of the injured cyclists, lesions localized to the region of the head occur. Bicycle helmets provide considerable protection against brain injuries which constitute 13...... with bicycle accidents. When a bicycle helmet is purchased, it is important to ensure that the helmet fits the head, that vision is not impeded and that the chinstrap secures the helmet correctly. Legislation is necessary to ensure that bicycle helmets sold in Denmark fulfill the minimum safety requirements....

  15. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding.

  16. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  17. Bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Weckert, Edgar; Frahm, August Wilhelm

    2006-05-15

    For the second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, the cyanide addition as the key stereodifferentiating step produces mixtures of diastereomeric alpha-amino nitrile esters the composition of which is independent of the reaction temperature and the type of the solvent, respectively. The subsequent hydrolysis is exclusively achieved with concentrated H(2)SO(4) yielding diastereomeric mixtures of three secondary alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters and two diastereomeric cis-fused angular alpha-carbamoyl gamma-lactams as bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives, gained from in situ stereomer differentiating cyclisation of the secondary cis-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters. Separation was achieved by CC. The pure secondary trans-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters cyclise on heating and treatment with concentrated H(2)SO(4), respectively, to diastereomeric cis-fused angular secondary alpha-amino imides. Their hydrogenolysis led to the enantiomeric cis-fused angular primary alpha-amino imides. The configuration of all compounds was completely established by NMR methods, CD-spectra, and by X-ray analyses of the (alphaR,1R,5R)-1-carbamoyl-2-(1-phenylethyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one and of the trans-alphaS,1S,2R-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1-(1-phenylethylamino)cyclopentanecarboxamide.

  18. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory.

  19. The Bicycle Rental Market In Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 1, 2008, Hangzhou, capital of east China’s Zhejiang Province, included bicycle rentals in the public transportation system. Now, bicycles have become the most convenient form of transport for Hangzhou residents. Data from the Hangzhou Bureau of Transportation show that on average each bicycle gets rented five times a day.

  20. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  1. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  2. Bicycle Safety: Sport Education Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.; Cole, Amy; Schneulle, Deanna

    2005-01-01

    Although the benefits of regular physical activity are well-documented and very well known, Americans are still becoming more sedentary and obese. As some experts envision the potential of nonmotorized transport in the future, especially in urban settings, it is not surprising that diverse groups view walking and bicycling as a solution to an…

  3. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  4. Methods of bicycle users’ survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tokmylenko, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a review of data collection methods that can be used for bicycling modeling and planning. The review includes fifteen international studies that use different methods of data collection. The main advantages and disadvantages of each method are listed and the recommendations on when to use particular method are provided.

  5. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.

  6. Assessing the reliability and validity of direct observation and traffic camera streams to measure helmet and motorcycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Heather N; Carbone, Emily C; Dsouza, Nishita; Xu, Michelle R; Byrne, Mary C; Kraemer, John D

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to develop motorcycle helmet surveillance approaches that are less labour intensive than direct observation (DO), which is the commonly recommended but never formally validated approach, particularly in developing settings. This study sought to assess public traffic camera feeds as an alternative to DO, in addition to the reliability of DO under field conditions. DO had high inter-rater reliability, κ=0.88 and 0.84, respectively, for cycle type and helmet type, which reinforces its use as a gold standard. However, traffic camera-based data collection was found to be unreliable, with κ=0.46 and 0.53 for cycle type and helmet type. When bicycles, motorcycles and scooters were classified based on traffic camera streams, only 68.4% of classifications concurred with those made via DO. Given the current technology, helmet surveillance via traffic camera streams is infeasible, and there remains a need for innovative traffic safety surveillance approaches in low-income urban settings.

  7. Helmets for Motorcyclists a No Brainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or worse -- are much more likely if a crash occurs. Since Michigan eased its helmet laws, the number of skull fractures and other head and facial injuries related to motorcycle accidents has doubled, a new ...

  8. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B C; Ivers, R; Norton, R; Boufous, S; Blows, S; Lo, S K

    2008-01-23

    Motorcycle crash victims form a high proportion of those killed or injured in road traffic crashes. Injuries to the head, following motorcycle crashes, are a common cause of severe morbidity and mortality. It seems intuitive that helmets should protect against head injuries but it has been argued that motorcycle helmet use decreases rider vision and increases neck injuries. This review will collate the current available evidence on helmets and their impact on mortality, and head, face and neck injuries following motorcycle crashes. To assess the effects of wearing a motorcycle helmet in reducing mortality and head and neck injury following motorcycle crashes. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (up to April 2007), EMBASE (up to April week 16, 2007), CINAHL (January 1982 to February 2003), TRANSPORT (up to issue 12, 2006) (TRANSPORT combines the following databases: Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) International Transport Research Documentation (ITRD) formerly International Road Research Documentation (IRRD), ATRI (Australian Transport Index) (1976 to Feb 2003), Science Citation Index were searched for relevant articles. Websites of traffic and road safety research bodies including government agencies were also searched. Reference lists from topic reviews, identified studies and bibliographies were examined for relevant articles. We considered studies that investigated a population of motorcycle riders who had crashed, examining helmet use as an intervention and with outcomes that included one or more of the following: death, head, neck or facial injury. We included any studies that compared an intervention and control group. Therefore the following study designs were included: randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies. Ecological and case series studies were

  9. Biomechanical performance of leather and modern football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Daniel, Ray W; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-09-01

    With the increased national concern about concussions in football, recent research has focused on evaluating the impact performance of modern football helmets. Specifically, this technical note offers a biomechanical analysis of classic leather helmets compared with modern helmets. Furthermore, modern helmets were examined to illustrate the performance differences between the better- and worse-performing ones. A total of 1224 drop tests were performed from a range of drop heights and impact locations on 11 different helmet types (10 modern and 1 leather helmet model). The resulting head acceleration was used to assess the risk of concussion for each drop test. The results of this analysis demonstrate that modern helmets are significantly and substantially superior to leather helmets in all impact scenarios, and that notable differences exist among modern helmets.

  10. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  11. Electric-bicycle propulsion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oman, H.; Morchin, W.C. [Electro-Bicycle, Inc., Auburn, WA (United States); Jamerson, F.E. [Electric Battery Bicycle Co., Naples, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In a human-powered hybrid electric vehicle (HPHEV) the travel distance available from a single battery charge can be lengthened with power from another source, the cyclist`s leg muscles. In a battery-powered electric bicycle the propulsion power goes mostly into overcoming aerodynamic drag. For example, at 18 km per hour (11 miles per hour) this drag represents 200 watts at the tire-to-road interface for a typical cyclist`s shape and clothing. Today`s typical electrical bicycle is propelled by a high-speed dc motor which is powered from a lead-acid battery. The combined efficiency of the motor and its speed-reducing gears is 50 to 65 percent. In this paper we calculate available travel distances, as a function of speed, grade, and the battery energy-content as measured in watt-hours per kg. We show the effect of battery cost and charge/discharge cycle-life on travel cost in terms of cents per kilometer travelled. Designs used in today`s electric bicycles are illustrated.

  12. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, R; Baten, C; Buurke, J H; Rietman, J S

    2016-10-13

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied yet. This study aims to analyse the effect of 3 support systems: an automatic adjustable saddle height, optimised frame and wheel geometry and drive-off assistance. The support systems are integrated on the SOFIE bicycle, a prototype bicycle designed to support older cyclists during (dis-)mounting and at lower cycling speeds. Nine older cyclists (65-80 years) were asked to cycle on a 'normal' and on the 'SOFIE' bicycle. They cycled on a parking lot to avoid interaction with traffic. The following tasks were analysed: cycling at comfortable and low speed avoiding an obstacle and (dis-)mounting the bicycle. Bicycle and cyclist motions were recorded with 10 Inertial Measurement Units and by 2 video cameras. FUSION software (LABVIEW) was used to assess kinematic parameters. First, a subjective analysis of the different cycling tasks was made, supported by video analysis. Second, differences in cyclist and bicycle kinematic parameters between the normal and SOFIE bicycle were studied for the various cycling tasks. The SOFIE bicycle was experienced as a 'supportive' and comfortable bicycle and objectively performed 'safer' on various cycling tasks. For example: The optimised frame geometry with low step-in enabled a faster (dis-)mounting time and less sternum roll angle and angular acceleration. The adjustable saddle height enabled the participants to keep both feet on the ground till they started cycling with the 'drive-off' support. The latter reduces steering activity: maximum steer angle and angular acceleration. During sudden obstacle avoidance, less upper body and thigh accelerations are recorded. In conclusion, the SOFIE bicycle was able to support older cyclists during

  13. BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A comparison has been made between BMX bicycle accidents and those occurring when children ride other types of bicycle. The injuries sustained are compared to see if the clinical impressions that BMX are more dangerous, and produce more facial injuries, are correct. This was found not to be true as half the children involved rode BMX bicycles, and the injuries sustained were similar to those occurring to non BMX riders. BMX riders had a lower proportion of serious injuries than riders of raci...

  14. An Evaluation of a Classroom Science Intervention Designed to Extend the Bicycle Helmet Safety Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Moira N.; Marsh, Pamela K.; Montelpare, William J.; Van Barneveld, Christina; Zerpa, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Wizards of Motion is a program of curriculum delivery through which experts in Kinesiology introduce grade 7 students to applications of physics for human movement. The program is linked closely to Ministry of Education curriculum requirements but includes human movement applications and data analysis experiences. Purpose: The purpose…

  15. Præventiv effekt af cykelhjelme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Larsen, C F; Nordentoft, E

    1990-01-01

    with bicycle accidents. When a bicycle helmet is purchased, it is important to ensure that the helmet fits the head, that vision is not impeded and that the chinstrap secures the helmet correctly. Legislation is necessary to ensure that bicycle helmets sold in Denmark fulfill the minimum safety requirements.......The total number of persons injured following bicycle accidents in Denmark is estimated to be more than 50,000 annually. In half of the injured cyclists, lesions localized to the region of the head occur. Bicycle helmets provide considerable protection against brain injuries which constitute 13......%. Several investigations from abroad and from Denmark have demonstrated that protection of the head can reduce the number of deaths and of acute brain injuries due to bicycle accidents. On the basis of the literature, it is concluded that bicycle helmets provide good protection of the head in connection...

  16. Stabilizing a Bicycle: A Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Timothy J.; Williams, Blair R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a project that takes students through the process of forming a mathematical model of bicycle dynamics. Beginning with basic ideas from Newtonian mechanics (forces and torques), students use techniques from calculus and differential equations to develop the equations of rotational motion for a bicycle-rider system as it tips from…

  17. Bicycle parking preferences: costs versus walking time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Maat, K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful bicycle stimulating policies may increase the need for bicycle parking capacity, especially at main railway stations located in city centers. A potential solution for this problem involves combining paid surveyed indoor parking near the platforms and free open-air parking without surveill

  18. Good Practices Guide for Bicycle Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to serve as an informational resource for educators and other interested professionals in planning and developing bicycle safety education programs. The guide examines 15 existing bicycle safety education programs in the United States and one from Canada. (Author)

  19. Evaluation electric bicycles; Evaluation velos electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Leovelo service is the first measure in favor of the bicycle to control the air pollution and to conserve energy. It provides in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) a service of bicycle hiring. This document evaluates the project after two years of operating. It provides a technical evaluation (maintenance, equipment, financing) and also the socio-economic impacts. (A.L.B.)

  20. Survey of options on legalizing bicycling (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwahlen, Jurg; Sulewski, Sharon; Sacovitch, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    , gender, residency, frequency of use and their utilization of the area (i.e. walking, jogging, bicycling) as compared to the support for bicycling in the area. This was an Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP), that was designed to merge technical and scientific knowledge with society, and stresses...... the importance of this interaction....

  1. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    of the global. Beijing Bicycle is thematically similar to Vittorio de Sicas neorealist classic Bicycle Thieves (1948) and Akira Kurosawas filmnoir classic Stray Dog (1949). Both films describe a disillusioned post-war society in an impoverished Italy and a humiliated Japan respectively. The stories told become...

  2. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  3. A Quest for Open Helmets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2012-01-01

    The Danish burqa-affair contains a prohibition of wearing religious and political symbols in court as well as a re-interpretation of existing legislation in order to identify where within the limits of freedom of religion it is possible to make prohibitions towards the use of the burqa. The react......The Danish burqa-affair contains a prohibition of wearing religious and political symbols in court as well as a re-interpretation of existing legislation in order to identify where within the limits of freedom of religion it is possible to make prohibitions towards the use of the burqa....... The reactions are in this article interpreted as concerning central values such as open-minded-ness and equality combined with respect for freedom of religion also in public institutions, understood as representing 'the people' as common...

  4. STRESS ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.M.V.Pazare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stress analysis of bicycle frame by using Finite Element Method. The analysis is carried out in Ansys, The F.E.A. results are compared with theoretical results. In theoretical analysis the frame is treated as truss like structure and the stresses in various members of frame like top tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stay and seat stay are determined, considering various condition like, static start up, steady state paddling, vertical impact, horizontal impact, rear wheel braking. Also Finite Element Analysis is done considering the above conditions. From the analysis it is found that there is a good agreement between analytical and F.E.A. results. Result of all the cases reveals that maximum stress is found in top tube of the bicycle frame as compared to other frame members and is equal to 24.84 MPa which is less than yield strength in tension (i.e.Syt = 290 MPa for the material (aluminum T 6061 selected.

  5. Muscle fatigue based evaluation of bicycle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Jagannath, M; Adalarasu, K

    2014-03-01

    Bicycling posture leads to considerable discomfort and a variety of chronic injuries. This necessitates a proper bicycle design to avoid injuries and thereby enhance rider comfort. The objective of this study was to investigate the muscle activity during cycling on three different bicycle designs, i.e., rigid frame (RF), suspension (SU) and sports (SP) using surface electromyography (sEMG). Twelve male volunteers participated in this study. sEMG signals were acquired bilaterally from extensor carpi radialis (ECR), trapezius medial (TM), latissimus dorsi medial (LDM) and erector spinae (ES), during 30 min of cycling on each bicycle and after cycling. Time domain (RMS) and frequency domain (MPF) parameters were extracted from acquired sEMG signals. From the sEMG study, it was found that the fatigue in right LDM and ES were significantly (p bicycle. This was corroborated by a psychophysical assessment based on RBG pain scale. The study also showed that there was a significantly lesser fatigue with the SU bicycle than the RF and SP bicycles.

  6. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is al

  7. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is

  8. Compliance of proper safety helmet usage in motorcyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Umar, R S; Hariza, H A; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    Motorcyclists make up the largest group of fatalities on Malaysian roads, majority succumbing to head injuries despite the compulsory safety helmet laws in the country. One possible reason for this high fatality is improper usage of safety helmets. This study examines the compliance of proper safety helmet use in motorcyclists in a typical Malaysian town. Five hundred motorcyclists were studied. Only 54.4% of motorcyclists used helmets properly, 21.4% used them improperly; and 24.2% did not wear helmets. Six variables were found to be significant in improper safety helmet use. They were age, gender, race, formal education level, prior accident experience and type of license held. Marital status and riding experience were not significant. Efforts promoting proper use of safety helmets should focus on the young, male, less formally educated, unlicensed rider, who has had a prior accident.

  9. Two Wheeler Helmets with Ventilation and Metal Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pinnoji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different two wheeler helmets were studied to investigate their dynamic performance.First is helmet with ABS shell, second is helmet with metal foam, and third is helmet with singlegroove in the liner foam for providing ventilation. Front and side impact analyses were carriedout at 10 m/s velocity by using LS-DYNATM. Forces on the helmet and on the head due to impactwere studied with function of time. Pressure and stresses in the brain were investigated andfound not to change significantly due to the presence of groove in the liner foam, which wasprovided to improve the ventilation in helmets. The dynamic performance of a helmet with outershell as metal foam was examined and compared with ABS material.

  10. Pedal cyclists, crash helmets and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1991-07-01

    As a rate per million kilometres travelled, the 'risk' of cycling appears to be high in relation to other forms of transport. Yet, in absolute numbers, there are far fewer cyclist deaths than pedestrian or motor vehicle occupant deaths, and most deaths and serious injuries to pedal cyclists are caused by other road users--principally motor vehicles. The large majority of pedal cyclist deaths are due to head injuries after collision with a motor vehicle. It is therefore commonly proposed that cyclists should wear crash helmets for their own 'safety'. Helmets may protect against fall injuries, but current models are not designed to withstand the impact of collisions with motor vehicles. Evidence for the benefit of pedal cyclists wearing helmets is limited: the existing studies cannot exclude the possibility of different risk-taking behaviour, either by cyclists or by motor vehicle drivers, for helmet wearers compared with non-wearers. A public health policy towards reducing pedal cyclist deaths should seek prevention of accidents, rather than protection from their consequences. Cycling in greater safety would reduce the 'risk' per kilometre travelled, but more cycling might not reduce total cyclist deaths or injuries--because of greater exposure. The 'risk' of cycling--the risk of injury or death--is a complex mix of exposure, 'danger' of the environment, and the perceived risk affecting our precautionary preventive behaviour.

  11. Survey of options on legalizing bicycling (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwahlen, Jurg; Sulewski, Sharon; Sacovitch, Stephen;

    1999-01-01

    the opposition against the proposal was.The goal of this project was to identify categories of users that were opposed to bicycling on the Dosseringen of the Østerbro and Nørrebro District lakes in Copenhagen. The identification of the opposition and its strength, rationale and organization was in terms of age......, gender, residency, frequency of use and their utilization of the area (i.e. walking, jogging, bicycling) as compared to the support for bicycling in the area. This was an Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP), that was designed to merge technical and scientific knowledge with society, and stresses...

  12. The self-stabilising dynamics of bicycles

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the classical problem of the stability of bicycles when moving quickly and upright. Developing a lean causes the front wheel to turn thereby setting the bicycle instantaneously into circular motion. The centripetal force associated with the lean-dependent turning circle gives a restoring torque which corrects the lean. The force also helps self-steer the front wheel, ensuring the bicycle continues in an essentially straight path. We give the frequency of lean oscillations about the vertical executed during riding. As in the literature, we discuss the neglect of gyroscopic effects, which experiment suggests are negligible.

  13. Policy to promote bicycle use or bicycle to promote politicians? Bicycles in the imagery of urban mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Milani Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years an increasing number of presidents, prime ministers, governors and mayors in developed and developing countries have been riding bicycles to promote a more sustainable and friendly form of urban mobility. We believe that these images also reveal and influence the image of contemporary urban mobility – the way in which people see what urban mobility is and how it should be. In this paper we discuss how the image of the bicycle has changed in Brazil and how this may influence an increase in its actual 1% bicycle modal share in big cities. We conclude that the importance of the bicycle in the image of urban mobility has been changing cyclically, and what seems to be a positive trend today might end up as being just an ephemeral positive image, with the risk of having no further practical consequences.

  14. A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Attitude towards Bicycle and Using Bicycle in Short Trips in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to investigate relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle among the men in Isfahan. Based on the descriptive research findings, mean using bicycle score is low in Iran. This situation is not satisfactory for a metropolis such as Isfahan that has an increasing population and motor vehicles, and also has many difficulties in urban base facilities and must be changed. In addition to mean attitude toward bicycle is high that is an opportunity for urban planners. Inferential findings show that attitude toward bicycle has a significant impact on using bicycle. In other words, increase attitude toward bicycle means an increase in using bicycle for short trips. This research finding theoretically confirm relation between attitude and behavior. Moreover it is compatible with results of the research that show there is significant relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle. There is an inverse significant relationship between age and using bicycle and with rising age using bicycle is decreased. This research finding shows that urban infrastructure in Isfahan for using bicycle is not available and consequently with rising age, bicycle risk is increased. There is a direct significant relationship between income rate and using bicycle and with increasing income rate, using bicycle is also increased. This research finding is rooted in social prestige bicycle and higher classes prefer to use motor vehicle for transportation instead of bicycle. There is a significant relationship between marital status and using bicycle and single men use bicycle more than married men but there is no significant relationship between education level and using bicycle. This research findings show that with rising education level in spite of rising income, using bicycle is not decreased. And finally there is no significant relationship between employed and unemployed persons in using bicycle. On the basis of the evidences such

  15. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  16. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  17. Current and future concepts in helmet and sports injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Post, Andrew; Oeur, R Anna; Brien, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Since the introduction of head protection, a decrease in sports-related traumatic brain injuries has been reported. The incidence of concussive injury, however, has remained the same or on the rise. These trends suggest that current helmets and helmet standards are not effective in protecting against concussive injuries. This article presents a literature review that describes the discrepancy between how helmets are designed and tested and how concussions occur. Most helmet standards typically use a linear drop system and measure criterion such as head Injury criteria, Gadd Severity Index, and peak linear acceleration based on research involving severe traumatic brain injuries. Concussions in sports occur in a number of different ways that can be categorized into collision, falls, punches, and projectiles. Concussive injuries are linked to strains induced by rotational acceleration. Because helmet standards use a linear drop system simulating fall-type injury events, the majority of injury mechanisms are neglected. In response to the need for protection against concussion, helmet manufacturers have begun to innovate and design helmets using other injury criteria such as rotational acceleration and brain tissue distortion measures via finite-element analysis. In addition to these initiatives, research has been conducted to develop impact protocols that more closely reflect how concussions occur in sports. Future research involves a better understanding of how sports-related concussions occur and identifying variables that best describe them. These variables can be used to guide helmet innovation and helmet standards to improve the quality of helmet protection for concussive injury.

  18. A Geographical Analysis of Bicycle Sharing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Médard De Chardon, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the performance of bicycle sharing systems (BSS), autonomous systems of accessible bicycles that can be easily used for one way trips, and determines whether they are successful at achieving promoted social and environmental outcomes through quantitative and qualitative methods. Such systems are typically surrounded by positive narratives of success, health, environmental and social benefits. This work challenges these notions. This thesis begins with the formalisation o...

  19. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Munivenkatappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011. Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS, Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ, were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5% were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6% cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5, and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4. Sixty-three (49% patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%. Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1% and death in 8 (7.4%. The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms.

  20. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  1. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  2. e-ready legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse

    of the trustworthiness of administration systems. On the other hand, a successful adaption of legislation to a digital setup could help promote good service towards citizens and businesses, and according to land administration theories maybe even promote societal sustainability in large. Based on studies on Denmark......In general, digital society challenges traditional modes of legislation and rulings. Dissimilar compositions of the legislation and non-comparable spatial representations of the legal content makes traditional legislation unfit for e-Government. Lacking attention may lead to the undermining...

  3. School based bicycle safety education and bicycle injuries in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, J B; Taylor, P; Nolan, T

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate possible benefits of a school based bicycle safety education program ("Bike Ed") on the risk of bicycle injury in children. A population based case-control study was undertaken in a region of Melbourne, Australia. Cases were children presenting at hospital emergency departments with injuries received while riding bicycles. Controls were recruited by calling randomly selected telephone numbers. Data were collected by personal interview. Analysis, based on 148 cases and 130 controls aged 9 to 14 years, showed no evidence of a protective effect and suggested a possible harmful effect of exposure to the bicycle safety course (odds ratio (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 2.75). This association was not substantially altered by adjustment for sex, age, socioeconomic status, and exposure, measured as time or distance travelled. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was strongest in boys (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8), younger children, children from families with lower parental education levels, and children lacking other family members who bicycle. It is concluded that this educational intervention does not reduce the risk of bicycle injury in children and may possibly produce harmful effects in some children, perhaps due to inadvertent encouragement of risk taking or of bicycling with inadequate supervision.

  4. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  5. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, Vera Elisabeth; Beusenberg, Mark; Dubbeldam, Rosemary; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Poelman, Wim; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced

  6. 40 CFR 52.1162 - Regulation for bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) For present bicycle riders, the origin, destination, frequency, travel time, distance and purpose... Section 52.1162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., regional and local planning staffs, state, regional and local agencies, bicycle organizations and...

  7. Bicycling for transportation and health: the role of infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight on whether bicycling for everyday travel can help US adults meet the recommended levels of physical activity and what role public infrastructure may play in encouraging this activity. The study collected data on bicycling behavior from 166 regular cyclists in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area using global positioning system (GPS) devices. Sixty percent of the cyclists rode for more than 150 minutes per week during the study and nearly all of the bicycling was for utilitarian purposes, not exercise. A disproportionate share of the bicycling occurred on streets with bicycle lanes, separate paths, or bicycle boulevards. The data support the need for well-connected neighborhood streets and a network of bicycle-specific infrastructure to encourage more bicycling among adults. This can be accomplished through comprehensive planning, regulation, and funding.

  8. Wireless controller and smartphone based interaction system for electric bicycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge REVUELTA HERRERO; Gabriel VILLARRUBIA; Alberto L. BARRIUSO; Daniel HERNÁNDEZ; Álvaro LOZANO; Marco Antonio DE LA SERNA GONZÁLEZ

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper proposes a brand-new solution in the automotive field, consisting of a new product family which aims to transform the traditional bicycle to an electric bicycle using an architecture...

  9. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  10. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, Vera Elisabeth; Beusenberg, Mark; Dubbeldam, Rosemary; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Poelman, Wim; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced rider/bicycle model and bicycle stability test bench, will be created. This paper describes the development of these components and its goal is to present the project design. The stability hypothesis is base...

  11. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011)....

  12. Motorcycle riders' perception of helmet use: complaints and dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, C; Stendardo, A; Marinoni, A; Gilchrist, M D; Otte, D; Chliaoutakis, J; Lajunen, T; Ozkan, T; Pereira, J Dias; Tzamalouka, G; Morandi, A

    2012-01-01

    In accidents which involve two-wheeled vehicles the helmet plays a life-saving role, but very little is known about the motorcycle rider's perception of the helmet. We evaluated the relationships between having been involved in an accident and dissatisfaction with the helmet, and between the perception of motorcycle riders and the objective features of the helmet. This was a case-control study: riders of motorized two-wheelers who had been involved in accidents (accident cases) were compared against a similarly interviewed sample of riders that had not been in accidents (control cases). Information about the driver, the vehicle and the helmet was collected in all interviews. To evaluate the relationships, logistic regressions were carried out. The majority of drivers were dissatisfied with their helmets, but no evidence was found to link this dissatisfaction with having been involved in an accident. The two most common complaints related to noisiness, followed by the helmet visor. Complaints did not seem to be statistically associated with physical features of the helmet.

  13. Associations between a walkability index and bicycle use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Christiansen, L.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2012-01-01

    associations between measures of walkability and bicycle use for transport and the present study focuses on exploring whether these findings can be applied to a Danish setting where cycling culture differs and bicycle share is much higher (17% of all trips are by bicycle)...

  14. On the Stability of a Bicycle on Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general…

  15. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  16. New Materials and Construction for Improved Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    basis of laboratory te!sts for fragment protection capabilities and for durability. The mate- rials considered were (1) phenolic/ polyvinyl butyral ...phenolic/ polyvinyl butyral resin (221) were prepared Sanne • • mam • • - no , UI d n~udr aton:, a t 31 :i ~w~te i I l lewcd hy cot;l Ing prior It...Helmet kevlar fabric laminates u,,ing phenolic/ polyvinyl butyral resin withstand thermol stressing ’ad have low water absorption (2.5 percent in 24 hours

  17. Great helms and their development into helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results from the analysis made on a group of helmets dated from late 12th century to early 15th century. Metallographic advances recorded on them are considered as determinating factors on its evolution.

    Este trabajo expone los resultados de los análisis realizados sobre un grupo de yelmos datados desde finales del siglo XII hasta principios del XV. Los avances metalográficos documentados en ellos se revelan como un factor clave en la evolución de estos yelmos

  18. Bicyclic semigroups of left I-quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Ghroda, Nassraddin

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study left I-orders in the bicyclic monoid $\\mathcal{B}$. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup of $\\mathcal{B}$ to be a left I-oreder in $\\mathcal{B}$. We then prove that any left I-order in $\\mathcal{B}$ is straight.

  19. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl;

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...

  20. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  1. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  2. Fundamental Soviet Labor Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily Clark

    1973-01-01

    The crucial assumption underlying new Soviet legislation is the existence of common interest of workers and management in production; stressing cooperation, consultation, and creative participation and an increase in the role of trade unions in decision making. (Editor)

  3. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...... and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate......, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle...

  4. Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P crashes at night (P = .03). Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.

  5. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  6. Recreational helmet use as a predictor of noncranial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habib, Amro; Attabib, Najmedden; Hurlbert, R John

    2012-05-01

    The effect of helmet use in the prevention of head injury has been clearly shown. However, the relationship between helmet compliance and other bodily (noncranial) injury has not been explored, yet may have important impact on strategies for injury prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine helmet use in an injured population to evaluate its association with noncranial trauma. All entries in the Canadian National Trauma Registry were surveyed from 2000 to 2004 and limited to injuries sustained in recreational sports associated with helmet use. Over the 5-year period, 2,205 injuries met inclusion criteria. Cycling-related injuries were most frequent (43.5%). Alcohol consumption correlated significantly with lack of helmet use. Nonhelmeted individuals suffered significantly more noncranial injuries (85% vs. 68%, p injuries (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-3.37) or any abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.55-2.47). While controlling for age, sex, or type of sport activity performed, multivariate regression confirmed a reduction in associated noncranial injuries when helmets were used (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.83-0.89). Within an injured population from sports-related activities, helmet use is associated with fewer noncranial injuries of all types suggesting reduced overall risk of injury in this group. In addition, use of helmets is associated with less frequent and less severe head injury. Alcohol consumption is related to increased risk of injury and is more prevalent in injured individuals who abstain from helmet use. III, prognostic study.

  7. A Lightweight Innovative Helmet Airborne Display And Sight (HADAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Daniel; Arnon, Oded; Avnur, Arie

    1987-09-01

    The Helmet Airborne Display and Sight (HADAS) system under development, has succeeded in surmounting many of the problems experienced by current, as well as past helmet mounted display and sight designs for operation in fighter aircraft. The goal has been achieved by combination of holographic optical elements and fiber optics for the display function, as well as real-time image processing of the helmet location for the sight function. The integrated system can provide "all aspect head-up display" performance in the cockpit.

  8. The implementation of a municipal indoor ice skating helmet policy: effects on helmet use, participation and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (effect of indoor ice skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. System identification of the brompton bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Monique Victoria Teresa

    The Brompton (a European folding design) bicycle was instrumented with a variety of sensors including acceleration, angular rate, speed, and steering sensors. A bicycle state estimator was designed to obtain additional information from this data including heading, turn rate, lean angle, steer rate, and positions of the wheels during a trajectory. The first part of the thesis describes the model setup for system identification including the Steer-to-Lean dynamics and Lean-to-Steer dynamics reduced models. CIFER software was used in the system identification process of these models. The second part describes the validation of the Empirical model by using the Rider Control model ([1]) and the Complete Rider/Vehicle model ([1]) to determine the feedback gains. The Theoretical model feedback gains were also determined by using the Rider Control model ([1]) and the Complete Rider/Vehicle model ([1]).

  10. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Goede, M. de; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Methorst, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised tra

  11. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  12. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore,. Thailand ..... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students. .... or more alcoholic drinks; living with the family, and ...

  13. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tedi

    2013-01-07

    Jan 7, 2013 ... wisely manage human helmeted guinea fowl interac- tions. There are six ... meleagris and somaliensis, and Central-South African N. m. reichenowi, mitrata ... expansion of agricultural land and livestock grazing. METHODS.

  14. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  15. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  16. Bicycling and walking are associated with different cortical oscillatory dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eStorzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although bicycling and walking involve similar complex coordinated movements, surprisingly Parkinson’s patients with freezing of gait typically remain able to bicycle despite severe difficulties walking. This observation suggests functional differences in the motor networks subserving bicycling and walking. However, a direct comparison of brain activity related to bicycling and walking has never been performed, neither in healthy participants nor in patients. Such a comparison could potentially help elucidating the cortical involvement in motor control and the mechanisms through which bicycling ability may be preserved in patients with freezing of gait. The aim of this study was to contrast the cortical oscillatory dynamics involved in bicycling and walking in healthy participants.To this end, EEG and EMG data of 14 healthy participants were analyzed, who cycled on a stationary bicycle at a slow cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm and walked at 40 strides per minute (spm, respectively.Relative to walking, bicycling was associated with a stronger power decrease in the high beta band (23-35 Hz during movement initiation and execution, followed by a stronger beta power increase after movement termination. Walking, on the other hand, was characterized by a stronger and persisting alpha power (8-12 Hz decrease. Both bicycling and walking exhibited movement cycle-dependent power modulation in the 24-40 Hz range that was correlated with EMG activity. This modulation was significantly stronger in walking.The present findings reveal differential cortical oscillatory dynamics in motor control for two types of complex coordinated motor behavior, i.e., bicycling and walking. Bicycling was associated with a stronger sustained cortical activation as indicated by the stronger high beta power decrease during movement execution and less cortical motor control within the movement cycle. We speculate this to be due to the more continuous nature of

  17. Estimating Bicycle and Pedestrian Demand in San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael; Buckland, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts behind estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand and provides an example of the development of a sketch-plan method for estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand from land use in San Diego County. The paper describes the methodology involved in collecting counts for the currently ongoing Seamless Travel project. The Seamless Travel project intends to develop a model for estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand within San Diego County. The project methodology i...

  18. Technical analysis and market study of electric bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Matasyan, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This thesis project was done in collaboration with a Prismattery LLC, which is based in Tallinn, Estonia and is interested in entering the market of electric bicycles. For that reason in this report a detailed study concerning the market of electrical bicycles, its current situation and trends were performed and a promising target market was indicated. The market study showed that although in different countries the specifications and preferred types of electric bicycles may vary,...

  19. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  20. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela;

    2015-01-01

    This chapter proposes legislative proposals for restructuring and modernization of Higher Education (HE) in Moldova. It is based on (1) the analysis of the institutional university autonomy in Moldova; (2) the benchmark analysis of institutional university autonomy in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania......, Scotland and Sweden; (3) the on-going analysis of the current situation of institutional university autonomy in Moldova, including the on-going analysis and review of the Code of Education; and (4) the European Commission agenda for the modernization of higher education. The chapter identifies...... the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...

  2. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2017-01-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai‘i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  3. 2013 environmental health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015.

  4. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  5. Electric bicycle-related injuries presenting to a provincial hospital in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng Ang; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Liu, Nan; Pek, Pin Pin; Wang, Yi Qing; Jin, Tao; Yan, Guang Zhao; Han, Nan Nan; Li, Gang; Xu, Li Ming; Cai, Wen Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of electric bicycles (EBs) in China is growing. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the pattern and outcomes of EB-related injuries presenting to a major general hospital in China. This was a retrospective review of EB-related injuries presenting to Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from 2008 to 2011. Cases were identified from medical records according to diagnosis codes. Data captured included demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes. A total of 3156 cases were reviewed in the present study. There were 1460 cases of traffic accidents, of which 482 cases were EB-related (32.7%). In addition, most of EB-related cases (44.6%) belonged to the 41- to 60-year-old age group. Median injury severity score was 10. Moreover, 34.9% underwent surgery and 24.7% were admitted to intensive care unit. The median hospitalization cost was 14,269 USD. Fracture (56.5%) was the most frequently diagnosed injury type, and head was the most commonly injured body region (31.1%). EB-related injuries have become a major health concern, making up a sizeable proportion of injuries presenting to the emergency department. Therefore, it is necessary to establish injury prevention and strategies for EB road safety. Implementation of policy such as compulsory helmet use, as well as popularization of EB road safety education should be considered to improve the current situation of EB-related injuries in China. PMID:28658174

  6. Electric bicycle-related injuries presenting to a provincial hospital in China: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng Ang; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Liu, Nan; Pek, Pin Pin; Wang, Yi Qing; Jin, Tao; Yan, Guang Zhao; Han, Nan Nan; Li, Gang; Xu, Li Ming; Cai, Wen Wei

    2017-06-01

    The use of electric bicycles (EBs) in China is growing. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the pattern and outcomes of EB-related injuries presenting to a major general hospital in China.This was a retrospective review of EB-related injuries presenting to Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from 2008 to 2011. Cases were identified from medical records according to diagnosis codes. Data captured included demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes.A total of 3156 cases were reviewed in the present study. There were 1460 cases of traffic accidents, of which 482 cases were EB-related (32.7%). In addition, most of EB-related cases (44.6%) belonged to the 41- to 60-year-old age group. Median injury severity score was 10. Moreover, 34.9% underwent surgery and 24.7% were admitted to intensive care unit. The median hospitalization cost was 14,269 USD. Fracture (56.5%) was the most frequently diagnosed injury type, and head was the most commonly injured body region (31.1%).EB-related injuries have become a major health concern, making up a sizeable proportion of injuries presenting to the emergency department. Therefore, it is necessary to establish injury prevention and strategies for EB road safety. Implementation of policy such as compulsory helmet use, as well as popularization of EB road safety education should be considered to improve the current situation of EB-related injuries in China.

  7. On Wiener polarity index of bicyclic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Shi, Yongtang; Wang, Zhen; Yue, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in biological, physical and social sciences. Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. A number of Wiener type indices have recently been incorporated as distance-based descriptors of complex networks. Wiener type indices are known to depend both on the network’s number of nodes and topology. The Wiener polarity index is also related to the cluster coefficient of networks. In this paper, based on some graph transformations, we determine the sharp upper bound of the Wiener polarity index among all bicyclic networks. These bounds help to understand the underlying quantitative graph measures in depth.

  8. Solar Electric Bicycle Body Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new solar electric bicycle design and study were carried out on in this paper. Application of CAD technology to establish three-dimension geometric model, using the kinetic analysis on the frame and other parts for numerical simulation and static strength analysis for the vehicle model design, virtual assembly, complete frame dynamics analysis and vibration analysis, with considering other factors, first on the frame structure improvement, second on security of design calculation analysis and comparison, finally get the ideal body design.

  9. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Vlimmeren, L.A.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2012-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  10. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; MJ, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  11. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; MJ, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  12. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van R.M.; Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Vlimmeren, van L.A.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  13. A Novel and High Performance System for Enhancing Speech in Helmet Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a highly innovative system for enhancing speech in helmet. First, we propose to apply a circular array with 8 microphones that are inside the helmet. In...

  14. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  15. On Sum--Connectivity Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    We determine the minimum sum--connectivity index of bicyclic graphs with $n$ vertices and matching number $m$, where $2\\le m\\le \\lfloor\\frac{n}{2}\\rfloor$, the minimum and the second minimum, as well as the maximum and the second maximum sum--connectivity indices of bicyclic graphs with $n\\ge 5$ vertices. The extremal graphs are characterized.

  16. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  17. Factors of the physical environment associated with walking and bicycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Niet, de R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors of the physical environment that may influence time spent on walking and bicycling. METHODS: Demographic factors and time spent on walking and bicycling (during leisure time and for commuting purposes) were assessed with a self-administered

  18. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  19. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, V.E.; Beusenberg, C.M.; Dubbeldam, R.; Bonnema, G.M.; Poelman, W.A.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced rider/bicy

  20. Bicycle-related maxillofacial injuries : a double-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K. Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Bicycle-related injuries account for an important proportion of road injuries all over the world. As only few reports have focused on the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycle accidents, the purpose of this study was to present and compare epidemiological data ab

  1. Bicycle-related maxillofacial injuries: a double-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bicycle-related injuries account for an important proportion of road injuries all over the world. As only few reports have focused on the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycle accidents, the purpose of this study was to present and compare epidemiological data abo

  2. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  3. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  4. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.

    2009-05-01

    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.

  5. A mixed methods investigation of bicycle exposure in crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Nicholas; Christofa, Eleni; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Crash rates are an essential tool enabling researchers and practitioners to assess whether a location is truly more dangerous, or simply serves a higher volume of vehicles. Unfortunately, this simple crash rate is far more difficult to calculate for bicycles due to data challenges and the fact that they are uniquely exposed to both bicycle and automobile volumes on shared roadways. Bicycle count data, though increasingly more available, still represents a fraction of the available count data for automobiles. Further compounding on this, bicycle demand estimation methods often require more data than automobiles to account for the high variability that bicycle demand is subject to. This paper uses a combination of mixed methods to overcome these challenges and to perform an investigation of crash rates and exposure to different traffic volumes.

  6. Bicyclic Peptide Inhibitor of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Paaske, Berit; Jiang, Longguang;

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptidebased inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... monocyclic peptide, upain-2. It was successfully converted to a bicyclic peptide, without loss of inhibitory properties. The aim was to produce a peptide cyclised by an amide bond with an additional stabilising across-the-ring covalent bond. We expected this bicyclic peptide to exhibit a lower entropic...... burden upon binding. Two bicyclic peptides were synthesised with affinities similar to that of upain-2, and their binding energetics were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Indeed, compared to upain-2, the bicyclic peptides showed reduced loss of entropy upon binding to uPA. We also...

  7. Predicting bicycle setup for children based on anthropometrics and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Karl; Dodson, Zoe; Korff, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Bicycling is a popular activity for children. In order for children to enjoy cycling and to minimize injury, it is important that they are positioned appropriately on the bicycle. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify a suitable bicycle setup for children aged between 7 and 16 years which accommodates developmental differences in anthropometrics, flexibility and perceptions of comfort. Using an adjustable bicycle fitting rig, we found the most comfortable position of 142 children aged 7 to 16. In addition, a number of anthropometric measures were recorded. Seat height and the horizontal distance between seat and handlebars were strongly predictable (R(2) > 0.999, p bicycle manufacturers.

  8. In-depth analysis of bicycle hydraulic disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Györfi, Benedikt; Wrede, Jürgen; Arnold, Timo; Moia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Hydraulic Disc Brakes (HDBs) represent the most recent and innovative bicycle braking system. Especially Electric Bicycles (EBs), which are becoming more and more popular, are equipped with this powerful, unaffected by environmental influences, and low-wear type of brakes. As a consequence of the high braking performance, typical bicycle braking errors lead to more serious accidents. This is the starting point for the development of a Braking Dynamics Assistance system (BDA) to prevent front wheel lockup and nose-over (falling over the handlebars). One of the essential prerequisites for the system design is a better understanding of bicycle HDBs' characteristics. A physical simulation model and a test bench have been built for this purpose. The results of the virtual and real experiments conducted show a high correlation and allow valuable insights into HDBs on bicycles, which have not been studied scientifically in any depth so far.

  9. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  10. Safe bicycling – Problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecka M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herewith a popularity of bicycling, various safety problems of cyclists are researched. Studies are connected with infrastructure, riding culture, choice of cyclist's suit and riding equipment. Overall, 382 respondents (159 cyclists, 119 drivers, 104 pedestrians were involved in the survey. The road participants' mutual communication problems in the traffic and opportunities of solving them were clarified. Most of cyclists wear comfortable daily or sporty clothing with reflective elements, and in their opinion, clothing with light emissive elements must be like daily clothing. The drivers could better notice cyclists, if they wear brightly colored suit with light emissive and reflective elements, but pedestrians – if cyclists use warning sound signals. The opinions of road participants about the placement of light emissive and reflective elements in cyclist's clothing were clarified. The prototype of cycling belt (Fig. 1e has been drawn up with LED stop signals, which are activated by the accelerometer placed in the central back pocket. The results of approbation have shown that the sensor does not provide the proper functioning of signals, due to a high level of riding movements. Using Motion Capture technology and bicycle exercise equipment, the research of oscillation of anthropometric points on the back has been carried out. The accelerometer should be placed between scapulae to design the cycling jacket.

  11. The Design of Sport Bicycle Speed Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbing Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As bicycle sport equipment, a sport bike needs a speed and distance measuring device, due to the characteristic of road cycling, thereby mastering the state of motion. According to external conditions such as temperature, wind speed, the bike can make the appropriate adjustment to achieve the best movement effect. The bicycle speed odometer is a major accessibility tool that satisfies with needs of the people with fast development. This study elaborated a bike speed odometer design based on Hall element, taking AT89C52 single chip as the core, measuring speed with A44E Hall sensor, to finish the bike mileage/speed measurement and statistics by displaying bike mileage and speed in real time. By using the Hall elements, the hardware of speed odometer input the number of pulse of per circle into the single-chip computer system. Then the signal processed by the single-chip computer displays. The software is programmed with assembly language and modular design idea. The design of the hardware circuit is simple and the subroutine has universal property, which fully meet the design requirements and possess a wide range of application and dissemination value.

  12. Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.

    2016-11-01

    Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.

  13. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact, legislator

  14. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet...... are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region...... in Denmark. METHODS: Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants...

  15. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets.

  16. MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniekpeno Elijah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with commercial motorcycle helmets were investigated in the commercial city of Lagos, Nigeria. 300 motorcycle helmets were randomly collected from different commercial motor cyclists in two densely populated areas of Lagos: Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH and Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH main gates respectively. Two sterile swabs moistened with sterile water were rotated over the inner surface of each helmet and cultured on MacConkey Agar and Nutrient Agar for bacterial growth and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for fungi growth. The plates for bacteria growth were incubated aerobically at 37 ºC for 48 h, while plates for fungi at 28 ºC for 2 weeks. Biochemical tests were used to identify bacteria; while, cultural characteristics were used for fungi identification. The microorganisms consistently common to the samples investigated in the two locations were similar and included (with respective frequency of occurrence for both location: Staphylococcus aureus (80%; 7%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75%; 12%, Staphylococcus epidermis (60%; 8%, Enterobacter aerogenes (52%; 27%, Escherichia coli (40%; 13%, Bacillus spp (37%; 10%, Aspergillus spp (82%; 7%, Candida spp (55%; 22%, Rhizopus spp (40%; 27%, and Penicilium spp (35%; 12%. The motorcycle helmets collected at YABATECH had higher microbial colonization than LUTH irrespective of the isolates. This trend was similar for bacterial and fungi. Results showed that helmets could serve as vehicles for transmission of pathogens. Good hygiene practice (GHP and regular cleaning of motor cycle helmets with sterilants is strongly advocated in order to reduce the incidence of microbial transmission and its associated infection.

  17. A method for detecting miners based on helmets detection in underground coal mine videos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Limei; Qian Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    In order to monitor dangerous areas in coal mines automatically,we propose to detect helmets from underground coal mine videos for detecting miners.This method can overcome the impact of similarity between the targets and their background.We constructed standard images of helmets,extracted four directional features,modeled the distribution of these features using a Gaussian function and separated local images of frames into helmet and non-helmet classes.Out experimental results show that this method can detect helmets effectively.The detection rate was 83.7%.

  18. The frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in countries with varying bicycle mode shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    In  order  to  encourage  cycling,  we  need  to  reduce  the  hazards  that  cyclists  face. Single-bicycle crashes or ‘bicycle-only crashes’ are falls and obstacle collisions in which only one cyclist is involved. Between 60 and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospital or treated at an emergency...... department are victims of single-bicycle crashes. As proportion of the total number of traffic casualties  the  share  exceeds  20%  in  most  countries  with  medium  to  high  levels  of cycling.  This paper  discusses  the  prevalence  of  the  problem  and  describes  measures  that  may  both reduce...

  19. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle riders and passengers at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalya, Phillipo L; Ngayomela, Isidori H; Mabula, Joseph B; Mbelenge, Nkinda; Dass, Ramesh M; Chandika, Alphonce; Gilyoma, Japhet M; Kapesa, Anthony; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2014-10-01

    Motorcycle helmets have been reported to reduce the risk of death and head injuries following motorcycle accidents. The aim of this descriptive prospective study was to determine the injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists and passengers at a tertiary hospital in north-western Tanzania. A total of 654 patients involved in the motorcycle accident were studied. Of these, 468 (71.6%) were motorcyclists (riders) and the remaining 186 (28.4%) were passengers. The median age of patients at presentation was 26 years. Male outnumbered females by a ratio of 4.5: 1. Helmet use was reported in 312 (47.7%) patients. Non- helmeted patients were young compared with helmeted patients and this was statistically significant (p = 0.021). The rate of helmet use was significantly higher among motorcyclists than among passengers (p = 0.004). History of alcohol consumption prior to the accident was reported in 212 (32.4%) patients. The rate of helmet use was significantly low among alcohol consumers compared with non-alcohol consumers (p = 0.011). Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with abnormal head Computed Tomography scans, admission to the Intensive care unit, severe trauma, and worse traumatic brain injury severity (p < 0.001). Helmet use was significantly associated with shorter period of hospitalization and reduced mortality rate (p < 0.001). Motorcycle helmet use is still low in this part of Tanzania and this poses a great impact on injury outcome among motorcycle injury patients. This observation calls for action to implement more widespread injury prevention and helmet safety education and advocacy.

  20. Bicyclic graphs with maximal revised Szeged index

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2011-01-01

    The revised Szeged index $Sz^*(G)$ is defined as $Sz^*(G)=\\sum_{e=uv \\in E}(n_u(e)+ n_0(e)/2)(n_v(e)+ n_0(e)/2),$ where $n_u(e)$ and $n_v(e)$ are, respectively, the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $u$ than to vertex $v$ and the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $v$ than to vertex $u$, and $n_0(e)$ is the number of vertices equidistant to $u$ and $v$. Hansen used the AutoGraphiX and made the following conjecture about the revised Szeged index for a connected bicyclic graph $G$ of order $n \\geq 6$:

  1. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  2. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...... relevant in a new context – that of the Chinese mainland society in the 21st century. Doreen Massey (2005: 9) defines space as “a simultaneity of stories-so-far”, a space that is constantly exploding and imploding with the influx of new and old stories. Within this theoretical framework Wang Xiaoshuai...

  3. State Legislative Support for Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parks are important venues that can encourage population-level physical activity, and policy legislation can facilitate or discourage physical activity and other park uses, depending on the type and level of support. This study aims to summarize the status and content of state-level park-related legislation. Methods: We searched for eligible legislation from 2001–2007 in two data sources, CDC’s Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Legislative Database and Lexis-Nexis, using the key words conservation, growth management/land use, parks, recreation, preservation, path, green space, or open space. State legislation was categorized into seven broad topic areas and analyzed by number introduced and passed (enacted as law, by state and category. Results: States varied in the number and type of park-related legislation introduced and passed. Common categories of introduced park-related state legislation were preservation or conservation (n = 26, 9 passed, funding (n = 43, 10 passed, creation or acquisition of park land (n = 53, 9 passed, safety and liability (n = 34, 5 passed, accessibility (n = 20, 2 passed, outreach (n = 15, 2 passed, and outdoor activities (n = 13, 2 passed. Conclusion: During 2001 to 2007, 19% of park-related state legislation was enacted. Research on legislative policy is an emerging field, and more information on the content of park-related legislation could assist states in their efforts to promote physical activity in park venues.

  4. An Examination of Concussion Injury Rates in Various Models of Football Helmets in NCAA Football Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan Moran; Tracey Covassin

    2015-01-01

    While newer, advanced helmet models have been designed with the intentions of decreasing concussions, very little research exists on injury rates in various football helmets at the collegiate level. The aim of this study was to examine concussion injury rates in various models of football helmets in collegiate football athletes. In addition, to compare injury rates of newer, advanced football helmets to older, traditional helmets among collegiate football athletes, a total of 209 concussions and 563,701 AEs (athlete-exposures) among 2,107 collegiate football athletes in seven helmet models were included in the analyses. Concussion injury rates revealed that the Riddell Revolution~ had the highest rate of 0.41 concussions per 1,000 AEs. The Schutt ION 4DTM helmet had the lowest rate of 0.25 concussions per 1,000 AEs. These newer helmet models did not significantly differ from one another (P = 0.74), however, all models significantly differed from the older, traditional helmet model (P 〈 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that concussion rates do not differ between newer and more advanced helmet models. More importantly, there are currently no helmets available to prevent concussions from occurring in football athletes.

  5. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear.

  6. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: absolute distance perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Patrick; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Gibbs, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the side of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. The increased separation of the cameras induces hyperstereopsis - the exaggeration of the stereoscopic disparities that support the perception of relative depth around the point of fixation. Increased camera separation may also affect absolute depth perception, because it increases the amount of vergence (crossing) of the eyes required for binocular fusion, and because the differential perspective from the viewpoints of the two eyes is increased. The effect of hyperstereopsis on the perception of absolute distance was investigated using a large-scale stereoscopic display system. A fronto-parallel textured surface was projected at a distance of 6 metres. Three stereoscopic viewing conditions were simulated - hyperstereopsis (four times magnification), normal stereopsis, and hypostereopsis (one quarter magnification). The apparent distance of the surface was measured relative to a grid placed in a virtual "leaf room" that provided rich monocular cues, such as texture gradients and linear perspective, to absolute distance as well as veridical sterescopic disparity cues. The different stereoscopic viewing conditions had no differential effect on the apparent distance of the textured surface at this viewing distance.

  7. Parents' decision for helmet therapy ion infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Til, J.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their

  8. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; van Til, Janine Astrid; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their

  9. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal loading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kumar Pinnoji; Puneet Mahajan

    2007-08-01

    Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner. The foam is taken as elasto-plastic, the brain is assumed to be viscoelastic and all other components are taken as elastic. The contact forces and coup pressures with helmet on the head are much lower than in the absence of the helmet. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of liner thickness and density on the contact forces, pressures and energy absorption during impact. For 4 ms-1 velocity, expanded poly styrene (EPS) foam of density 24 kg m-3 gave the lowest contact forces and for the velocities considered, thickness of the foam did not affect the contact forces.

  10. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; van Til, Janine Astrid; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their leve

  11. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van Renske M.; Til, van Janine A.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their leve

  12. Parents' decision for helmet therapy ion infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Til, J.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their lev

  13. A comparison of observed and self-reported helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in Hyderabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwaniya, S; Gupta, S; Mitra, S; Tetali, S; Josyula, L K; Gururaj, G; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    India has a high burden of fatal road traffic injuries (RTIs). A large proportion of fatal RTIs in India are among motorcyclists. The overall goal of this study is to assess and compare observed and self-reported prevalence of helmet use; and to identify factors associated with helmet use and over-reporting in Hyderabad city, India. Roadside knowledge, attitude and practice interviews. Six rounds of roadside interviews were conducted with motorcyclists (drivers and pillion riders) between July 2011 and August 2013 using a structured tool developed for this study. Observations on helmet use were recorded and respondents were also asked if they 'always wear a helmet'. Prevalence of helmet use was calculated and a paired t-test was used to compare observed and self-reported helmet use proportions. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated to identify factors associated with helmet use and over-reporting. A total of 4872 respondents participated in the roadside interview. The response rate was 94.4%. The overall observed helmet use was 34.5% and 44.5% of respondents reported that they 'always wear a helmet'. As the observed helmet use increased, the over-reporting of helmet use was found to decrease. However, factors associated with observed and self-reported helmet use are similar. Male gender, youth (≤24 years), a lower level of education and non-ownership of helmet were associated with a higher risk of not wearing helmets. Male gender, youth (≤24 years), no schooling, riding a lower engine capacity motorcycle and using a motorcycle for purposes other than travelling to school/work were associated with over-reporting of helmet use. Self-reports provide an overestimate of helmet use that lessens as actual helmet use increases. Interviews also allow identification of factors associated with helmet use. Increasing helmet ownership and enhanced enforcement may help increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  14. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys...... modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may...

  15. Health manpower legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, J E

    1981-08-01

    In response to the desires of Congress, medical schools dramatically enhanced their ability to perform biomedical research and to educate health professions personnel. Initially, Congress viewed health professionals as a national resource in terms of being willing to subsidize their education. Congress continues to view the health professions as a national resource, but the philosophy of Congress has become substantially modified: Congress is unwilling to subsidize the education of physicians, but perceives that it must regulate their specialty and geographic distribution. Medical students and medical schools have, in a major sense, been left "holding the bag." A cogent argument can be offered that the natural history of health-care evolution has been confused by excessive meddling with the system. Additional legislatively induced confusion should not be imposed, at least until the results of the previous meddling have been observed. Unfortunately, the foregoing presentation raises considerably more questions than it answers: Medical schools: What will be the source(s) of financial support? Medical students: What will be the impact of tuition indebtedness? Practicing physicians: What will be the result(s) of severe competition? Health professions educational institutions must address fundamental issues concerning their financial survival. That is, will they accept the carrot-and-stick philosophy and pursue federal funding? or will they seek financial independence toward the goal of assuming responsibility for their own destiny? The philosophy of federal funding "without strings attached" does not exist.

  16. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  17. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  18. [Bicycle spoke-related injuries in children: emphasise prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, William L M; Haaring, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Three children, a 6-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 4 years, were seen at an emergency department due to distal lower-leg injuries sustained from the spokes of bicycle wheels. All three patients had been passengers on rear carrying seats of moving bicycles. Only the third bicyclist had used a special child safety seat. The second girl had drawn her foot up from underneath a strap and suffered a tibial fracture later treated with an osteosynthetic plate. The other two patients recovered after conservative casting treatment. Bicycle spoke-related injuries are sustained when the foot or lower limb makes contact with the spokes of a bicycle wheel and usually by children who are bicycle passengers. In the Netherlands, approximately 4600 children are seen at emergency departments with such injuries each year. Bicycle spoke-related accidents can cause severe damage that can result in lengthy recovery periods. Not only physical complications but also psychological ones can occur. The latter are often overlooked but do deserve proper treatment. The physician treating a spoke-related injury is in a good position to advice parents as to preventive measures, particularly on the use of special child safety seats.

  19. Test Verification and Design of the Bicycle Frame Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long; XIANG Zhongxia; LUO Huan; TIAN Guan

    2015-01-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders’ worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers’ height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes’ function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  20. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the

  1. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the f

  2. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. Methods A literature search identified figures...... (largely from western countries) on SBC casualties who are fatally injured, hospitalised or treated at an emergency department. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate how bicycle modal share is related to SBCs. Results On average, 17% of fatal injuries to cyclists are caused by SBCs...... of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  3. Determinants and barriers of helmet use in Iranian motorcyclists: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad; Rezapour, Ramin; Abedi, Leili

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Helmet use by motorcyclists decreases the incidence and severity of an injury and its related death. Unfortunately, the helmet use rate is not in an acceptable level in Iran. This study aimed to systematically identify the determinants and barriers of helmet use among Iranian motorcyclists. Methods: A systematic search of literature was done using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Web of knowledge databases for English literature and SID for Persian articles by specified keywords. Manual searching and reference of references were used to improve the articles identification. Articles published before 1995 and those which did not report the barriers and determinants of helmet use were excluded. Data were extracted using an extraction table. Results: Out of 49 retrieved articles, 13 articles were included in the study. Most of them (70%) had a cross-sectional design. Personal factors (such as older age, marital status and education) and motorcyclist's attitude and beliefs about the helmet effectiveness were reported as important determinants of helmet use. Helmet weight and its visual and audial limitation for motorcyclists were known as the main reported barriers to use a helmet. Conclusions: Interventions affecting the motorcyclists' attitude must be employed along with the legal interventions. Moreover, cost-effective engineering improvements in helmet production remain an important policy to improve the compliance of helmet use. PMID:28042961

  4. Determinants and barriers of helmet use in Iranian motorcyclists: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of helmet by motorcyclists decreases the incidence and severity of an injury and its related death. Unfortunately, the helmet use rate is not in an acceptable level in Iran. This study aimed to systematically identify the determinants and barriers of helmet use among Iranian motorcyclists. Methods: A systematic search of literature was done using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Web of knowledge databases for English literature and SID for Persian articles by specified keywords. Manual searching and reference of references were used to improve the articles identification. Articles published before 1995 and those which did not report the barriers and determinants of helmet use were excluded. Data were extracted using an extraction table. Results: Out of 49 retrieved articles, 13 articles were included in the study. Most of them (70% had a cross-sectional design. Personal factors (such as older age, marital status and education and motorcyclist's attitude and beliefs about the helmet effectiveness were reported as important determinants of helmet use. Helmet weight and its visual and audial limitation for motorcyclists were known as the main reported barriers to use a helmet. Conclusions: Interventions affecting the motorcyclists' attitude must be employed along with the legal interventions. Moreover, cost-effective engineering improvements in helmet production remain an important policy to improve the compliance of helmet use.

  5. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  6. Bicycle, city and education: search moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hempkemeyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study comes from a Master’s degree in Education research, which investigates narratives of “pedaling beings” starting from the relationship bicycle-city. The theoretical assumptions lean on the Cultural Studies and concepts about education, culture, everyday life, experience and narratives. Researching with narratives closes everyday life and promotes co-authorship to the subjects in the paper. The article puts in discussion some forms of contemporary subjectivity, resistance techniques and expression. A study that builds narratives and reflections about the experiences of theses hybrid subjects and their everyday life, questioning their way of life in the city. Thinking in this urban medley is connect the environment and the dynamic of these pedaling bodies, emerging other ways of education and interaction with the medium, weaving multiple affectations in aesthetics, poetry, politics, opening breaches to reflect in the everyday happenings. The article also discusses the movements in research and the effects in those who research and are researched.

  7. Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research posits the question that good design of the bicycle infrastructure in a city will encourage more people to cycle. Research is carried out to compare the cycle infrastructure in selected European cities against an adapted Level of Service concept using accompanied ride-alongs. The literature review on the factors that encourage/dissuade cycle use suggests that it is the potential rider’s perceptions on the safety of cycling in their neighbourhood that is the deciding feature. Moreover, the literature review showed that contextual factors such as whether the actual infrastructure meets the needs of different cyclists are relatively under-researched. Six case study cities were selected (Edinburgh, Cambridge, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and compared on a range of factors by the riders including the coherence, directness, attractiveness, safety and comfort of the network. A cycle infrastructure scoring system was derived from the cycling research literature and the research was carried out by the researcher, an experienced cyclist, accompanied by an inexperienced cyclist. Using this research, the article makes several recommendations for improving and enhancing existing cycle infrastructure provision.

  8. Analysis of EMG measurements during bicycle pedalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, M; Hull, M L

    1986-01-01

    Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects while pedalling a bicycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram (EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject, data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions: Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips. EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions. Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height. Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps) muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension. Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined.

  9. Reviving a ghost in the history of technology: the social construction of the recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassaan; Qureshi, Omer Masood; Khan, Abid Ali

    2015-02-01

    Recumbent bicycles have never truly been associated with international cycling. Conventional safety (upright) bicycles have long been at the center of the cycling world, for both sport and transportation. This is despite the fact that recumbent bicycles are faster, more comfortable, and more efficient than the upright bicycles. The aim of this article is to explain the historical and social perspectives that led to the rejection of the recumbent bicycle by utilizing the theory of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Bijker's two power theory, providing a contrast with the adoption of the safety bicycle.

  10. Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Meghan; Brauer, Michael; Setton, Eleanor M; Teschke, Kay

    2010-12-01

    A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, trip destinations, and along the route between. We analyzed 3,280 utilitarian bicycle and car trips in Metro Vancouver, Canada made by 1,902 adults, including both current and potential cyclists. Objective measures were developed for built environment characteristics related to the physical environment, land use patterns, the road network, and bicycle-specific facilities. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the likelihood that a trip was made by bicycle, adjusting for trip distance and personal demographics. Separate models were constructed for each spatial zone, and a global model examined the relative influence of the three zones. In total, 31% (1,023 out of 3,280) of trips were made by bicycle. Increased odds of bicycling were associated with less hilliness; higher intersection density; less highways and arterials; presence of bicycle signage, traffic calming, and cyclist-activated traffic lights; more neighborhood commercial, educational, and industrial land uses; greater land use mix; and higher population density. Different factors were important within each spatial zone. Overall, the characteristics of routes were more influential than origin or destination characteristics. These findings indicate that the built environment has a significant influence on healthy travel decisions, and spatial context is important. Future research should explicitly consider relevant spatial zones when investigating the relationship between physical activity and urban form.

  11. Antinomy in Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin Mochtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of reality for laws as a production of Parliament and President was canceled by the Constitutional Court, occur as a result of the legislation matter that plural reflects the injustice and legal uncertainty. The high number of judicial review becomes signal less accommodation of citizen interests and rights in a legislation product. The absence of arrangement harmony made by Parliament gives impact on plural legislation sued. This paper attempts to describe some debate antinomy that characterizes the existence of legislation in Indonesia. The analysis showed, antinomy-conflict-norm in the legislation is one thing that is difficult to avoid, especially given the poor-legislative process in the parliament today. In each establishment of legislation, synchronization and norms harmonization is not a major pressing point, but defeated by transnational politics inter-faction in the parliament that actually looked more dominant. But when these norms conflict constituted a rule of law which are simultaneous, dynamic, and meet legal ideals, would not be a problem. As long as not to cause harm to the fulfillment of constitutional rights of citizens.

  12. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  13. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  14. Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-09

    survivability and equipment airworthiness requirements for pilots and aircrew wearing helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), night vision goggles (NVGs), or both...equipment airworthiness requirements for pilots and aircrew wearing helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), night vision goggles (NVGs), or both during ejection...and equipment airworthiness requirements for pilots and aircrew wearing helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), night vision goggles (NVGs), or both during

  15. Neck Muscle Fatigue Resulting from Prolonged Wear of Weighted Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    documented neck injury rates of 50% or higher ranging from minor neck strain to cervical vertebral fracture3,11-14,17. Lighter helmets were developed...greater neck fatigue and susceptibility to neck injury. There may be an increase in cervical loads during aircraft ejections (catapult, windblast...and compromised effectiveness for long missions. The neck load limits ( flexion , extension, and rotation) under operational conditions are

  16. Safety Aspect Analysis of Helmet Mounted Millimeter Wave Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswari

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of millimetric wave (MMW power density from two-helmet-mounted MMW radiating horn antennas were made at various distances on the three axes. These three axes are representing three planes: (i in the direction of propagation (Z-axis, (ii horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of propagation (Y-axis, i.e., 15 cm to the left or right of Z-axis, and (iii vertical axis (X-axis also perpendicular to the direction of propagation and extending up and down an imaginary central reference line passing through the centre of the horn and the centre of the microwave measuring probe. Measurements were also made inside the helmet close to the metallic plate at 17 locations and 10 cm away from it. The Narda-8723 broadband isotropic microwave probe [frequency of operation (0.3-40 GHz power density range 0.05-100 mW/cm1 was placed at various distance points marked at 15 nm intervals and also at distances of relevance on Z-axis. For each of the distance points on Z-axis, measurements were taken at 7 probe locations on X-axis. For Y-axis measurements, 4 probe locations were selected (on vertical or X-axis. The results revealed no leakage of microwave power inside the helmets. In the transmitting mode of operation, there was a great variability of microwave power emitted closest to the horn antennas (2.5-5.0 mW / 2 and 6.0-105 mW /cm2 for helmet Nos.11 and2, respectively. As the distance from the antenna increased in the direction of propagation, the power density dropped to 0.04 m W / cm2 or 0.075 m W / cm{ maximum value at 1 m. As the values recorded are within American National Standards Institute (ANSI safety guidelines (10mW/cm2 at 35 GHz.

  17. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Cockpit to helmet optical wireless link: prototype hardware demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. A.; White, H. J.; Aldridge, N. B.; Lam, J.; Atkinson, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing a wireless optical link between the fuselage of a cockpit and an aviation helmet. Such a link is desired to replace the physical umbilical cable existing in current cockpit systems, for reasons of potential bandwidth, immunity to EM interference, and freedom from physical constraints within the cockpit. The link concept consists of multiple transmitters embedded in the cockpit fuselage, each sending video (or symbology) data out in a cone of light over free space, which is detected by an array of receivers positioned on the helmet - the data is then sent to the eyepieces or visor of the pilot (after any intermediate processing). The design is such that one of these links is always maintained throughout possible movement of the head. In a recent proof-of-principle demonstration we showed uncompressed, 100 Mbps video data streamed live from the fuselage of a cockpit simulator to an angled cluster of silicon-based receivers mounted on the helmet, via a pair of ~1 Watt free-space lasers operating at 810 nm. Fast Ethernet media converters were used here for convenience and cost. The bespoke optical and electrical link components were developed in close collaboration with suppliers. The system performance arises from: the high dynamic range of the receivers (up to 25 dB), which are equipped with optical antennae to magnify the optical gain; the high power of the lasers; and the switching electronics used to control the signal path on the helmet. Future potential improvements to the technology are discussed, with an indication of wireless link requirements for relevant BAE Systems applications.

  19. Private and public modes of bicycle commuting: a perspective on attitude and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, A; de Nazelle, A; Donaire-Gonzalez, D; Cole-Hunter, T; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Martínez, D; Anaya, E; Rodríguez, D; Jerrett, M; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2016-08-01

    Public bicycle-sharing initiatives can act as health enhancement strategies among urban populations. The aim of the study was to determine which attitudes and perceptions of behavioural control toward cycling and a bicycle-sharing system distinguish commuters with a different adherence to bicycle commuting.  The recruitment process was conducted in 40 random points in Barcelona from 2011 to 2012. Subjects completed a telephone-based questionnaire including 27 attitude and perception statements. Based on their most common one-way commute trip and willingness to commute by bicycle, subjects were classified into Private Bicycle (PB), public bicycle or Bicing Bicycle (BB), Willing Non-bicycle (WN) and Non-willing Non-bicycle (NN) commuters. After reducing the survey statements through principal component analysis, a multinomial logistic regression model was obtained to evaluate associations between attitudinal and commuter sub-groups.  We included 814 adults in the analysis [51.6% female, mean (SD): age 36.6 (10.3) years]. BB commuters were 2.0 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-3.7] less likely to perceive bicycle as a quick, flexible and enjoyable mode compared to PB. BB, WN and NN were 2.5 (95% CI = 1.46-4.24), 2.6 (95% CI = 1.53-4.41) and 2.3 times (95% CI = 1.30-4.10) more likely to perceive benefits of using public bicycles (bicycle maintenance and parking avoidance, low cost and no worries about theft and vandalism) than did PB.  Willing non-bicycle and public-bicycle commuters had more favourable perception toward public-shared bicycles compared to private cyclists. Hence, public bicycles may be the impetus for those willing to start bicycle commuting, thereby increasing physical activity levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation.

  1. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  2. Library Legislation: Some General Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenson, Alex

    1970-01-01

    Library service has become a concern of government at all levels with each having its specific role to play. This introductory statement to this issue of Library Trends" indicates the major substantive areas of library legislation. (Author/NH)

  3. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  4. Index of /data/knapsack-bicycle [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Index of /data/knapsack-bicycle Name Last modified Size Description Parent Director...y - 20140516/ 16-May-2014 10:03 - LATEST/ 16-May-2014 10:03 - Index of /data/knapsack-bicycle ...

  5. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Today the interest in cycling is increasing worldwide and in many countries authorities are faced with the question how cycling can be promoted efficiently. In the Netherlands and Denmark, this question came up already in the 1970s when the downsides of the rapidly increasing motorisation became...... evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in urban areas. The interventions included the construction of new bicycle routes on urban arterials in some...... to be still generally valid. In addition to studies that traditionally focus on dedicated bicycle infrastructure, two cases of shared space are discussed, a rather new type of intervention that assumes mixed use of infrastructure. One case is from Denmark, the other from the Netherlands. The paper will so...

  6. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  7. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bicycling to work may be a viable approach for achieving physical activity that provides cardiovascular health benefits. In this study we investigated the relationship of bicycling to work with incidence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance...... across a decade of follow-up in middle-aged men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 23 732 Swedish men and women with a mean age of 43.5 years at baseline who attended a health examination twice during a 10-year period (1990-2011). In multivariable adjusted models we calculated the odds......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...

  8. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  9. Bicycle cycles and mobility patterns - Exploring and characterizing data from a community bicycle program

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Grivolla, Jens; Codina, Joan; Banchs, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of human mobility data in an urban area using the amount of available bikes in the stations of the community bicycle program Bicing in Barcelona. The data was obtained by periodic mining of a KML-file accessible through the Bicing website. Although in principle very noisy, after some preprocessing and filtering steps the data allows to detect temporal patterns in mobility as well as identify residential, university, business and leisure areas of the city. The results lead to a proposal for an improvement of the bicing website, including a prediction of the number of available bikes in a certain station within the next minutes/hours. Furthermore a model for identifying the most probable routes between stations is briefly sketched.

  10. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate...... relevant and heterogeneous routes: doubly stochastic generation function, breadth first search on link elimination, and branch & bound algorithm. Efficiency of the methods was evaluated for a high-resolution network by comparing the performances with four multi-attribute cost functions accounting...... generated realistic routes, while the former outperformed in computation cost and the latter produced more heterogeneous routes....

  11. Wireless controller and smartphone based interaction system for electric bicycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge REVUELTA HERRERO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last years, great improvements have been made in the automotive industry, a sector with a high impact in both economics and social environments. Many development efforts have targeted on satisfying the need of providing smart environments to the end user in vehicles, such as cars. This paper proposes a brand-new solution in the automotive field, consisting of a new product family which aims to transform the traditional bicycle to an electric bicycle using an architecture that provides an adaptive environment to the user, improving the driving experience enabling value-added services.

  12. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles.......Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  13. Orthopaedic injuries among electric bicycle users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Shay; Weltsch, Daniel; Bariteau, Jason T; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi; Thein, Ran

    2017-08-11

    The use of electric bicycles (E-bike) has dramatically increased. E-bikes offer convenient, environmental-friendly, and less expensive alternative to other forms of transport. However, E-bikes provide a new public health challenge in terms of safety and injury prevention. This study is the first to specifically investigate the E-bike related orthopaedic injuries, based on a national trauma registry. Data from a National Trauma Registry were reviewed for patients hospitalized following E-bike related injuries. Between Jan 2014 to Dec 2015, a total of 549 patients were reviewed. Data were analyzed according to demography, type of orthopaedic injury, associated injuries and severity, injury mechanism and treatment in the operating room. A total of 360 (65%) patients sustained orthopaedic injuries, out of them 230 (63.8%) sustained limb/pelvis/spine fractures. Lower extremity fractures were more prevalent than upper extremity fractures (p<0.001). The tibia was the most fractured bone (19.2%). Patients over the age of 50 years were at the highest risk for spine (20. 5%, p=0.0001), pelvis (15.9%, p=0.0001) and femoral neck (15.9%, p=0.0172) fractures relative to other age groups. Approximately 42% of patients sustained associated injuries, with head/neck/face injuries being the most prevalent (30.3%). followed by chest (11.9%) and abdominal injury (13.3%). A collision between E-bike and a motorized vehicle was the mechanism of injury in 35% of cases. In this mechanism of injury, patients had 1.7 times the risk for associated injuries (p<0.0001) and the risk for major trauma (ISS score ≥16) was more than the double (p=0.03). One third of patients with orthopaedic injuries required treatment in the operating room. Treatment varied depending on the type of fracture. This study provides unique information on epidemiological characteristics of orthpaedic injuries caused be E-bikes, pertinent both to medical care providers, as well as to health policy-makers allocating

  14. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512—Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device EC03OC91.074...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  16. Bicycle Training for Youth with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Esposito, Phil; Hauck, Janet; Jeong, Irully; Hornyak, Joseph; Argento, Angela; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have difficulty riding a two-wheel bicycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate an intervention using an adapted bicycle and individualized instruction to teach 71 youth to ride a standard two-wheel bicycle. Youth with DS (n = 30) and ASD (n = 41) between the…

  17. Helmet retention system types as a risk factor to properly attach the chin strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, C A; Furtado, A M; Petterle, R R; Pimentel, S K; Carvalho, F H

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the incorrect use of a helmet retention system (loose or open) and how often this happens. This was an observational transversal study conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. Trained observers positioned at traffic lights collected information about the helmet fixation mode, the helmet model (full-face, open-face, modular, half), and the helmet retention system model (micrometric, double-D, fast-release). Additional data including position on the motorcycle, gender, and function of the motorcycle (as a work vehicle) were collected. The observers, collection site, and periods were randomly selected by lots. From a total of 3,050 motorcyclists, 1,807 (59.2%) had their helmets fastened correctly, 907 (29.7%) had the retention system fastened loosely, and in 336 (11.0%), the retention system was completely open. Increased odds of incorrect use were observed for the fast-release and double-D buckles compared to the micrometrics buckles, with a fixed odds ratio (OR) of 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.89-5.51) and 3.54 (95% CI, 2.46-5.09), respectively (P passengers had a higher incidence of incorrect use of the helmet than drivers (P system. The helmet model and being a passenger had a secondary influence on incorrect use of helmets.

  18. Prevalence rates of helmet use among motorcycle riders in a developed region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuequn, Yu; Ke, Liang; Ivers, Rebecca; Du, Wei; Senserrick, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of helmet use, and of correct helmet use (chinstrap firmly fastened) among motorcycle riders and their passengers in Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey involving direct observation of motorcycle riders was conducted at 20 randomly selected intersections. A total of 13,410 motorcycles were observed during a 10-day period in February 2009. The overall prevalence of helmet use was 72.6% (95% CI: 71.8-73.3%) among drivers and 34.1% (95% CI: 32.7-35.5%) among pillion passengers. The prevalence of correct use was 43.2% (95% CI: 42.4-44.0%) and 20.9% (95% CI: 19.8-22.1%) for drivers and passengers respectively. The helmet wearing rate on city streets was almost 95%, however city riders were more likely than rural riders to wear non-motorcycle helmets while riding. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with increased helmet use included riding on city streets, male gender, being a driver, carrying less passengers and riding a registered motorcycle. The results indicated enforcement and education activities need to be strengthened with respect to both helmet use and helmet quality, especially in rural areas, in order to improve wearing rates.

  19. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  20. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment is lacking. The HEADS study (Helmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) aims to d

  1. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  2. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Ijzerman, M.J.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months.Design Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a pro

  3. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Ploeg, C.P. van der; IJzerman, M.J.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months. DESIGN: Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a

  4. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van Renske M.; Vlimmeren, van Leo A.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.M.; Ploeg, van der Catharina P.B.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months. Design Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a p

  5. Do crash helmets retain their position on the head in case of an impact ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusenberg, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This report gives the description and results of three sled tests with each four dummy heads, to record the behaviour of the head and neck of the dummy and the helmet in case of a simulated accident. The simulated accident resulted in a motions of the head, neck and helmet owing to the effects of in

  6. Pillion riders' cloth related injuries and helmet wearing patterns: a study of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Islam, Talat; Ali, Ghulam; Nawaz, Muhammad Musarrat

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at investigating the burden and pattern of clothing related pillion riders' injuries and their helmet wearing pattern in Lahore, Pakistan. Data were collected for nine months (July 2013 to March 2014), reporting 13,248 motorcycle related injuries, out of which 8751 (66%) cases were related to the clothing related pillion riders' injuries. Out of these injuries 10.30% were severe injuries which can be prevented or reduced by proper safety measure, e.g. wearing helmet. It was also found that most of the fatalities were not wearing helmet. Injuries due to wearing of loose fitting clothes and absence of helmet are not uncommon in Pakistan and other underdeveloped parts of the world. Such accidents may be reduced by creating awareness and safety sense in the riders, where use of safe dress and helmet should be encouraged in order to avoid such fatal damages.

  7. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    CERN Document Server

    Guemez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics and also some energetic issues related to the Marta mouse motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-to-go round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the Figuring Physics section of this magazine.

  8. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics, and also some energy issues related to Marta mouse's motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-go-round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the "Figuring Physics" section of this journal. The situation is represented in Fig. 1, which was…

  9. Bicyclic graphs with exactly two main signless Laplacian eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    A signless Laplacian eigenvalue of a graph $G$ is called a main signless Laplacian eigenvalue if it has an eigenvector the sum of whose entries is not equal to zero. In this paper, all connected bicyclic graphs with exactly two main eigenvalues are determined.

  10. Embedding the bicyclic semigroup into countably compact topological semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Banakh, Taras; Gutik, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    We study algebraic and topological properties of topological semigroups containing a copy of the bicyclic semigroup $C(p,q)$. We prove that each topological semigroup $S$ with pseudocompact square contains no dense copy of $C(p,q)$. On the other hand, we construct a consistent example of a Tychonov countably compact semigroup containing a copy of $C(p,q)$.

  11. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  12. How Fast Can You Go on a Bicycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    The bicycle provides a context-rich problem accessible to students in a first-year physics course, encircling several core physics principles such as conservation of total energy and angular momentum, dissipative forces, and vectors. In this article, I develop a simple numerical model that can be used by any first-year physics student to…

  13. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the

  14. A Formal Synthesis of ( + )-Cassiol Exploiting Meyers' Bicyclic Lactam Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Xin(沈鑫); WU,Yi-Kang(伍贻康); ZHANG,Fan(张帆)

    2002-01-01

    A formal synthesis of ( + )-cassiol using (1S,2S)-2-amino-1-(4- nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol as chiral auxiliary is reported.The quaternary chiral center in the molecule was constructed by sequential alkylation of a bicyclic lactam (prepared from the aforementioned auxiliary and 5-oxo-heptanlic acid) with methyl iodide and benzyloxymethyl chloride.

  15. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  16. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  17. Barriers and facilitators to bicycle commuting amoung college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Olekszechen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the current challenge of urban mobility, the bicycle has been presented as an alternative to individual transportation. Studies on this topic have mainly identified the individual factors involved in the choosing of this mean of transportation, sometimes putting the environmental factors in second plan, and neglecting the person-environment implications of the bicycle use a mean of transportation. This article aimed to identify, through environmental psychology, the barrier and facilitators in the use of the bicycle among college students in the city of Florianópolis-SC. Eighteen college students (twelve men and eight woman answered a semistructured interview. The data was organized into two categories of four subcategories each, based on the categorical-content analysis. The results indicated as barriers the Environment factors, social conjuncture, and political and personal factors. Among the facilitators, the time, practicality, motorized system, and personal factors were indicated as main characteristics. The results show a need to comprehend the use of bicycles as a mean of transportation in a contextualized way and as part of a public policy in effect. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the existence of an interpersonal dimension of traffic, which requires from its participants a sharing posture, rather than a competitive one.

  18. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  19. Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From March 15 to17, at the invitation of the Euro-Chinese Friendship Association (ECFA) of France, a CPAFFC representative attended the launching ceremony of the Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 in Paris, during which he met with officials of the National Commission on Decentralized Cooperation (Commission Nationale de la Cooperation Decentralisee-CNCD) of France.

  20. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    and bicycling. The study shows that instruments that improve the cyclists’ speed and increase the car drivers’ time consumption and costs will influence the competition conditions significantly. The total transfer potential will be between 12 and 16 % of the car trips in case of short tours, equivalent to 1...

  1. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the

  2. Velocity control of mini-UAV using a helmet system

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez-Guzmán, J. J.; Gomez-Balderas, Jose-Ernesto; Marchand, Nicolas; Castillo, Pedro; Colmenares Vazquez, J; Álvarez-Muñoz, J. U.; Dumon, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The usage of a helmet to command a mini-unmanned aerial vehicle (mini-UAV), is a telepresence system that connects the operator to the vehicle. This paper proposes a system which remotely allows the connection of a pilot's head motion and the 3D movements of a mini-UAVs. Two velocity control algorithms have been tested in order to manipulate the system. Results demonstrate that these movements can be used as reference inputs of the controller of the mini-UAV.

  3. Evaluation of integrated night vision goggle (NVG) helmets under sustained +Gz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K; Esken, R L

    1995-02-01

    Three integrated night vision goggle (NVG) helmets from different manufacturers were evaluated under high-G conditions. Structural and operational integrity, as well as neck forces in pounds, were determined via instrumented manikin testing before human exposure with the helmets during sustained +Gz. Results of the manikin testing showed that the helmets could withstand the rigors of high-G, and that predicted forces (using helmet weights and centers-of-gravity) matched those obtained experimentally from load cells in the x-axis of the manikin's neck. After manikin testing, 10 subjects were randomly exposed to four different high-G profiles on the Dynamic Environmental Simulator (DES) man-rated centrifuge located at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: gradual onset to +8 Gz, a simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM) profile, and two +4 Gz profiles, one with the mask dangling from the helmet and the other with the mask removed. Fit assessments were conducted before high-G exposure, and one helmet was affected significantly by failure of fit. The degree of migration of the NVG intensified image away from the eyes was affected most by the following helmet characteristics: design of the nape strap, size of the NVG image provided by each helmet system, goodness of helmet fit, and the use of the mask as a stabilizer. Although neck strength of each subject was measured and compared to the degree of head stability while wearing each helmet, no effects were found. However, subjects were not allowed to perform fast, high-amplitude head movements in the centrifuge for safety reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the...

  5. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention...

  6. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray;

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...

  7. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunovac, Marina

    2014-01-01

    ... the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA), Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employme...

  8. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention in nat...

  9. Bicycle Conversion Factor Calibration at Two-Phase Intersections in Mixed Traffic Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dianhai; LIANG Chunyan; JING Chunguang; WANG Guohua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese traffic is typically composed of bicycles and motor vehicles on the same road. The efficiency of bicycle traffic in time and space at intersections was investigated for eight typical intersections in the cities of Tianjin, Shenyang, and Changchun, all in China, by means of video recording. Models were developed to calculate the through bicycle traffic and the left-turn bicycle traffic conversion factors in intersections where bicycles and motor vehicles share the same road. The results indicate that the through bicycle conversion factor is 0.28 and the left-turn bicycle conversion factor is 0.33. This conclusion differs from the current value used in China. More research on the conversion factor is necessary to evaluate the impact of intersections.

  10. Power assist control of electric bicycle taking environment and rider's condition into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hiroshi; Miyata, Junichi; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-01

    Recently, bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool. But from a viewpoint of wide use for the future aging society, it is problem to pedal on rider's own. As well known, power assistance bicycle has already been used. The power assistance bicycle helps the elderly people or the people who has weak legs to expand their field. However, existing power assistance bicycle doesn't take running environment and rider's condition into account. The new control algorithm for power assistance bicycle is proposed in this paper. Human input and running friction are estimated as a disturbance torque with a disturbance observer. By using high pass filter (HPF), human input is separated from running friction. This method realizes power assistance bicycle without torque sensor. Disturbance observer compensates running friction. Compliance control is applied to make the bicycle have desired compliance. The effectiveness of this control algorithm is verified by numerical and experimental results.

  11. Cykelhjelm forebygger hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsse, Axel; Eskesen, Vagn; Springborg, Jacob Bertram

    2015-01-01

    that there is scientific evidence of bicycle helmet efficacy with a protective effect on serious brain injury of 63-88%. There is no consensus in favour of the effect of bicycle helmet legislation, although a Cochrane review from 2007 showed a significant reduction of injuries among children.......The relatively small and declining incidence of traffic-related death accidents in Scandinavia is a result of targeted infra-structural measures and policies. Bicycle accidents represent a large fraction of the total traffic accident load and are often underreported in statistics. We argue...

  12. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  13. Legislation. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Libraries in 2001; Legislation and Regulations Affecting Publishing in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheketoff, Emily; Costabile, Mary R.; Adler, Allan

    2002-01-01

    These two reports discuss federal legislation and regulations that affect libraries and the publishing industry. Topics include funding for federal library and related programs; ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) reauthorization; E-rate; the USA Patriot Act and other actions after the September terrorist attacks; intellectual property;…

  14. Legislation: Legislation and Regulations Affecting Libraries in 2002; Legislation and Regulations Affecting Publishing in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheketoff, Emily; Costabile, Mary R.; Adler, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Reviews legislation and regulations affecting libraries and the publishing industry, including the Museum and Library Services Act; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI); copyright; access to electronic government information; telecommunications and technology; electronic surveillance and privacy, including the USA Patriot Act;…

  15. Sport helmet design and virtual impact test by image-based finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunhua; Liang, Zhaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Head injury has been a major concern in various sports, especially in contact sports such as football and ice hockey. Helmet has been adopted as a protective device in such sports, aiming at preventing or at least alleviating head injuries. However, there exist two challenges in current helmet design and test. One is that the helmet does not fit the subject's head well; the other is that current helmet testing methods are not able to provide accurate information about intracranial pressure and stress/strain level in brain tissues during impact. To meet the challenges, an image-based finite element modeling procedure was proposed to design subject-specific helmet and to conduct virtual impact test. In the procedure, a set of medical images such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the subject's head was used to construct geometric shape of the helmet and to develop a helmet-head finite element model that can be used in the virtual impact test.

  16. Impact test comparisons of 20th and 21st century American football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Concussion is the signature American football injury of the 21st century. Modern varsity helmets, as compared with vintage leather helmets, or "leatherheads," are widely believed to universally improve protection by reducing head impact doses and head injury risk for the 3 million young football players in the US. The object of this study was to compare the head impact doses and injury risks with 11 widely used 21st century varsity helmets and 2 early 20th century leatherheads and to hypothesize what the results might mean for children wearing similar varsity helmets. In an injury biomechanics laboratory, the authors conducted front, oblique front, lateral, oblique rear, and rear head impact tests at 5.0 m/second using helmeted headforms, inducing near- and subconcussive head impact doses on par with approximately the 95th percentile of on-field collision severity. They also calculated impact dose injury risk parameters common to laboratory and on-field traumatic neuromechanics: linear acceleration, angular acceleration, angular velocity, Gadd Severity Index, diffuse axonal injury, acute subdural hematoma, and brain contusion. In many instances the head impact doses and head injury risks while wearing vintage leatherheads were comparable to or better than those while wearing several widely used 21st century varsity helmets. The authors do not advocate reverting to leather headgear, but they do strongly recommend, especially for young players, instituting helmet safety designs and testing standards, which encourage the minimization of linear and angular impact doses and injury risks in near- and subconcussive head impacts.

  17. Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Malnes, Lena; Langåker, Aleksander; Bere, Elling

    2017-04-26

    The objectives of the present study were to compare time spent cycling, exercise intensity, and time spent in moderate- (MPA) and vigorous intensity physical activity (VPA) when cycling on an E-bike and a conventional bicycle on two "cycling-to-work" routes with differences in topography, defined as a hilly and a flat route. Eight adults (23-54 years, two women) cycled outdoors on a conventional bicycle and an E-bike, on a flat (8.2 km) and a hilly (7.1 km) route, resulting in 32 journeys. Duration, elevation, and oxygen consumption were recorded using a portable oxygen analyser with GPS. A maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test was performed on a cycle ergometer. Resting metabolic rate was obtained by indirect calorimetry with a canopy hood. The participants spent less time (median (IQR)) cycling on the E-bike compared with the conventional bicycle, on both the hilly (18.8 (4.9) vs. 26.3 (6.4) minutes) and the flat (20.0 (2.9) vs. 23.8 (1.8) minutes) routes. Lower exercise intensity was observed with the E-bike compared with the conventional bicycle, both on the hilly (50 (18) vs. 60 (22) % of maximal oxygen uptake) and the flat (52 (19) vs. 55 (12) % of maximal oxygen uptake) routes. In both cycling modes, most time was spent in MVPA (92-99%). However, fewer minutes were spent in MVPA with the E-bike than the conventional bicycle, for both the hilly (26% lower) and the flat (17% lower) routes. Cycling on the E-bike also resulted in 35 and 15% fewer minutes in vigorous intensity, respectively on the hilly and flat routes. Cycling on the E-bike resulted in lower trip duration and exercise intensity, compared with the conventional bicycle. However, most of the time was spent in MVPA. This suggests that changing the commuting mode from car to E-bike will significantly increase levels of physical activity while commuting.

  18. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election......, are important determinants of the use and effectiveness of dissolution threats in policymaking. Analyzing an original time-series data set from a multiparty parliamentary democracy, we find evidence in line with key empirical implications of the model....

  19. Effect of wearing a ski helmet on perception and localization of sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization.

  20. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  1. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  2. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  3. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  4. The fastest bicycle in the world; how a team of Delft students is building a bicycle to break the world speed record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annega, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is a country known for its extensive use of bicycles as a means of everyday transport. However, while it has existed for about two centuries, todays bicycles only differ from those of the 19th century in relatively small details. Human Power Team Delft is building a whole new type of

  5. Study on the principle of intelligent helmet's electric alarm device in transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehao; Peng, Lin; Bao, Xingchuan; Zhu, Liang; Wang, He; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    This thesis made study on the Principle of Intelligent Helmet's Electric Alarm Device in Transmission Line. Based on the simulation analysis of the electric field strength and electric field characteristics of three-phase 10kV transmission line, this thesis put forward the calculation method of the electric alarm distance by developing a calculation model, and then explains proof of the accuracy of intelligent helmet's electric alarm and discusses its theoretical basis. At last, the theoretical analysis' correctness and the measurement's accuracy of the intelligent helmet's electric alarm device is proved by tests.

  6. FEM Analysis of Glass/Epoxy Composite Based Industrial Safety Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Khushi; Bajpai, Pramendra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the use of fiber reinforced polymer in every field of engineering (automobile, industry and aerospace) and medical has increased due to its distinctive mechanical properties. The fiber based polymer composites are more popular because these have high strength, light in weight, low cost and easily available. In the present work, the finite element analysis (FEA) of glass/epoxy composite based industrial safety helmet has been performed using solid-works simulation software. The modeling results show that glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite can be used as a material for fabrication of industrial safety helmet which has good mechanical properties than the existing helmet material.

  7. Simultaneous optimization of transit network and public bicycle station network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 朱宁; 马寿峰

    2015-01-01

    The traditional manner to design public transportation system is to sequentially design the transit network and public bicycle network. A new public transportation system design problem that simultaneously considers both bus network design and public bicycle network design is proposed. The chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is designed to solve the problem. A shortcoming of CRO is that, when the two-molecule collisions take place, the molecules are randomly picked from the container. Hence, we improve CRO by employing different mating strategies. The computational results confirm the benefits of the mating strategies. Numerical experiments are conducted on the Sioux-Falls network. A comparison with the traditional sequential modeling framework indicates that the proposed approach has a better performance and is more robust. The practical applicability of the approach is proved by employing a real size network.

  8. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  10. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  11. Optimal Design of Mountain Bicycle Based on Biomechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜研; 黄田; 项忠霞; 吴小凡; 陈春

    2010-01-01

    To achieve better cycling performance and vibration comfort of mountain bicycle, the optimization of frame structural parameters and rear suspension scale parameters is investigated based on biomechanics.Firstly, the quadratic sum of rider lower limb muscles stresses is presented as the evaluation criterion of muscle fatigue.By taking the criterion as the objective function, the relative positions of three pivot points of frame are optimized to ensure that the frame structural parameters match the stature o...

  12. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, A Richard A; de Goede, Maartje; de Hair-Buijssen, Stefanie; Methorst, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised traffic. As the usage of bicycle paths steadily increases, it is to be expected that safety on bicycle paths will become a major issue in the coming years in The Netherlands. A study was conducted into the behaviour of bicyclists and moped riders to improve traffic safety on bicycle paths. By behavioural observations with video, mutual conflicts and bicyclist behaviour on bicycle paths were recorded and analysed, among other things by means of the conflict observation method DOCTOR (Dutch Objective Conflict Technique for Operation and Research). The explorative phase of the study (phase 1), included two research locations, one in the city of Amsterdam and one in Eindhoven. The results gave guidance for a better understanding of the behaviour between different users of separate two-directional bicycle paths. An example includes the relationship between bicyclist-moped rider behaviour and the width of the bicycle path. For a condition with busy bicycle traffic in both directions the width of the bicycle path in Amsterdam (effectively 3.55m) is relatively narrow, whereas the bicycle path width in Eindhoven (>4.94m) appears to be sufficient to accommodate large flows of bicyclists. Because of a large flow of crossing pedestrians resulting in (severe) conflicts with bicyclists in Amsterdam, additional countermeasures to better control these interactions are needed. The DOCTOR conflict observation method from video appears to be applicable for conflicts between intersecting road users and for head-on conflicts on the bicycle path. Conflict situations between bicyclists in the same direction (constituting an important share of injury accidents on bicycle paths) require an

  13. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  14. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  15. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  16. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  17. It's not just about speed: Reviewing the recumbent bicycle once more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Bernhard

    2016-12-01

    Why did the recumbent bicycle never become a dominant design, despite the fact that it was faster than the safety bicycle on the racetrack? Hassaan Ahmed et al. argue in their recently published paper that the main reason for the marginalization of the recumbent bicycle was semiotic power deployed by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). Here, I demonstrate that the authors drew their conclusions from an incomplete application of the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) framework. Understanding the diffusion of alternative bicycle designs requires considering more than speed, and more than the UCI as a powerful actor. The recumbent bicycle was fast, but rather tricky to ride, and was not really feasible for the transport needs of the working classes, which constituted the most relevant social group of bicycle users during the 1930s.

  18. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  19. Microphone Array Signal Processing and Active Noise Control for the In-Helmet Speech Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For in-helmet voice communication, the currently used Communication-Cap-based Audio (CCA) systems have a number of recognized logistical issues and inconveniences...

  20. 33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the reports by the Senate Committee...

  1. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  2. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing ...

  3. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  4. Modeling cyclist acceleration process for bicycle traffic simulation using naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Cycling is a healthy and sustainable form of transportation. The recent increase of daily cyclists in Sweden has triggered broad interest in finding how policies and measures may facilitate the planning of bicycle traffic in the urban area. However, in comparison to car traffic, bicycle traffic is still far from well understood. This study is part of the research effort to investigate microscopic cyclist behavior, model bicycle traffic and finally build a simulation tool for applications in t...

  5. Bicycle-related injuries: a survey in a pediatric emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, R; Down, J; MacMillan, N; Waclawik, H

    1990-01-01

    The number of bicycle-related injuries has risen significantly with the increased popularity of bicycle riding in Canada. The risk of injury is highest among children. To assess the magnitude of the problem and to identify the contributing factors we used a questionnaire, injury reports and patient charts to survey bicycle-related injuries among children brought to the emergency department of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, between May 1 and Sept. 30, 1988. The questionnai...

  6. Improvement of Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease by Imagining Bicycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kikuchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is one of the factors that reduce the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Imagining bicycling before gait start provided improvement in FOG in 2 PD patients. Imagining and mimicking bicycling after the initiation of gait allowed the rhythmic gait to continue without interruption. We suggest that imagining and mimicking bicycling, which are nonexternal cues, could serve as a helpful therapeutic approach for the intractable freezing and interruption of gait of PD patients.

  7. Bicyclic graphs with maximum sum of the two largest Laplacian eigenvalues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirong Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let G be a simple connected graph and S 2 ( G $S_{2}(G$ be the sum of the two largest Laplacian eigenvalues of G. In this paper, we determine the bicyclic graph with maximum S 2 ( G $S_{2}(G$ among all bicyclic graphs of order n, which confirms the conjecture of Guan et al. (J. Inequal. Appl. 2014:242, 2014 for the case of bicyclic graphs.

  8. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  9. Spring-Based Helmet System Support Prototype to Address Aircrew Neck Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Royal Canadian Air Force Griffon helicopter aircrew are known to have extremely high incidence of chronic, debilitating neck pain. Fischer et al...2013) identified that unbalanced moments due to head-borne equipment (i.e. helmet with NVG ) were a particular concern since the current solution was...to add more weight (battery pack and counterweight (CW)) as a counterbalancing force. Three concepts were proposed to improve the helmet- NVG system

  10. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm(3)), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm(3). Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of a Helmet Liner for Improved Low Velocity Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC), from January to October of 2012. Materials for this project were donated by Team Wendy...selecting materials for helmet impact protection. They assume a perfectly plastic material response in the foam under compression. No materials will...16. Methodologies for Blunt Trauma Assessment in Military Helmets. Hopping, J. Quebec City : s.n., 2010. Personal Armour Systems Symposium. 17

  12. Degradation of Auditory Localization Performance Due to Helmet Ear Coverage: The Effects of Normal Acoustic Reverberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    two ear) cues that dominate sound localization do not distinguish the front and rear hemispheres. The two binaural cues relied on are interaural...121 (5), 3094–3094. Shinn-Cunningham, B. G.; Kopčo, N.; Martin, T. J. Localizing Nearby Sound Sources in a Classroom: Binaural Room Impulse...Helmet on sound localization tasks. The PASGT has greater coverage over the ears. However, these helmets also differ in their suspension systems

  13. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  14. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  15. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  16. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions.

  17. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  18. Application of Technology Acceptance Model in Predicting Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarudin Ambak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle is a common and popular mode of transportation in many developing countries. However, statistic of road accidents by the Royal Malaysian Police reveals that motorcyclists are found to be the most vulnerable road users as compared to users of other vehicles. This is due to the lack of safety protection and instability of motorcycles themselves. Despite the usefulness and effectiveness of safety helmet to prevent head injuries, majority of motorcycle users do not wear and fasten their helmet properly. This study presents a new approach in enhancing the safety of motorcycle riders through proper usage of safety helmet. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was adopted in predicting the behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder (SHR system towards a more proper helmet usage among motorcyclists. A multivariate analysis technique, known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used in modeling exercise. Results showed that the construct variables in TAM were found to be reliable and statistically significant. The evaluation of full structural model (TAM showed the goodness-of-fit indices such as Goodness of Fit Index (GFI, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI, Comparative of Fit Index (CFI and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI were greater 0.9 and Root Means Square Error Approximation (RMSEA was less than 0.08. Perceived ease of use was found as strong predictors than perceived usefulness regarding behavioral intention to use SHR. In addition, this study postulates that behavioral intention to use SHR has direct effect on the proper usage of safety helmet significantly.

  19. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Morarit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998 during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival.

  20. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  1. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  3. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Efficiency of the bicycle operation under various tactical variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kolumbet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the efficiency of the cyclist in various tactical options. Material: In the experiments participated athletes (n = 6 of high qualification (mean age - 19.8 ± 1.3 years, mean weight - 71.4 ± 3.5 kg. As a model of the individual pursuit race at 4 km, a five-minute pedaling on the bicycle ergometer was used. Series of loads was set on the modernized mechanical bicycle ergometer “Monark” . The five-minute bicycle ergometer test is similar to the individual pursuit race at 4 km: according to the time of the exercise; on the frequency of pedaling (110-120 rpm; on the frequency of heartbeats. Results: Tactical variants in the pursuit race at 4 km are considered. The total work in a free test was on average 106.38 ± 3.57 kJ. The operating energy consumption is on average for 379.0±16.1 kJ. The operating efficiency (economy of the exercise attained on average for 28.0 ± 0.75%. This corresponds to the effectiveness of aerobic work of moderate power. The ratio of aerobic and anaerobic contributions to the provision of work was 77.3 and 22.7%. The smallest work was done in a test with step-increasing power. The athletes performed the closest work to the given job in the test with a variable (±15% operating mode. The shortfall in it was on average for 0.46%. The absence of reliable differences in the economics of the work did not allow us to identify a rational variant of power distribution for an exercise lasting 5 minutes. Conclusions: Tactical options in the pursuit race for 4 km depend on the features of the power systems of the rider. When optimizing tactics, it is necessary to select an individually optimal variant of the distribution of forces at a distance.

  5. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  6. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  7. Exploring the Chemistry of Bicyclic Isoxazolidines for the Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycomimetic Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Lutz, Martin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a chiral furanone, the nitrone-olefin [3 + 2] cycloaddition can be used to obtain bicyclic isoxazolidines for which we report a set of reactions to selectively modify each functional position. These synthetically versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines allowed us to obtain complex glycomi

  8. Bicyclic isoureas derived from 1-deoxynojirimycin are potent inhibitors of β-glucocerebrosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevšek, Alen; Čelan, Maša; Erjavec, Bibi; Quarles van Ufford, Linda; Sastre Toraño, Javier; Moret, Ed E; Pieters, Roland J; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-01-01

    A series of bicyclic isourea derivatives were prepared from 1-deoxynojirimycin using a concise synthetic protocol proceeding via a guanidino intermediate. Inhibition assays with a panel of glycosidases revealed that these deoxynojirimycin-derived bicyclic isoureas display very potent inhibition agai

  9. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix

    2001-01-01

    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has...

  10. The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Godefrooij, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transpor

  11. Envisioning Competence: Learning, Problem Solving, and Children at Work in the Exploratory Bicycle Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles Florian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the conceptual learning and cognitive development processes of schoolchildren engaged in problem solving activities in a non-school, workplace setting known as the exploratory bicycle shop. The exploratory bike shop is a commercial bicycle shop: a) that has been adapted for combined retail and educational purposes and b) where…

  12. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing n

  13. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  14. Radical Technological Innovation: Case Study of the P1.18 Bicycle Transmission by Pinion

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfeil, Florian

    2015-01-01

    To shed some light on the concrete factors that determine success of radical technological innovations a concrete case of such an innovation will be studied. In 2008, two engineers founded the Pinion GmbH to develop and exploit a new bicycle transmission concept as competitive shifting system for bicycles to overcome the existent disadvantages of traditional derailleur systems and internal gear hubs.

  15. Exploring the Chemistry of Bicyclic Isoxazolidines for the Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycomimetic Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Lutz, Martin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a chiral furanone, the nitrone-olefin [3 + 2] cycloaddition can be used to obtain bicyclic isoxazolidines for which we report a set of reactions to selectively modify each functional position. These synthetically versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines allowed us to obtain complex

  16. Bicycle Design: A different approach to improving on the world human powered speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, H.K.; Van den Brand, S.; Gregoor, W.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Pereboom, H.P.; Wielemaker, D.C.; Van der Zweep, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    The current International Human Powered Vehicle Association world records for faired bicycles stand at 133.284km/h for the 200m flying start speed record and 91.562 km for the hour record. Traditionally the recumbent bicycles that have been developed for breaking one of either of these records have

  17. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing n

  18. Advocating Green Transport and Promoting Healthy Urban Development: Strategies for Bicycle Transport Development in Jinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>As a green transport means,the bicycle has a history of over two hundred years.Since the 1970s,due to the inf luence of energy crisis and the consciousness of environment protection,the bicycle has regained its popularity in the public for its

  19. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, intellectual activity, and social function. Methods: On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties, or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results: Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5% had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions: The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults.

  20. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use. PMID:27643788

  1. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  2. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie

    2015-01-01

    , including periods when the city suffered from spatial, economic and demographic decline, and dominance of car traffic. By discussing reasons and demands for constructing bicycle infrastructure, the study identifies four distinct periods in which bicycle infrastructure was constructed to enhance comfort......Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen....... In search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  3. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  4. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes, Fishing and Vessels AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... (Park) as routes for bicycle use. National Park Service (NPS) regulations require issuance of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes that are located off park roads and outside developed areas. The...

  5. A multi-modal network approach to model public transport accessibility impacts of bicycle-train integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; van Weperen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the Netherlands, the bicycle plays an important in station access and, to a lesser extent, in station egress. There is however fairly little knowledge in the potential effects of bicycle-train integration policies. The aim of this paper is to examine the impacts of bicycle-train

  6. Constituent contacts can influence how legislators vote

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Does calling your legislator actually lead to results for those who are passionately for or against\\ud certain legislation? In new research, using a randomized field experiment, Daniel Bergan finds\\ud that it does. Those legislators who received at least one phone call from a constituent asking\\ud them to support a certain bill were 11-12 percent more likely to support the legislation, an effect\\ud independent of the legislators’ party, gender or the competitiveness of their district.

  7. Numerical analysis of frictional heat generation in bicycle disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmid, Shadman; Alam, Saima

    2017-06-01

    Precise braking operations are pivotal to ensure safety in modern day vehicle designs. Brakes are mechanical devices for increasing the frictional resistance that obstructs the turning motion of vehicle wheels by absorbing either kinetic, potential energy or both while in action. This absorbed energy appears in the form of heat. Stress, distribution of friction on surface, frictional heat generation, material and geometry are the major controlling factors for efficiency of braking operations. Frictional heat generation and its effective dissipation is one of the most predominant of these factors and hence it is the focus of this study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal behavior of a full bicycle disc brake using finite element method. Sequential thermal structured method based on Ansys 14.5 is used to carry out the numerical simulation for evaluating the variation of total heat flux and temperature profiles with respect to time. The analysis model was studied experimentally and results obtained by numerical analysis were within 3% of the experimental result for maximum temperature. The model is thus adequately validated to be followed for a similar analysis on bicycle brakes.

  8. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  9. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  10. [Legislation on professional respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaun, M

    2005-01-01

    The legally protected occupational pathology consists of work accidents and occupational diseases. Diseases are considered to be occupational when there is a relationship of demonstrable causality between exposure to a determinate occupational risk and a specific disease. To facilitate recognition, different organisations (International Labour Organisation, European Community) draw up, update and recommend the use of lists that are voluntarily adopted by member states. In the case of the Spanish state, the system of the closed list has been adopted. The current list was published in 1978 and the system of notification and registration currently in use is in need of urgent reform, which has been started. It is frequently difficult to identify the work-related origin of occupational diseases and they are often treated in the public health care system without their relation to work being recognised. Knowledge of some basic aspects of the labour legislation by the health workers and the inclusion of a few questions during the anamnesis of patients would make their identification and adequate treatment possible.

  11. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  12. A computational study of influence of helmet padding materials on the human brain under ballistic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi Jazi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Azarmi, Fardad; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The results of a computational study of a helmeted human head are presented in this paper. The focus of the work is to study the effects of helmet pad materials on the level of acceleration, inflicted pressure and shear stress in a human brain model subjected to a ballistic impact. Four different closed cell foam materials, made of expanded polystyrene and expanded polypropylene, are examined for the padding material. It is assumed that bullets cannot penetrate the helmet shell. Finite element modelling of the helmet, padding system, head and head components is used for this dynamic nonlinear analysis. Appropriate contacts and conditions are applied between the different components of the head, as well as between the head and the pads, and the pads and the helmet. Based on the results of simulations in this work, it is concluded that the stiffness of the foam has a prominent role in reducing the level of the transferred load to the brain. A pad that is less stiff is more efficient in absorbing the impact energy and reducing the sudden acceleration of the head and consequently lowers the brain injury level. Using the pad with the least stiffness, the influence of the angle of impacts as well as the locations of the ballistic strike is studied.

  13. Head Position in the MEG Helmet Affects the Sensitivity to Anterior Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2013-01-01

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people’s heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential “invisibility” of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position (“front” vs. “back”) secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the “visibility” of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks. PMID:16012659

  14. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  15. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.175 Section 84.175 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons...

  16. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. 84.198 Section 84.198 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE..., full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes...

  17. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... helmets; fit; minimum requirements. 84.135 Section 84.135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes and sizes either: (1)...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.1135 Section 84.1135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH..., full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes...

  19. Neck pain among fighter pilots after the introduction of the JHMCS helmet and NVG in their environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, J; Toft, Palle

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased.......Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased....

  20. Optimization of the Chin Bar of a Composite-Shell Helmet to Mitigate the Upper Neck Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, S.; Galvanetto, U.; Ghajari, M.

    2016-11-01

    The chin bar of motorcycle full-face helmets is the most likely region of the helmet to sustain impacts during accidents, with a large percentage of these impacts leading to basilar skull fracture. Currently, helmet chin bars are designed to mitigate the peak acceleration at the centre of gravity of isolated headforms, as required by standards, but they are not designed to mitigate the neck force, which is probably the cause of basilar skull fracture, a type of head injury that can lead to fatalities. Here we test whether it is possible to increase the protection of helmet chin bars while meeting standard requirements. Fibre-reinforced composite shells are commonly used in helmets due to their lightweight and energy absorption characteristics. We optimize the ply orientation of a chin bar made of fibre-reinforced composite layers for reduction of the neck force in a dummy model using a computational approach. We use the finite element model of a human head/neck surrogate and measure the neck axial force, which has been shown to be correlated with the risk of basilar skull fracture. The results show that by varying the orientation of the chin bar plies, thus keeping the helmet mass constant, the neck axial force can be reduced by approximately 30% while ensuring that the helmet complies with the impact attenuation requirements prescribed in helmet standards.

  1. Development of Food Legislation Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of systems are presented in the perspective of the development of food legislation to give an impression of the features found in food law and the reasons they have taken certain forms. Legislation on food is not only widely distributed in time but also in space. The assurance of safe food

  2. Seatbelt research and legislation in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1985-01-01

    Research projects such as detailed accident studies and seatbelt surveys have been carried out by SWOV and the results reported to the government and used to develop seatbelt legislation in the Netherlands. The layout of current seatbelt legislation and the compliance details are discussed. Legislat

  3. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  4. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  5. Toward reducing impact induced brain injury: Lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, W C; Blackman, E G

    2012-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterize the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the Head Injury Criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry, and material stiffness. We find that: (1) The football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily-relevant impact scenarios; (2) Optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy; and (3) Thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be significantly reduced. Keywords: helmet,...

  6. [Prevalence and evolution of helmet use in motorcycle riders in an Argentine city (Mar del Plata, 2006-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Jeremías David; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Poó, Fernando Martín; Montes, Silvana Andrea; López, Soledad Susana

    2016-03-01

    Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962), 2008 (n=977), 2012 (n=2,542), and 2014 (n=2,466). The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.

  7. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  8. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)

    2015-10-16

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  9. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials.

  10. Enhanced recycling network for spent e-bicycle batteries: A case study in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Baodan; Zhang, Wangyuan; Ma, Jing; Lv, Jie; Yang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries. The findings show that the existing distempered recycling system is the main limitation of spent battery recovery, and the actual recovery rate of spent batteries is lower than the estimated output (QW) for the years 2011-2014. Electric bicycle sellers play a fundamental role in the collection of spent batteries in Xuzhou, accounting for 42.3±8.3% of all batteries recovered. The widespread use of lithium batteries in recent years has resulted in a reduction in spent battery recycling because of lower battery prices. Furthermore, consumer preferences are another important factor affecting the actual recovery rate according to survey results evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis. In this paper, we suggest that a reverse logistics network system for spent battery recycling should be established in the future; in addition, enhancing producer responsibility, increasing publicity, raising of public awareness, developing green public transport, and reducing dependence on e-bicycles also should be pursued. This study seeks to provide guidance for planning construction and management policies for an effective spent battery recycling system in China and other developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws.

  12. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  13. Evaluation of military helmets and roof padding on head injury potential from vertical impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Laing, Sheridan

    2016-10-02

    Soldiers in military vehicles subjected to underbelly blasts can sustain traumatic head and neck injuries due to a head impact with the roof. The severity of head and neck trauma can be influenced by the amount of head clearance available to the occupant as well as factors such as wearing a military helmet or the presence of padding on the interior roof. The aim of the current study was to examine the interaction between a Hybrid III headform, the helmet system, and the interior roof of the vehicle under vertical loading. Using a head impact machine and a Hybrid III headform, tests were conducted on a rigid steel plate in a number of different configurations and velocities to assess helmet shell and padding performance, to evaluate different vehicle roof padding materials, and to determine the relative injury mitigating contributions of both the helmet and the roof padding. The resultant translational head acceleration was measured and the head injury criterion (HIC) was calculated for each impact. For impacts with a helmeted headform hitting the steel plate only, which represented a common scenario in an underbelly blast event, velocities of ≤6 m/s resulted in HIC values below the FMVSS 201U threshold of 1,000, and a velocity of 7 m/s resulted in HIC values well over the threshold. Roof padding was found to reduce the peak translational head acceleration and the HIC, with rigid IMPAXX foams performing better than semirigid ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. However, the head injury potential was reduced considerably more by wearing a helmet than by the addition of roof padding. The results of this study provide initial quantitative findings that provide a better understanding of helmet-roof interactions in vertical impacts and the contributions of the military helmet and roof padding to mitigating head injury potential. Findings from this study will be used to inform further testing with the future aim of developing a new minimum head clearance standard for

  14. [Prognostic significance of bicycle ergometry test in patients with myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalova, R F; Borodina, V I

    1992-04-01

    A total of 42 patients with rheumatic carditis were examined in the acute-subacute period and following 3-5 years. Seventeen patients were diagnosed as having primary rheumatic carditis, 9 presented with tonsillogenic rheumatic carditis, and 16 had viral rheumatic carditis. The diagnosis of myocarditis was established on the basis of clinical, immunological, and virological findings. The study involved ECG, PhCG, PCG, and bicycle ergometer testing recordings. Groups of patients with good and poor prognosis were identified. Low threshold exercise, exercise-inadequate tachycardia, complex cardiac arrhythmias, phasic myocardial hypodynamic syndrome and volume exercise syndrome that are formed during performance are prognostically poor indicators. More profound electric and mechanic dysfunctions were observed in patients with tonsillogenic or viral myocarditis.

  15. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  16. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-09

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues.

  17. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  18. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... alkaloid was prepared from antirrhinoside by means of an enzymatic cleavage to afford the aglucone, followed by a double reductive amination with benzylamine hydrochloride and sodium cyanoborohydride. The resulting piperidine was modified by opening of the epoxide on the cyclopropane ring by azide...... strategy was therefore abandoned.A one-pot reaction involving ozonolysis and subsequent reduction of the 5,6-O-isopropylidene-2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl antirrhinoside yielded a diol, which was considered a potential intermediate in the preparation of enantiopure 3-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octane alkaloids...

  19. Bicycle messengers: energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernmark, Eva; Wiktorin, Christina; Svartengren, Magnus; Lewné, Marie; Aberg, Samuel

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution for bicycle messengers. Relationships between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake, and between HR and pulmonary ventilation (VE) for each participant were established in laboratory tests. Air pollution and HR were measured during one working day. The total oxygen uptake was then described as the total energy expenditure in Joule (J) and in multiples of the energy expenditure at rest (MET). The mean energy expenditure during a working day (8 h) was 12 MJ, (4.8 MET). The level of air pollution exposure when cycling seemed to be comparable with the levels of exposure when sitting inside a vehicle. The VE during cycling was four times higher than resting value. Increased VE led to increased exposure to air pollution.

  20. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... understanding of choice generation for highly detailed networks. There is a substantial amount of literature that studies cyclists’ route choices. Most studies have been based on stated preference (SP) data (see, e.g., [1,2]). Although SP data have a lot of benefits there are some disadvantages, e.......g. the challenge to, without bias, predefine what cyclists consider when choosing a route. There have been few revealed preference (RP) studies reported in the literature (see, e.g., [1,2]). One disadvantage with RP data is that generating alternative routes can prove difficult. The benefit of collecting...

  1. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymery Constant

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. METHODS: We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. RESULTS: Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5] and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. CONCLUSION: Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  2. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p optimal reference for bicycle seat designs.

  3. Burden of hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement: United States, 2002 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Lynch, Charles F; Ramirez, Marizen; Torner, James

    2013-11-01

    Bicycling and bicycling injuries have increased during the past decade in the United States, but research on the extent and outcomes of injuries has lagged behind. This study aimed to estimate the current burden of injury from bicycling injury hospitalizations by motor vehicle crash (MVC) and non-MVC in the United States. We included patients with primary or secondary diagnosis e-codes corresponding to MVC or non-MVC bicycle injury, drawn from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2009). Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and logistic regression were used to examine patient and hospital characteristics (length of stay, total charges, nonroutine discharges, and demographics) associated with hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement. On average, from 2002 to 2009, there were an annually estimated 6,877 MVC and 18,457 non-MVC bicycle injury hospitalizations nationwide. This translates to more than $1 billion of hospital charges overall, $425 million for MVC and $588 million for non-MVC per year. After controlling for covariates, MVC bicycling injury hospitalizations had an average length of stay that was 2 days longer (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.3) and an average hospitalization charge of $23,424 more (95% CI, $21,360-$25,538) than non-MVC. Those with MVC bicycling injuries were more than two times as likely to have a nonroutine hospital discharge than non-MVC (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.06-2.39). The burden of injury from bicycle crashes is large overall, and MVC-related bicycling injuries result in longer hospital stays, higher costs, and more nonroutine hospital discharges than non-MVC, despite the fact that non-MVC hospitalizations are more frequent and result in higher total charges, overall. To have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of injury from bicycle crashes, educational interventions, policy, and infrastructure changes should include all age groups and prioritize reducing bicycle-motor vehicle

  4. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  5. Demands of Simulated Commuting Using an Electrically Assisted Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LA Salle, D Taylor; Shute, Robert; Heesch, Matthew; Slivka, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends adults participate in weekly aerobic activity for a minimum of 30 minutes moderate intensity exercise 5 days per week or 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 days per week. The electrically assisted bicycle may help individuals achieve the ACSM's aerobic recommendations and introduce inactive individuals to physical activity. To compare the physiological requirements of riding a bicycle with electric pedal assist versus non-assist among healthy active young adults. 6 males and 6 females completed two randomized cycling trials using electric pedal assist (PAB) and non-assist (NON). Cycling trials were completed over a 3.54 km course with varying terrain. Time to completion was faster in the PAB (12.5 ± 0.3 min) than the NON (13.8 ± 0.3 min, p=0.01). Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was lower in the PAB (12.0 ± 0.4) than the NON (14.8 ± 0.5, p < 0.001). There was no difference in mean VO2 between PAB (2.3 ± 0.1 L·min(-1)) and NON (2.5 ± 0.1 L·min(-1), p=0.45). There was no difference in mean power output when comparing PAB (115 ± 11 Watts) to NON (128 ± 11 Watts, p=0.38). There was no difference in heart rate between PAB (147 ± 5 bpm) and NON (149 ± 5 bpm, p=0.77). Recreationally active younger (college age) individuals may self-select a similar physiological intensity of physical activity regardless of mechanical assistance, resulting in quicker completion of a commuting task with PAB. Both the PAB and NON exercise bouts met ACSM criteria for vigorous exercise.

  6. Recommendations for European health data protection legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, S; Nys, H

    1996-01-01

    In year 1 of the SEISMED project, the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven coordinated the inventory and analysis of medical personal data protection legislation in Europe. A report on legal issues of medical data protection legislation in Europe was written by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique (Paris) and the University College Dublin. This report served as a basis for a second important legal deliverable, i.e. the Health Informatics Deontology Code. In this third and final report, we take into account the results of the other two legal reports and we formulate recommendations for the national and European legislator. This report analyses critically the upcoming privacy directive. We propose several recommendations which should be taken into account by the European and national legislator. We focused quite extensively on the use of medical data for research purposes. We had several reasons to do this. One of them is the fact that the use of medical data for research purposes is very popular, in particular now the health care sector is becoming more and more 'standardized' by using computers, networksystems and telematics. Legislation is therefore needed. Moreover, the use of medical data for research purposes involves the transfer of data from one Member State to another. Therefore, a harmonized legislation is really needed. We hope that the recommendations we propose, will be taken into consideration by the European legislator.

  7. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  8. Report of the Environmental Legislation Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A review panel was established in October 1990 to hold public meetings throughout Alberta for providing the public with opportunities to express their views on draft environmental legislation. Overviews of public comments and review panel recommendations regarding the draft legislation are summarized in such categories as sustainable development, discretionary powers, environmental impact assessments, approvals, contaminant releases, conservation and reclamation, waste minimization and recycling, the polluter-pays concept, the role of local government, dispute resolution mechanisms, protected areas, environmental protection orders, and enforcement of the legislation.

  9. Methodology to determine skull bone and brain responses from ballistic helmet-to-head contact loading using experiments and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Philippens, Mat M G M; Zhang, JiangYue; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain helmet-to-head contact forces from experiments, use a human head finite element model to determine regional responses, and compare outputs to skull fracture and brain injury thresholds. Tests were conducted using two types of helmets (A and B) fitted to a head-form. Seven load cells were used on the head-form back face to measure helmet-to-head contact forces. Projectiles were fired in frontal, left, right, and rear directions. Three tests were conducted with each helmet in each direction. Individual and summated force- and impulse-histories were obtained. Force-histories were inputted to the human head-helmet finite element model. Pulse durations were approximately 4 ms. One-third force and impulse were from the central load cell. 0.2% strain and 40 MPa stress limits were not exceeded for helmet-A. For helmet-B, strains exceeded in left, right, and rear; pressures exceeded in bilateral directions; volume of elements exceeding 0.2% strains correlated with the central load cell forces. For helmet-A, volumes exceeding brain pressure threshold were: 5-93%. All elements crossed the pressure limit for helmet-B. For both helmets, no brain elements exceeded peak principal strain limit. These findings advance our understanding of skull and brain biomechanics from helmet-head contact forces.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  11. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88...

  12. Formation of isoprostane bicyclic endoperoxides from the autoxidation of cholesteryl arachidonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Havrilla, Christine M; Morrow, Jason D; Porter, Ned A

    2002-07-03

    Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and esters leads to a complex mixture containing hydroperoxides and cyclic peroxides. Prostaglandin bicyclic endoperoxides have been detected from the autoxidation of cholesteryl arachidonate by LC-MS and GC-MS techniques. All four possible types (I-IV) of bicyclic endoperoxides have been found starting from different regioisomeric hydroperoxides of cholesteryl arachidonate. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of Type IV bicyclic endoperoxides has been determined by conversion to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester, trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives, and comparison with synthetic standards by the use of GC-MS. All eight possible diastereomers of the derivatized isoprostanes were observed and were separated by gas chromatography. The bicyclic endoperoxides with the two alkyl chains syn on the cyclopentane ring were formed preferentially to those with anti configuration, a result anticipated from earlier work. Substantial amounts of the anti-substituted isoprostanes, including PGF(2)(alpha), were, however, observed in the product mixture.

  13. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  14. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  15. Prioritization of Integrated Bicycle Network Clusters in Istanbul Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Çol Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of the integration of nonmotorized transport and public transport on hypermobility was evaluated. The role of bicycle in non-motorized transportation, and its contribution to sustainable travel goals were examined. A decision support model was established in order to plan the phases of a bicycle network integrated with the public transport sytem in Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Data such as public transport routes planned for the target year 2023, locations of transfer centers, number of passengers at transfer centers, and a revised bicycle network were used as layers for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS map produced. Based on the survey data collected from the experts, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP which is a multi-criteria decision-making procedure that contains both qualitative and quantitative factors was used to prioritize the bicycle network clusters integrated with public transport system in Istanbul.

  16. Health in All Policies? The case of policies to promote bicycle use in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Broeder, Lea; Scheepers, Eline; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Schuit, Jantine

    2015-05-01

    To gather insight on how Health in All Policies (HiAP) is applied in practice, we carried out a case study on transport policies intended to stimulate a shift from car use to bicycling. We reviewed 3 years (2010, 2011, and 2012) of national budgets and policy documents in the Netherlands, followed by two focus group sessions and a second round of document analysis. We found to our surprise, given the country's history of bicycle promotion, that no HiAP approaches for bicycle promotion remain in place in national transport policies. The Netherlands may face serious challenges in the near future for facilitating bicycle use. Inclusion of health goals requires that the health sector work towards acquiring a better understanding of core values in other sector's policies.

  17. The relation between mechanical impact parameters and most frequent bicycle related head injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monea, A.G.; Perre, G. van der; Baeck, K.; Delye, H.H.; Verschueren, P.; Forausebergher, E.; Lierde, C. van; Verpoest, I.; Sloten, J. van der; Goffin, J.; Depreitere, B.

    2014-01-01

    The most frequent head injuries resulting from bicycle accidents include skull fracture acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), cerebral contusions, and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This review includes epidemiological studies, cadaver experiments, in vivo imaging, image processing techniques, and computer

  18. Legislative Action: The Possibility of Instant Retrenchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamus, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Planning models developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder and resulting strategies for coping with legislated retrenchment are presented. Several areas for course of action are examined: contingency planning, planning for flexibility and enhancing real productivity. (LC)

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses....

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  2. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among...... Member States. The aim of this paper is to analyse the challenge of the safe management of edible insects in the context of the current legal framework. The current Novel Food legislation, as well as the forthcoming version of the legislation, will be analysed and discussed in relation to edible insects...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  12. Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?%Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Bufton; Florian Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The humble bicycle was once the predominant mode of transport in Beijing and it can be argued that the city has previously been one of the best bicycle cities in the world. Now the streets are littered with rusting old bikes and it seems as if Beijing has turned its back on the bicycle in its quest for modernity and evolution. The resultant re-configuration of the city and the rapid speed of development of modern transportation systems (particularly the lightening growth of personal automobiles) have created a complex set of issues and challenges which now put the city under pressure such as sustainability, air quality, health and traffic congestion problems.

  13. A Novel Method for Quantifying Helmeted Field of View of a Spacesuit - And What It Means for Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular spacesuit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. Historically, suited field of view has been evaluated either qualitatively in parallel with design or quantitatively using various test methods and protocols. As such, oftentimes legacy suit field of view information is either ambiguous for lack of supporting data or contradictory to other field of view tests performed with different subjects and test methods. This paper serves to document a new field of view testing method that is more reliable and repeatable than its predecessors. It borrows heavily from standard ophthalmologic field of vision tests such as the Goldmann kinetic perimetry test, but is designed specifically for evaluating field of view of a spacesuit helmet. In this test, four suits utilizing three different helmet designs were tested for field of view. Not only do these tests provide more reliable field of view data for legacy and prototype helmet designs, they also provide insight into how helmet design impacts field of view and what this means for the Constellation Project spacesuit helmet, which must meet stringent field of view requirements that are more generous to the crewmember than legacy designs.

  14. Bicycle use for transport in an Australian and a Belgian city: associations with built-environment attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neville; De De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sugiyama, Takemi; Leslie, Eva; Cerin, Ester; Van Van Dyck, Delfien; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    The walkability attributes of neighborhood environments (residential density, land use mixture, and connectedness of streets) have been found to be associated with higher rates of walking. However, relatively less is known about the associations of walkability attributes with bicycle use for transport. We examined the relationships between adults' bicycle use for transport and measures of neighborhood walkability in two settings: an Australian city (Adelaide) with low rates of bicycle use and a Belgian city (Ghent) with high rates of bicycle use. A total of 2,159 and 382 participants were recruited in Adelaide and Ghent, respectively. A walkability index was derived from objectively measured data in Adelaide, while a similar index was derived from perceived measures in Ghent. Logistic regression models were employed to examine associations of bicycle use with different levels of walkability. There were higher rates of bicycle ownership for Ghent compared to Adelaide participants (96% versus 61%), and there was a higher prevalence of bicycle use for transport for Ghent compared to Adelaide participants (50% vs. 14%). Despite the large differences in bicycle ownership and use, living in a high-walkable neighborhood was associated with significantly higher odds of bicycle use for transport in both cities, after adjusting for relevant confounding factors. Built-environment innovations that are increasingly being advocated by health authorities and transport planners, primarily to promote higher rates of walking for transport, should also impact positively on bicycle use.

  15. Effects of police enforcement of protection devices and moped helmet use and red light running.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Not wearing a seat belt or moped helmet, and red light running lead to a higher crash rate or a more serious crash. That is why they have been spearheads of intensified police enforcement in the Netherlands since 1999. The extra seat belt enforcement together with large-scale media campaigns have

  16. Effects of police enforcement of protection devices and moped helmet use and red light running.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Not wearing a seat belt or moped helmet, and red light running lead to a higher crash rate or a more serious crash. That is why they have been spearheads of intensified police enforcement in the Netherlands since 1999. The extra seat belt enforcement together with large-scale media campaigns have le

  17. Motorcycle-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries: Helmet Use and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ogbonna Nnanna Nnadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. With increasing use of motorcycle as means of transport in developing countries, traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle crashes have been increasing. The only single gadget that protects riders from traumatic brain injury is crash helmet. Objective. The objectives were to determine the treatment outcome among traumatic brain injury patients from motorcycle crashes and the rate of helmet use among them. Methods. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study of motorcycle-related traumatic brain injury patients managed in our center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were managed using our unit protocol for traumatic brain injuries. Data for the study were collected in accident and emergency, intensive care unit, wards, and outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed using Environmental Performance Index (EPI info 7 software. Results. Ninety-six patients were studied. There were 87 males. Drivers were 65. Only one patient wore helmet. Majority of them were between 20 and 40 years. Fifty-three patients had mild head injuries. Favorable outcome among them was 84.35% while mortality was 12.5%. Severity of the injury affected the outcome significantly. Conclusion. Our study showed that the helmet use by motorcycle riders was close to zero despite the existing laws making its use compulsory in Nigeria. The outcome was related to severity of injuries.

  18. The Development of a Hybrid Thermoplastic Ballistic Material With Application to Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    composite armor; helmets; protection; thermoforming ; thermoplastics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Shawn M...equipment to allow for the thermoforming of thermoplastic matrix composite materials. Identifying the proper combination of fiber, resin, reinforcement... packaging of these sub-systems. The second will be in developing materials (and combinations of materials) that will enable weight reductions in the

  19. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their wo

  20. Experimental Methodology using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to Assess Ballistic Helmet Blunt Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    helmets. Additional details pertinent to the firing sequence are as follows: • Gun was a 9 mm Aero tube, 8.25 in long, 1:10 twist, 6 groove (Bill Wiseman...speeds of 50,000 frames per second and shutter speeds of 1/(frame speed) seconds. At these camera speeds, an intense light source is needed to uniformly

  1. Efficacy of visor and helmet for blast protection assessed using a computational head model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Cronin, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    Head injury resulting from blast exposure has been identified as a challenge that may be addressed, in part, through improved protective systems. Existing detailed head models validated for blast loading were applied to investigate the influence of helmet visor configuration, liner properties, and shell material stiffness. Response metrics including head acceleration and intracranial pressures (ICPs) generated in brain tissue during primary blast exposure were used to assess and compare helmet configurations. The addition of a visor was found to reduce peak head acceleration and positive ICPs. However, negative ICPs associated with a potential for injury were increased when a visor and a foam liner were present. In general, the foam liner material was found to be more significant in affecting the negative ICP response than positive ICP or acceleration. Shell stiffness was found to have relatively small effects on either metric. A strap suspension system, modeled as an air gap between the head and helmet, was more effective in reducing response metrics compared to a foam liner. In cases with a foam liner, lower-density foam offered a greater reduction of negative ICPs. The models demonstrated the "underwash" effect in cases where no foam liner was present; however, the reflected pressures generated between the helmet and head did not translate to significant ICPs in adjacent tissue, when compared to peak ICPs from initial blast wave interaction. This study demonstrated that the efficacy of head protection can be expressed in terms of load transmission pathways when assessed with a detailed computational model.

  2. Effect of Helmet Pads on the Load Transfer to Head under Blast Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    318. [2] Moss W., and King M., 2011, “Impact Response of US Army and National Football League Helmet Pad Systems”, LLNL-SR-464951, Lawrence Livermore...Blast and Pressure Wave Propagation inside the Rat Brain”, Journal of Neuroscience Method, 195, pp. 61-66. [5] Grujicic M., Bell W., Pandurangan B

  3. Evaluation of a flexible force sensor for measurement of helmet foam impact performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouckama, Ryan; Pearsall, David J

    2011-03-15

    The association between translational head acceleration and concussion remains unclear and provides a weak predictive measure for this type of injury; thus, alternative methods of helmet evaluation are warranted. Recent finite element analysis studies suggest that better estimates of concussion risk can be obtained when regional parameters of the cranium, brain and surrounding tissues are included. Lacking, however, are empirical data at the head-helmet interface with regards to contact area and force. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a system to capture the impact force distribution of helmet foams. Thirteen Flexiforce(®) sensors were arranged in a 5 × 5 cm array, secured to a load cell. Three densities of foam were repeatedly impacted with 5 J of energy during ambient (20°C) and cold (-25°C) conditions. RMS error, calculated relative to the global force registered by the load cell, was Flexiforce(®) sensors. RMS error was 5% of the measured range for the global force estimated by the sensor array. Load distribution measurement revealed significant differences between repeated impacts of cold temperature foams for which acceleration results were non-significant. The sensor array, covering only 36% of the total area, possessed sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture dynamic load distribution patterns. Implementation of this force mapping system is not limited to helmet testing. Indeed it may be adopted to assess other body regions vulnerable to contact injuries (e.g., chest, hip and shin protectors).

  4. Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre;

    2010-01-01

    to rigorously compare outcomes of these 2 treatment methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole-head 3D surface scans of 70 infants with DP were captured before and after treatment by using stereophotogrammetric imaging technology. Helmeted (n = 35) and nonhelmeted/actively repositioned (n = 35) infants were matched...

  5. Using Structural Equation Modeling and the Behavioral Sciences Theories in Predicting Helmet Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarudin Ambak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, according to road accidents data statistics motorcycle users contributes more than 50% of fatalities in traffic accidents, and the major cause due to head injuries. One strategy that can be used to reduce the severity of head injuries is by proper usage of helmet. Although the safety helmet is the best protective equipment to prevents head injury, majority motorcycle user did not use or did not fasten properly. In understanding this problem, the behavioral sciences theory and engineering aspect are needed to provide better explanation and comprehensive insights into solutions. The Theory Planned Behavior (TPB and Health Belief Model (HBM were used in predicting the behavioral intention toward proper helmet usage among motorcyclist. While, a new intervention approach were used in Technology Acceptance Model (TAM that based on the perception of a conceptual system called Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR. Results show that the constructs variables are reliable and statistically significant with the exogenous and endogenous variables. The full structured models were proposed and tested, thus the significant predictors were identified. A multivariate analysis technique, known as Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in modeling exercise.  Finally, the good-of-fit models were used in interpreting the implication of intervention strategy toward motorcyclist injury prevention program.

  6. Modelling the effect on injuries and fatalities when changing mode of transport from car to bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Philip; Stigson, Helena; Ohlin, Maria; Strandroth, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have estimated the health effects of active commuting, where a transport mode shift from car to bicycle reduces risk of mortality and morbidity. Previous studies mainly assess the negative aspects of bicycling by referring to fatalities or police reported injuries. However, most bicycle crashes are not reported by the police and therefore hospital reported data would cover a much higher rate of injuries from bicycle crashes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect on injuries and fatalities from traffic crashes when shifting mode of transport from car to bicycle by using hospital reported data. This present study models the change in number of injuries and fatalities due to a transport mode change using a given flow change from car to bicycle and current injury and fatality risk per distance for bicyclists and car occupants. show that bicyclists have a much higher injury risk (29 times) and fatality risk (10 times) than car occupants. In a scenario where car occupants in Stockholm living close to their work place shifts transport mode to bicycling, injuries, fatalities and health loss expressed in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated to increase. The vast majority of the estimated DALY increase was caused by severe injuries and fatalities and it tends to fluctuate so that the number of severe crashes may exceed the estimation with a large margin. Although the estimated increase of traffic crashes and DALY, a transport mode shift is seen as a way towards a more sustainable society. Thus, this present study highlights the need of strategic preventive measures in order to minimize the negative impacts from increased bicycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of bilateral testicular calcifications in a bicycle motocross rider accompanied by bulbar urethral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kouji; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Seto, Chikashi; Komatsu, Kazuto; Yokoyama, Osamu; Namiki, Mikio

    2006-05-01

    A 21-year-old Japanese man who was a professional bicycle motocross rider injured his perineum during a competition. Chief complaints were gross hematuria, perineal pain, and subcutaneous ecchymosis of the scrotum. Urethrocystography revealed a torn bulbar urethra and extravasation in the same region. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed small calcifications in the bilateral testes. Here, we report a case of bilateral testicular calcifications caused by the continuous shock and vibration of the saddle in an off-road bicycle rider.

  8. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  9. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  10. Use of suitable helmet and its relation with maxillofacial and skull fractures in motorcyclists in Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Jesús Alberto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accidents of motorcyclists constitute a growing cause of dead and injuries in the cities being most of them attack if they are fulfilled the effective traffic norms and it is used a helmet of facial protection appropriately. Objective: The main objective of the investigation is the relationship that exists among fractures of the maxillofacial area and the use of a helmet adapted in motorcyclists in the city of Cali to settle down. Study design: We design a prospective study gathering the information in the emergency rooms of the University Hospitals of the Valley, San Juan of God and Clinical Rafael Uribe Uribe of the city of Cali, Colombia. The period of the study was of one year with a field work carried out among November from 2.001 to June of 2.002. The statistical package EPIINFO version was used 6.04. Results and conclusion: The size of the sample belonged to 108 people, 88 men (81.5% and 20 women (18.5%. The most important conclusion in this investigation is that most (57=52.8% of the motorcyclists that had fractures they didn’t use helmet in the moment of the collision, and that the 51 motorcyclists that if they used it, only 3 (5.8% they used a helmet that fulfills the effective norms and that he/she allows to give appropriate protection to the user. It is for this reason that the causes should be investigated of the why don’t use of a helmet adapted in uneven motorcyclists to implement massive campaigns directed to counteract this behavior with the purpose of diminishing remarkable.

  11. Evaluation of the Performance of New Laminated Composite Shells for Motorcycle Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin M. Aly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycles are considered a cost-effective and major means of transportation, particularly in the developing countries. However, motorcyclists are at higher risk of head and brain injuries in road crashes, which is the primarily cause of most of the fatalities occurred. Wearing a protective helmet is an efficient way for the safety of the motorcyclist, since it reduces the severity of head injuries through absorbing the impact energy during accidents. The main components of the helmet are the outer shell and the shock absorbing foam liner. The helmet performance depends to a great extent on the enhancement of the properties of the materials used to provide protection. This paper studied experimentally the protection performance of new laminated composite shells compared with that of an Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS shell. The shell prototypes were fabricated in the form of an open face helmet, composed of a laminated composite structure reinforced with various fabric performs and materials. Expanded polystyrene foam was used for the shock absorbing liner and its compressive properties were examined. The shell prototypes including the foam liner were tested mechanically to investigate their damage behaviour under applying low velocity impacts and penetration loads. Non Destructive Inspection (NDI methods were used, such as visual inspection and X-ray radiography to detect and evaluate the damages found in the prototypes. It was illustrated that, the laminated composite shell reinforced with the polyester/glass woven fabric and glass fiber mat achieved the best performance, can sustain impact loads and provide better protection to the head from penetration. When compared it with the ABS helmet, it approaches to its effectiveness in protection and the produced shell prototypes are promising for using in motorcycling.

  12. Human tissue legislation in South Africa: Focus on stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human tissue legislation in South Africa: Focus on stem cell research and therapy. ... Related Substances Act, the Consumer Protection Act, the Children's Act and ... human tissue legislation in SA, the legislator has an opportunity to mirror the ...

  13. Enacting legislation to restrict youth access to tanning beds: a survey of advocates and sponsoring legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayan, Busayo; Geller, Alan C; Resnick, Elissa A; Demierre, Marie-France

    2010-07-01

    Passing tanning bed legislation restricting underage use has remained challenging. We sought to determine the resources required to pass tanning bed legislation restricting use to children and identify key barriers to its passage. A total of 15 states sought to pass tanning bed legislation in 2006; in-depth surveys were completed with advocates in 10 states and legislators in 5 states. Advocates sought advice from the sponsoring legislator or legislators (n = 9), held discussions with other organizations (n = 8), and used a lobbyist (n = 5). The 3 major barriers were strong lobbying efforts by the tanning bed industry (n = 10), proceedings after the bill was filed (n = 5), and obtaining support from other organizations (n = 4). For legislators, the most significant barrier was making colleagues aware of the health effects of tanning bed use. Five of 10 legislators and 10 of 15 advocates responded to the survey. Barriers to passage of tanning bed legislation can potentially be surmounted with advice to advocates and coordinated efforts by multiple organizations. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  15. The effects of surface-induced loads on forearm muscle activity during steering a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Onder C; Soylu, Abdullah R

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s(-2) when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s(-2). The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  16. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  17. On the closure of the extended bicyclic semigroup

    CERN Document Server

    Fihel, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we study the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ which is a generalization of the bicyclic semigroup. We describe main algebraic properties of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ and prove that every non-trivial congruence $\\mathfrak{C}$ on the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a group congruence, and moreover the quotient semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}/\\mathfrak{C}$ is isomorphic to a cyclic group. Also we show that the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ as a Hausdorff semitopological semigroup admits only the discrete topology. Next we study the closure $\\operatorname{cl}_T(\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}})$ of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological semigroup $T$. We show that the non-empty remainder of $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological inverse semigroup $T$ consists of a group of units $H(1_T)$ of $T$ and a two-sided ideal $I$ of $T$ in the case when $H(1_T)\

  18. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. R. Romanow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV or with severe injuries (hospitalized. Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27], intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14], retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98], and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]. Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96] and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82] were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety.

  19. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  20. How does the edge height of curb ramps obstruct bicycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to recommend revisions, based on empirical data, to the current curb ramp standards for keeping bicyclists safe. Four types of curb ramps were tested: (1) concrete with a 50 mm edge height, (2) concrete reinforced by a metal plate with a 50 mm edge height, (3) plastic with a 20 mm edge height, and (4) recycled rubber with a 10 mm edge height. Twenty subjects aged 20-60 years ascended the curbs on a bicycle under various conditions. The angles of approach were 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 75 degrees and 90 degrees. Experiments were executed under both wet and dry conditions. We found that when approaching from an angle of 45 degrees or more, all subjects could ascend all ramps under both conditions. From a 15 degrees approach under wet conditions, no subjects ascended the concrete ramps. Some could not ascend at a 15 degrees approach on the concrete ramps in dry conditions, and some could not ascend from a 30 degrees approach on the reinforced concrete ramp in wet conditions. Bicyclists riding on roadways cannot easily ascend a curb ramp with a 50 mm edge, even in dry conditions. We thus recommend that curb ramp edge heights be lower than 50 mm. Keywords: friction coefficient; approach angle