WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicycle accidents

  1. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  2. Methodology for a global bicycle real world accidents reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    The use of the bicycle on a large scale encouraged in the context to develop an eco friendly environment is facing today on a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of th...

  3. In-depth real-world bicycle accident reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Use of bicycles on a large scale, encouraged in the context to develop an eco-friendly environment, is facing today a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of this work ...

  4. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Trauma is the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1-4 years and leading cause of death in children older than 4 years. Thoracic injury is the second most leading cause of death in traumatized children. Multisystemic injury is found in more than 50% of children with thoracic injuries most of which are secondary to blunt traumas. We planned this study to evaluate thorax trauma cases secondary to bicycle driving in childhood and to draw attention to the importance of the regulation of traffic rules, the education of bicycle drivers.Material and Methods:  A retrospective evaluation was performed in 17 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2010 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to bicycle driving. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS. Results; Eleven (64.70% cases were injured due to the tricycle accidents and six cases 6 (35.29% were injured due to the two-wheeled bicycle accidents. The most frequent thoracic pathologies included pulmonary contusion (41.2% and chest wall contusion (29.41%. Extrathoracic injuries were seen in 35.29%, the extremities (17.64% and abdomino pelvic (11.76% being the most commonly involved. Treatment consisted of symptomatic treatment in 12 patients (70.58%, tube thoracostomy in 2 patients (11.76%, and thoracotomy in 1 patient (5.9%. The morbidity was seen in 3 patients (17.64%. The mortality rate was 5.9% (n:1. The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas Conclusions: The pediatric thorax has a greater cartilage content and incomplete ossification of the ribs. Due to the pliability of the pediatric rib cage and mediastinal mobility, significant intrathoracic injury may exist in the

  5. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Gregor, Thomas Issac; Bhat, Dhananjay I.; Kumarsamy, Akhil Deepika; Shukla, Dhaval P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011). Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ) and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ), were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males) with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5%) were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6%) cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5), and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4). Sixty-three (49%) patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%). Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1%) and death in 8 (7.4%). The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms. PMID:24250156

  6. Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Bicycle Accidents and Slip and Fall Injuries in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate associations between sleep time and bicycle accidents, falls under various circumstances, and dental injuries in adolescents.A total of 61,696 participants ranging from 12 to 18 years of age who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS in 2013 were enrolled in this study. Bicycle riding accidents were analyzed for 17,232 bicycle-riding participants. Data were collected regarding the weekday sleep duration for the most recent 7 days, which was categorized as the 5.5-6.5 h group > the 6.5-7.5 h group. There was no significant relationship between sleep deprivation and dental injury.This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation among Korean adolescents was associated with bicycle accidents and falls at home and school. Thus, adequate sleep may be needed to prevent accidents and falls.

  7. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Munivenkatappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011. Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS, Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ, were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5% were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6% cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5, and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4. Sixty-three (49% patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%. Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1% and death in 8 (7.4%. The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms.

  8. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  9. Including Accident Information in Automatic Bicycle Route Planning for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Singleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 there were 9071 traffic accidents involving bicycles within London and this paper demonstrates the utility of Geographic Information Systems as a tool for analysing and visualising these occurrences. Through linkage of these spatial locations to a street network dataset it was possible to create a variety of intelligence about the types of street infrastructure where accidents predominantly occur. Additionally, a network routing algorithm was adapted to account for the frequency of accidents within a series of proposed journeys. This pilot routing application compared the quickest route with an accident avoidance weighted route between a series of origins and destinations. The results demonstrated that the routes avoiding areas of high accident volume did not increase journey length significantly; however they did provide a “safer” route based on empirical evidence over the volume of accident locations.

  10. The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents--A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2016-06-01

    There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries among cyclists. Epidemiological, experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested that helmets do indeed have a protective effect, whereas other studies based on epidemiological data have argued that there is no evidence that the helmet protects the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a helmet in single bicycle accident reconstructions using detailed finite element simulations. Strain in the brain tissue, which is associated with brain injuries, was reduced by up to 43% for the accident cases studied when a helmet was included. This resulted in a reduction of the risk of concussion of up to 54%. The stress to the skull bone went from fracture level of 80 MPa down to 13-16 MPa when a helmet was included and the skull fracture risk was reduced by up to 98% based on linear acceleration. Even with a 10% increased riding velocity for the helmeted impacts, to take into account possible increased risk taking, the risk of concussion was still reduced by up to 46% when compared with the unhelmeted impacts with original velocity. The results of this study show that the brain injury risk and risk of skull fracture could have been reduced in these three cases if a helmet had been worn. PMID:26974030

  11. Mortalidade devido a acidentes de bicicletas em Pernambuco, Brasil Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro Campello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo analisar os casos de morte nos acidentes com bicicleta ocorridos em Pernambuco entre 2001 e 2010. Este estudo quantitativo analisou dados secundários. A amostra consistiu de todas as Declarações de Óbitos registradas no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade do Banco de Dados do Sistema Único de Saúde que relataram acidentes de bicicleta entre 2001 e 2010. Medidas descritivas foram determinadas para todas as variáveis. As sociodemográficas foram cruzadas com a causa básica de morte em busca de correlação estatística. Em Pernambuco, no citado sistema de informação, foram registradas 517 Declarações de Óbitos decorrentes de acidentes de bicicleta, sendo nestes sinistros a participação mais frequente de homens, entre 25-59 anos, pardos, solteiros e de escolaridade ignorada. A idade média foi de 36,82 anos (desvio padrão = 17,026, sendo a idade mínima e a máxima, respectivamente, 4 e 86 anos. Os achados apontam para a necessidade da criação de infraestrutura adequada e de medidas legais efetivas para prevenir acidentes de tráfego envolvendo este tipo de veículo, apoiando-se na evidência de distribuição de casos na maioria dos municípios de Pernambuco.The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean

  12. The evaluation of bicycle paths on bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hwa-chyi; De Backer, Hans; Lauwers, Dirk; Chang, SK Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle accidents have increasingly caused casualties and property damage. Many countries have therefore started to pay more attention to designing the space of bicycle paths. However, few studies have focused on the design of bicycle continuity between each bicycle path. In this study, the concept of using both spatial crash probability (P) and crash severity index (CSI) is introduced to address the bicycle safety issue on bridges in Central Business Districts (CBDs). Bicycle paths on bridge...

  13. Cycling in the dark : an analysis of fatal bicycle accidents in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A situation that appears potentially dangerous is cycling in rural areas during dusk or nighttime. This paper presents statistical data on the proportions of daytime and dusk/nighttime cycling in urban and rural areas and the respective proportions of accidents. Survey data show that the average pe

  14. Bicycle accidents and drivers' visual search at left and right turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summala, H; Pasanen, E; Räsänen, M; Sievänen, J

    1996-03-01

    The accident data base of the City of Helsinki shows that when drivers cross a cycle path as they enter a non-signalized intersection, the clearly dominant type of car-cycle crashes is that in which a cyclist comes from the right and the driver is turning right, in marked contrast to the cases with drivers turning left (Pasanen 1992; City of Helsinki, Traffic Planning Department, Report L4). This study first tested an explanation that drivers turning right simply focus their attention on the cars coming from the left-those coming from the right posing no threat to them-and fail to see the cyclist from the right early enough. Drivers' scanning behavior was studied at two T-intersections. Two well-hidden video cameras were used, one to measure the head movements of the approaching drivers and the other one to measure speed and distance from the cycle crossroad. The results supported the hypothesis: the drivers turning right scanned the right leg of the T-intersection less frequently and later than those turning left. Thus, it appears that drivers develop a visual scanning strategy which concentrates on detection of more frequent and major dangers but ignores and may even mask visual information on less frequent dangers. The second part of the study evaluated different countermeasures, including speed humps, in terms of drivers' visual search behavior. The results suggested that speed-reducing countermeasures changed drivers' visual search patterns in favor of the cyclists coming from the right, presumably at least in part due to the fact that drivers were simply provided with more time to focus on each direction. PMID:8703272

  15. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Goede, M. de; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Methorst, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised tra

  16. Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Mordaka, J.K.; Versmissen, A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Much attention is being paid to pedestrian safety by international working groups such as EEVC WG17, in research projects such as APROSYS (www.aprosys.com) and consumer organisations like Euro NCAP (www.euroncap.com). In addition legal requirements are in place, like the EU directive 2003/102/EC. Ho

  17. Bicycle Commuting

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, E

    2011-01-01

    Cycling is cheaper, healthier and in urban environments often faster than other transport modes. Nevertheless, even at short distances, many individuals do not cycle. This thesis aims to explain why commuters vary in their decision to bicycle. Results indicate that the individual (day-to-day) choice to commute by bicycle is affected by personal attitudes towards cycling to work, social norms, work situation, weather conditions and trip characteristics. Additionally, this thesis provides evide...

  18. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group and...... 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate......, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle...

  19. Determinantes e padrões de utilização da bicicleta e acidentes de trânsito sofridos por ciclistas trabalhadores da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Determinants and patterns of bicycle use and traffic accidents among bicycling workers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo transversal de base-populacional foi realizado em Pelotas, sul do Brasil, objetivando pesquisar os determinantes e padrões de utilização da bicicleta como modo de transporte para o trabalho. Foram também descritos os acidentes ocorridos nos últimos 12 meses no deslocamento de ida e volta para o trabalho e a utilização de equipamentos de segurança na bicicleta. A amostra incluiu 1.705 trabalhadores com 15 anos ou mais de idade, residentes na zona urbana, que utilizavam modos de transporte para o trabalho. Análises bruta e ajustada foram realizadas por meio de regressão de Poisson, considerando o efeito do delineamento. A prevalência de utilização da bicicleta foi de 17,2% (IC95%: 15,4-19,0. Trabalhadores homens, com baixa escolaridade e nível econômico mais baixo apresentaram as maiores prevalências. Menos de 1,0% das bicicletas possuía os equipamentos de segurança exigidos pelo Código de Trânsito Brasileiro e 15,0% não tinham freios. Aproximadamente 6,0% desses trabalhadores sofreram acidentes de trânsito com lesões corporais nos últimos 12 meses. Concluímos que trabalhadores que utilizam bicicleta como modo de transporte são prioritários para intervenções preventivas relacionadas a acidentes de trânsito.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, southern Brazil, focusing on the determinants and patterns of bicycle use as a mode of commuting by workers. Accidents during commuting and use of safety equipment were also studied. The sample included 1,705 workers (> 15 years of age living in the urban area of Pelotas and using various modes of transportation during commuting. Crude and adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression, taking the design effect into account. Prevalence of bicycle use was 17.2% (95%CI: 15.4%-19.0%. Male workers and those with low schooling and low income presented higher prevalence. Less than 1.0% of the bicycles featured the safety equipment

  20. Solar Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sridhar; HARSHENDRA. N. SHET. K

    2011-01-01

    The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage ...

  1. 轿车-电动自行车侧面碰撞事故再现分析%Reconstruction analysis of car-electric bicycle side impact accident based on PC-Crash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梦雪; 林庆峰; 王伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to reconstruct car to electric bicycle side impact accidents, the simulation tests of car to electric bicycle side impact collisions were conducted by using PC-Crash. The various impact locations between the cyclist's head and the hood of vehicle were analyzed at different impact speeds, the relationship between the vehicle impact speeds and the cyclist's head injuries was discussed, the relationship between the vehicle impact speeds and the cyclist's throw distances was analyzed, and the cyclist throw distance models was established and compared with foreign similar model. The results show that collision vehicle speed of 50 km/h can be thought as the cyclist's head injury collision vehicle speed threshold. When the collision vehicle speed is less than 40 km/h, the throw distance tendency is the same to the stillness of the electric bicycle and vehicle movement, when the collision vehicle speed is higher than 40 km/h, compared with impact motion of the electric bicycle, vehicle and static electric bicycle collision can make rider throwing distance slightly larger, but the electric bicycle throw distance distribution is discrete. It is effective to reconstruct the vehicle impact speeds by the cyclist's impact locations, head injuries and throw distances in car to electric bicycle side impact accidents. 6 figs, 13 refs.%为了再现轿车与电动自行车的侧面碰撞事故,利用PC-Crash进行了轿车与电动自行车的侧面碰撞模拟试验,分析了不同车辆碰撞速度下骑车人头部与车辆引擎罩及风挡玻璃撞击的位置,探讨了车辆碰撞速度与骑车人头部损伤的关系,建立了骑车人抛距模型,并与国外模型进行了对比.研究结果表明:碰撞车速为50 km/h可以认为是骑车人头部伤害的碰撞速度阈值;当碰撞车速低于40 km/h时,车辆撞击运动和静止的电动自行车,骑车人抛距变化的趋势基本相似;当碰撞车速高于40 km/h时,与撞击运动的电动自行车

  2. Solar Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIDHAR. S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage of 15-20 km. It is also provided with manual pedaling which increases the cycle’s mileage further. Average speed of the cycle is 15-18 kmph.

  3. Children and bicycles: what is really happening? Studies of fatal and non-fatal bicycle injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Acton, C. H.; Thomas, S; Nixon, J. W.; Clark, R; Pitt, W R; Battistutta, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to ascertain the causes of accidents, injuries, and deaths in children who ride bicycles. Fatality and injury rates were also studied in order to compare with other studies. METHODS: Two studies of children were undertaken in children aged less than 15 years. In the first (retrospective fatality study), children who died as a result of a bicycle incident during the period 1981-92 were reviewed. In the second (prospective injury study) data were obt...

  4. The safety impact of a yellow bicycle jacket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this project is that the safety of cyclists can be improved by increasing their visibility in traffic. This is explored by testing whether or not a high-visibility bicycle jacket (colour and reflectors) will increase the safety of cyclists. The project has been carried out as a...... randomized controlled trial with 6,800 volunteer cyclists. After random selection, half of the group – the test group – got the bicycle jacket at once and promised to wear it each time they biked during a year. The other half of the group composed a control group that got the bicycle jacket after the closing...... of the project, i.e. after a year. The safety effect of the bicycle jacket was analysed by comparing the number of self-reported accident for the test and control group. The self-reported accidents showed that the test group had 38 % fewer personal injury accidents with other road users – so...

  5. Bicycle Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James; Arellano , Secundino; Carrillo , Alma; Cruz , Melinda; Kunitskiy, Dmitriy; Maynigo , Marlo; Sell , Monica

    2013-01-01

    Project Description:  Bicycle detection has become a popular feature of high demand in cities and agencies across the United States. California has recently mandated that all new limit line detector installations as well as modifications to existing limit line detection must provide bicycle detection. This has created the need to develop detection methodologies which are able to detect bicycles as well as differentiate them from vehicles. The objective of this project is to utilize Econolite ...

  6. Recumbent bicycle design

    OpenAIRE

    Basso Puig, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this project is the design of a recumbent bicycle prototype. A recumbent bike is a type of bicycle in which the rider mounts in a reclined position. In order to do this, we will learn about these bicycles by showing the different types there are, its evolution over the years, and so on. After that, it is shown the recumbent bicycle design and all its components. It has been invented the frame and so, it is explained the material choice, a brief anthropometric study and FE...

  7. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles: A controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J C O; Andersen, T; Lahrmann, H S

    2013-01-01

    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates - number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month - for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle running lights reduces the occurrence of multiparty accidents involving cyclists significantly. In the study the bicycle accidents were recorded trough self-reporting on the Internet. Possible shortcomings and problems related to this accident recording are discussed and analysed. PMID:22884376

  8. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  9. Bicycles made to measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2007-01-01

    For almost a century and a half, mathematicians have been racking their brains about the bike. How can a rolling bicycle be so stable of its own accord? Delft researchers now say they have completed the model to end all models. Bicycle manufacturer Batavus intends to use it to make better bikes for

  10. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  11. Butchers and Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educ...

  12. Reconstruction of Car-Electric Bicycle Side Collision Based on PC-Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Shenchao Wang; Yubin Qian; Xianguo Qu

    2014-01-01

    A collision model, an automobile model and a multi-rigid-body model in PC-crash are analyzed. By simulating a side collision accident between a car and an electric bicycle (EB), a method that reproduces the car-electric bicycle side collision accident based on PC-crash is presented according to some important information such as the final position, the contacting location between the cyclist and the car. A result is obtained by comparing with the reproduced result, the defor...

  13. Fatal falls from bicycles: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venara, A; Mauillon, D; Gaudin, A; Rouge-Maillart, C; Jousset, N

    2013-03-10

    Though rare occurrences, fatal falls from bicycles are generally linked to the absence of a protective helmet and/or a collision with another vehicle. The case presented here is exceptional due to its circumstances and the consequences of the accident: a fall with no obstacle at a low speed that brought about multiple traumas and the death of a cyclist wearing a protective helmet. Comparing this against a review of cyclist accidentology literature, this case is unique. The increased use of autopsy in terms of forensic accidentology is to be encouraged so as not to misunderstand the possibility of such lesion-based consequences following a simple fall from a bicycle. PMID:23312586

  14. Bicycle Culture in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersenn, Pia; Breitenstein, Marcus Lindgaard; Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo

    2014-01-01

    The research area involves the cycling culture in Denmark. Cycling is one of the main forms of transport in Denmark today, and it has been a big part of Denmark’s culture since the early 20th century. This project specifically looks at bicycle helmets. Today in Denmark, there is no legislation demanding cyclists to wear helmets. However we would like to investigate what the government’s stance is concerning bicycle helmets. The project will begin by looking at the efficiency of helmets. Some ...

  15. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the

  16. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where...

  17. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the car and the dimensions of the bicycle/cyclist on the severity of the impacts. It is known that the speed of the car at impact is an important parameter in the resulting injury severity of the cyclis...

  18. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design......, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educated individuals who were very interested in aesthetics. Furthermore, Wagener was convinced that trikes were...... between order and delivery. From a marketing perspective, one of the differentiating factors of Morten’s product is the quality of the ride (compared to competing products) and so his marketing team coined the slogan “Built-to-Tilt” because even though it’s a trike it feels like riding a two...

  19. Electric power generating bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Nuno; Ribeiro, Luís; Esteves, João Sena

    2006-01-01

    It is manifest the growing interest in both personal health and environmental issues. The device described on this paper contemplates both aspects: generating environment-friendly electric power while keeping fit. A car alternator excited through a 12V battery is coupled to a mountain bicycle, and this arrangement enables the lighting of six halogen lamps, if a cyclist pedals fast enough. Such a machine gives rise to the thought of a self-powered gymnasium. Considerable physical effort is req...

  20. Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging

    OpenAIRE

    Nekvapil, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...

  1. Stanley Ivan Dodson: Distinguished Ecologist and Mentor and Friend (1944-2009 Stanley Ivan Dodson Stanley I. Dodson passed away after a tragic bicycle accident on August 23rd, 2009, leaving the world and scientific community to deal with the loss of a gr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Forshay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stanley I. Dodson passed away after a tragic bicycle accident on August 23rd, 2009, leaving the world and scientific community to deal with the loss of a great man and mind, whose contributions to freshwater ecology are legendary. He will always be remembered for all his contributions to the study of community ecology of zooplankton and population ecology of Daphnia. We will always remember Stanley for his keen insight, generosity, positive outlook, and ability to guide without force but with respect and love. We will miss witnessing his ability to draw elegant conclusions from simple experiments, and how he managed to enjoyed every day of his life. He was an incredible man, amazing mentor and loyal friend. We were blessed to have had the opportunity to be mentored by him and share his friendship.

  2. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  3. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  4. Design of an electric bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Cabré Viñeta, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an electrical bicycle. As this bike has an electrical motor, it will not be used as a sport method, the main idea is to use it as a public transport so people can move from side to side of the city without traffic, without pollution and without getting tired. Once selected the purpose of the bicycle, it is necessary to take into account the main features that it must have. A bicycle used as a transport around the city needs to be easy to ...

  5. Design of Electric Bicycle Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Cong

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a sort of intelligent brushless DC motor driver and its concrete application in electric bicycle, and discusses the hardware and software design scheme of the controller, and realizes the speed control, over-current protection and battery under-voltage protection of the brushless DC motor. And the experiment result indicates that the control effect is good, and it could fulfill the application requirement of electric bicycle.

  6. Control for an Autonomous Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Neil H.; Marsden, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    The control of nonholonomic and underactuated systems with symmetry is illustrated by the problem of controlling a bicycle. We derive a controller which, using steering and rear-wheel torque, causes a model of a riderless bicycle to recover its balance from a near fall as well as converge to a time parameterized path in the ground plane. Our construction utilizes new results for both the derivation of equations of motion for nonholonomic systems with symmetry, as well as the control of undera...

  7. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    resultado.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. METHODS: A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation, distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary. Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. RESULTS: Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.

  8. Valuing public investments to support bicycling

    OpenAIRE

    Götschi, Thomas; Hintermann, Beat

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for assessing the net benefits of investments to promote bicycling, which explicitly accounts for internal costs of bicycling. We apply our model to eight Swiss cities using data from the Swiss national travel survey and find that increasing the level of bicycling by reducing internal costs leads to inframarginal benefits that exceed the net benefits from the additional bicycling.  We further find that Swiss cyclists only partially internalize health benefits, which aff...

  9. [Electrically assisted bicycles: health enhancement or "green" gadget?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J; Cornuz, J; Gojanovic, B

    2012-07-25

    Electrically assisted bicycles (EAB) are flourishing in cities throughout the world and capitalize on ecological and practical advantages, helping in the fight against pollution, CO2 emissions and traffic jam. Human power is necessary to activate the electrical support, so that it equals to a moderate intensity physical activity (> 3 MET), or a vigorous one on hilly courses (>6 MET). The ecological benefits are obvious and transportation departments tend to support citizens who purchase one. EAB offer increased mobility at speeds of 15 to 25 km/h depending on hills and fitness of the rider, but could cause more accidents. EAB is linked to a real physical activity beneficial for health, but potentially more dangerous than a traditional bicycle. PMID:22913003

  10. 45 CFR 3.27 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bicycles. 3.27 Section 3.27 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.27 Bicycles. A person may not operate a bicycle, motorbike, or similar vehicle...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1324 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycles. 13.1324 Section 13.1324 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... (egda) § 13.1324 Bicycles. Within the EGDA, the use of a bicycle is prohibited except on the...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1126 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycles. 13.1126 Section 13.1126 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1126 Bicycles. Use of a bicycle is prohibited on the Forest Loop, Bartlett River and Bartlett...

  13. The risk of pediatric bicycle handlebar injury compared with non-handlebar injury: a retrospective multicenter study in Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Tomoya; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shimazaki, Junya; Shiono, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hitoshi; Wakai, Akinori; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bicycle accidents are one of the major causes of unintentional traumatic injury in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics and risks of handlebar injury in childhood. Methods We conducted a more than 5-year retrospective survey of patients under 15 years of age with bicycle-related injuries admitted to eight urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka, Japan. Patients were divided into the direct-impact handlebar injury (HI) group and the non-handlebar inj...

  14. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  15. Accidents involving motorcyclists and cyclists in the municipality of São Paulo: characterization and trends☆☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Leci Rodrigues; Jane de Eston Armond; Carlos Gorios; Patricia Colombo Souza

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To describe the characteristics of motorcycle and bicycle accident victims, according to notifications of suspected and confirmed accidents that have occurred in the municipality of São Paulo.Method:This was a descriptive epidemiological study. It covered all accidents (12,924) that occurred involving motorcycles (11,366) and bicycles (1558) between January 2011 and October 2013. Data in the Health Department's information system for surveillance of violence and accidents (SIVVA) wa...

  16. Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: an in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Summala, H

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight bicycle-car accidents in four cities were studied by multidisciplinary in-depth analysis. The sample was representative of the national accident statistics. All the accidents were analyzed in detail to reconstruct the actual movements of those involved and to assess detection of the other party. In 37% of collisions, neither driver nor cyclist realized the danger or had time to yield. In the remaining collisions, the driver (27%), the cyclist (24%) or both (12%) did something to avert the accident. Two common mechanisms underlying the accidents were identified. First, allocation of attention such that others were not detected, and second, unjustified expectations about the behavior of others. These mechanisms were found to be closely related to the system of two-way cycle tracks and to the fact that the general priority rule is applied to the crossings of a cycle track and a roadway. The most frequent accident type among collisions between cyclists and cars at bicycle crossings was a driver turning right and a bicycle coming from the driver's right along a cycle track. The result confirmed an earlier finding (Accident Analysis and Prevention 28, 147-153, 1996) that drivers turning right hit cyclists because they looked left for cars during the critical phase. Only 11% of drivers noticed the cyclist before impact. Cyclists' behavior was in marked contrast to that of drivers. In these cases, 68% of cyclists noticed the driver before the accident, and 92% of those who noticed believed the driver would give way as required by law. Cyclists with a driving license and those who cycled daily through the accident site were involved in different accident types to other cyclists. PMID:9678219

  17. Characterisation of Electric Bicycles Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Meeusen, Roman; Kempenaers, Farid

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper reports on characterisation work performed in the scope of the E-tour project. This project has already been presented at EVS-18. At the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ different EPACs (Electric Power Assisted Cycles) are put at the public’s disposal for testing. To quantify the performances of these electrical bicycles we want to link the subjective experienced driving comfort to some measurable objective parameters. For this purpose we converted a treadmill in...

  18. Intelligent Power Assist Algorithms for Electric Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xuan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation considers intelligent power-assist algorithm designs for electric bicycles. Traditional electric power-assist bicycles (EPBs) employ proportional power-assist strategy. The ratio is usually set to 1:1, which means that the motor will provide the same amount of assistive torque as the amount of the human's pedaling torque. This strategy is too rigid and does not consider the interaction between the bicycle, the human and the environment. Intelligent power-assist algorithms ar...

  19. Bicycle lessons, activity participation and empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Kloof, A. van der; Bastiaanssen, K.; Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of bicycle lessons for immigrant and refugee women on bicycle use and activity participation. Especially non-Western immigrant and refugee women have been identified as one of the population groups most likely to experience accessibility problems and, subsequently, transport-related social exclusion. The bicycle offers considerable potential to increase the mobility of these women. Hence, in the Netherlands and elsewhere, governments and non-governmental organi...

  20. Autonomous Bicycle: The First Self Balanced Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Ånnestad, Dag Christian

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an autonomous bicycle originates from Jens G. Balchen who wanted to make an unmanned autonomous bicycle. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug who extended the idea with the concept of using an inverted pendulum to simulate a leaning rider. The previous attempts to develop a bicycle capable of performing an autonomous ride has so far all ended in failure. The main reason for the Department of Engineering Cybernetics is to develop such a bicycle is for use in recruitment and mot...

  1. 36 CFR 13.914 - Bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycle use. 13.914 Section 13.914 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... in public parking areas, or on trails and areas designated for bicycle use by the Superintendent....

  2. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  3. Bicycle parking preferences: costs versus walking time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Maat, K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful bicycle stimulating policies may increase the need for bicycle parking capacity, especially at main railway stations located in city centers. A potential solution for this problem involves combining paid surveyed indoor parking near the platforms and free open-air parking without surveill

  4. Bicycle helmet use and bicycling-related injury among young Canadians: an equity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cycling is a major activity for adolescents in Canada and potential differences exist in bicycling-related risk and experience of injury by population subgroup. The overall aim of this study was to inform health equity interventions by profiling stratified analytic methods and identifying potential inequities associated with bicycle-related injury and the use of bicycle helmets among Canadian youth. The two objectives of this study were: (1) To examine national patterns in bicycle ridership and also bicycle helmet use among Canadian youth in a stratified analysis by potentially vulnerable population subgroups, and (2) To examine bicycling-related injury in the same population subgroups of Canadian youth in order to identify possible health inequities. Methods Data for this study were obtained from the 6th cycle (2009/10) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, which is a general health survey that was completed by 26,078 students in grades 6–10 from 436 Canadian schools. Based on survey responses, we determined point prevalence for bicycle ridership, bicycle helmet use and relative risks for bicycling-related injury. Results Three quarters of all respondents were bicycle riders (n=19,410). Independent factors associated with bicycle ridership among students include being male, being a younger student, being more affluent, and being a resident of a small town. Among bicycle riders, 43% (95%CI ± 0.6%) reported never wearing and 32% (± 0.6%) inconsistently wearing a helmet. Only 26% (± 0.5%) of students reported always wearing a bicycle helmet. Helmets were less frequently used among older students and there were also important patterns by sex, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Adjusting for all other demographic characteristics, boys reported 2.02-fold increase (95% CI: 1.61 to 1.90) and new immigrants a 1.35-fold increase (95%CI: 1.00 to1.82) in the relative risk of bicycling-related injury in the past 12 months

  5. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  6. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet of...... the global. Beijing Bicycle is thematically similar to Vittorio de Sicas neorealist classic Bicycle Thieves (1948) and Akira Kurosawas filmnoir classic Stray Dog (1949). Both films describe a disillusioned post-war society in an impoverished Italy and a humiliated Japan respectively. The stories told...... Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle can be understood as the result of stories-so-far, as the cinematic representation of the globalized ”space” within the setting of the national. Beijing Bicycle is a production of space as well as a space of production, since it tells a new story in the trajectory of stories...

  7. STRESS ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.M.V.Pazare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stress analysis of bicycle frame by using Finite Element Method. The analysis is carried out in Ansys, The F.E.A. results are compared with theoretical results. In theoretical analysis the frame is treated as truss like structure and the stresses in various members of frame like top tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stay and seat stay are determined, considering various condition like, static start up, steady state paddling, vertical impact, horizontal impact, rear wheel braking. Also Finite Element Analysis is done considering the above conditions. From the analysis it is found that there is a good agreement between analytical and F.E.A. results. Result of all the cases reveals that maximum stress is found in top tube of the bicycle frame as compared to other frame members and is equal to 24.84 MPa which is less than yield strength in tension (i.e.Syt = 290 MPa for the material (aluminum T 6061 selected.

  8. Survey of options on legalizing bicycling (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwahlen, Jurg; Sulewski, Sharon; Sacovitch, Stephen;

    1999-01-01

    opposition against the proposal was.The goal of this project was to identify categories of users that were opposed to bicycling on the Dosseringen of the Østerbro and Nørrebro District lakes in Copenhagen. The identification of the opposition and its strength, rationale and organization was in terms of age......, gender, residency, frequency of use and their utilization of the area (i.e. walking, jogging, bicycling) as compared to the support for bicycling in the area. This was an Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP), that was designed to merge technical and scientific knowledge with society, and stresses the...

  9. Database improvements for motor vehicle/bicycle crash analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Anne C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Farvid, Maryam S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bicycling is healthy but needs to be safer for more to bike. Police crash templates are designed for reporting crashes between motor vehicles, but not between vehicles/bicycles. If written/drawn bicycle-crash-scene details exist, these are not entered into spreadsheets. Objective: To assess which bicycle-crash-scene data might be added to spreadsheets for analysis. Methods: Police crash templates from 50 states were analysed. Reports for 3350 motor vehicle/bicycle crashes (2011) w...

  10. A traumatic superficial temporal artery aneurysm after a bicycle accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Egbert J.D.; Poelmann, Floris B.; IJpma, Frank F.A.

    2014-01-01

    A male cyclist presented with a swelling on the forehead. Six weeks before, he fell of his bike and smashed his head on the ground while wearing a helmet. A smooth lump of 1 cm had evolved on the temporal side of his forehead in a few weeks. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated vessel with a minor defect in the luminal wall. Surgical exploration revealed an aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aneurysm was surgically removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. Owing to its superficial course, the STA is vulnerable to blunt head trauma. Traumatic aneurysms of the STA should be a differential diagnostic consideration in patients with a history of trauma and a swelling on their head. PMID:25352578

  11. A traumatic superficial temporal artery aneurysm after a bicycle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Egbert J D; Poelmann, Floris B; IJpma, Frank F A

    2014-01-01

    A male cyclist presented with a swelling on the forehead. Six weeks before, he fell of his bike and smashed his head on the ground while wearing a helmet. A smooth lump of 1 cm had evolved on the temporal side of his forehead in a few weeks. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated vessel with a minor defect in the luminal wall. Surgical exploration revealed an aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aneurysm was surgically removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. Owing to its superficial course, the STA is vulnerable to blunt head trauma. Traumatic aneurysms of the STA should be a differential diagnostic consideration in patients with a history of trauma and a swelling on their head. PMID:25352578

  12. A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Attitude towards Bicycle and Using Bicycle in Short Trips in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to investigate relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle among the men in Isfahan. Based on the descriptive research findings, mean using bicycle score is low in Iran. This situation is not satisfactory for a metropolis such as Isfahan that has an increasing population and motor vehicles, and also has many difficulties in urban base facilities and must be changed. In addition to mean attitude toward bicycle is high that is an opportunity for urban planners. Inferential findings show that attitude toward bicycle has a significant impact on using bicycle. In other words, increase attitude toward bicycle means an increase in using bicycle for short trips. This research finding theoretically confirm relation between attitude and behavior. Moreover it is compatible with results of the research that show there is significant relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle. There is an inverse significant relationship between age and using bicycle and with rising age using bicycle is decreased. This research finding shows that urban infrastructure in Isfahan for using bicycle is not available and consequently with rising age, bicycle risk is increased. There is a direct significant relationship between income rate and using bicycle and with increasing income rate, using bicycle is also increased. This research finding is rooted in social prestige bicycle and higher classes prefer to use motor vehicle for transportation instead of bicycle. There is a significant relationship between marital status and using bicycle and single men use bicycle more than married men but there is no significant relationship between education level and using bicycle. This research findings show that with rising education level in spite of rising income, using bicycle is not decreased. And finally there is no significant relationship between employed and unemployed persons in using bicycle. On the basis of the evidences such

  13. 36 CFR 1004.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... routes designated for bicycle use; provided, however, that the Board may close any Presidio Trust road or... consistent with the protection of natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations and...

  14. 36 CFR 4.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road or parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1.5 and 1.7 of this... consistent with the protection of a park area's natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety...

  15. Design of Controller in Electric Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidong Zhang; Jingfeng Shen; Baohui Li

    2011-01-01

    Base on PIC16F72, a design of brushless DC motor controller strategy applied to the electric bicycle control system was presented in the paper. Through analyzed some possible problems when electric bicycle running daily. Function of over-current protection, under-voltage protection and helping were accomplished. Schematic diagrams of each function and drive circuit were given in the paper, the controller was debugged in rated voltage 36V and power rating 250W brushless DC motor, experiment tu...

  16. Profiling bicycle tourists: a case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the primary research is to gather information about the behaviour of bicycle tourism demand. Primarily by studying domestic bicycle tourists, the research results were expected to provide valuable market parameters, comparable with the determinants of previous relevant studies. Design and Methodology – Research was carried out by surveying different segments of bicyclists, recognized in earlier conceptual contributions. Electronic data collection techniques were ap...

  17. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  18. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  19. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  20. Public Bicycle Share Programs and Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Barry; Moore, Lynne; Nathens, Avery B.; Hunte, Garth; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of North American public bicycle share programs (PBSPs), which typically do not offer helmets with rentals, on the occurrence of bicycle-related head injuries. Methods. We analyzed trauma center data for bicycle-related injuries from 5 cities with PBSPs and 5 comparison cities. We used logistic regression models to compare the odds that admission for a bicycle-related injury would involve a head injury 24 months before PBSP implementation and 12 months afterward. Results. In PBSP cities, the proportion of head injuries among bicycle-related injuries increased from 42.3% before PBSP implementation to 50.1% after (P < .01). This proportion in comparison cities remained similar before (38.2%) and after (35.9%) implementation (P = .23). Odds ratios for head injury were 1.30 (95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.67) in PBSP cities and 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.79, 1.11) in control cities (adjusted for age and city) when we compared the period after implementation to the period before. Conclusions. Results suggest that steps should be taken to make helmets available with PBSPs. Helmet availability should be incorporated into PBSP planning and funding, not considered an afterthought following implementation. PMID:24922150

  1. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  2. On the stability of a bicycle on rollers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Patricia A [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141 (United States); Mohazzabi, Pirooz, E-mail: pirooz.mohazzabi@uwp.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general readership interested in the dynamics of bicycle stability.

  3. On the Stability of a Bicycle on Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general…

  4. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  5. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  6. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calcula...

  7. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl;

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The...

  8. Solutions to the Triangular Bicycle Flags Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartweg, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Students in a fifth-grade general education class and a second-grade gifted class participated in the Triangular Bicycle Flags problem. The results indicated that providing students with geometric experiences at the correct van Hiele level is necessary for helping students move from one level of understanding to the next.

  9. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes confoundin

  10. Bicyclic semigroups of left I-quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Ghroda, Nassraddin

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study left I-orders in the bicyclic monoid $\\mathcal{B}$. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup of $\\mathcal{B}$ to be a left I-oreder in $\\mathcal{B}$. We then prove that any left I-order in $\\mathcal{B}$ is straight.

  11. Typology of bicycle crashes based on a survey of a thousand injured cyclists from a road trauma registry

    OpenAIRE

    BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Hours, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Bicycles are an alternative means of transport, promoted for health benefits. However, cycling is risky. In France the annual incidence of cycling injuries is estimated at 70 per 100,000. Most existing cycling safety studies are based on police data, which is inappropriate to cyclist safety research, being biased as to accident type (single vs. multi-vehicle crash) and recording as much as 10 times fewer cyclists than a road trauma registry for the same geographical area. The present study th...

  12. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  13. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  14. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  15. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  16. Psychological Delaying Model of Bicycle Passing Events on Physically Separated Bicycle Roadways in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin; Shan, Xiaonian; Sun, Xin

    Bicycle facilities are quite common in China but there are not enough quantitative methods to evaluate the Level of Service (LOS) of bicycle roadways. The number of passing events, which considers the interactions between bicyclists, has been proved to be a proper indicator for evaluating bicycle LOS under the special traffic and roadway conditions in China. The primary objective of this study is to propose a model considering the delay effects of passing events and rider's overtaking motivation. Field data was collected on South Zhongshan Road and Huaihai Road in Nanjing city of China with 639 bicyclists investigated. Then a new mathematical model was built to evaluate those effects through probability and regression analyses. It was found that the delay effect of passing events and rider's overtaking motivation are significant influencing factors which cannot be omitted. Correlation test shows the fitted relationship is greater between the model prediction and field data comparing with the previous model.

  17. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important for choosing walking and bicycling, and how very different instruments can promote walking and bicycling at the expense of short car trips. Furthermore, the paper describes the most important factors when c...

  18. Technical analysis and market study of electric bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Matasyan, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This thesis project was done in collaboration with a Prismattery LLC, which is based in Tallinn, Estonia and is interested in entering the market of electric bicycles. For that reason in this report a detailed study concerning the market of electrical bicycles, its current situation and trends were performed and a promising target market was indicated. The market study showed that although in different countries the specifications and preferred types of electric bicycles may vary,...

  19. Bicycle-Sharing System Analysis and Trip Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiawei; Pan, Xiao; Li, Moyin; Yu, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing systems, which can provide shared bike usage services for the public, have been launched in many big cities. In bicycle-sharing systems, people can borrow and return bikes at any stations in the service region very conveniently. Therefore, bicycle-sharing systems are normally used as a short-distance trip supplement for private vehicles as well as regular public transportation. Meanwhile, for stations located at different places in the service region, the bike usages can be qu...

  20. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. PMID:26647016

  1. Deaths of bicycle riders in Brazil: characteristics and trends during the period of 2000 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Posenato Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, bicycle use has been increasing. Accidents involving cyclists are important causes of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality of cyclists injured in transport accidents in Brazil, the characteristics of the victims and of the occurrence, and to investigate its trends during the period between 2000 and 2010. METHODS: A descriptive study with data from the Mortality Information System (SIM was conducted in the period of 2000 - 2010. Crude and age-standardized corrected mortality rates were calculated for Brazil, its macro-regions and states. Linear regression was used to study the trends. RESULTS: In the period of 2000 - 2010, 32,422 bicycle-related deaths were identified in Brazil. In 2010, there were, on average, 8.8 bicycle-related deaths per day. Age-standardized mortality rates for the country were 15.3 and 15.9 deaths per million inhabitants in 2000 and 2010, respectively (p = 0.725. During the whole period, the Center-Western region showed the highest rates, though stable, corresponding to 23.4 deaths per million inhabitants in 2010. Men accounted for 85.4% of deaths, with death risk 5 times higher than women. CONCLUSION: In spite of the stable rates for the country, there was an increase trend in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while a decreasing trend was observed in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The risk of death was higher among men, elderly, and people living in large cities and at the Center-Western region.

  2. Bicycle Sharing in Developing Countries : A proposal towards sustainable transportation in Brazilian median cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Batista, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are a new trend in urban transportation. The main difference of a bicycle-sharing program with a regular bicycle rental is that is possible to get a bicycle in one station and return it in any other station. There are many models of bicycle sharing, each model with its pros and cons. This study analyzes the bicycle-sharing models in order to build a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities. The study begins with an overview of bicycle...

  3. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit ( 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  4. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits. PMID:19850568

  5. Electric Bicycle Related Injury and Risk Factors in Hangzhou%杭州市电动自行车伤害状况及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欧; 刘庆敏

    2012-01-01

    In China, there were about 30 million electric bicycles by 2007. The sharp increase of electric bicycles in use led to a rise of related traffic accidents and became an important public health problem. There were about 660000 electric bicycles in Hangzhou city by 2007. The causes of rising electric bicycle usage were complicated. In 2010, the deaths of electric bicycle accidents accounted for 23.39% of all fatalities of traffic accidents in Hangzhou. The leading cause to death was brain injury. These electric bicycle accidents were caused by various factors. After correlation analysis, prevention measures were proposed in this article, such as enhancing traffic management, social publicity of traffic safety (I.e. Community education), manufacturers' technology in safety control, as well as cyclists and pedestrians' self-protection. The article aims to provide reference for electric bicycle injury prevention and control.%在中国大陆,电动自行车使用量急剧上升,到2007年已有3000多万辆,相关交通事故也不断增加,电动自行车伤害成为一个重要公共卫生问题.杭州市电动自行车数量快速增长,到2007年底已有66万辆,电动自行车数量增多原因较为复杂.2010年杭州市涉及电动自行车伤害死亡人数占交通事故死亡人数比例达23.39%,颅脑损伤是造成电动自行车驾驶员死亡的主要原因.电动自行车伤害发生影响因素涉及多个方面.本研究拟通过相关分析,针对性地提出预防措施,如加强交通管理,社会宣传含社区教育、厂商技术改进、骑车人和行人自我保护等,以期对电动自行车伤害防制提供有益参考.

  6. On Wiener polarity index of bicyclic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Shi, Yongtang; Wang, Zhen; Yue, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in biological, physical and social sciences. Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. A number of Wiener type indices have recently been incorporated as distance-based descriptors of complex networks. Wiener type indices are known to depend both on the network’s number of nodes and topology. The Wiener polarity index is also related to the cluster coefficient of networks. In this paper, based on some graph transformations, we determine the sharp upper bound of the Wiener polarity index among all bicyclic networks. These bounds help to understand the underlying quantitative graph measures in depth.

  7. Bicycle braking friction measurements on winter roads

    OpenAIRE

    Rekilä, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis study has been carried out during a student exchange in the Norwegian University of science and technology in the Research Centre for Winter maintenance. The master’s thesis consists of two parts: I) a process report and II) a manuscript for a scientific paper. In addition, appendix is marked as part III. Bicycling is considered an attractive way of traveling since it improves health, is flexible and often fastest mode of travelling in urban areas. Therefore it is bec...

  8. Solar Electric Bicycle Body Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new solar electric bicycle design and study were carried out on in this paper. Application of CAD technology to establish three-dimension geometric model, using the kinetic analysis on the frame and other parts for numerical simulation and static strength analysis for the vehicle model design, virtual assembly, complete frame dynamics analysis and vibration analysis, with considering other factors, first on the frame structure improvement, second on security of design calculation analysis and comparison, finally get the ideal body design.

  9. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide for grade 3 contains seven lessons on bicycles and an appendix on conducting a bicycle rodeo. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  10. 77 FR 39927 - Vehicles and Traffic Safety-Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... bicycle operator subject to most of the other traffic regulations in Part 4. 52 FR 10675, April 2, 1987... Responses to Public Comments The NPS published the proposed rule at 73 FR 76987 (December 18, 2008) and a... the special regulation requirement to ensure maximum public input on decisions to allow bicycle use...

  11. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  12. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  13. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  14. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important for...... choosing walking and bicycling, and how very different instruments can promote walking and bicycling at the expense of short car trips. Furthermore, the paper describes the most important factors when choosing between bicycling and walking and car driving, respectively, in case of trips of up to 22 km...... and bicycling. The study shows that instruments that improve the cyclists’ speed and increase the car drivers’ time consumption and costs will influence the competition conditions significantly. The total transfer potential will be between 12 and 16 % of the car trips in case of short tours...

  15. Bicyclic Peptide Inhibitor of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Paaske, Berit; Jiang, Longguang;

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptidebased inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... monocyclic peptide, upain-2. It was successfully converted to a bicyclic peptide, without loss of inhibitory properties. The aim was to produce a peptide cyclised by an amide bond with an additional stabilising across-the-ring covalent bond. We expected this bicyclic peptide to exhibit a lower entropic...... burden upon binding. Two bicyclic peptides were synthesised with affinities similar to that of upain-2, and their binding energetics were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Indeed, compared to upain-2, the bicyclic peptides showed reduced loss of entropy upon binding to uPA. We also...

  16. Safety aspects of the bicycle traffic and the needs of cyclists in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were: to determine the possibility of forecasting for the preferences of cycling on the basis of all relevant factors Zagreb cycling (1 and to determine the differences between the participants in all the relevant factors in Zagreb cycling, by gender, in relation to membership in the Association "Trad Union of bicyclists", type of cycling and part of the city where cyclists live (2. Over 3000 members of the Association and cyclists who are not members of the Association ("average" cyclist are tested, using conveniently assembled questionnaire. It turned out that latent dimensions of the sub-questionnaires well represented themes: barriers to cycling, the role of the City in bicycle traffic, the purpose of using bicycle accident during bicycle traffic. People who are more inclined to participate in city traffic riding, often believe that the City should significantly improve conditions for cycling, tend to safer driving and more negative estimate lack of road cycling conditions in Zagreb. Women and members of the Union of cyclists often feel that the City should improve conditions for cycling and negatively evaluate the existing conditions of cycling, more often use the bike for different purposes and had frequent accidents bicycle. In the northern part of the city, Samobor, Zaprešić and Sesvete, Dugo Selo and Ivanja Reka participants were assessed to have the most adverse road conditions for cycling, while the wider center of Zagreb currently has the most favorable conditions for cycling. The results provide the guidance for improving the safety of the cycling in Zagreb and its surrounding, for taking constructive social actions at the state level and on the local-community level, as well as in the broader context of sustainable development.

  17. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  18. The Design of Sport Bicycle Speed Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbing Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As bicycle sport equipment, a sport bike needs a speed and distance measuring device, due to the characteristic of road cycling, thereby mastering the state of motion. According to external conditions such as temperature, wind speed, the bike can make the appropriate adjustment to achieve the best movement effect. The bicycle speed odometer is a major accessibility tool that satisfies with needs of the people with fast development. This study elaborated a bike speed odometer design based on Hall element, taking AT89C52 single chip as the core, measuring speed with A44E Hall sensor, to finish the bike mileage/speed measurement and statistics by displaying bike mileage and speed in real time. By using the Hall elements, the hardware of speed odometer input the number of pulse of per circle into the single-chip computer system. Then the signal processed by the single-chip computer displays. The software is programmed with assembly language and modular design idea. The design of the hardware circuit is simple and the subroutine has universal property, which fully meet the design requirements and possess a wide range of application and dissemination value.

  19. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  20. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  1. Helmet wearing among users of a public bicycle-sharing program in the district of columbia and comparable riders on personal bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Roffenbender, Jason S; Anderko, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  2. Helmet Wearing Among Users of a Public Bicycle-Sharing Program in the District of Columbia and Comparable Riders on Personal Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Anderko, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  3. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, John C; Huybers, Sherry

    2004-05-01

    Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicles; and the use of safety devices, including bicycle helmets, lights and reflective tape. Whereas, research into optimal roadway design and educational programs for drivers to improve road safety has yielded contradictory results, the benefits of bicycle helmet use and programs to enhance their use have been clearly shown. This paper has the following objectives for paediatricians and family physicians: To understand the relationship between bicycle safety and children's motor and cognitive skills.To understand the effectiveness and limitations of strategies to improve bicycle safety.To describe activities to promote bicycle safety that physicians can undertake in clinical settings and in the community. PMID:19657515

  4. The frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in countries with varying bicycle mode shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    In  order  to  encourage  cycling,  we  need  to  reduce  the  hazards  that  cyclists  face. Single-bicycle crashes or ‘bicycle-only crashes’ are falls and obstacle collisions in which only one cyclist is involved. Between 60 and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospital or treated at an emergency...... department are victims of single-bicycle crashes. As proportion of the total number of traffic casualties  the  share  exceeds  20%  in  most  countries  with  medium  to  high  levels  of cycling.  This paper  discusses  the  prevalence  of  the  problem  and  describes  measures  that  may  both reduce the...

  5. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  6. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.;

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate...... scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  7. Symbolic derivation of bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Everett X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels is presented in this paper. Using symbolic mathematic tool Maple, we obtain two holonomic and four nonholonomic constraint equations due to front and rear wheels of a bicycle. We show that the two holonomic constraints cannot be expressed in quartic form for bicycle rear body pitch angle unless the minor (crown radius of the torus are the same for both the front and rear wheels. In addition, we show that all the constraints can be written in differential form, from which a constraint matrix is constructed, according to standard procedure for developing dynamics in robotics.

  8. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  9. Bicyclic graphs with maximal revised Szeged index

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2011-01-01

    The revised Szeged index $Sz^*(G)$ is defined as $Sz^*(G)=\\sum_{e=uv \\in E}(n_u(e)+ n_0(e)/2)(n_v(e)+ n_0(e)/2),$ where $n_u(e)$ and $n_v(e)$ are, respectively, the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $u$ than to vertex $v$ and the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $v$ than to vertex $u$, and $n_0(e)$ is the number of vertices equidistant to $u$ and $v$. Hansen used the AutoGraphiX and made the following conjecture about the revised Szeged index for a connected bicyclic graph $G$ of order $n \\geq 6$:

  10. Bicycling induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, P L; Dunne, J W; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G

    1991-01-01

    Pudendal neuropathies are well recognised as part of more generalised peripheral neuropathies; however, focal abnormalities of the pudendal nerve due to cycling-related injuries have been infrequently reported. We describe two patients who developed pudendal neuropathies secondary to pressure effects on the perineum from racing-bicycle saddles. Both were male competitive athletes, one of whom developed recurrent numbness of the penis and scrotum after prolonged cycling; the other developed numbness of the penis, an altered sensation of ejaculation, with disturbance of micturition and reduced awareness of defecation. Both patients improved with alterations in saddle position and riding techniques. We conclude that pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy can result from prolonged cycling, particularly when using a poor riding technique. PMID:1821826

  11. The effect of tyre and rider properties on the stability of a bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bulsink, V.E.; Doria, A.; Belt, van de, M.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To work towards an advanced model of the bicycle-rider-environment system, an open-loop bicycle-rider model was developed in the commercial multibody dynamics software ADAMS. The main contribution of this article to bicycle dynamics is the analysis of tyre and rider properties that influence bicycle stability. A system identification method is used to extract linear stability properties from time domain analysis. The weave and capsize eigenmodes of the bicycle-rider system are analysed. The e...

  12. Typology of bicycle crashes based on a survey of a thousand of injured cyclists from a road trauma registry.

    OpenAIRE

    BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Hours, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle is an alternative transportation mode promoted for health benefits. However, cycling is somewhat risky. In France we estimate an annual incidence rate of 70 injured per 100,000 inhabitants. Most of the existing cycling safety studies are police data based which is inappropriate for cyclist safety research because it is biased on accident type (single vs. multi vehicle crash) and registers up to 10 times less cyclists than a road trauma registry on the same area. That is why in this wo...

  13. Neurological Outcome in Road Traffic Accidents with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Moslavac, Saša; DŽIDIĆ, Ivan; Kejla, Zvonko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate neurological outcome in road traffic accidents (RTA) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was undertaken in National Spinal Unit of Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, in Vara`dinske Toplice, Croatia. Hospital records of 154 inpatient RTA SCI patients, in years 1991–2001 were reviewed. Six groups of patients were formed: car drivers, co-drivers, back seat passengers, motorcycle drivers, bicycle drivers and pedestrians. Neurological ...

  14. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Benington, Rob; Bjørnskau, Torkel; Dhondt, Stijn; de Geus, Bas; Hagemeister, Carmen; Loo, Becky P. Y.; Niska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. Methods A literature search identified figures...... SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  15. Injuries Due to Wedging of Bicycle Wheels in On-road Tram Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Jaap; Harmsen, Annelieke M. K.; Schonhuth, Casper P.; Bloemers, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In cities with trams as public transportation, tram tracks are often on public roads, creating a shared road situation with other road participants like cyclists. Beside the risk of direct collisions, this situation can also lead to bicycle wheels getting wedged in tram tracks, causing cyclists to fall. Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the injury pattern of this trauma mechanism and to draw attention to the risks of the infrastructural situation with on-road tram tracks. Patients and Methods: A one-year, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. All patients admitted after presentation to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center, who got injured because their bicycle wheels got wedged in tram tracks, were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, type of injury and treatment. Results: Ten patients were included. Six were male. The mean age was 38 years. Six patients required surgery, mostly because of extremity injuries. Mean duration of admission was 4 days. Mean injury severity score was 13. One patient died as a result of the injuries sustained in the accident. Conclusions: Tram tracks on public roads are potentially dangerous and can lead to serious injuries and even mortality amongst cyclist. Operative intervention is frequently needed. PMID:25685751

  16. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  17. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys...... using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic...

  18. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in urban areas. The interventions included the construction of new bicycle routes on urban arterials in some...... larger cities and an area wide comprehensive upgrade of the bicycle network one medium sized city (Delft). The evaluations were based on before and after studies where in the case of Delft also a long-term after study was performed. The evaluations produced a wealth of information about the impacts of...... interventions in bicycle infrastructure on travel choices, safety, design appreciation, and other factors. These clarify under which conditions certain measures are effective or not and inform about the effectiveness of improving a single route versus upgrading a whole network. The information from the studies...

  19. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, John C.; Huybers, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicl...

  20. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichao Zhang; Kangkang He; Sheng Dong; Jibiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing), for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental d...

  1. BICYCLE TRANSPORT IN URBAN TRANSPORT OF KONYA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    LORASOKKAY, Mehmet Ali; AĞIRDIR, M. Levent

    2011-01-01

    The use of motor vehicles in the cities of Turkey is increasing with every passing day due to the cities rapidly expanding in Turkey. The share of environment-friendly transportation types entirely based on manpower such as pedestrian and bicycle transports in urban areas continuously decreases due to expanding urban residential areas. For urban transportation, bicycle is an individual, independent and fast transportation vehicle similar to motor vehicles in terms of its properties such as it...

  2. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements. PMID:26910774

  3. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  4. Test verification and design of the bicycle frame parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Xiang, Zhongxia; Luo, Huan; Tian, Guan

    2015-07-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders' worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers' height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes' function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  5. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  6. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. Methods A literature search identified figures...... (largely from western countries) on SBC casualties who are fatally injured, hospitalised or treated at an emergency department. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate how bicycle modal share is related to SBCs. Results On average, 17% of fatal injuries to cyclists are caused by SBCs...... SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  7. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  8. Mumbai : the bicycle friendly city, bicycle masterplan & design guidelines for central mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lina

    2011-01-01

    Mumbai – the city of contrasts, is home for more than 20 million people. It is the financial centre and the most modern city in India. As most cities within developing countries Mumbai is striving to imitate the western model of growth and lifestyle to achieve a “developed” status. Motorization, especially private motorized modes, has become prioritized because they are seen as a big part of this development. This neglecting has also led to a significant prejudice against bicycle riding as a ...

  9. ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Beheshtitabar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to find out which parameters have the highest influence on bicyclists’ route-choice-behaviour and how they contribute. There are many attributes considered throughout different studies that are favoured by cyclists. The attributes are the basis for generating a function which predicts the route choice of cyclists. The paper aims at making a comparison between distance-based routes and attribute-based routes. The model for creating the bicycle route choice program is based on the network model of Norrköping, Sweden. The preferred attributes of the model each assign a weight in the cost function of the model for each link of the urban network. The algorithm of the lowest cost function route searches the shortest path in terms of assigned link costs over the whole network. For comparing the results of the cost function and the shortest route (between an origin-destination, the model has a shortest path finding algorithm between different Origin and Destination pairs implemented. It has been viewed that around 25% of all cumulative routes do not show any distance differences between the shortest path distance and attributes based solution. With the used weights of the Standard scenario, it can be seen that the trade-off between shortest distance and safety respectively comfort can be optimized, fulfilling both criteria (distance and safety/comfort.

  10. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  11. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing, for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental duration corresponding to 75% degree were then calculated. On this basis, the radioactive decay law from physics was used to establish a theoretical model for the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration. The data on public bicycle rental duration in Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing were used to test the model and produce a corrected theoretical model. The results indicate that the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration obeys the decay law. The study results provide important theoretical support for the rental station planning of bicycle sharing systems, as well as the allocation, operation, and dispatch of public bicycles.

  12. Heterogeneous cellular automata model for straight-through bicycle traffic at signalized intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Jiang, Hang; Chen, Jingxu; Huang, Zhengfeng; Lu, Lili

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a cellular automata (CA) model to elucidate the straight-through movements of the heterogeneous bicycle traffic at signalized intersection. The CA model, via simulation, particularly exposits the dispersion phenomenon existing in the straight-through bicycle traffic. The nonlane-based cycling behavior and diverse bicycle properties are also incorporated in the CA model. A series of simulations are conducted to reveal the travel process, bicycles interaction and influence of the dispersion phenomenon. The simulation results show that the dispersion phenomenon significantly results in more bicycles interactions in terms of spilling maneuvers and overtaking maneuvers during the straight-through movements. Meanwhile, the dispersion phenomenon could contribute to the efficiency of the bicycle traffic, and straight-through bicycles need less time to depart the intersection under the circumstance of dispersion phenomenon. The simulation results are able to provide specific guideline for reasonably utilizing the dispersion phenomenon to improve the operational efficiency of straight-through bicycle traffic.

  13. Remarks on the New High-Efficiency Motor for an Electrical Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Hasimoto, Naohide; Abe, Minoru

    There have been numerous theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical bicycle, electrical vehicle, and so on. In this paper, we consider the new d-c compound motor for the electrical bicycle. This improvement maybe take positive advantage of compound moter in the electrical bicycle. As an illustrative example, we show the experimental results on the level ground. The experiments show that the proposed method is more higher efficiency for the electrical bicycle than conventional method.

  14. Investigation with Bluetooth Sensors of Bicycle Travel Time Estimation on a Short Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Dianhai Wang; Jun De Chen

    2012-01-01

    Accurate travel time information acquisition is essential to the effective planning and management of bicycle travel conditions. Traditionally, video camera data have been used as the primary source for measuring the quality of bicycle travel time. This paper deals with an investigation of bicycle travel time estimation on a short corridor, using Bluetooth sensors, based on field survey of travel time at one arterial road in Hangzhou. Usually bicycle travel time estimates with Bluetooth senso...

  15. Influences of infrastructure and attitudes to health on value of travel time savings in bicycle journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Gunilla; Mortazavi , Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how attitudes to health and exercise in connection with cycling influence the estimation of values of travel time savings in different kinds of bicycle environments (mixed traffic, bicycle lane in the road way, bicycle path next to the road, and bicycle path not in connection with the road). The results, based on two Swedish stated choice studies, suggest that the values of travel time savings are lower when cycling in better conditions. Surprisingly, the responde...

  16. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel Stefanie; Müller Daniel; Klingelhoefer Doris; Groneberg David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Du...

  17. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction st...

  18. Using magnetorheological fluids in an innovative hybrid bicycle damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Y. J.; Nguyen, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetorheological fluids are capable of changing their viscosity quickly. This can provide good controllability and fast dynamic response. A conventional passive suspension system with air spring or hydraulic damper has simple design and financial benefit for bicycles, but its operation is uncontrollable and non-adaptive. This paper presented a semi-active hybrid bicycle suspension system which combines conventional air spring and a new magnetorheological damping brake together to reduce vibration of a bicycle. A multi-layer magnetorheological brake and linkage mechanism are connected to bike fork to form the adaptive damping part of the innovative hybrid suspension system. The simulation results proved that the semi-active suspension system can reduce bike vibration effectively.

  19. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... alkaloids. The corresponding ditosyl derivative was treated with benzylamine to afford a bicyclic N-benzylated pyrrolidine. An alternative starting material was prepared from 5,6:4',6'-di-O-isopropylidene antirrhinoside by reduction with lithium aluminum hydride. Subsequent ozonolysis and sodium borohydride...... gave the expected triol. The corresponding ditosyl derivative was treated with benzylamine or 2-methoxy-benzylamine to afford bicyclic pyrrolidines in 54-66% yield. The isopropylidene protection was removed and the unprotected pyrrolidine was acylated with benzoyl chloride to afford a potential...

  20. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  1. Bicycle Training for Youth with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Esposito, Phil; Hauck, Janet; Jeong, Irully; Hornyak, Joseph; Argento, Angela; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have difficulty riding a two-wheel bicycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate an intervention using an adapted bicycle and individualized instruction to teach 71 youth to ride a standard two-wheel bicycle. Youth with DS (n = 30) and ASD (n = 41) between the…

  2. A City Plans for Bicycles: A Case Study of Olympia, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    1990-01-01

    Discusses community planning for bicycling programs with emphasis on safety education for children and adults, enforcement of bicycle laws, engineering improvements, and special events. Describes how Olympia improved existing bicycling facilities and summarizes planning, communication, engineering, and policy issues addressed. (SV)

  3. Bicycle cycles and mobility patterns - Exploring and characterizing data from a community bicycle program

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Grivolla, Jens; Codina, Joan; Banchs, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of human mobility data in an urban area using the amount of available bikes in the stations of the community bicycle program Bicing in Barcelona. The data was obtained by periodic mining of a KML-file accessible through the Bicing website. Although in principle very noisy, after some preprocessing and filtering steps the data allows to detect temporal patterns in mobility as well as identify residential, university, business and leisure areas of the city. The results lead to a proposal for an improvement of the bicing website, including a prediction of the number of available bikes in a certain station within the next minutes/hours. Furthermore a model for identifying the most probable routes between stations is briefly sketched.

  4. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay;

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... might produce inconsistent estimates. There have been some studies on bicycle route choice set generation reported in the literature, whereof few studies focussed on route choice models for bicyclist estimated from GPS observations. Menghini et al. [3] successfully applied a Breadth First Search on Link...

  5. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  6. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  7. Traffic Education for Montana Elementary Schools: Bicycle Safety 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    Designed to fit into existing curricula, the loose-leaf guide includes instructional aids, resources, and units for grades K-6. Each grade is presented separately, but with informative introductory material duplicated in each. For all grades, materials include information sheets for instructors about bicycles and traffic safety, and a list of…

  8. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  9. Mapping Bicycle Crash Risk Patterns on the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, mainly aggregated statistics are used for bicycle crash risk calculations. Thus, the understanding of spatial patterns at local scale levels remains vague. Using an agent-based flow model and a bicycle crash database covering 10 continuous years of observation allows us to calculate and map the crash risk on various spatial scales for the city of Salzburg (Austria. In doing so, we directly account for the spatial heterogeneity of crash occurrences. Additionally, we provide a measure for the statistical robustness on the level of single reference units and consider modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP effects in our analysis. This study is the first of its kind. The results facilitate a better understanding of spatial patterns of bicycle crash rates on the local scale. This is especially important for cities that strive to improve the safety situation for bicyclists in order to address prevailing safety concerns that keep people from using the bicycle as a utilitarian mode of (urban transport.

  10. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...

  11. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  12. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  13. Bicyclic graphs with exactly two main signless Laplacian eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    A signless Laplacian eigenvalue of a graph $G$ is called a main signless Laplacian eigenvalue if it has an eigenvector the sum of whose entries is not equal to zero. In this paper, all connected bicyclic graphs with exactly two main eigenvalues are determined.

  14. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    CERN Document Server

    Guemez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics and also some energetic issues related to the Marta mouse motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-to-go round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the Figuring Physics section of this magazine.

  15. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...

  16. Bicycle sharing system: role, effects and application to Plymouth

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Bouke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates the role and effects of a bicycle sharing system, and studies the feasi-bility of such a system in Plymouth. The research consists of a literature review, policy dis-cussion, case studies, and a detailed assessment of t

  17. A Formal Synthesis of ( + )-Cassiol Exploiting Meyers' Bicyclic Lactam Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Xin(沈鑫); WU,Yi-Kang(伍贻康); ZHANG,Fan(张帆)

    2002-01-01

    A formal synthesis of ( + )-cassiol using (1S,2S)-2-amino-1-(4- nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol as chiral auxiliary is reported.The quaternary chiral center in the molecule was constructed by sequential alkylation of a bicyclic lactam (prepared from the aforementioned auxiliary and 5-oxo-heptanlic acid) with methyl iodide and benzyloxymethyl chloride.

  18. Bicycle injuries: a matter of mechanism and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a popular form of recreation with positive health and environmental effects. These road users are vulnerable to serious injuries, especially when motor vehicles are involved. The goal of this study was to characterize cyclist-related injuries according to motor vehicle involvement for adults versus children. A retrospective study was carried out using data from 11 trauma centers in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (2001-2007). Injuries were classified according to whether a motor vehicle was involved, and differences in injury characteristics were assessed for adults (18+ years) versus children (1-17 years). A total of 5529 patients were hospitalized for bicycle injuries, of whom 1765 were adults and 3764 were children. Thirty percent (n=1662) of all bicycle injuries involved motor vehicles, although the rate of injuries resulting in hospitalization was 37% among adults and 27% among children. Injury characteristics and hospital resource utilization differed substantially by age group. Cyclists struck by a motor vehicle presented with more severe injuries requiring more hospital resources and resulting in poorer outcomes than those not involved with motor vehicles. The interaction effect between motor vehicle involvement and age was significant for torso injuries and need for medical imaging. We found that injury characteristics, hospital resource utilization and health-related outcomes for bicycle injuries are highly dependent on patient's age and mechanism of injury. Effect modification of motor vehicle involvement by age may in part reflect physicians' attitudes toward pediatric imaging. The risks identified in this study should be used for preparedness and management of trauma hospitalizations from bicycle injuries. PMID:22062347

  19. Transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  20. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  1. The fastest bicycle in the world; how a team of Delft students is building a bicycle to break the world speed record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annega, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is a country known for its extensive use of bicycles as a means of everyday transport. However, while it has existed for about two centuries, todays bicycles only differ from those of the 19th century in relatively small details. Human Power Team Delft is building a whole new type of

  2. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2012-04-01

    As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

  3. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998. PMID:11036573

  4. Simultaneous optimization of transit network and public bicycle station network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 朱宁; 马寿峰

    2015-01-01

    The traditional manner to design public transportation system is to sequentially design the transit network and public bicycle network. A new public transportation system design problem that simultaneously considers both bus network design and public bicycle network design is proposed. The chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is designed to solve the problem. A shortcoming of CRO is that, when the two-molecule collisions take place, the molecules are randomly picked from the container. Hence, we improve CRO by employing different mating strategies. The computational results confirm the benefits of the mating strategies. Numerical experiments are conducted on the Sioux-Falls network. A comparison with the traditional sequential modeling framework indicates that the proposed approach has a better performance and is more robust. The practical applicability of the approach is proved by employing a real size network.

  5. Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    McLundie, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

  6. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to obje...

  7. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik; van Nes, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Today the interest in cycling is increasing worldwide and in many countries authorities are faced with the question how cycling can be promoted efficiently. In the Netherlands and Denmark, this question came up already in the 1970s when the downsides of the rapidly increasing motorisation became evident. At the time, in both countries large scale interventions in bicycle infrastructure were introduced and evaluated extensively in order to create knowledge on efficient promoting of cycling in ...

  8. Mobile cockpit system for enhanced electric bicycle use

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, José A.; Afonso, João L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the project of a Mobile Cockpit System (MCS) for smartphones, which provides assistance to Electric Bicycle (EB) cyclists in Smart Cities’ environment. The presented system introduces a mobile application (MCS App) with the goal to provide useful personalized information to the cyclist related with the EB’s use, including EB range prediction considering the intended path, management of the cycling effort performed by the cyclist, handling of the battery charging process an...

  9. Capacity analysis of actions to increase safety of bicycle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Stavrević, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The thesis speaks about modern editing methods of bicycle traffic in urban areas. It contains comparison of four foreign design manuals for planning and editing cyclist areas in cities. Those are Dutch, German, Canadian and design manual of the United States of America. The comparison is done upon different situations, which could appear in process of editing cyclist friendly infrastructure. Therefore the comparison is done upon situations like crossing of the side road, turning left and righ...

  10. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Priya; Jeongjin Yeo; Yoonseok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study p...

  11. Built Environment Influences on Healthy Transportation Choices: Bicycling versus Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, Meghan; Brauer, Michael; Setton, Eleanor M.; Teschke, Kay

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, tri...

  12. Measuring dynamic loads on a foldable city bicycle:

    OpenAIRE

    Boltežar, Miha; Pirnat, Miha; Savšek, Zdenko

    2011-01-01

    Strain gauges have been used to measure dynamic loads on a foldable bicycle while it is being ridden. Eight full, Wheatstone-bridge measuring points were used to measure the forces on the front and rear wheels, the handlebars, the seat and the pedals. These bridges were positioned at special measuring parts that simplified the measurements. Some of the measuring problems that were successfully resolved are described. The measuring took place on public roads where real-life data was gathered f...

  13. The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Maria; ELIASSON, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that ...

  14. Formation and Properties of a Bicyclic Silylated Digermene

    OpenAIRE

    Hlina, Johann; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph; Albers, Lena; Müller, Thomas; Jouikov, Viatcheslav V

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of PMe3 or N-heterocyclic carbenes, the reaction of oligosilanylene dianions with GeCl2⋅dioxane gives germylene–base adducts. After base abstraction, the free germylenes can dimerize by formation of a digermene. An electrochemical and theoretical study of a bicyclic tetrasilylated digermene revealed formation of a comparably stable radical anion and a more reactive radical cation, which were characterized further by UV/Vis and ESR spectroscopy.

  15. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  16. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  17. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  18. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  19. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cripton Peter A; Teschke Kay; Harris M.; Reynolds Conor CO; Winters Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk ...

  20. Automated Analysis Methods for the Assessment of Bicycle Infrastructure and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkevich, Anton

    2013-01-01

    A first phase of the research activity has been related to the study of the state of art of the infrastructures for cycling, bicycle use and methods for evaluation. In this part, the candidate has studied the "bicycle system" in countries with high bicycle use and in particular in the Netherlands. Has been carried out an evaluation of the questionnaires of the survey conducted within the European project BICY on mobility in general in 13 cities of the participating countries. The questionn...

  1. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaonian Shan; Zhibin Li; Xiaohong Chen; Jianhong Ye

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA) for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the C...

  2. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  3. "The Mechanisms. Light and Miraculous": The Convivial Bicycle in Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, J. Josh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the prevalent representation of the bicycle as a liberatory figure in theoretical texts, novels, films, and poetry. Because the bicycle confers unexpected creativity and autonomy, it alters definitions of technology, modernity, and identity. Chapter one recuperates and employs Ivan Illich's concept of conviviality in order to re-examine the inheritance of the project of modernity and question the definition of technology in the twenty-first century bicycle epoch. Fo...

  4. Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing in Hangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, China has experienced a steady decline in bicycle use. To address this trend, China's central and local government for urban transportation created the "Public Transit Priority" to encourage public transport initiatives. As part of this effort, the Hangzhou government launched “Hangzhou Public Bicycle” in 2008. This service allows members to access a shared fleet of bicycles. As of March 2011, it operated 60,600 bicycles with 2,416 fixed stations in eight core district...

  5. Spatial analysis of dynamic movements of Vélo'v, Lyon's shared bicycle program

    OpenAIRE

    Borgnat, Pierre; Fleury, Eric; Robardet, Céline; Scherrer, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Public transportation systems like Lyon's bicycle community sharing program can be considered as a complex system composed of interconnected stations that exchange bicycles. Such system generates digital footprints that reveals the activity in the city over time and space and make possible their analyze. In this paper, the analysis deals with the spatial understanding and visualization of bicycle trips. We first study the activity in each station separately and then identify the main characte...

  6. Shared Bicycles in a City: A Signal Processing and Data Analysis Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Borgnat, Pierre; Robardet, Céline; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Abry, Patrice; Fleury, Eric; Flandrin, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Community shared bicycle systems, such as the Vélo'v program launched in Lyon in May 2005, are public transportation programs that can be studied as a complex system composed of interconnected stations that exchange bicycles. They generate digital footprints that reveal the activity in the city over time and space, making possible a quantitative analysis of movements using bicycles in the city. A careful study relying on nonstationary statistical modeling and data mining allows us to first mo...

  7. Envisioning Competence: Learning, Problem Solving, and Children at Work in the Exploratory Bicycle Shop

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Charles Florian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the conceptual learning and cognitive processes of schoolchildren engaged in problem solving activities in a non-school, workplace setting known as the exploratory bicycle shop. The exploratory bike shop is a commercial bicycle shop: a) that has been adapted for combined retail and educational purposes and b) where middle-school and high-school age students participate as bicycle mechanics explorers or, more formally, as apprentices. It provides a multi-generational, econo...

  8. Improving Bicyclic Peptide Phage Display and Development of Sortase A Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rentero Rebollo, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Bicyclic peptide ligands are promising molecules for the development of new therapeutics. They combine advantages from large protein therapeutics and small molecule drugs. Large combinatorial libraries of bicyclic peptides can be generated and screened by phage display using a recently developed strategy. Potent and selective bicyclic peptide inhibitors against several therapeutic targets have already been developed and their therapeutic potential is currently being evaluated in animal models...

  9. Isolated Jejunal Perforation Following Bicycle Handlebar Injury in Adults: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, Kyriakos; Michailidou, Maria; Petrou, Athanasios; Loizou, Sakis; Andreou, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    The small intestine is the third in frequency intraperitoneal organ which is injured after blunt trauma of the abdomen. In most of the cases, this type of injuries is accompanied by other injuries, which make it more difficult to diagnose. Failure of diagnosis and delay in treating these injuries significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the handlebar of the bike are common in children. Such injuries can cause injury to both solid and hollow abdominal viscera. Unlike children, adults' abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the bike's handlebar are extremely rare. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our department due to progressively abdominal pain after an accident with the handlebar of his bike. The subsequent CT scan after per os administration of contrast medium revealed the presence of free intraperitoneal contrast. It is a rare case of jejunal perforation after flipping the handlebar of the bicycle which was treated by partial removal of the injured part of jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time we describe such an injury with this mechanism to an adult. PMID:23984116

  10. Isolated Jejunal Perforation Following Bicycle Handlebar Injury in Adults: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is the third in frequency intraperitoneal organ which is injured after blunt trauma of the abdomen. In most of the cases, this type of injuries is accompanied by other injuries, which make it more difficult to diagnose. Failure of diagnosis and delay in treating these injuries significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the handlebar of the bike are common in children. Such injuries can cause injury to both solid and hollow abdominal viscera. Unlike children, adults’ abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the bike’s handlebar are extremely rare. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our department due to progressively abdominal pain after an accident with the handlebar of his bike. The subsequent CT scan after per os administration of contrast medium revealed the presence of free intraperitoneal contrast. It is a rare case of jejunal perforation after flipping the handlebar of the bicycle which was treated by partial removal of the injured part of jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time we describe such an injury with this mechanism to an adult.

  11. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  12. Criticality Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  13. Persistence on airline accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  14. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  15. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  16. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  17. Using an experimental bicycle seat to reduce perineal numbness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth S; Richburg, Allen; Wallis, David; Bracker, Mark

    2002-05-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental seat that was designed to prevent perineal numbness and possibly erectile dysfunction in male bicyclists. A trial of the device among 15 experienced cyclists measured perineal sensation after a 1-hour stationary cycling session on a standard seat followed several days later by the same exercise protocol on the experimental bike seat. Cyclists reported more numbness with the standard seat than with the experimental seat (79% vs 14%). Sensory testing found greater hypoesthesia with the standard seat. Innovations in bicycle seat design may decrease or eliminate perineal numbness. PMID:20086525

  18. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuneke J. L.; Ugwuegbu D. C.; Sinebe J. E.; Enyi L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically use...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL...—Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device EC03OC91.074...

  20. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (77 FR 12761). The proposed rule was..., and mountain bicycles (no motorized vehicles). I have hiked on this trail, as well as helping to work... NPS rangers and volunteers will patrol these trails and enforce NPS regulations. 5. Comment: I find...

  1. Use of Adapted Bicycles on the Learning of Conventional Cycling by Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tammy L.; Porretta, David L.; Klein, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of adapted bicycles on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of conventional cycling by seven children with mild mental retardation. Feedback was used in addition to the adapted bicycles and consisted of pedal rate, head position, and steering participation. A multiple probe design was used. Participants…

  2. Pedal On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Bicycles for Grades 6 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary and adult levels, this manual covers the topic of bicycling for grades 6-9. The manual contains forty-seven learning activities grouped…

  3. Pedal On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Bicycling for Grades 9 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers bicycling for grades 9-12. It contains forty-four learning activities grouped into eight…

  4. Advocating Green Transport and Promoting Healthy Urban Development: Strategies for Bicycle Transport Development in Jinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>As a green transport means,the bicycle has a history of over two hundred years.Since the 1970s,due to the inf luence of energy crisis and the consciousness of environment protection,the bicycle has regained its popularity in the public for its

  5. The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Godefrooij, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transpor

  6. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) is proposing to designate the Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (Park). The National Park Service general regulation at 36 CFR 4.30(b) requires promulgation of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes outside of developed areas and special use...

  7. [A specific sign of the injury inflicted by the front wheel of a bicycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V; Pinchuk, P V; Molchanov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical expertise of the injury inflicted by the front wheel of a bicycle that revealed a new specific sign of the contact between the protruding part of the wheel of the bicycle (the brake disk) and the pedestrian's body. PMID:27070037

  8. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix

    2001-01-01

    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has...

  9. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian;

    2011-01-01

    relevance of the cost for short trips. Expectedly, the selection of bicycle as mode for short trips is positively related to owning a bicycle and negatively linked to owning one or more cars. Urban density has also positive correlation with the selection of sustainable transport modes....

  10. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, intellectual activity, and social function. Methods: On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties, or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results: Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5% had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions: The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults.

  11. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  12. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen......’s bicycle infrastructure and explores how the development corresponds to other processes of urban transformation. The study builds on historical maps of bicycle infrastructure that are digitised into geographical information, which allows for a comprehensive analysis of the formation of the network. In...... search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  13. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  14. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  15. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data. PMID:8133740

  16. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  17. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  18. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  19. Wobble of a racing bicycle with a rider hands on and hands off the handlebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Florian; Nusime, Julia; Edelmann, Johannes; Plöchl, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    So far fundamental papers on the understanding of the wobble mode at motorcycles have been published, but in contrast, little research has been published on the wobble mode at bicycles. Wobble denotes a characteristic unstable oscillatory mode dominated by oscillations of the front wheel about the steering axis. The wobble mode of a trekking bicycle at low speeds has already been analysed, where no influence of the rider's hands on the steering system is taken into account. The wobble mode of a racing bicycle at higher speeds has not been addressed in more detail so far. The paper points out the difference between a trekking bicycle and a racing bicycle in particular with respect to the wobble mode. Different geometry, mass and stiffness properties of both types of bicycles and different characteristic positions of the rider are considered. As the wobble at racing bicycles often occurs at high speeds, when riding down a grade with hands on a dropped handlebar, a passive rider model, that takes into account the movement of the rider's arms, is presented.

  20. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated

  1. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)

    2015-10-16

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  2. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  3. Bicycle Guidelines and Crash Rates on Cycle Tracks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F.; Willett, Walter C.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied state-adopted bicycle guidelines to determine whether cycle tracks (physically separated, bicycle-exclusive paths adjacent to sidewalks) were recommended, whether they were built, and their crash rate. Methods. We analyzed and compared US bicycle facility guidelines published between 1972 and 1999. We identified 19 cycle tracks in the United States and collected extensive data on cycle track design, usage, and crash history from local communities. We used bicycle counts and crash data to estimate crash rates. Results. A bicycle facility guideline written in 1972 endorsed cycle tracks but American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines (1974–1999) discouraged or did not include cycle tracks and did not cite research about crash rates on cycle tracks. For the 19 US cycle tracks we examined, the overall crash rate was 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.0) per 1 million bicycle kilometers. Conclusions. AASHTO bicycle guidelines are not explicitly based on rigorous or up-to-date research. Our results show that the risk of bicycle–vehicle crashes is lower on US cycle tracks than published crashes rates on roadways. This study and previous investigations support building cycle tracks. PMID:23678920

  4. Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Anne C; Furth, Peter G; Morency, Patrick; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Willett, Walter C; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2011-04-01

    Most individuals prefer bicycling separated from motor traffic. However, cycle tracks (physically separated bicycle-exclusive paths along roads, as found in The Netherlands) are discouraged in the USA by engineering guidance that suggests that facilities such as cycle tracks are more dangerous than the street. The objective of this study conducted in Montreal (with a longstanding network of cycle tracks) was to compare bicyclist injury rates on cycle tracks versus in the street. For six cycle tracks and comparable reference streets, vehicle/bicycle crashes and health record injury counts were obtained and use counts conducted. The relative risk (RR) of injury on cycle tracks, compared with reference streets, was determined. Overall, 2.5 times as many cyclists rode on cycle tracks compared with reference streets and there were 8.5 injuries and 10.5 crashes per million bicycle-kilometres. The RR of injury on cycle tracks was 0.72 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.85) compared with bicycling in reference streets. These data suggest that the injury risk of bicycling on cycle tracks is less than bicycling in streets. The construction of cycle tracks should not be discouraged. PMID:21307080

  5. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  6. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials. PMID:22269506

  7. Framework for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  8. Performance Evaluation of the New High-Efficiency Motor for an Electrical Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Hasimoto, Naohide; Abe, Minoru

    Over the past years, a great deal of studies have been devoted to electrical bicycle, electrical vehicle, and so on. In previous work, we studied a new d-c compound motor which is suitable for the electronic bicycle on the level ground. In contrast to this, this paper considers the performance evaluation of the new high-efficiency motor for an electrical bicycle in detail. We try to show the experimental results of several driving condition. This directly leads us to the conclusion that a new d-c compound motor is higher efficiency than conventional one.

  9. A microprocessor-based fuzzy logic control strategy for fuel cell powered bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is aimed to develop a fuzzy logic control strategy for fuel cell powered bicycle. Advanced control strategy with low cost microprocessor is a crucial development step for future commercialization phase of fuel cell system applications. In this paper, a micro controller based fuzzy logic control strategy and system is developed to improve the running performance of the bicycle, as the fuel cell powered system has great uncertainty of power output. Through advanced control methods, significant improvement in the performance of fuel cell powered bicycle, the energy consumption, and the running speed can be achieved. (author)

  10. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  11. Framework for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  12. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  14. Prioritization of Integrated Bicycle Network Clusters in Istanbul Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Çol Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of the integration of nonmotorized transport and public transport on hypermobility was evaluated. The role of bicycle in non-motorized transportation, and its contribution to sustainable travel goals were examined. A decision support model was established in order to plan the phases of a bicycle network integrated with the public transport sytem in Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Data such as public transport routes planned for the target year 2023, locations of transfer centers, number of passengers at transfer centers, and a revised bicycle network were used as layers for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS map produced. Based on the survey data collected from the experts, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP which is a multi-criteria decision-making procedure that contains both qualitative and quantitative factors was used to prioritize the bicycle network clusters integrated with public transport system in Istanbul.

  15. Physiological responses and exercise preference between the Trikke and the bicycle ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T.C. Lam

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Participants were more efficient in using the Trikke than the bicycle ergometer. The Trikke may be an enjoyable alternative for those individuals, particularly women, who have lost interest in traditional forms of exercise.

  16. Commuter Transport Mode Choice and Typologies in the Bicycle City Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Kjems, Erik; Reinau, Kristian Hegner;

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle Cities” such as Copenhagen can serve as role models: how far can we push the commuter modal shares in the direction of more sustainable transport? This paper presents a study that aims to give a state-of-the-art picture of a Copenhagen that provides wide cycling highways and the political...... will to provide for even more bicycles. We found a ratio of 1:1 of car to bicycle in the greater Copenhagen area, whereas a ratio 2:5 of cars to bicycles existed in the central city - in terms of commuters who both live and work in the city center and who thus have an effective choice between modes due...

  17. Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?%Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Bufton; Florian Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The humble bicycle was once the predominant mode of transport in Beijing and it can be argued that the city has previously been one of the best bicycle cities in the world. Now the streets are littered with rusting old bikes and it seems as if Beijing has turned its back on the bicycle in its quest for modernity and evolution. The resultant re-configuration of the city and the rapid speed of development of modern transportation systems (particularly the lightening growth of personal automobiles) have created a complex set of issues and challenges which now put the city under pressure such as sustainability, air quality, health and traffic congestion problems.

  18. Stabilization Control of an Autonomous Bicycle : Modeled as an Acrobot with Angular Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Jørgen Herje

    2014-01-01

    With an inverted pendulum mounted on the bicycle frame, the system is corresponding to a bicyclist who applies balancing torque from the hip. This thesis present a mathematical system model of the autonomous bicycle, modeled as an inverted double pendulum with actuation at the joint connecting the two system links, better known as an Acrobot. The Acrobot is a well-known underactuated robot manipulator, which implies that only the mounted inverted pendulum can obtain instantaneous acceleration...

  19. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing number of immigrants, increasing car ownership, and a tendency to travel larger distances. The analysis of the paper confirms that the observed trend differs from the estimated trend, considering th...

  20. Modeling and simulation of the transmission system for a chainless electric bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Farreny, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This project, entitled Modeling and Simulation of the Transmission System for a Chainless Electric Bicycle, consists in the design of the controllers’ logics governing a chainless electric bicycle’s transmission in order to accomplish certain behavior in front of inputs such as pedaling torque, slope gradient, frontal wind, gear selected, etc. To better understand it, a chainless electric bicycle replaces the conventional mechanical transmission (chain) by two electric mac...

  1. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin; Jung, Hee Chang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index ...

  2. Historiographical Needs in the Study of Bicycling Mobility in France. In : Mobility in History, Volume 5

    OpenAIRE

    PAPON, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In historical research on cycling in France, most attention has been given to the development of bicycles themselves and the industry that built them, mainly in the nineteenth century, or on cycling as a sport. Some historians have studied the bicycle as a social object. But the works dealing with cycling as a means of transport are scarce. The special double session on 'Cycling History and Cycling Policies' at the 2012 annual conference of the International Association for the History of Tra...

  3. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yung Liao

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module), and public bicycle use were obta...

  4. Wheelies and Headers, or How to Keep Both Bicycle Wheels on the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrbein, William M.

    2004-01-01

    A "wheelie" is when a bicycle is ridden with its front wheel lifted from the ground. Riding the bicycle in a way to lift the rear wheel off the ground might lead to the cyclist tumbling over the handlebars, called a "header." Other colorful terms for this situation are "endo" (short for "end-over-end") and "face plant" (for landing face first on the ground). Let's determine the conditions required in order to keep both tires touching the ground at all times.

  5. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  6. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  7. Communication and industrial accidents

    OpenAIRE

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  8. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  9. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  10. A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the CA model using the genetic algorithm. Traffic flow features between simulations of several CA models and field observations were compared. The results showed that our modified CA model produced more accurate simulation for the fundamental diagram and the passing events in mixed bicycle traffic flow. Based on our model, the bicycle traffic flow features, including the fundamental diagram, the number of passing events, and the number of lane changes, were analyzed. We also analyzed the traffic flow features with different traffic densities, traffic components on different travel lanes. Results of the study can provide important information for understanding and simulating the operations of mixed bicycle traffic flow.

  11. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  12. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  13. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents: The European Youth Hearts Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, L; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B; Møller, N C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may be beneficial to carotid arterial health among boys. PMID:25156494

  14. The safety effect of exchanging car mobility for bicycle mobility : substituting a small number of short car trips with bicycle trips.

    OpenAIRE

    Stipdonk, H.L. & Reurings, M.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of the effect of exchanging passenger car mobility for bicycle mobility on the number of fatalities and serious road injuries in the Netherlands. A precise calculation of this effect is not possible due to a lack of information, but we were able to give a first and rough approximation of the safety effect. The analysis considers a substitution of 10% of car trips shorter than 7.5 km by bicycle trips. The analysis is done ceteris paribus, thus, all relevant p...

  15. Bicycle Infrastructure that Extends beyond the Door: examining investments in bicycle-oriented design through a qualitative survey of commercial building owners and tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Frick, Karen; Ragland, David R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling “bicycle-oriented design” (BOD). The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities. The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what we...

  16. Bicycle Infrastructure that Extends beyond the Door: examining investments in bicycle-oriented design through a qualitative survey of commercial building owners and tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Frick, Karen; Ragland, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling “bicycle-oriented design” (BOD). The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities. The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what we...

  17. Characteristics of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Accidents According to the New Injury Severity Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Yun, Jae Sung; Jung, Sang Eun; Chae, Choong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients involved in road traffic accidents according to the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Methods In this study, medical records of 1,048 patients admitted at three hospitals located in different regions between January and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients who received inpatient treatments covered by automobile insurance during the period were included. Accidents were classified as pedestrian, driver, passenger, motorcycle, or bicycle; and the severity of injury was assessed by the NISS. Results The proportion of pedestrian traffic accident (TA) was the highest, followed by driver, passenger, motorcycle and bicycle TA. The mean NISS was significantly higher in pedestrian and motorcycle TAs and lower in passenger TA. Analysis of differences in mean hospital length of stay (HLS) according to NISS injury severity revealed 4.97±4.86 days in the minor injury group, 8.91±5.93 days in the moderate injury group, 15.46±11.16 days in the serious injury group, 24.73±17.03 days in the severe injury group, and 30.86±34.03 days in the critical injury group (prehabilitation are necessary to reduce disabilities in TA patients. PMID:27152279

  18. The Effects of Surface-Induced Loads on Forearm Muscle Activity During Steering a Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Önder C.; Soylu, Abdullah R.

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  19. Bicycles May Use Full Lane” Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, George; Peterson, M. Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-ba...

  20. Criticality accident in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  1. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  2. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  3. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  4. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  5. Bicycles’ Role in Road Accidents a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levulytė Loreta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. In 2013 in the European Union more than 6 % of all who died in road traffic crashes were cyclists. The number of cyclist killed on roads in the EU has decreased by only 9 %, compared to the total fatality decrease of 18 % from 2010 to 2013. The majority of cyclist fatalities are males (78 %. For the larger countries, Belgium and The Netherlands had the highest proportion of female cyclist fatalities (> 30 %. In general, 55 % of the bicycle fatalities in the EU countries were killed inside urban areas but there are large differences between the countries. In the last couple of years there has been an enormous effort on reduction in cycling fatality numbers across almost all ages in the EU. As a result of this effort, the number of accidents started to slightly decrease.

  6. Accidents with orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to objects. If the distance to other objects reduces, an acoustic signal is sent. Additionally, a self-created force plate was fixed on the pedal to evaluate the muscle performances during biking. An experiment with the ultrasound warning system confirmed that acoustic feedback was helpful in avoiding obstacles. The measurement of the blood pressure, the heart frequency and the pedaling force during biking approved that the training condition of the test person can be registered and enables tuning the power of the electric motor to individual requirements. The results demonstrate that an adapted E-bike can be improved to provide better space orientation for people with perceptual disorders and to measure training conditions of patients. Moreover, these enable individual adjustment of the electric motor power to optimize comfort and therapy effect. PMID:25485189

  8. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  9. Heparin-induced circular dichroism of an achiral, bicyclic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Floyd E; Warner, Andrew M; McWilliams, Kayla M; Stalcup, Apryll M

    2011-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs have shown potential in suppressing the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the pathology of prion protein conformational disorders (e.g. "Mad Cow" disease) by competing for sites of electrostatic interaction. In this study, circular dichroism (CD) and UV/Visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the interactions between N-methyl-N'-(7-chloro-4-quinolyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (QD), an achiral, bicyclic compound similar to previously investigated antimalarial drugs, and heparin, a complex GAG that is frequently used as a clinical anticoagulant. Relatively intense heparin-induced CD features were observed for QD and were noted to be radically different from previous studies using related chiral drugs, underscoring the importance of the Pfieffer effect on this and similar heparin research. Additionally, the induced CD for QD was observed to be highly dependent upon drug concentration, heparin concentration, system pH, equilibration time, and ionic strength. These results, in connection with recent work, provide new insight into the nature of the association between GAGs and antimalarial species. PMID:21125690

  10. On the closure of the extended bicyclic semigroup

    CERN Document Server

    Fihel, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we study the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ which is a generalization of the bicyclic semigroup. We describe main algebraic properties of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ and prove that every non-trivial congruence $\\mathfrak{C}$ on the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a group congruence, and moreover the quotient semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}/\\mathfrak{C}$ is isomorphic to a cyclic group. Also we show that the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ as a Hausdorff semitopological semigroup admits only the discrete topology. Next we study the closure $\\operatorname{cl}_T(\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}})$ of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological semigroup $T$. We show that the non-empty remainder of $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological inverse semigroup $T$ consists of a group of units $H(1_T)$ of $T$ and a two-sided ideal $I$ of $T$ in the case when $H(1_T)\

  11. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  12. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Elen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second. Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. 

  13. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  14. Accident report 1975/76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  15. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  16. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  17. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  18. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  19. Accidents, risks and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  20. Innovation and the Interrelatedness of Core Competencies: How Taiwan's Giant Bicycles broke into the US Bicycle Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Phineas Upham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that capabilities and barriers to entry are, in certain circumstances, interconnected in such a way that sacrificing one of them can lead to the subsequent vulnerability or erosion of another capability or barrier to entry. I illustrate this through a study of the US bicycle market in the 1980's in general, and Schwinn Corporation and Giant Manufacturing in particular, arguing that both the barriers to entry and the firm capabilities were interrelated. A specific set of decisions by Schwinn had broad and unanticipated effects that went beyond the capacity they explicitly relinquished. In this case manufacturing and distribution were tightly linked in such a way that without some form of tight link between them successful incremental innovation became difficult. Seemingly unrelated capabilities and strengths become mutually reinforcing or interconnected. Instead of being able to choose to add a single capability, or choose to discard one, companies may instead be choosing between sets, groups of interlinked, or patterned capabilities. A seemingly small change may require a major reorganization of other core capabilities that its ostensible status belies.

  1. Rates of thoracic trauma and mortality due to accidents in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report on the causes of trauma, indexes of trauma, and mortality related to thoracic trauma in one region of Brazil. This prospective study was performed at the Regional Trauma Center in Syo Josi do Rio Preto over a 1-year period, from 1 st July 2004 to 30 th June 2005. We included all patients attending the center's emergency room with thoracic trauma and an anatomic injury scale (AIS) > - 2. We collected data using a protocol completed on arrival in hospital utilizing the AIS. We studied the types of accidents as well as the mortality and the AIS scores. Prevalence rates were calculated and the paired t-test and logistic regression were employed for the statistical analysis.There were a total of 373 casualties with AIS > - 2 and there were 45 (12%) deaths. The causes of thoracic trauma among the 373 casualties were as follows: 91 (24.4%) car crashes, 75 (20.1%) falls, 46 (12.3%) motorbike accidents, 40 (10.7%) stabbings, 22 (5.9%) accidents involving pedestrians, 21 (5.6%) bicycle accidents, 17 (4.6%) shootings, and 54 (14.5%) other types of accident. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the AIS: 224 (60%) were grade 2, 101 (27%) were grade 3, 27 (7.2%) were grade 4, 18 (4.9%) were grade 5, and 3 were (0.8%) grade 6. With respect to thoracic trauma, pedestrians involved in accidents and victims of shootings had mortality rates that were significantly higher than that of those involved in other types of accidents. Road accidents are the main cause of thoracic injury, with accidents involving pedestrians and shootings being associated with a greater death rate. (author)

  2. Evaluating the Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raghavan; McKnight, Claire E.; Ewing, Reid; Roe, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of on-street bicycle lanes installed prior to 2007 on different categories of crashes (total crashes, bicyclist crashes, pedestrian crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, and injurious or fatal crashes) occurring on roadway segments and at intersections in New York City. Methods. We used generalized estimating equation methodology to compare changes in police-reported crashes in a treatment group and a comparison group before and after installation of bicycle lanes. Our study approach allowed us to control confounding factors, such as built environment characteristics, that cannot typically be controlled when a comparison group is used. Results. Installation of bicycle lanes did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. The most likely explanations for the lack of increase in crashes are reduced vehicular speeds and fewer conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists after installation of these lanes. Conclusions. Our results indicate that characteristics of the built environment have a direct impact on crashes and that they should thus be controlled in studies evaluating traffic countermeasures such as bicycle lanes. To prevent crashes at intersections, we recommend installation of “bike boxes” and markings that indicate the path of bicycle lanes across intersections. PMID:22095351

  3. Lateral Drift Behavior Analysis in Mixed Bicycle Traffic: A Cellular Automaton Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle movements are always associated with lateral drifts. However, the impacts of lateral drift behavior, as well as variable lateral clearance maintaining behavior due to the variation of drift intensity, on mixed bicycle flow are not clear. This paper establishes a new cellular automata model to study typical characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic induced by lateral drift and its accompanying behavior. Based on derived positive correlation between passing speed and drift speed through survey, the occurrence probability of lateral drift and the degree of maintained lateral clearance are both introduced in accordance with the variance of passing speed. Then, in whole density region, firm conformity between simulation results and actual survey data is reached, which has seldom been achieved in previous studies. It is further verified that speed distortions in intermediate and high density region induced by assumption of constant lateral clearance requirements can be revised by introducing its variability characteristics. In addition, two contrastive impacts of lateral drift behavior are observed. That is, it causes speed fluctuation in low density while alleviating the speed fluctuation in relatively high density. These results are expected to be helpful to improve the simulation performance of mixed bicycle flow as well as depict more realistic vehicle-bicycle conflicts and so on.

  4. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. PMID:27077273

  5. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  6. Soviet submarine accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  7. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  8. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  9. Talking about accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  10. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  11. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  12. A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Attitude towards Bicycle and Using Bicycle in Short Trips in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Siroos Ahmadi; Ali Heidari; Asghar Mirfardi; Zahra Mardani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Unstructured use of motor vehicles has created many social problems especially in large cities. Heavy traffic, fatal accidents, obesity and less mobility, voice pollution, air pollution, physical harms such as headache, eye sting, respiratory diseases, heart diseases, some cancers and finally increasing of consumption of the fossil fuel are some direct consequences of the expansion of the using motor vehicles in large cities. A basic strategy in confrontation with these social...

  13. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  14. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  16. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Methods: Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density......, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...... for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Results: Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to...

  17. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ring closing metathesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Nurul Islam; Md Shahidul Islam; Md Ashraful Hoque; Tamaki Kato; Norikazu Nishino

    2015-09-01

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, two cyclization steps, namely, peptide cyclization and fusion of aliphatic side chains by ring closing metathesis (RCM) were involved. In the course of these syntheses, we have established two facts: a lower limit of aliphatic loop length and better synthetic route for bicyclic tetrapeptide synthesis. It was found that nine methylene loop length is the lower limit for aliphatic loop and the synthetic route selection depended on the configuration of amino acids in the cyclic tetrapeptide scaffold. RCM followed by peptide cyclization was the proper route for LDLD configuration and the reverse route was suitable for LLLD configuration.

  18. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  19. Synthesis of a Library of 1,5,2-Dithiazepine 1,1-Dioxides. Part 2: Routes to Bicyclic Sultams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Zhou, Aihua; Knudtson, Chris A.; Bi, Danse; Basha, Fatima Z.; Hanson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a library of bicyclic sultams incorporating the 1,5,2-dithiazepine 1,1-dioxide moiety is reported. Following scaffold synthesis via a one-pot sulfonylation/intramolecular thia-Michael protocol, several additional cyclization strategies have been realized enabling access to new bicyclic sultams. PMID:24385680

  20. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In rece

  1. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible. PMID:25568838

  2. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  3. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  4. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  5. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  6. Orthogonal ring-closing alkyne and olefin metathesis for the synthesis of small GTPase-targeting bicyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromm, Philipp M; Schaubach, Sebastian; Spiegel, Jochen; Fürstner, Alois; Grossmann, Tom N; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Bicyclic peptides are promising scaffolds for the development of inhibitors of biological targets that proved intractable by typical small molecules. So far, access to bioactive bicyclic peptide architectures is limited due to a lack of appropriate orthogonal ring-closing reactions. Here, we report chemically orthogonal ring-closing olefin (RCM) and alkyne metathesis (RCAM), which enable an efficient chemo- and regioselective synthesis of complex bicyclic peptide scaffolds with variable macrocycle geometries. We also demonstrate that the formed alkyne macrocycle can be functionalized subsequently. The orthogonal RCM/RCAM system was successfully used to evolve a monocyclic peptide inhibitor of the small GTPase Rab8 into a bicyclic ligand. This modified peptide shows the highest affinity for an activated Rab GTPase that has been reported so far. The RCM/RCAM-based formation of bicyclic peptides provides novel opportunities for the design of bioactive scaffolds suitable for the modulation of challenging protein targets. PMID:27075966

  7. On human factor in road traffic accidents%谈道路交通事故中人的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉英; 马淑清

    2012-01-01

    Combining the typical traffic accidents this and last years,the paper has the deep analysis of the influential human factors,including the drivers,the bicycle riders and the pedestrians,in the traffic accidents,illustrates the causality relationship between the various behaviors of men who are involved in traffic and the traffic accidents,so as to warn people to adhere to the traffic regulation and to cherish their lives.%结合今年及去年的典型交通事故案例,对交通事故中人(驾驶员、骑车人、行人)的影响因素进行了深入分析,剖析了交通参与人的种种行为与交通事故的因果关系,达到警示人们遵守交通法规、珍爱生命的效果。

  8. Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics Analysis of Bicyclic 4-Nitroimidazole Analogs in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Helena I M Boshoff; Joseph Cherian; Sindhu Ravindran; Anne Goh; Jan Jiricek; Mahesh Nanjundappa; Amit Nayyar; Meera Gurumurthy; Ramandeep Singh; Thomas Dick; Francesca Blasco; Barry, Clifton E.; Ho, Paul C.; Manjunatha, Ujjini H

    2014-01-01

    PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC ). In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the eff...

  9. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  10. The pedelec market in Flanders: the position of the bicycle dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Lataire, Philippe; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Maggetto, Gaston

    2006-01-01

    The worldwide pedelec market has been growing fast during the last ten years. Many bicycle producers came along with a motor assisted bicycle model and launched it under a promising ‘e-name’. The consumer’s appreciation of these products was studied at the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ by means of a lending service and was proposed at EVS20. Also a technical performance analysis is done on different pedelec models (EVS19 and EVS21). The performance analysis and the consumer comm...

  11. Copenhagen: how bicycles can become an efficient means of public transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinaud, Antoine; Santos Canals, Marc; Janneau, Thibaut

    2006-01-01

    Private and public transports are important elements in a city. Transport gives a face to the city. For this project, Copenhagen was a good example. First this city knew how to obtain a powerful transport system. Moreover, the culture, in particular the culture of the bicycle, is acquired by many people. This is why starting from this postulate, we wanted to see how it is possible to combine bicycle and public transport. We know that the old system of city bikes has some problems and is not a...

  12. Low-cost bicycle path pavements. Final report, September 1, 1975--November 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.S.

    1976-12-01

    The proposed research involves an analytic and experimental investigation to develop realistic design criteria for bicycle path pavements. The research also included evaluation of specific designs and innovative low-cost material systems for use in bicycle path pavements. An extensive literature review of currently existing and experimental bikepath pavement was also included. Results from this report indicate that the strength and durability of Class I bikepath pavements can be improved and the construction cost can be reduced through better design and construction practices and use of low-cost material systems.

  13. Aminocyclopentanols as sugar mimics. Synthesis from unsaturated bicyclic lactones by Overman rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminid......Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta...

  14. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  15. Bicycle-related genitourinary injuries in the USA from 2002–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Appa, Ayesha A; Bagga, Herman S; Blaschko, Sarah; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2014-01-01

    Among children, the incidence of bicycle-related genitourinary (GU) injuries was 448 per 100 000 (95% CI 383 to 514) and, among adults, was 53 per 100 000 (95% CI 36 to 71). Although children sustained more injuries, adults were more likely to being admitted to the hospital for the GU injury (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.37). Children sustain nearly 10 times more GU injuries due to bicycles than adults, but adults have higher odds of sustaining injuries requiring admission. PMID:24618096

  16. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S;

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GABA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  17. PATTERN OF HEAD INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN INDORE REGION, M. P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident is the leading cause of serious injuries with associated head trauma especially in youth and middle age persons. Head injury is the most common cause of mortality and major health problem all over the world The Incidence of RTAs was higher in males and in 3rd to 4th decade of life owing to increase risk exposure to males due to more outdoor activities. Incidence of deaths due to RTAs was maximum (45.67% in two wheeler riders followed by pedestrians in 33.33% cases. The present study was conducted on dead bodies, died of accidents involving two wheeler, four wheeler and bicycle. The rate of incidence is higher in India because of bad traffic patterns and possibly the lack of awareness about traffic rules and also lack of good hospital services to our victims of RTAs

  18. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  19. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  20. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  1. Accidents can happen to any of us, whether we are on foot, cycling or driving

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Excessive speeding, STOP signs not respected, a cyclist on the wrong side of the road, a pedestrian not paying attention, someone on a mobile phone while driving - are you familiar with any of these situations? The HSE Unit would like to express its opinion in light of the road accident statistics involving personnel at CERN.   In 2011, the HSE Unit's Accident/Incident Prevention and Follow-up Service recorded 28 motoring accidents involving personnel either on the CERN site or on journeys to and from work - double the 2010 statistics! These include accidents that could have been avoided by reducing speed or not using a mobile phone while driving. At CERN, the majority of accidents linked to journeys continues to affect cyclists, with the number of cases now close to 30 each year. In order to ensure the safety of personnel, the HSE Unit would like to remind cyclists that wearing a protective helmet is highly recommended and that it is essential to ensure that you can be seen (bicycle lig...

  2. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  3. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  4. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  5. Information at radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  6. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  8. The management of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  9. Comparison of dipyridamole-handgrip test and bicycle exercise test for thallium tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huikuri, H.V.; Korhonen, U.R.; Airaksinen, J.; Ikaeheimo, M.J.H.; Heikkilae, J.T.; Takkunen, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Seventy-three patients with angina pectoris and 20 with atypical chest pain, who underwent coronary angiography, were examined by single-photon emission computed thallium tomography (TI-SPECT) using a combined dipyridamole-handgrip stress test. Perfusion defects were detected in 78 of 81 patients with angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (sensitivity 96%). In 9 of 12 patients without CAD, the thallium images were normal (specificity 75%). Thirty-five patients with CAD were reexamined by TI-SPECT using a dynamic bicycle exercise stress test. The sensitivity of the dipyridamole-handgrip test did not differ from the bicycle exercise test in diagnosing the CAD (97% vs 94%). Multiple thallium defects were seen in 19 of 22 (86%) patients with multivessel CAD by the dipyridamole-handgrip test but only in 14 of 22 (64%) by the bicycle exercise test. Noncardiac side-effects occurred in 17 of 93 (18%) patients after dipyridamole infusion. Cardiac symptoms were less common during the dipyridamole-handgrip test than during the bicycle exercise (15% vs 76%, p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the dipyridamole-handgrip test is a useful alternative stress method for thallium perfusion imaging, particularly in detecting multivessel CAD.

  10. Black rubber sensitization by bicycle handgrips in a child with palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-01-01

    Black rubber is mainly an occupational source of contact sensitization; however, several unusual causes of non-occupational black rubber allergy are reported in the literature. A 10-year-old nonatopic Turkish boy with palmar hyperhidrosis developed acute vesicular bilateral palmar dermatitis following 2 to 3 weeks of intensive use of a new bicycle. The handgrips of the bicycle were made of black rubber. Patch testing showed a strong positive reaction to N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine (the main sensitizer in black rubber) and questionable papular reactions to pieces of the black rubber handgrip. Additional cross-sensitization was found to p-phenylenediamine. There was no previous contact with black rubber or with any material that would contain p-phenylenediamine (eg, black henna dye). In conclusion, this was an unusual pediatric case of non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine in black rubber bicycle handgrips. The young age of the patient and the development of contact sensitization within a relatively short period were striking. The release of the sensitizer from black rubber and the skin penetration were possibly enhanced by continuous friction and the accompanying hyperhidrosis, suggesting that the black rubber bicycle handgrip was the primary source of sensitization. PMID:21781633

  11. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  12. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    . Cycling intentions are related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, and are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender...

  13. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grades K-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on sidewalk vehicles and bicycles for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  14. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  15. A Study of Bicycle and Passenger Car Collisions Based on Insurance Claims Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden, bicycle crashes are under-reported in the official statistics that are based on police reports. Statistics from hospital reports show that cyclists constitute the highest percentage of severely injured road users compared to other road user groups. However, hospital reports lack detailed information about the crash. To get a more comprehensive view, additional data are needed to accurately reflect the casualty situation for cyclists. An analysis based on 438 cases of bicycle and passenger car collisions is presented, using data collected from insurance claims. The most frequent crash situations are described with factors as to where and when collisions occur, age and gender of the involved cyclists and drivers. Information on environmental circumstances such as road status, weather- and light conditions, speedlimits and traffic environment is also included. Based on the various crash events, a total of 32 different scenarios have been categorized, and it was found that more than 75% were different kinds of intersection related situations. From the data, it was concluded that factors such as estimated impact speed and age significantly influence injury severity. The insurance claims data complement the official statistics and provide a more comprehensive view of bicycle and passenger car collisions by considering all levels of crash and injury severity. The detailed descriptions of the crash situations also provide an opportunity to find countermeasures to prevent or mitigate collisions. The results provide a useful basis, and facilitates the work of reducing the number of bicycle and passenger car collisions with serious consequences. PMID:23169111

  16. 76 FR 52046 - Final Policy Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements Under Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... of Joint Development Projects under Federal Transit Law at 72 FR 5788. B. Transit Enhancement... Investment Projects, 75 FR 31383 (June 3, 2010). ] F. Access to Public Transportation for Individuals With... Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements under Federal Transit Law, 74 FR...

  17. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist. PMID:27209153

  18. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  19. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  20. Mortal radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  1. The TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  2. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  3. Impact Evaluation of a Public Bicycle Share Program on Cycling: A Case Example of BIXI in Montreal, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Fournier, Michel; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between residential exposure to BIXI (BIcycle-taXI)—a public bicycle share program implemented in Montreal, Quebec, in 2009, which increases accessibility to cycling by making available 5050 bicycles at 405 bicycle docking stations—and likelihood of cycling (BIXI and non-BIXI) in Montreal over the first 2 years of implementation. Methods. Three population-based samples of adults participated in telephone surveys. Data collection occurred at the launch of the program (spring 2009), and at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) seasons of implementation. Difference in differences models assessed whether greater cycling was observed for those exposed to BIXI compared with those not exposed at each time point. Results. We observed a greater likelihood of cycling for those exposed to the public bicycle share program after the second season of implementation (odds ratio = 2.86; 95% confidence interval = 1.85, 4.42) after we controlled for weather, built environment, and individual variables. Conclusions. The implementation of a public bicycle share program can lead to greater likelihood of cycling among persons living in areas where bicycles are made available. PMID:23327280

  4. Description of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  5. Fifteen years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  6. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  7. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  8. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  9. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  10. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  11. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  12. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  14. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  15. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  16. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  17. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  18. Reactor accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  19. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  20. Ship accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  1. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chang Wu; Zi-Heng Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC) hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including...

  2. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle Across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications – bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic coming from opposing directions. Opportunities for crossing were divided into aligned (far gap opens with or before near gap) and rolli...

  3. Increasing bicycle helmet use in the community. Measuring response to a wide-scale, 2-year effort.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, B A; Trimble, N. E.; Fendley, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a wide-scale, long-term community promotional effort would increase the use of bicycle helmets among children. DESIGN: Over 2 years, a non-profit group coordinated a range of activities to promote helmet use. On one date before the intervention began and three dates during the intervention, observers surveyed students riding bicycles. SETTING: Cyclists were observed at 5 elementary schools, three secondary schools, and two community college entrances. PARTICIPA...

  4. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  5. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  6. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  7. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  8. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  9. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...... intentions are related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, and are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender, residential...

  10. The Bicycle – Future’s Solution for an Eco-friendly Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciovică

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though more and more cities across the globe impose restrictive measures regarding theuse of cars and offer instead incentives in order to choose alternative means of transport, they do not slowdown their economic growth, but on the contrary they prove their skills towards providing citizens a betterlife. Under these circumstances, the bicycle appears as a viable solution for most of us, and the publicprograms that support its use have started to develop globally, at European level, and in Romania as well.The current paper wishes to point out the stimulating perspectives brought by the slight increase in thenumber of bicycles sold in our country in recent years towards the future of urban transport.

  11. Study of Drive Mechanisms of Bicycle, Tricycle or Like Vehicles to Optimize Operating Performance - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul U. Urunkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cycle or cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport. Cycle rickshaws are human-powered, a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver. Tricycles are used primarily for commercial transportation. Various locally made configurations of bicycle or tricycle are available. The present form of cycle has many shortcomings. One of the major problems faced by available bicycle or tricycle is its less efficiency or mechanical advantage. This paper reviews patent (which are now open for public access and experimental work brought by researchers on drive mechanism of cycle in order to optimize its operating performance. An individual idea or any possible combination of different ideas can be used for optimizing performance of driving mechanism for cycle.

  12. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. PMID:26739323

  13. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  14. [An automatic torque control system for a bicycle ergometer equipped with an eddy current brake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinev, V V

    2007-01-01

    The main elements of the loading device of a bicycle ergometer, including an eddy current brake and a torque sensor, are described. The automatic torque control system, which includes the loading device, is equipped with a stabilizing feedback controller that optimally approximates the closed-loop transfer function of the target model. The reduced transfer function model of the controller is of the fourth order. A method featuring a modulation-demodulation loop is suggested for implementation of the control system. PMID:17598478

  15. Who, where, when: the demographic and geographic distribution of bicycle crashes in West Yorkshire

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelace, R; Roberts, H.; Kellar, I

    2015-01-01

    Factors associated with cycle safety, including international differences in injury and mortality rates, protective equipment and bicycle training, have been subject to increasing academic interest. Environmental variables associated with cycle safety have also been scrutinised, but few studies have focussed on geographical factors at the local level. This paper addresses this research gap by analysing a geo-referenced dataset of road traffic incidents, taken from the UK's STATS19 dataset (20...

  16. Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ranky, Richard G.; Sivak, Mark L; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E.; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. Methods In thi...

  17. The Regional Response to Federal Fundingfor Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects: Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Barbara; McRee, Lanier; Handy, Susan L; Meharg, Emily; Bailey, Linda; Ewing, Reid; Ernst, Michelle; Wright, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Since its initiation in the early 20th century, the federal transportation funding program has focused on highway construction for automobile travel. In the last few decades, public transportation has received 20% of federal resources, a significant share, but non-motorized modes such as bicycling and walking have historically received very limited funding. Over the past three decades, however, views of non-motorized modes and the federal interest in promoting them have changed dramatically. ...

  18. Automatic control of cycling effort using electric bicycles and mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Afonso; Rodrigues, Filipe J.; Delfim Pedrosa; Joao L. Afonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a novel effort control system for cycling, which contributes to promote the users’ mobility and physical health. This system provides automatic control of the motor assistance level of an electric bicycle in order to ensure that the cyclist’s effort remains inside the desired target zone, regardless of changes in other variables which normally affect the effort, such as the slope of the road. The system presented in this paper controls th...

  19. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, James; Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate ...

  20. Development and calibration of an indoor cycling bicycle with load graduation

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Sousa da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Indoor Cycling (IC) has considerably grown at fitness centers, due to practitioners giving-up of street cycling because of security issues as well as the trainability and practicity. IC also has the potencial for helping to lose weight and cardiovascular conditioning. There are only few studies on this subject, and the main reason is thelimitation of the Indoor Cycling Bicycle (ICB), which does not either measure workload or power. Therefore, functional evaluation and adequate training prescr...

  1. A simple, enaminone-based approach to some bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates

    OpenAIRE

    František Josefík; Markéta Svobodová; Valerio Bertolasi; Petr Šimůnek

    2013-01-01

    Easily obtainable cyclic enaminones (piperidin-2-ylidenealkanones) can be transformed into substituted bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates upon treatment with corresponding diazonium salts. The transformation can be performed either in a one-pot way or in a two-step process with the isolation of single azo-coupled enaminone as the intermediate. The former method is superior. Under the optimized conditions, a number of pyridazinium salts substituted with both electron-donating and electro...

  2. Does sharing the cost of a bicycle helmet help promote helmet use?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, A. N.; Rivara, F. P.; Koepsell, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether asking for a $5.00 donation for bicycle helmets, compared with distribution free of charge, would affect helmet use among children receiving helmets and an educational intervention from public health clinics. SETTING: Six public health clinic sites in King County, Washington. METHODS: Six participating clinic sites were randomly assigned to either free helmet distribution or to a $5.00 suggested donation for the helmets, stratified by whether a helmet law was i...

  3. Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    JÀppinen, Sakari; Toivonen, Tuuli; Salonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In many European cities, support for public transport and cycling in daily mobility is considered an efficient means to reduce air pollution, traffic jams, and carbon emissions. Shared bicycle systems have turned out effective in increasing cycling in many urban areas, particularly when combined with public transportation. In this study, we make an effort to model a hypothetical shared bike system and quantify its spatial effect on public transport travel times. The study area is one of the f...

  4. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98, a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  5. A Universal Design Method for Reflecting Physical Characteristics Variability: Case Study of a Bicycle Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masato; Suzuki, Wataru; Yamada, Shuho; Inoue, Masato

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a Universal Design, designers must consider diverse users' physical and functional requirements for their products. However, satisfying these requirements and obtaining the information which is necessary for designing a universal product is very difficult. Therefore, we propose a new design method based on the concept of set-based design to solve these issues. This paper discusses the suitability of proposed design method by applying bicycle frame design problem. PMID:27534334

  6. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  7. Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Breaud, Autumn; Burns, Sean; Margulies, Jared; Romano, Max; Lawrence, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Maryland (MD) recently became one of fourteen states in the United States to enact a traffic law requiring motor vehicles to pass bicyclists at a distance of greater than three feet. To our knowledge, motorist compliance with the law has never been assessed. This study measured the distance between overtaking motor vehicles and cyclists [e.g. vehicle passing distance (VPD)], to develop baseline metrics for tracking implementation of the three-foot passing law in Baltimore, MD and to assess risk factors for dangerous passes. During September and October 2011, cyclists (n=5) measured VPD using a previously published video technique (Parkin and Meyers, 2010). Cyclists logged a total of 10.8h of video footage and 586 vehicle passes on 34 bicycle commuting trips. The average trip lasted 19.5±4.9 min and cyclists were passed on average 17.2±11.8 times per trip. VPDs of three feet or less were common when cycling in standard lanes (17%; 78 of 451 passes) and lanes with a shared lane marking (e.g. sharrows) (23%; 11 of 47 passes). No passes of three feet or less occurred in bicycle lanes (0 of 88 passes). A multiple linear regression model was created, which explained 26% of the variability in VPD. Significant model variables were lane width, bicycle infrastructure, cyclist identity, and street identity. Interventions, such as driver education, signage, enforcement, and bicycle infrastructure changes are needed to influence driving behavior in Baltimore to increase motorist compliance with the three-foot law. PMID:22664711

  8. ω-Extension of Bicyclic Semigroup%双循环半群的ω扩张

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雯; 詹亮

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we discussed ω-extension of bicyclic semigroups.Two types of this extension are proposed.In §2 we discussed strong semilattice extension and the structure of the extension is well presented.In §3 we discussed another order extension.We proved that congruence lattice of this extension semigroups is union set of two sublattice.One is the group congruence semilattice,the other is the pure idempotent congruence semilattice.

  9. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  10. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  11. 车锁式打气筒设计%Design of Bicycle Lock Type Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 司慧

    2012-01-01

    The design combines a bicycle lock with a pump, realizing a uniform structure of the two. The application of a dual-pump structure makes the pumping process more efficient. In order to facilitate bicycle riders' relaxation, the air pump can also serve as a stool. Compared with carrying a single air pump or a single bicycle lock, this kind of air pump features lost air pumping cost, easy use, low space requirements, convenience to carry steady and reliable operation.%本设计将自行车车锁与打气筒巧妙地结合在一起,实现了二者结构形式的统一。应用双注气杆式打气结构,使打气效率优于现有的便携式打气筒,为了方便骑行者能够就地休息又附加了凳子的功能。与单独携带气筒、单独使用车锁相比,合二为一的车锁式打气筒成本低,使用、携带方便,节省空间,工作过程稳定、可靠。

  12. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole analogs in a murine model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Lakshminarayana

    Full Text Available PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC. In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the efficacy of diverse nitroimidazole analogs ranged between 0.5 and 2.3 log CFU reduction compared to untreated controls. Further, a retrospective analysis was performed for a set of seven nitroimidazole analogs to identify the PK parameters that correlate with in vivo efficacy. Our findings show that the in vivo efficacy of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles correlated better with lung PK than with plasma PK. Further, nitroimidazole analogs with moderate-to-high volume of distribution and Lung to plasma ratios of >2 showed good efficacy. Among all the PK-PD indices, total lung T>MIC correlated the best with in vivo efficacy (rs = 0.88 followed by lung Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC. Thus, lung drug distribution studies could potentially be exploited to guide the selection of compounds for efficacy studies, thereby accelerating the drug discovery efforts in finding new nitroimidazole analogs.

  13. Influence of roadway geometric elements on driver behavior when overtaking bicycles on rural roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Chapman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine what influence geometric design elements of roadway may have on driver behavior during the overtaking maneuver. This was part of a larger research effort to eliminate crashes (and the resulting fatalities and injuries between bicycles and motorized vehicles. The data collection process produced 1151 observations with approximately 40 different independent variables for each data point through direct observation, sensor logging, or derivation from other independent variables. Prior research by the authors developed a means to collect real-time field data through the use of a bicycle-mounted data collection system. The collected data was then used to model lateral clearance distance between vehicles and bicycles. The developed model confirmed field observations that the lateral clearance distance provided by drivers changes with vehicle speed and oncoming vehicle presence. These observations were presented by the authors previously. The model shows that driver behavior can be adjusted by the inclusion, or exclusion, of geometric elements. Evaluating roadways (or roadway designs based on this model will enable stakeholders to identify those roadway segments where a paved shoulder would prove an effective safety countermeasure. This research will also enable roadway designers to better identify during the design phase those roadway segments that should be constructed with a paved shoulder.

  14. Boris Loutzky – Creator of the world's first motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Firsov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to creation of the first motor vehicles with internal combustion engines. The purpose of article is to establish the name of the designer who was the first to create the world's motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine. This article describes the construction of the first motorized vehicles Gottlieb Daimler, Edward Butler, Felix Millet, Giuseppe Murniotti, Edward Pennington, Alois Wolfmüller and Hans Geisenhof. based on the analysis of structures of motor vehicles. It’s stated that none of the vehicles can be called a «prototype» of modern mopeds and motorcycles. Based on the research it was found that in Germany Russian engineer B. Loutzky was engaged in creation of motorized vehicles with internal combustion engines even before Hildebrand and Pennington. These motorized vehicles were exhibited in Palermo, Erfurt, Vienna, Prague, Lamberg, Stuttgart and other cities in Europe, and were acknowledged and rewarded with gold medals. The paper describes the design of the first motorized bicycle with a classic layout by B. Loutzky and design of the unique internal combustion engines, which B. Loutzky used in his first vehicles. Overall, based on the analysis of patents for inventions, literary and archival sources, the priority of the Russian engineer B. Loutzky in creation of the motorized bicycle classic layout with a combustion engine is established.

  15. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing. PMID:26609666

  16. A solid solution to a conjecture on the maximal energy of bipartite bicyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Bofeng; Li, Xueliang; Shi, Yongtang

    2011-01-01

    The energy of a simple graph $G$, denoted by $E(G)$, is defined as the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. Let $C_n$ denote the cycle of order $n$ and $P^{6,6}_n$ the graph obtained from joining two cycles $C_6$ by a path $P_{n-12}$ with its two leaves. Let $\\mathscr{B}_n$ denote the class of all bipartite bicyclic graphs but not the graph $R_{a,b}$, which is obtained from joining two cycles $C_a$ and $C_b$ ($a, b\\geq 10$ and $a \\equiv b\\equiv 2\\, (\\,\\textmd{mod}\\, 4)$) by an edge. In [I. Gutman, D. Vidovi\\'{c}, Quest for molecular graphs with maximal energy: a computer experiment, {\\it J. Chem. Inf. Sci.} {\\bf41}(2001), 1002--1005], Gutman and Vidovi\\'{c} conjectured that the bicyclic graph with maximal energy is $P^{6,6}_n$, for $n=14$ and $n\\geq 16$. In [X. Li, J. Zhang, On bicyclic graphs with maximal energy, {\\it Linear Algebra Appl.} {\\bf427}(2007), 87--98], Li and Zhang showed that the conjecture is true for graphs in the class $\\mathscr{B}_n$. However, they could not...

  17. A Geo-Aware and VRP-Based Public Bicycle Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Bicycle System (PBS has been developed for short-distance transportation as a part of the mass transportation system. The supply and demand of bikes in PBS is usually unbalanced at different stations and needs to be continuously and widely monitored and redistributed. The bicycle redistribution is a part of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. We can apply solutions to the VRP to redistribute bicycle efficiently. However, most solutions to the VRP use the Euclidean distance as the condition factor, which does not take road conditions, traffic regulations, and geographical factors into account, resulting in unnecessary waste of delivery time and human resources. In this work, we propose an actual path distance optimization method for the VRP to adapt the several additional constraints of road problems. We also implement a system that integrates real-time station information, Web GIS, the urban road network, and heuristics algorithms for PBS. The system includes a simulator inside that can assist PBS managers to do the route planning efficiently and find the best scheduling strategy to achieve hotspot analysis and the adjustment of station deployment strategies to reduce PBS operation cost.

  18. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  19. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  20. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  1. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  2. Accident management insights from IPE's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  3. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  4. Accident management approach in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  5. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  6. Serious accident in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  7. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  8. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  9. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  11. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cripton Peter A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists. Methods We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. The results were tabulated within two categories of infrastructure, namely that at intersections (e.g. roundabouts, traffic lights or between intersections on "straightaways" (e.g. bike lanes or paths. To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes (collisions and/or falls. Results The literature to date on transportation infrastructure and cyclist safety is limited by the incomplete range of facilities studied and difficulties in controlling for exposure to risk. However, evidence from the 23 papers reviewed (eight that examined intersections and 15 that examined straightaways suggests that infrastructure influences injury and crash risk. Intersection studies focused mainly on roundabouts. They found that multi-lane roundabouts can significantly increase risk to bicyclists unless a separated cycle track is included in the design. Studies of straightaways grouped facilities into few categories, such that facilities with potentially different risks may have been classified within a single category. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths was associated with the lowest

  12. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  13. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  14. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  15. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  16. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  18. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  19. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  20. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  1. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  2. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  3. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  4. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  5. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  6. A Comparison of Static and Dynamic Measures of Lower Limb Joint Angles in Cycling: Application to Bicycle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bini Rodrigo Rico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Configuration of bicycle components to the cyclist (bicycle fitting commonly uses static poses of the cyclist on the bicycle at the 6 o’clock crank position to represent dynamic cycling positions. However, the validity of this approach and the potential use of the different crank position (e.g. 3 o’clock have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study compared lower limb joint angles of cyclists in static poses (3 and 6 o’clock compared to dynamic cycling. Methods. Using a digital camera, right sagittal plane images were taken of thirty cyclists seated on their own bicycles mounted on a stationary trainer with the crank at 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions. Video was then recorded during pedalling at a self-selected gear ratio and pedalling cadence. Sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles were digitised. Results. Differences between static and dynamic angles were large at the 6 o’clock crank position with greater mean hip angle (4.9 ± 3°, smaller knee angle (8.2 ± 5° and smaller ankle angle (8.2 ± 5.3° for static angles. Differences between static and dynamic angles (< 1.4° were trivial to small for the 3 o’clock crank position. Conclusions. To perform bicycle fitting, joint angles should be measured dynamically or with the cyclist in a static pose at the 3 o’clock crank position.

  7. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  8. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  9. Severe accidents, a US approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  10. Relative injury severity among vulnerable non-motorised road users: comparative analysis of injury arising from bicycle-motor vehicle and bicycle-pedestrian collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shanley; Poulos, Roslyn; Olivier, Jake; Watson, Wendy L; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of bicycle usage and limited funding and/or space for segregated pedestrian and bicycle paths, there is a need for traffic, road design and local government engineers to decide if it is more appropriate for space to be shared between either cyclists and pedestrians, or between cars and cyclists, and what restrictions need to be applied in such circumstances. To provide knowledge to aid engineers and policy makers in making these decisions, this study explored death and morbidity data for the state of New South Wales, Australia to examine rates and severity of injury arising from collisions between pedestrians and cyclists, and between cyclists and motor vehicles (MVs). An analysis of the severity of hospitalised injuries was conducted using International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) diagnosis-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) and the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) was used to measure burden of injury arising from collisions resulting in death or hospitalisation. The greatest burden of injury in NSW, for the studied collision mechanisms, is for cyclists who are injured in collisions with motor vehicles. Collisions between cyclists and pedestrians also result in significant injuries. For all collision mechanisms, the odds of serious injury on admission are greater for the elderly than for those in other age groups. The significant burden of injury arising from collisions of cyclists and MVs needs to be addressed. However in the absence of appropriate controls, increasing the opportunity for conflict between cyclists and pedestrians (through an increase in shared spaces for these users) may shift the burden of injury from cyclists to pedestrians, in particular, older pedestrians. PMID:19887170

  11. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  12. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  13. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  14. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    OpenAIRE

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  15. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  16. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Candiota coal samples: novel series of bicyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C.M.L.; Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used to analyse aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from nine samples taken from two different seams of five boreholes in the Candiota coalfield (Lower Permian). The occurrence of certain tetracyclic diterpenoids among the aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the tricyclic diterpenoids simonellite and retene in the aromatic hydrocarbon concentrates, suggest an important input from conifers to the sedimentary biomass. This may explain the origin of a novel series of saturated and aromatic bicyclic compounds detected in the extracts which may be structurally related to the same precursor, possibly a conifer resin-derived tricyclic diterpenoid.

  17. Unexpected involvement of staple leads to redesign of selective bicyclic peptide inhibitor of Grb7

    OpenAIRE

    Menachem J. Gunzburg; Ketav Kulkarni; Gabrielle M. Watson; Ambaye, Nigus D.; Del Borgo, Mark P.; Rebecca Brandt; Stephanie C. Pero; Patrick Perlmutter; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2016-01-01

    The design of potent and specific peptide inhibitors to therapeutic targets is of enormous utility for both proof-of-concept studies and for the development of potential new therapeutics. Grb7 is a key signaling molecule in the progression of HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers. Here we report the crystal structure of a stapled bicyclic peptide inhibitor G7-B1 in complex with the Grb7-SH2 domain. This revealed an unexpected binding mode of the peptide, in which the staple forms a...

  18. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  19. Feasibility study on a perceived fatigue prediction dependent power control for an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Minagawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Several types of electric motor assists have been developed, as a result, it is important to control muscular fatigue on-site in terms of health promotion and motor rehabilitation. Predicting the perceived fatigue by several biosignal-related variables with the multiple regression model and polynomial approximation, we try to propose a self control design for the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB). We also determine the meaningful muscles during pedaling by muscle synergies in relation to the motion maturity. In field experiments, prediction of ongoing perceived physical fatigue could have the potential of suitable control of EAB. PMID:24110131

  20. [The electrical stimulation bicycle: a neuroprosthesis for the everyday use of paraplegic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Fiegel, M; Krafczyk, S; Straube, A; Quintern, J; Brandt, Th

    2004-06-24

    Until recently, few patients with complete paraplegia could walk or stand with the help of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the leg muscles regularly at home. In comparison, FES cycling with an adapted tricycle is easy to put into practice because the legs remain connected to the pedals and through the use of a tricycle or stationary bicycle, the balancing problems of the patient recedes into the background. In the first German feasibility studies for paraplegic cycling, eleven completely paraplegic patients have been tested so far. The goal is to make FES cycling a daily activity in the lives of as many patients as possible. PMID:15529690

  1. The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan and road safety : measures to be taken.

    OpenAIRE

    Noordzij, P.C. Blokpoel, A. Pol, J.E. van de & Harris, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Bicycle Master Plan was launched in 1990 and concluded in 1996. To mark its conclusion, a study was carried out to assess developments in road safety for cyclists. An overview of future measures was also compiled. Since 1950, there have been three broad periods: (1) 1950-1975: an increase in the number of deaths, mainly among young and old cyclists, coinciding with a sharp increase in car-use; (2) 1975-1990: a decline in the number of deaths among cyclists per distance cycled, coinciding ...

  2. A measurement system for the bicycle crank angle using a wireless motion sensor attached to the crank arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kitawaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a system for measuring the rotational angle of a bicycle crank arm. This system consists of a wireless motion sensor with bi-axial acceleration and angular velocity sensors attached to the crank arm. Rotational angles measured by the motion sensor were compared with data from a motion capture system. We found the RMS (root-mean-square error for the bicycle crank angle was 0.339 ± 0.115 degrees (mean ± SD, and the angular velocity RMS error normalized by the average angular velocity was 0.655 ± 0.217 %. Using the proposed motion sensor system, we were able to measure the rotational angle and angular velocity of the bicycle crank to the same accuracy and high frequency as the motion capture system. Furthermore, we demonstrate it is possible to precisely obtain the rotational crank angle to evaluate fluctuations of crank angular velocity.

  3. A wearable ECG-HR detector and its application to automatic assist-mode selection of an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akinori; Miyashita, Osamu; Yoshida, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Lataire, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an electrically assisted bicycle has been widely used in daily life and becomes very popular. The user selects the stepwise assist-mode to determine the assistive torque for pleasurable running. From the viewpoint of improvement of health by exercise, the electrically assisted bicycle can be an exercise machine like a treadmill. The heart rate (HR) is regarded as an indication of exercise load. This paper presents an automatic assist-mode selection system based on the HR of the bicycle user. The HR is obtained from the R-waves measured by the proposed wearable electrocardiograph on the user. The mode-selection system is simply implemented by a personal computer, USB-connected interface, and some electronic switching circuits. The running experiments confirm that the proposed assist-mode selection method has practicability. PMID:22255925

  4. 3-hydroxyisoxazole bioiosteres of gaba - synthesis of a series of 4-substituted muscimol analogs and identification of a bicyclic 2-isoxazoline rearrangement product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjeds, H.; Christensen, I. T.; Cornett, Claus; Frolund, B.; Falch, E.; Pedersen, J. B.; Krogsgaardlarsen, P.

    1992-01-01

    cyclization and O-deprotection form the last steps of a new synthesis of the clinically active bicyclic muscimol analogue, (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) (THIP) (16). Whereas treatment of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methoxy-5-methylisoxazole (3a) with bromine or with NBS gave the bicyclic 2...

  5. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  6. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  7. Dempster-Shafer Theory for Move Prediction in Start Kicking of The Bicycle Kick of Sepak Takraw Game

    OpenAIRE

    Maseleno, Andino; Hasan, Md. Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Dempster-Shafer theory for move prediction in start kicking of the bicycle kick of sepak takraw game. Sepak takraw is a highly complex net-barrier kicking sport that involves dazzling displays of quick reflexes, acrobatic twists, turns and swerves of the agile human body movement. A Bicycle kick or Scissor kick is a physical move made by throwing the body up into the air, making a shearing movement with the legs to get one leg in front of the other without holding on to th...

  8. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  9. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. PMID:25336037

  10. 双圈图的Laplacian Spread%The Laplacian Spread of Bicyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 王立庆

    2011-01-01

    Laplacian spread的概念在刻画图的整体性质方面非常重要.近年来,Fan等分别刻画了树中具有极大和极小Lap|acian spread的图.另外Bao等确定了在所有单圈图中具有极大Laplacian spread的图.边数减去顶点数目为1的连通图称为双圈图.令召。是所有有几个顶点构成的双圈图集合.对n≥11,本文确定了Bn中所有具有极大Laplacian spread的那些图.%The notion of Laplacian spread is very important in characterizing the global structural property of graphs. Recently, Fan et al. showed that K1,n-1 and Pn are the only trees with the maximal and the minimal Laplacian spread among all trees with n vertices, respectively. Furthermore, Bao etal. determined the graph with the maximal Laplacian spread among all unicyclic graphs. Connected graphs in which the number of edges equals the number of vertices plus one are called bicyclic graphs. Let Bn be the set of all bicyclic graphs with n vertices. In this paper, we continue the work on Laplacian spread of graphs, and determine those graphs with the maximal Laplacian spread in Bn for n≥11.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:27074628

  12. Effect of the structure, solid state and lipophilicity on the solubility of novel bicyclic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solubility in buffer pH 7.4 of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • The influence of melting parameters and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied. • The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated. - Abstract: Novel bicyclic derivatives have been synthesized. The solubility of drug-like substances in phosphate buffer rH 7.4 has been measured within the range of (9.02 · 10−5 to 1.05 · 10−4) mol/l. The relationship between the chemical nature and the structure of the aryl substituents and the solubility parameter was investigated. The fusion temperatures, enthalpies and entropies have been determined experimentally. The influence of thermophysical characteristics and lipophilicity on the solubility was studied using regression analysis. The calculations by the solubility/lipophilicity equation showed an overall improvement of the predictions equal to 0.5 log units. It was concluded that the solvation has a considerable influence on the solubility of the compounds under consideration. It was also determined that the alkyl- and halogen-derivatives solubility values correlate with HYBOT descriptors characterizing the (donor + acceptor) properties of the substances. The thermodynamic parameters of the solubility process were calculated using the temperature dependences. The study also revealed that the solubility of the bicyclic compounds is characterized by high endothermicity of the processes and negative entropies

  13. Long-term use of computerized bicycle ergometry for spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipski, M L; Alexander, C J; Harris, M

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-eight spinal cord injured subjects who participated in an electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry home program were surveyed to determine perceived benefits, home exercise adherence, and predictors of continued home exercise with electrical stimulation. Subjects were classified as users or nonusers depending upon if they used the electrical stimulation ergometry on a regular basis in the home during the past four months. Nineteen subjects qualified as users and nine were nonusers. Ninety-five percent of the users cycled at least twice per week whereas the majority of the nonusers stopped regular home exercise within one month postclinic discharge. All subjects generally perceived increases in muscle bulk and endurance. Users and nonusers perceived inconsistent results related to spasticity. Minimal effects were noted with neurogenic pain and swelling. Adherence to the home exercise program was significantly related to sex of subject and pre-injury exercise habits. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry in the home. PMID:8439248

  14. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. The new approach brings a completely different view on planning cycling infrastructure, while rather than physical infrastructure characteristics, humans are placed at the forefront of the cycling infrastructure design as the most important measure of its quality. Since the complexity of human beings cannot be controlled with only one science or profession, solving the problem of bicycle traffic is not just a technical problem, but its design and management also lend a multidisciplinary character. From the perspective of different cycling infrastructure users, the study will define integrated multidisciplinary methodology for evaluating the quality of cycling infrastructure, which will equally include the criteria of sensing and perceiving of space. The new approach seeks a system of criteria, which enables the integrated planning of cycling infrastructure in all spatial, organizational, sectoral, and professional levels. All theoretical findings will be tested and demonstrated on the pilot case of the long-distance cycling connection in the area of four Slovenian coastal municipalities, namely Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran.

  15. [Craniocerebral trauma in fall from bicycles--what is the effect of a protective helmet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, G; Helber, M U; Ulrich, C

    1996-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to analyze the particular injuries of 76 cyclists who required in-patient treatment in our department in 1994. There were 50 male and 26 female cyclists, with a median age of 33 years (range: 4-87 years). The most frequent diagnosis, in 50% (n = 38), was head injury. The series included 63 cyclist (83%) who had not been wearing helmets, and 33 of these sustained a head injury; in the helmet group head injury was found in only 38% (5 out of 13). It is remarkable that more serious head injuries did not occur in the helmet group. In 24 of these 33 head-injured patients (73%) without helmets additional intra- and extracranial diagnoses were made: pathologic EEG in 18 patients (55%), skull fracture in 13 patients (39%), intracerebral haemorrhagic contusion in 4 patients (12%) and an increase in intracerebral pressure (edema) in 3 patients (9%). In contrast to these findings, only 2 of the 5 head-injured patients (40%) in the helmet group showed slight changes in the EEG. In our opinion the bicycle helmet can reduce the incidence and the grade severity of head injuries significantly, particularly as we had 2 deaths in the non-helmet group and none in the helmet group. The use of a bicycle helmet is therefore strongly advocated. PMID:8685726

  16. The Structure of Spatial Networks and Communities in Bicycle Sharing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltz Austwick, Martin; O’Brien, Oliver; Strano, Emanuele; Viana, Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle sharing systems exist in hundreds of cities around the world, with the aim of providing a form of public transport with the associated health and environmental benefits of cycling without the burden of private ownership and maintenance. Five cities have provided research data on the journeys (start and end time and location) taking place in their bicycle sharing system. In this paper, we employ visualization, descriptive statistics and spatial and network analysis tools to explore system usage in these cities, using techniques to investigate features specific to the unique geographies of each, and uncovering similarities between different systems. Journey displacement analysis demonstrates similar journey distances across the cities sampled, and the (out)strength rank curve for the top 50 stands in each city displays a similar scaling law for each. Community detection in the derived network can identify local pockets of use, and spatial network corrections provide the opportunity for insight above and beyond proximity/popularity correlations predicted by simple spatial interaction models. PMID:24040320

  17. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  18. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  19. The structure of spatial networks and communities in bicycle sharing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zaltz Austwick

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing systems exist in hundreds of cities around the world, with the aim of providing a form of public transport with the associated health and environmental benefits of cycling without the burden of private ownership and maintenance. Five cities have provided research data on the journeys (start and end time and location taking place in their bicycle sharing system. In this paper, we employ visualization, descriptive statistics and spatial and network analysis tools to explore system usage in these cities, using techniques to investigate features specific to the unique geographies of each, and uncovering similarities between different systems. Journey displacement analysis demonstrates similar journey distances across the cities sampled, and the (outstrength rank curve for the top 50 stands in each city displays a similar scaling law for each. Community detection in the derived network can identify local pockets of use, and spatial network corrections provide the opportunity for insight above and beyond proximity/popularity correlations predicted by simple spatial interaction models.

  20. A hub dynamometer for measurement of wheel forces in off-road bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, D S; Hull, M L

    1999-02-01

    A dynamometric hubset that measures the two ground contact force components acting on a bicycle wheel in the plane of the bicycle during off-road riding while either coasting or braking was designed, constructed, and evaluated. To maintain compatibility with standard mountain bike construction, the hubs use commercially available shells with modified, strain gage-equipped axles. The axle strain gages are sensitive to forces acting in the radial and tangential directions, while minimizing sensitivity to transverse forces, steering moments, and variations in the lateral location of the center of pressure. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check that computed differences between applied and apparent loads developed during coasting revealed root mean squared errors of 1 percent full-scale or less (full-scale load = 4500 N). The natural frequency of the rear hub with the wheel attached exceeded 350 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer useful for its intended purpose during coasting. To demonstrate this usefulness, sample ground contact forces are presented for a subject who coasted downhill over rough terrain. The dynamometric hubset can also be used to determine ground contact forces during braking providing that the brake reaction force components are known. However, compliance of the fork can lead to high cross-sensitivity and corresponding large (> 5 percent FS) measurement errors at the front wheel. PMID:10080099

  1. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Parenting influences on bicycle helmet rules and estimations of children's helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Brinson, Margaret Kay; Ross, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the potential relationship between parenting variables and estimations of children's bicycle helmet use. Parents (N = 121) completed surveys asking about parental monitoring and questions about their bicycle habits and attitudes, as well as their expectations for their children to wear a helmet and their estimation of how often their children wear a helmet. Parents reported stronger helmet rules for their children who are beginning cyclists rather than experienced cyclists, and rules for experienced cyclists were more strongly endorsed among parents who reported more parental monitoring as well. Parents who wear helmets themselves endorsed stronger helmet rules for their experienced riders, compared to parents who do not wear helmets. Parents without helmet rules reported more peer pressure in that they were more likely to agree that their friends do not make their kids wear helmets and that their child's friends do not wear helmets. In addition, believing other parents do not wear helmets and believing one's child's friends do not wear helmets were both associated with a lower likelihood that their children wear a helmet. This appears to be the first study linking perceptions of parental peer pressure with helmet rules and use. For public health reasons, it is imperative to examine parental factors that may establish children's helmet wearing. PMID:24684079

  3. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  4. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  5. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  6. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  7. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  8. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  9. The measurement of accident-proneness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  10. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  11. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  12. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  13. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  14. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  16. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  17. The vver severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  18. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  19. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  20. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a