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Sample records for bicc1 impairs tubulomorphogenesis

  1. Analysis of the effects of depression associated polymorphisms on the activity of the BICC1 promoter in amygdala neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, S; Shanley, L; Cowie, P; Lear, M; McGuffin, P; Quinn, J P; Barrett, P; MacKenzie, A

    2016-08-01

    The Bicaudal C Homolog 1 (BICC1) gene, which encodes an RNA binding protein, has been identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) as a candidate gene associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We explored the hypothesis that MDD associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affected the ability of cis-regulatory elements within intron 3 of the BICC1 gene to modulate the activity of the BICC1 promoter region. We initially established that the BICC1 promoter drove BICC1 mRNA expression in amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Intriguingly, we provide evidence that MDD associated polymorphisms alter the ability of the BICC1 promoter to respond to PKA signalling within amygdala neurones. Considering the known role of amygdala PKA pathways in fear learning and mood these observations suggest a possible mechanism through which allelic changes in the regulation of the BICC1 gene in amygdala neurones may contribute to mood disorders. Our findings also suggest a novel direction for the identification of novel drug targets and the design of future personalised therapeutics.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 6 October 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.62. PMID:26440730

  2. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent injuries and deaths from alcohol-impaired driving. The Problem Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of ...

  3. Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hearing loss is present at birth. Acquired hearing loss happens later in life — during childhood, the teen years, or in adulthood — ... for your ears to avoid a permanent hearing loss. See your doctor right away ... basis. What's Life Like for People Who Are Hearing Impaired? For ...

  4. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogate Parikshit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  5. Depression in Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Laurel D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Marano, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer’s pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

  6. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the e

  7. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain tumors or degenerative diseases that affect the language areas of the brain. This term does not apply to children who ... gradually, but anyone can develop a speech and language impairment ... Brain tumor (more common in aphasia than dysarthria) Dementia ...

  8. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  9. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  10. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neighborhood . Step 8: Now see if your attitudes have changed. Take the Fact Checkup again. ... impairment also have at least one other developmental disability, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, ...

  11. Vascular cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca F. Gottesman; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been proposed to encompass all people with cognitive impairment of cerebrovascular origin. VCI is not a single condition, but has several clinical presentations, etiologies, and treatment. VCI forms a spectrum that includes vascular dementia, mixed Alzheimer’s disease with a vascular component, and VCI that does not meet dementia criteria. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms contribute to VCI, accounting for its heterogeneity. Although main ...

  12. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  13. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to distinguish between children who are struggling to learn a new language and children with true language impairments. After studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a second language, NIDCD-funded researchers have developed a dual ...

  14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... top Adapting the Environment Making adaptations to the environment where a child with a visual impairment lives, works, or plays ... can consult, depending on your role in the child’s life, are: Family Connect ... to the Physical Environment: Setting up a Classroom for Students with Visual ...

  15. Cryotherapy impairs proprioception function?

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Nuno; Henriques, Sara

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryotherapy application over a joint causes a nerve conduction velocity decrease and proprioceptive changes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if cryotherapy impairs proprioception acuity. METHODS: Proprioception was assessed by joint position sense (JPS), measured with an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3, in twenty one females on experimental group, before 15 minutes cryotherapy (T0) and immediately after (T1). A control group (n=20) performed also the JPS...

  16. Neurological Impairment: Nomenclature and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Catherine E.; Weber, Robert E.

    Neurological impairment as discussed includes a range of disabilities referred to as neurological impairment: minimal brain dysfunction/damage, developmental disability, perceptual handicap, learning disability, hyperkinetic behavioral syndrome, and others. Defined are causes of neurological impairment and methods of diagnosis. Symptoms…

  17. Impairment, disability, and handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, V

    1987-08-01

    It seems clear that the orthopedic surgeon cannot separate impairment from disability. The measurement of impairment is clouded by the inability to measure dynamic function. A range of motion demonstrated by a patient in the doctor's office does not fully describe the functional potential of either the extremity or the spine. Moreover, the rules by which disability is defined are interpreted with a natural sympathy of the physician's care for the patient. The physician may have less sympathy if the individual being reviewed is a client of an insurance company or of an attorney, compared to being a "private" patient. In the future, the orthopedic surgeon would focus on the musculoskeletal handicap rather than disability, or function rather than impairment. Function must be measured in a dynamic manner. The guidelines for definition of function or dysfunction should be similar to those used in sports medicine regarding the decision as to when the athlete can resume sports. What was the capacity before injury? How close to the normal capacity has medical care restored function? This includes measurements of passage of time and consideration of the desire to return to previous activity. The goal is the development of methods that will accurately measure dynamic musculoskeletal function. Visceral organ systems have biochemical standards of measurement; comparable standards must be devised for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:2955986

  18. The visually impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  19. Specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167

  20. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedka, Marta; Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  1. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Counts, Scott E; Nyenhuis, David

    2016-05-01

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are receiving heightened attention as potentially modifiable factors for dementias of later life. These factors have now been linked not only to vascular cognitive disorders but also Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review 3 related topics that address vascular contributions to cognitive impairment: 1. vascular pathogenesis and mechanisms; 2. neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypic manifestations of cerebrovascular disease; and 3. prospects for prevention of cognitive impairment of later life based on cardiovascular and stroke risk modification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26704177

  2. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  3. Astrocytes Underlie Neuroinflammatory Memory Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Osso, LA; Chan, JR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Neuroinflammation is being increasingly recognized as a potential mediator of cognitive impairments in various neurological conditions. Habbas et al. demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha signals through astrocytes to alter synaptic transmission and impair cognition in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

  4. Management of impaired fracture healing: Historical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdobranski Đorđe; Micić Ivan; Mitković Milorad B.; Mladenović Desimir; Milankov Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Establishing continuity of long bones in cases of impaired bone healing and pseudo-arthrosis is one of the most complex problems in orthopedics. Impaired bone healing The problem of impaired fracture healing is not new. As in other areas of human life, the roots of modern treatment of impaired bone healing lie in ancient medicine. A relatively high percentage of impaired bone healing, as well as unsatisfactory results of standard therapies of impaired bone healing and pseudoarthr...

  5. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  6. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  7. [Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2016-04-01

    While cognitive impairment is a major symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is commonly overlooked. This may be explained by the fact that it is difficult to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS using screening batteries for the detection of dementia such as the mini-mental state examination. Further more, cognitive impairment in MS typically involves domain-specific deficits such as imparement of sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment may influence the daily living and social lines of affected patients. This review discusses the characteristics of cognitive impairment, appropreate tests to evaluate its symptoms, and the current status of clinical trials for the treatment of MS. PMID:27056855

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE AND MOBILITY IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cahill

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of mobility is a growth area in the social sciences.  The car system (automobility has had as one of its consequences reduced opportunities for mobility impaired people to walk in their local environment. Immobility has resulted for many people with disabilities. Despite the promotion of physical activity by public health guidance local environments are often hazardous for mobility impaired people.  In particular, there is a problem with cars parking on pavements and pavement cycling.

  9. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Clinton B.; Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible...

  10. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-06-01

    Methods used to try to provide a valuable experience for visually impaired students in a general education or an introductory chemistry class are discussed. Modifications that can be made cheaply and with little time commitment which will allow visually impaired students to participate productively in the laboratory are examined. A conductivity tester that cost less than $4.00 to construct, is easy to assemble, very rugged, and provides a great deal of entertainment for sighted and non-sighted students is described.

  11. [What is impaired consciousness? Revisiting impaired consciousness as psychiatric concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Kousuke

    2004-01-01

    For decades, psychiatrists have considered that concepts of impaired consciousness in the study of psychiatry were inconsistent with those applied in the field of neurology, in which the usefulness of the concept of consciousness has long been seriously doubted. Gloor concluded that the concept of consciousness does not further the understanding of seizure mechanisms or brain function, which is the current representative opinion of most epileptologists. Loss of consciousness tends to be reduced to aggregates of individual impairments of higher cognitive functions, and the concept of consciousness is preferably avoided by neurologists by assigning various behavioral disturbances during disturbed consciousness to particular neuropsychological centers. In contrast, psychiatrists, especially those in Europe, are more likely to include phenomena involving problems related to phenomenological intentionality in impaired consciousness. For the present study, we first divided consciousness into vigilance and recursive consciousness, and then attempted to determine what kind of impaired consciousness would be an ideal candidate to represent pure disturbance of recursive consciousness. Then, 4 patients, 1 each with pure amnestic states followed immediately by complex partial seizures, an akinetic mutistic state caused by absence status, and mental diplopia as a manifestation of postictal psychosis, as well as a patient with Alzheimer's disease who gracefully performed Japanese tea ceremony, were studied. Based on our findings, we concluded that impaired consciousness as a generic term in general medicine does not indicate any unitary entity corresponding to some well-demarcated physiological function or constitute a base from which recursive consciousness emerges as a superstructure. From that, we stressed that a pure form of impairment of recursive consciousness could occur without the impaired consciousness named generically in general medicine. Second, following

  12. [What is impaired consciousness? Revisiting impaired consciousness as psychiatric concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Kousuke

    2004-01-01

    For decades, psychiatrists have considered that concepts of impaired consciousness in the study of psychiatry were inconsistent with those applied in the field of neurology, in which the usefulness of the concept of consciousness has long been seriously doubted. Gloor concluded that the concept of consciousness does not further the understanding of seizure mechanisms or brain function, which is the current representative opinion of most epileptologists. Loss of consciousness tends to be reduced to aggregates of individual impairments of higher cognitive functions, and the concept of consciousness is preferably avoided by neurologists by assigning various behavioral disturbances during disturbed consciousness to particular neuropsychological centers. In contrast, psychiatrists, especially those in Europe, are more likely to include phenomena involving problems related to phenomenological intentionality in impaired consciousness. For the present study, we first divided consciousness into vigilance and recursive consciousness, and then attempted to determine what kind of impaired consciousness would be an ideal candidate to represent pure disturbance of recursive consciousness. Then, 4 patients, 1 each with pure amnestic states followed immediately by complex partial seizures, an akinetic mutistic state caused by absence status, and mental diplopia as a manifestation of postictal psychosis, as well as a patient with Alzheimer's disease who gracefully performed Japanese tea ceremony, were studied. Based on our findings, we concluded that impaired consciousness as a generic term in general medicine does not indicate any unitary entity corresponding to some well-demarcated physiological function or constitute a base from which recursive consciousness emerges as a superstructure. From that, we stressed that a pure form of impairment of recursive consciousness could occur without the impaired consciousness named generically in general medicine. Second, following

  13. Assessing functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Belchior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus on how to assess functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and this lack of consensus is reflected in the clinical practice. Since the criterion used in the literature is very vague, clinicians are still left without much guidance in this area. Thus, the main goal of this study was to examine how functional impairment in individuals with MCI has been assessed in the literature. An electronic database search strategy was developed in consultation with an experienced librarian. Four databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE were searched from 2000 to May 2014 to provide a comprehensive coverage of the literature. The literature search yielded 14 tools that assessed functional impairment in MCI. Among those, nine tools were performance-based measures in which participants were observed while executing a task in a simulated environment using real life material. In terms of questionnaires (either informant- or self-reports, five tools were found. Different functional domains have been assessed in each tool. According to this review, the characteristics of the instruments used in the literature to assess functional impairment in individuals with MCI vary greatly. Nonetheless, results of this study allow clinicians to make better-informed decisions when choosing a functional assessment for this population.

  14. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  15. Language Impairment and Generative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.

  16. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible VCI, summarize current treatment and prevention guidelines, and provide an overview with case examples. PMID:26124978

  17. Cognitive impairment and mortality among nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Nybo, Hanne; Gaist, David;

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has been associated with increased mortality. Most studies, however, have only included small numbers, if at all, of the very old. In a large nationwide survey of all Danes born in 1905 and still alive in 1998, where the baseline examination was conducted, we examined...... interval) of 1.24 (1.00-1.55) for mildly impaired and 1.73 (1.37-2.20) for severely impaired Danes compared to individuals with no impairment. Cognitive impairment predicts mortality among the very old, even after controlling for most known predictors of mortality....... the impact of cognitive impairment on mortality over a 2-year period. No cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 24-30 points on the Mini Mental State Examination, mild cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 18-23 points, and severe impairment was defined as a score of 0-17 points. Cox...

  18. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  19. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  20. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates i

  1. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  2. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  3. Cognitive impairments in cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Emelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases belong to a group of the major causes of cognitive impairments, in the elderly in particular. The paper presents current ideas on the etiology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairments (VCI. The etiological factors of VCI may be divided into genetic, sociodemographic, and common risk factors for vascular and other diseases. The pathogenesis of VCI is multifactorial; cognitive function decrement results from brain damage due to cerebral circulatory disorders. Damage to the deep white matter portions and basal ganglions plays a leading role in the development of cognitive deficit in cerebral circulatory insufficiency, disrupting the connections between the frontal lobes and subcortical structures (a dissociation phenomenon. Regulatory functions are impaired; instability of volitional attention develops; the speed of thinking processes and the performance of professional and everyday skills are suffered, mnestic functions being impaired to a lesser extent. Impairments in other higher cortical functions, such as speech, gnosis, praxis, thinking, generally occur in the later stages of cognitive deficit. The comprehensive approach to examining patients with cognitive dysfunctions, which encompasses physical examination with a mandatory evaluation of neurological symptoms, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, instrumental diagnostic methods, and structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, are most justified now. VCI therapy is a challenging task requiring the specific features of different types of cognitive deficit to be analyzed, by providing a rationale for the choice of medications. Therapeutic effectiveness may be enhanced by rational combined multimodal therapy, by keeping in mind a variety of factors for the pathogenesis of VCI.

  4. Cognitive impairments may mimic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eterović, Marija; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica

    2015-12-01

    Delusions are often recognized as key to the concept of psychosis. What is delusion is one of the basic questions of psychopathology. The common denominator of definitions of delusions is the divergence between the strong conviction in the delusional belief and superior evidences to the contrary which are continually ignored. An implicit, sustainably unspoken assumption is that the person with delusional belief has cognitive capacities to process the (counter-)arguments relevant to their delusion. However, individual's cognitive capacities are not being emphasized when delusions are evaluated. Moreover, the impact of cognitive decline on formation of delusions is neglected, both in theory and practice. We elaborate that cognitive deficits may facilitate, oppose, or mimic delusions. We focus on the last, which can lead to diagnosing as delusion what could be explained by cognitive decline and better called pseudo-delusion. The risk is significant when cognition is impaired, as in demented people; an issue which has not yet been debated. True delusions are incompatible with person's cognitive capacities, i.e., if we take into account person's cognitive status, we still cannot understand how the person holds the strange belief with an extraordinary conviction. Pseudo-delusions would be beliefs, thoughts or judgments that at first seem delusional (they are false, subculturally atypical beliefs that are strongly maintained in the face of counterargument), but lose the essence of delusions after we take cognitive impairment into account. Pseudo-delusions could actually be explained or understood by person's cognitive impairments, they "fit into" them. The reported reality-based contents of delusions in the elderly, poor response to antipsychotics and lack of association with early or family history of psychiatric disorders could in part be accounted for by the bias of misdiagnosing the cognitive impairment as the delusion. Not recognizing that the cognitive impairment

  5. Impaired glycemia increases disease progression in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Jill K.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes are associated with cognitive decline and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Relatively few studies have assessed the impact of metabolic dysfunction on conversion to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and it is unclear whether glycemic status is associated with clinically-relevant measures of cognitive decline and brain structure in MCI. This study used the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the relation...

  6. Perioperative care of the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, F

    1991-07-01

    Eighty-three per cent of sensory input is received optically. Sight impaired patients thus experience substantial sensory deficit, so nursing any visually impaired patient through surgery requires special considerations.

  7. 20 CFR 404.1523 - Multiple impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1523 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 404.1523 Multiple... combination of impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout...

  8. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment h...

  9. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  10. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  11. Nutrition in neurologically impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with s...

  12. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  13. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates its value in establishing diagnoses and predicting the course of a disease, with consequences for the rehabilitation process. The electrophysiological results also contribute to the understanding of...

  14. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L;

    2004-01-01

    of the fertile levels.Thus, the group of infertile men showed significant signs of impaired Leydig cell function in parallel to their impaired spermatogenesis. The association of decreased spermatogenesis and impaired Leydig cell function might reflect a disturbed paracrine communication between the seminiferous...

  15. Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Alexander, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

  16. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    A study found the gestural activity of 15 adolescents with visual impairments differed from that of 15 adolescents with sight. Subjects with visual impairments used more adapters (especially finger-to-hand gestures) and fewer conversational gestures. Differences in gestural activity by degree of visual impairment and grade in school were also…

  17. Inferential Functioning in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children…

  18. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jeremy; Alty, Jane Elizabeth; Jamieson, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is a significant non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Longitudinal cohort studies have demonstrated that approximately 50% of those with PD develop dementia after 10 years, increasing to over 80% after 20 years. Deficits in cognition can be identified at the time of PD diagnosis in some patients and this mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) has been studied extensively over the last decade. Although PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease dementia there is evidence to suggest that PD-MCI might consist of distinct subtypes with different pathophysiologies and prognoses. The major pathological correlate of Parkinson's disease dementia is Lewy body deposition in the limbic system and neocortex although Alzheimer's related pathology is also an important contributor. Pathological damage causes alteration to neurotransmitter systems within the brain, producing behavioural change. Management of cognitive impairment in PD requires a multidisciplinary approach and accurate communication with patients and relatives is essential. PMID:25814509

  19. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Elham; Gheini, Mohammad Reza; Faiz, Firoozeh; Arami, Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-15

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications. In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings. PMID:27660698

  20. Impaired follistatin secretion in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund;

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon / somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... compared to healthy controls (27.6 ± 3.8 % versus 34.5 ± 2.9 %, respectively; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  1. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Elham; Gheini, Mohammad Reza; Faiz, Firoozeh; Arami, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications. In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings. PMID:27660698

  2. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern. PMID:19377866

  3. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s)....

  4. Visual Impairments in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alimović, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the neurological developmental disorder mainly affecting motor abilities. Considering the high rate of associated impairments even the definition of CP is revised and changed. Visual impairment is one of the most common associated impairment. Unfortunately, it is often unrecognized and considered to be a normal consequence of motor problems. Sense of sight is most important for early child development, motivation, learning through imitation. It is, therefore, indispensa...

  5. Vascular cognitive impairment, a cardiovascular complication

    OpenAIRE

    Frances, Adiukwu; Sandra, Ofori; Lucy, Ugbomah

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke an...

  6. A gradient of maternal Bicaudal-C controls vertebrate embryogenesis via translational repression of mRNAs encoding cell fate regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookhee; Blaser, Susanne; Marchal, Melissa A; Houston, Douglas W; Sheets, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Vertebrate Bicaudal-C (Bicc1) has important biological roles in the formation and homeostasis of multiple organs, but direct experiments to address the role of maternal Bicc1 in early vertebrate embryogenesis have not been reported. Here, we use antisense phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides and the host-transfer technique to eliminate specifically maternal stores of both bicc1 mRNA and Bicc1 protein from Xenopus laevis eggs. Fertilization of these Bicc1-depleted eggs produced embryos with an excess of dorsal-anterior structures and overexpressed organizer-specific genes, indicating that maternal Bicc1 is crucial for normal embryonic patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Bicc1 is an RNA-binding protein with robust translational repression function. Here, we show that the maternal mRNA encoding the cell-fate regulatory protein Wnt11b is a direct target of Bicc1-mediated repression. It is well established that the Wnt signaling pathway is crucial to vertebrate embryogenesis. Thus, the work presented here links the molecular function of Bicc1 in mRNA target-specific translation repression to its biological role in the maternally controlled stages of vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:26811381

  7. The Differences Between Revaluation and Assets Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBIȚAN Nicolae

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Impairment and revaluation are terms closely related to one another, with subtle differences. Revaluation and impairment both require the company to evaluate the assets for their fair value, and then take appropriate action in updating the accounting books. The major difference between the two is that a revaluation can be made upwards (to increase the value of the asset to market value or downwards (to ecrease the value. An impairment, on the other hand, only refers to one of the two, a fall in the market value which is then written down. The purpose of the paper is to establish what are the differences between revaluation and impairment of assets.

  8. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy. PMID:26609664

  9. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy.

  10. Clean Water Act 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters and their Causes of Impairment from All Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Waters identified as impaired as well as their associated causes of impairment from all approved Clean Water Act 303(d) lists submitted by the states. Includes all...

  11. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Ketelaars; J. Cuperus; K. Jansonius; L. Verhoeven

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  12. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  13. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  14. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  15. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  16. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  17. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  18. Environmental Interpretation for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns itself with the art of environmental interpretation and addresses its application specifically to the visually impaired, considering the adaptations and alterations available which will make the environmental interpretation a beneficial and meaningful experience for the visually impaired. (Author)

  19. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o

  20. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  1. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...... speed depends on the degree of vision loss. The design of the building environment is important for the ability to orientation for people with reduced sight. Walls and handrails are important for the orientation possibilities for people with visual impairments. Furthermore, obstacles placed...

  2. Current therapy for cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vasilyevna Vakhnina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments (CIs are a highly common type of neurological disorders particularly in elderly patients. Choice of a therapeutic strategy for CI is determined by the etiology of abnormalities and their degree. Measures to prevent CI progression and dementia: adequate treatment of existing cardiovascular diseases, prevention of stroke, balanced nutrition, moderate physical and intellectual exercises, and combatting overweight and low activity are of basic value in treating mild and moderate CIs. According to the data of a number of investigations, the above measures reduce the risk of dementia, including in the genetically predisposed. Pharmacotherapy for mild and moderate CIs generally comprises vasoactive, neurometabolic, and noradrenergic agents. The indication for the use of memantine and/or acetylcholinergic agents, i.e. basic therapy for the most common forms of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, vascular, and mixed dementia, hepatic colics is severe CIs. The long-term use of memantine and/or acetylcholinergic agents alleviates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of dementia, enhances self-dependence in patients, and prolongs their active lifetime.

  3. Language impairment in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT. HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (p<0.0001, oral comprehension (p<0.0001, repetition (p<0.0001, oral agility (p<0.0001, reading comprehension (p=0.034 and narrative writing (p<0.0001. There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively. Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  4. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: Different profiles of syntactic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eSzterman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of one year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later.

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WEFA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHSC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CONG

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MALL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: DESO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOPO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PINN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PERI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ROCR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ADAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: DAAV

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HOME

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: AMME

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GUCO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: STEA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ARPO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: EUON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: NATC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOVA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MOJA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WIHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: VOYA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CANY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ACAD

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: JODA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WUPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PAAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MONO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FLNI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WAPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: RUCA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: NATR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: AMIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SAAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HAFO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: APPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOTH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ELRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CANA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CUVA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WICL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: LEWI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Space Activities for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M.

    2005-12-01

    To a visually impaired person celestial objects or concepts of space exploration are likely to be more abstract than to other people, but they encounter news about the universe through their daily life. A partnership between Texas Space Grant Consortium, The University of Texas at Austin, and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired provided the opportunity to assist visually impaired students increase their understanding of astronomy and space science. The activities helped visually impaired students activity engage in inquiry-based, hands-on astronomy activities. The experiences provided during the educator workshops, adapted instructional classroom activities, and tactile learning aids will be shared in the hopes that others may be able to incorporate these lessons into their regular teaching activities.

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: VIIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WICR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CACL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ZION

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ANTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CALO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: DEVA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SPAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MOCR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOBO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: VAFO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHAT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BITH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: JOFK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GRTE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ANJO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HEHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PRWI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SAPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GWMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FRHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GLBA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: OCMU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: RICH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ISRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: APCO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HALE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WAMO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CAGR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: NAVA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GOGA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BLUE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BICA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: RABR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CACH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: KALA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: STRI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ASIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BOAF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CARE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: JODR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: JOFI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MACA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SAJH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: DEWA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SACN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SAFR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GRKO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CARI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ROMO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GATE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MCHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: TUZI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HOBE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SUCR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: WOTR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: TONT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOUN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHIR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MAVA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HOFR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: JOTR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BIBE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CUIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SHIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PAGR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: BRVB

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: KATM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PETE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PUHE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: KIMO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HAFE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: COLO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CIRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: LABE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: NEBE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ORPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SEMO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MIIN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: LIRI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CAHA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PIPE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MORA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FODA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ORCA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Rebecca M.C. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task k...

  5. Obesity and Hypertriglyceridemia Produce Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Susan A.; Yamada, Kelvin A.; Butterfield, D. Allan; Abdul, H. Mohammad; Xu, Lin; Miller, Nicole E.; Banks, William A.; Morley, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive impairments. Long-term mechanisms for this association include consequences of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, or other factors comprising metabolic syndrome X. We found that hypertriglyceridemia, the main dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome X, is in part responsible for the leptin resistance seen in obesity. Here we determined whether triglycerides have an immediate and direct effect on cognition. Obese mice showed impaired acquisition in three different cogn...

  6. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  7. Gestural Interfaces for Hearing-Impaired Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Aran, Oya; Burger, Thomas; Akarun, Lale; Caplier, Alice

    2008-01-01

    International audience Gestural interfaces, besides providing natural means of human computer interaction for everyone, enable the hearing impaired to use sign language or better understand speech through vision. This chapter overviews (1) the various modalities involved in gestured languages (2) the mean to automatically apprehend them individually and (3) to fuse them in order to provide a communication medium adapted to hearing-impaired. We present two example applications, a sign langu...

  8. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

    OpenAIRE

    Inderjit; Jagdeepak; Prempal; Anup Narayanrao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. R...

  9. Difficulties in Parenting Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gita Movallali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite the abundance of literature about deaf children, few works specifically address the concept and practice of difficulties in parenting hearing-impaired children. The first interactions of the child are with his parents, and parents have the most important role in child improvements during early intervention programs. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate different aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children.Methods: In this article, we reviewed all aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children in papers from 1984-2009 in Medline, Scopus and Proquest and relative textbooks. The semi-professional role of parents of hearing-impaired children make them feel under excessive stress and this usually affects their other roles as fathers and mothers. Many factors including child age, type of hearing loss and parents’ individual characteristics may influence the impact of child’s hearing loss on parents.Conclusion: Parenting a hearing-impaired child is both similar and different to parenting any other child. Where there are differences, there are usually challenges too. Taking support and advice from professionals and other parents are necessary and invaluable for parents of hearing-impaired children.

  10. Loneliness, adaptation to vision impairment, social support and depression among visually impaired elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraten, P.F.J.; Brinkmann, W.L.J.H.; Stevens, N.L.; Schouten, J.S.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of loneliness among visually impaired elderly, and its relations with adaptation to vision loss, received social support and depression. Clients aged 55 years or older who contacted Sensis, a rehabilitation centre for visually impaired peopl

  11. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  12. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  13. Language ability after early detection of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, C. R.; McCann, D. C.; Campbell, M.J.; Law, C M; Mullee, M.; Petrou, S.; Watkin, P; Worsfold, S.; Yuen, H M; Stevenson, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children with bilateral permanent hearing impairment often have impaired language and speech abilities. However, the effects of universal newborn screening for permanent bilateral childhood hearing impairment and the effects of confirmation of hearing impairment by nine months of age on subsequent verbal abilities are uncertain.Methods: We studied 120 children with bilateral permanent hearing impairment identified from a large birth cohort in southern England, at a mean of 7.9 yea...

  14. Is Hearing Impairment Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    and ComDisDome to cover all relative reports. The following keywords were used: hearing loss, hearing difficulties, hearing disorders, hearing impairment, sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, autoimmune hearing loss, drug ototoxicity, drug-induced hearing loss, hearing......BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the population. The auditory system may be involved during the course of disease; however the association of RA and hearing impairment has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review...... is to evaluate published clinical reports related to hearing impairment in patients with RA. Furthermore, we discuss possible pathologies and associated factors as well as new treatment modalities. METHOD: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases including Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane...

  15. Cognitive Impairments Associated with CFS and POTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. Jason

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is characterized by fatigue, sleep dysfunction, and cognitive deficits (Fukuda et al., 1994. Research surrounding cognitive functioning among patients with CFS has found difficulty with memory, attention, and information processing. A similar disorder, postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS, is characterized by increased heart rate, fatigue, and mental cloudiness (Raj et al., 2009. Potential implications of cognitive deficits for patients with CFS and/or POTS are discussed, including difficulties with school and/or employment. A few biological theories (i.e., kindling, impairments in the central nervous system, and difficulty with blood flow have emerged as potential explanations for the cognitive deficits reported in both CFS and POTS Future research should continue to examine possible explanations for cognitive impairments in CFS and POTS, and ultimately use this information to try and reduce cognitive impairments for these patients.

  16. Impact of herbal medicines on physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, C; Black, A; Müller-Ladner, U; Chrubasik, S

    2008-06-01

    The usefulness of recording physical impairment during intervention studies in chronic low back patients has been questioned. A re-analysis of all of our studies investigating aqueous extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens and a proprietary ethanolic Salix extract for chronic non-specific low back pain revealed that the "physical impairment" component of the Arhus low back pain index changed very little during treatment despite appreciable changes in the other two components, "pain" and "disability", over time. For comparison, we also extracted data from the literature on the topical use of capsaicin, which showed the same thing. There may be little to lose from omitting the time-consuming assessments of "physical impairment" in studies of the (primarily analgesic) effectiveness of herbal preparations. PMID:17964131

  17. Cognitive impairment and preferences for current health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsevat Joel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed preferences for current health using the visual analogue scale (VAS, standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and willingness to pay (WTP in patients with cerebral aneurysms, a population vulnerable to cognitive deficits related to aneurysm bleeding or treatment. Methods We measured VAS, SG, TTO, and WTP values for current health in 165 outpatients with cerebral aneurysms. We assessed cognitive impairment with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; scores Results Eleven patients (7% had MMSE scores Conclusion Cognitive impairment is associated with lower preferences for current health in patients with cerebral aneurysms. Cognitively impaired patients have poor inter-preference test correlations and different response distributions compared to unimpaired patients.

  18. Speech and neurology-chemical impairment correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayre, Harb S.

    2002-05-01

    Speech correlates of alcohol/drug impairment and its neurological basis is presented with suggestion for further research in impairment from poly drug/medicine/inhalent/chew use/abuse, and prediagnosis of many neuro- and endocrin-related disorders. Nerve cells all over the body detect chemical entry by smoking, injection, drinking, chewing, or skin absorption, and transmit neurosignals to their corresponding cerebral subsystems, which in turn affect speech centers-Broca's and Wernick's area, and motor cortex. For instance, gustatory cells in the mouth, cranial and spinal nerve cells in the skin, and cilia/olfactory neurons in the nose are the intake sensing nerve cells. Alcohol depression, and brain cell damage were detected from telephone speech using IMPAIRLYZER-TM, and the results of these studies were presented at 1996 ASA meeting in Indianapolis, and 2001 German Acoustical Society-DEGA conference in Hamburg, Germany respectively. Speech based chemical Impairment measure results were presented at the 2001 meeting of ASA in Chicago. New data on neurotolerance based chemical impairment for alcohol, drugs, and medicine shall be presented, and shown not to fully support NIDA-SAMSHA drug and alcohol threshold used in drug testing domain.

  19. Rehabilitation and Visual Impairment: A Human System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kolk, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    The rehabilitation of visually impaired persons can be conceptualized by a human systems approach. This paper explaines seven levels of human systems, related factors, and 10 assumptions that lead to high standards for rehabilitation workers and organizations. The concepts are applied to work with clients and use in rehabilitation agencies.…

  20. Psychopathology in hearing-impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Stephanie Carla Petra Maria

    2013-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to objectify levels of psychopathology in hearing-impaired children, and to investigate the influence of variou

  1. Cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saška Roškar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify changes in cognitive abilities that affect patients with relapsing remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS and to find out which instrument manifests them best. The performance of MS patients was compared to a matched group of healthy people using three neuropsychological tests: Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST, Stroop color and word test and Trail making test (TMT part B. Results on all three tests indicate general cognitive impairments in the group of patients. Compared to the group of healthy people patients with MS exhibited impaired ability of abstract reasoning (WCST, impaired cognitive flexibility and less resistance to irrelevant stimuli (Stroop color and word test, slowed information processing and impaired ability of shifting attention from one symbol to another (TMT. The largest differences between groups occured in Stroop color and word test as well as in TMT. The estimation of cognitive abilities of MS patients is of high importance and sistematicaly observing of changes in those abilities should be considered.

  2. Music Therapy for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Crawford, Celeste

    1982-01-01

    The development and implementation of a music therapy program to achieve behavioral change in visually impaired children and adolescents are described. Goals targeted by the music therapist at the Cleveland Society for the Blind include altering unusual body movements, poor posture, and other mannerisms often associated with blindness. (SEW)

  3. Psychological Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of two psychological education programs (Developing Understanding of Self and Others--DUSO, and Human Development Program--HDP or Magic Circle) on the affective growth of 42 visually impaired children in grades kindergarten through 3. (Author/SBH)

  4. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  5. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  6. Impaired glucose metabolism treatment and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    MATYSZEWSKI, ARTUR; Czarnecka, Anna; Kawecki, Maciej; KORZEŃ, PIOTR; SAFIR, ILAN J.; Kukwa, Wojciech; SZCZYLIK, CEZARY

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism disorders increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus alters numerous physiological processes that may encourage cancer growth. However, treating impaired glucose homeostasis may actually promote neoplasia; maintaining proper glucose plasma concentrations reduces metabolic stresses, however, certain medications may themselves result in oncogenic effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that metformin reduces the cancer risk. However, the use o...

  7. Hearing impairment associated with oral terbinafine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, Joep; Van Grootheest, Kees; Van Puijenbroek, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received six reports of hearing impairment in association with oral terbinafine use. This study describes these cases and provides support for this association from the Lareb database of spontaneous ADR reporting and from Vigibase, the adver

  8. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  9. Alcoholism, Field Dependency and Organic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Patricia; Kahn, Marvin W.

    Although research has suggested that field dependency is a relatively stable characteristic of alcoholics, the results have been confounded by the use of different measures and different time intervals. To investigate the degree of organic brain impairment and its association with measured field dependency amongst alcoholics, 41 male alcoholics,…

  10. Vascular cognitive impairment, a cardiovascular complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Adiukwu; Sandra, Ofori; Lucy, Ugbomah

    2016-06-22

    Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke and is associated with great economic and caregiver burden. Despite this, there is no standardized diagnostic criteria for VCI. Hypertension has been identified as a risk factor for VCI and causes changes in cerebral vessel structure and function predisposing to lacuna infarcts and small vessel haemorrhages in the frontostriatal loop leading to executive dysfunction and other cognitive impairments. Current trials have shown promising results in the use of antihypertensive medications in the management of VCI and prevention of disease progression to vascular dementia. Prevention of VCI is necessary in light of the looming dementia pandemic. All patients with cardiovascular risk factors would therefore benefit from cognitive screening with screening instruments sensitive to executive dysfunction as well as prompt and adequate control of hypertension. PMID:27354961

  11. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  12. Cognitive impairment in MS: rehabilitation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, P; Rosti-Otajärvi, E

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in 45%-70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Like other symptoms of MS, cognitive deficits are highly variable. Slowed information processing and memory and learning dysfunction are regarded as the most frequent cognitive deficits in MS. Both white and gray matter damages have been suggested to contribute to cognitive impairments in MS. There is no direct relationship between cognitive deficits and physical disability, disease duration or course of the disease. In addition to cognitive impairments, neuropsychiatric symptoms are observed in MS, the most common being alterations in mood state. Neurobehavioral deficits have multidimensional effects on the activities of daily living and quality of life. Consequently, attention should be paid to early diagnosis and treatment. Based on studies on cognitive retraining and more multimodal neuropsychological rehabilitation, both approaches show promise in the treatment of cognitive impairments and their harmful effects. This review introduces the frequency and characteristics of cognitive impairments, as well as main findings on the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation in MS. PMID:27580900

  13. Lighting Up Science for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Gilbert W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described are activities designed specifically for visually impaired students, demonstrating (1) meiosis, (2) mass, (3) enzyme-substrate reactions, (4) function and relationships of flowering parts. Employed are tactile and auditory learning aids, such as the tape recorder, electric eye, Braille typewriter, textured fabrics, and three-dimensional…

  14. Biology for the Visually Impaired Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Susan

    1980-01-01

    This is a description of a beginning college biology course for visually impaired students. Equipment for instruction is discussed and methods for using the materials are included. Topics included in the course are chemical bonding, diffusion and osmosis, cell structure, meiosis and mitosis, reproduction, behavior, nutrition, and circulation. (SA)

  15. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  16. Dual Task Impairments in Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Inasaridze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that people with Alzheimer's disease (AD demonstrate difficulties in doing two things at once or 'dual-tasking' and that this dual task impairment is insensitive to normal ageing, chronic depression or prodromal conditions like Mild Cognitive Impairment. It is not known, however, if this impairment is specific to AD, or also present in other dementias, such as vascular dementia (VaD. In this study 15 people with VaD, 25 healthy age-matched and 25 healthy young controls were assessed using a paper and pencil dual tasking paradigm and several measures of working and episodic memory. Age had no effect on dual task performance, but the VaD patients demonstrated a significant impairment in dual tasking ability. Performance on the memory measures was instead affected by age with a further deterioration in the VaD patients. Both dual tasking and memory ability were significantly correlated with disease severity, as assessed by the MMSE. These results indicate that performance on the dual task could be a specific indicator of pathological ageing.

  17. Persistent cognitive impairment after transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, F.G. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Maaijwee, N.A.; Duijnhoven, D.A. van; Leeuw, F.E. de; Kessels, R.P.; Dijk, E.J. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: By definition, the symptoms of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) subside completely within 24 hours. Imaging studies show signs of persistent ischemic tissue damage in a substantial amount of patients with TIA. Cerebral infarction can cause permanent cognitive impairment. Whe

  18. Persistent Cognitive Impairment After Transient Ischemic Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, F.G. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Duijnhoven, D.A. van; de Leeuw, F.E.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Dijk, E.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose—By definition, the symptoms of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) subside completely within 24 hours. Imaging studies show signs of persistent ischemic tissue damage in a substantial amount of patients with TIA. Cerebral infarction can cause permanent cognitive impairment. Whet

  19. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  20. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Lumsden, Jo; O'Sullivan, Dympna; Bartlett, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    There are around 285 million visually impaired people worldwide, and around 370,000 people are registered as blind or partially sighted in the UK. Ongoing advances in information technology (IT) are increasing the scope for IT-based mobile assistive technologies to facilitate the independence, safety, and improved quality of life of the visually impaired. Research is being directed at making mobile phones and other handheld devices accessible via our haptic (touch) and audio sensory channels. We review research and innovation within the field of mobile assistive technology for the visually impaired and, in so doing, highlight the need for successful collaboration between clinical expertise, computer science, and domain users to realize fully the potential benefits of such technologies. We initially reflect on research that has been conducted to make mobile phones more accessible to people with vision loss. We then discuss innovative assistive applications designed for the visually impaired that are either delivered via mainstream devices and can be used while in motion (e.g., mobile phones) or are embedded within an environment that may be in motion (e.g., public transport) or within which the user may be in motion (e.g., smart homes).

  1. Spelling Performance of Visually Impaired Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Arvaniti, Evmorfia K.; Dimitriadi, Despina I.; Gkoutsioudi, Vasiliki G.; Zantali, Christina I.

    2009-01-01

    Visual processes undoubtedly play an important role in print reading as well as in spelling. In the present study we intend to compare the spelling performance of visually impaired individuals (both individuals who are blind and individuals with low vision) with that of their fully sighted peers. An analysis of errors (misspelled words and…

  2. Marine Science Activities for Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Dennis; And Others

    These marine education materials are based on the approach that students learn best when given a multisensory experience. The activities are intended to develop such experiences for the visually impaired child. Activities are intended to supplement an upper-elementary science curriculum or be the basis of a unit on marine biology. The guide is…

  3. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  4. The Impaired Physician: Some Coping Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Doctoring is a stressful way of life. Both normal and neurotic needs can increase the complexity of the family physician's life. Certain vulnerable doctors seek easement in tranquilizers, sedatives or alcohol, and can become addicted. Impairment may be episodic or steady, leading to deterioration in personality and ability

  5. Polypharmacy Cutoff for Gait and Cognitive Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Langeard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a well-established risk factor for falls, and these are one of the major health problems that affect the quality of life as people age. However, the risk of mobility and cognitive impairments consecutive to polypharmacy has been little addressed, despite the association between these adverse outcomes and falls. Moreover, the rare polypharmacy cut-offs were all but one arbitrarily determined. OBJECTIVE: Studying relationships between polypharmacy and both mobility and cognitive impairments, and statistically determining a cut-off point in the number of drugs beyond which polypharmacy has deleterious consequences with respect to mobility and cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 113 community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older with a fall history, with or without injury, in the previous year. We carefully collected information about daily medications taken. We assessed basic mobility and global cognition with the Time-Up-and-Go and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02292316RESULTS: TUG and MoCA scores were both significantly correlated with the number of medications used. ROC curves indicate, with high prediction (p<0.002, that daily consumption of five or more medications is associated with risk for both impaired mobility and global cognition. These relationships were independent of the number of comorbidities and of the pharmacological class. CONCLUSION: Community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older who take five or more daily drugs are at high risk for both mobility and cognitive impairments. Physicians and patients should be aware of these new findings, especially when there are multiple prescribers involved in the care of the patient.

  6. Does Reversal of Asset Impairment Loss Matter? Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lei Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the reforms of asset impairment regulations affect the provision and functional role of impairment losses and reversals of listed firms in China. The results reveal that listed firms decrease the provision of long-term asset impairments, but increase the provision of current asset impairments and reversals following the implementation of new asset impairment regulations. This research also verifies that listed firms adjust impairment provisions and reversals policy for income smoothing and big-bath purposes. Under different earnings management incentives, this study also finds that special treatment (ST and non-ST firms show different level of accounting policy adjustment.

  7. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  8. Auditory Assessment of Visually Impaired Preschoolers: A Team Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of audiological terms and types of hearing impairments to help teachers of visually impaired preschoolers work more effectively with audiologists. Both functional auditory assessment and formal audiometric evaluations are discussed. (Author/CL)

  9. Nutrient Impaired 303(d) Streams for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — “Under section 303(d) of the 1972 Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These impaired...

  10. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All Advocacy Assessment/Evaluation Audio, Braille or ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All Search Categories About the Directory Request ...

  11. ATTITUDE PARENTS TO EARLY INTERVENTION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1997-01-01

    For centuries Visually Impaired children have been educated within the high walls of special schools (Loots ET al., 1992). It is only during the last decades that more and more Visually Impaired children were brought up in their own environment:· the integrated education is not a trend anymore, but an educational policy;· The Early Intervention has transferred into approach to young Visually Impaired children.Early Intervention is crucial because the Visually Impairment affects the early deve...

  12. [Working with hearing impairment: an integrated approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, Marten J; Kramer, Sophia E; Anema, Johannes R; Goverts, S T Theo

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hearing impairment are more likely to encounter health problems and difficulties at work than their colleagues with normal hearing. This is often not realised by either patients or professionals. In this article we describe three cases that illustrate how working conditions can influence the health of workers with hearing loss. We have implemented a vocational enablement protocol that follows a multidisciplinary approach in order to meet these patients' needs. Due to a mismatch between the demands of a job and an individual's auditory capacities, even a mild hearing impairment can cause serious problems if a patient works in adverse conditions. In addition, in many workplaces the ability to hear well is a safety issue. Professionals have to be aware of both possibilities. Specialized centres offer good facilities and ensure the optimal transfer of insight into the working environment by involving an occupational physician in their team. PMID:27050493

  13. Image and Video for Hearing Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Burger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a global overview of image- and video-processing-based methods to help the communication of hearing impaired people. Two directions of communication have to be considered: from a hearing person to a hearing impaired person and vice versa. In this paper, firstly, we describe sign language (SL and the cued speech (CS language which are two different languages used by the deaf community. Secondly, we present existing tools which employ SL and CS video processing and recognition for the automatic communication between deaf people and hearing people. Thirdly, we present the existing tools for reverse communication, from hearing people to deaf people that involve SL and CS video synthesis.

  14. Intrafamilial phenotypic variability of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha-Doering, Lisa; Regele, Sabrina; Deuster, Dirk; Seidl, Rainer; Bogdanova, Nadja; Röpke, Albrecht; Wieacker, Peter; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette

    2016-08-01

    We investigated language functions in 32 members of a four generation family with several members affected by Specific Language Impairment with an extensive language test battery in order to determine the prevalence, overlap, and homogeneity of linguistic deficits within one pedigree. In sum, one fourth of all family members tested fulfilled the criteria of Specific Language Impairment. Despite of some similarities in language abilities, different combinations of language deficits were observed, and individual language profiles varied substantially. Thus, though there is a high prevalence of language deficits in this family which raises the likelihood of a genetic origin of these deficits, and though all affected study participants displayed selective linguistic deficits with normal non-verbal functioning, language testing showed considerable variance in overlap and homogeneity of linguistic deficits. Thus, even in one genetic population, an underlying linguistic disorder manifests itself in different language abilities to a variant degree.

  15. Intrafamilial phenotypic variability of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha-Doering, Lisa; Regele, Sabrina; Deuster, Dirk; Seidl, Rainer; Bogdanova, Nadja; Röpke, Albrecht; Wieacker, Peter; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette

    2016-08-01

    We investigated language functions in 32 members of a four generation family with several members affected by Specific Language Impairment with an extensive language test battery in order to determine the prevalence, overlap, and homogeneity of linguistic deficits within one pedigree. In sum, one fourth of all family members tested fulfilled the criteria of Specific Language Impairment. Despite of some similarities in language abilities, different combinations of language deficits were observed, and individual language profiles varied substantially. Thus, though there is a high prevalence of language deficits in this family which raises the likelihood of a genetic origin of these deficits, and though all affected study participants displayed selective linguistic deficits with normal non-verbal functioning, language testing showed considerable variance in overlap and homogeneity of linguistic deficits. Thus, even in one genetic population, an underlying linguistic disorder manifests itself in different language abilities to a variant degree. PMID:27388785

  16. Electronic reminding technology for cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah; Craig, David; O'Neill, Sonia; Donnelly, Mark; Nugent, Chris

    Demographic changes highlight the need to address disabilities associated with the costly morbidities of old age, such as dementia. Memory impairment associated with dementia represents a significant challenge for many older people. Difficulties occur in carrying out activities in their entirety or in commencing them at all. Technology has the potential to help individuals overcome the barriers created by cognitive disability in terms of performing activities of daily living and therefore help to maintain independence and enhance quality of life (Czaja, 2005). This literature review examines the current reported research, which employs electronic reminding technology to support individuals with cognitive impairment. These devices range from everyday technologies, such as phones, to sophisticated interactive devices with specifically designed software. A summary of the current evidence base is presented and recommendations for future practice are made.

  17. Image and Video for Hearing Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Oya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a global overview of image- and video-processing-based methods to help the communication of hearing impaired people. Two directions of communication have to be considered: from a hearing person to a hearing impaired person and vice versa. In this paper, firstly, we describe sign language (SL and the cued speech (CS language which are two different languages used by the deaf community. Secondly, we present existing tools which employ SL and CS video processing and recognition for the automatic communication between deaf people and hearing people. Thirdly, we present the existing tools for reverse communication, from hearing people to deaf people that involve SL and CS video synthesis.

  18. Progressive anomia without semantic or phonological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Fisk, John D; Passmore, Michael; Darvesh, Sultan

    2007-05-01

    We describe a 59-year-old woman, M.T., with a progressive language impairment and neuroimaging findings of decreased perfusion (SPECT) and focal atrophy (MRI) in the left temporal region. The most prominent feature of her cognitive profile was a profound and progressive impairment in naming. In spite of this, she performed normally on tests of semantic processing and phonological output. Her spontaneous speech was fluent with preserved syntax and articulation but with notable word-finding problems. All other cognitive abilities were relatively stable and intact. These features are not typical of either fluent or non-fluent forms of neurodegenerative language disturbance. The cognitive mechanisms that may underlie this case are discussed.

  19. A case of impaired shape integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbet; Habekost, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    We describe a patient, HE, who was left with a remarkably selective deficit in intermediate vision following an infarct in the right occipito-temporal region. Thus, HE was able to group elements by colour and proximity but impaired in grouping based on similarity in shape. This finding supports...... the notion that grouping may be divided into two general steps: (i) element clustering and (ii) shape configuration, with the latter operation being impaired in HE. As opposed to previous cases with shape integration deficits, HE was able to name objects accurately. Initially, this might suggest that shape...... integration is not a prerequisite for normal object naming. However, on more demanding tests of visual object recognition, HE's performance deteriorated, with her performance being inversely related to the demand placed on integration of local elements into more elaborate shape descriptions. From this we...

  20. Impaired inhibitory control in recreational cocaine users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.

  1. Cognitive impairments in patients with brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Zakharov; E. A. Drozdova

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives the data of Russian and foreign authors and the results of this paper authors’ investigation of higher cerebral functions in patients who have sustained brain injury (BI). It shows their high prevalence, the predominance of cognitive impairments (CI) over neurological disorders in patients with mild and moderate injury, presents their quantitative and qualitative features (a preponderance of focal symptoms in severe injury and neurodynamic disorders in mild injury), describes ...

  2. Haemostasis impairment in bitches with pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Plavec Tanja; Celinšek Barbara; Dolinar Kristina; Pečar J.; Nemec Alenka; Butinar Janoš

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that pyometra syndrome with endotoxemia and/or sepsis in bitches may impair different organ systems and functions including haemostasis, which may considerably influence the outcome if overlooked or underestimated. The present clinical study was carried out on thirty-seven clinical patients admitted to the Clinic for Small Animal Medicine and Surgery at the Veterinary Faculty in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Preoperative diagnosis was based on clinical signs, haematology results and u...

  3. Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In spite of the pivotal role of the endocrine pancreas in glucose metabolism, the impact of impaired glucose tolerance on AP has not been fully elucidated. A meta-analysis of seven observational studies showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with an increased risk of AP. The increased risk of AP shown in the meta-analysis was independent of hyperlipidemia, alcohol use and gallstones. Anti-diab...

  4. A Neurocomputational Model of Impaired Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, B.; Billard, A.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract addresses the question of human imitation through convergent evidence from neuroscience, using tools from machine learning. In particular, we consider a deficit in imitation of meaningless gestures (i.e., hand postures relative to the head) following callosal brain lesion (i.e., disconnected hemispheres). We base our work on the rational that looking at how imitation in apraxic patients is impaired can unveil its underlying neural principles. We ground the functional architectur...

  5. Metformin promotes isolated rat liver mitochondria impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Cristina; Correia, Sónia; Santos, Maria,; Seiça, Raquel; Oliveira, Catarina; Moreira, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Metformin, a drug widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has recently received attention due to the new and contrasting findings regarding its effects on mitochondrial function. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of metformin in isolated rat liver mitochondria status. We observed that metformin concentrations =8 mM induce an impairment of the respiratory chain characterized by a decrease in RCR and state 3 respiration. However, only metformin concentrations =10 ...

  6. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. PMID:25506793

  7. Signal processing for RF circuit impairment mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xinping; Leung, Henry

    2014-01-01

    A wireless communication system employs a radio frequency (RF) wave to transmit information bearing signals. In modern digital communication systems, sophisticated modulation techniques are developed to modulate information onto an RF carrier waveform, so as to transmit more information.This new book presents signal processing techniques for reducing impairments of analog and RF circuits in wireless communications systems. Engineers, researchers, and students will find full coverage of the topic, including vector modulators, power amplifiers, vector demodulators, group delay distortion in anal

  8. Specific affect regulation impairments in major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeyer, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in affect regulation as well as cognitive reactivity have been considered to play important roles in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is a lack of studies investigating, (a) whether certain difficulties in emotion regulation are specific for MDD, (b) whether certain meta-mood beliefs are associated with an increased risk for MDD, and (c) whether reduced abilities to engage in mood-incongruent information processing and...

  9. Cumulative life course impairment in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christian; Schallreuter, Karin Uta

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic skin disease characterized by the mostly progressive loss of the inherited skin color leading to white patches and in some cases to total depigmentation. The course of this ancient disease is still unknown. The worldwide prevalence range is 0.5-1%. The disease burden includes stigmatization, depression, impaired quality of life, lack of self-confidence, embarrassment and self-consciousness. To the best of our knowledge, the extent to which this chronic disease may exert an influence upon the life course of affected individuals has, to date, not been investigated. The material presented herein is the result of an accurate analysis of published literature. Moreover, we included our own data collected in two studies. To apply the concept of cumulative life course impairment in vitiligo, we looked at possible trigger factors, role of patient's age and the age at disease onset, disease duration and stigmatization. Stigmatization had the strongest impact. It is common in patients with an early disease onset, often leading to other disturbances. Our data revealed that older patients or those with a disease onset later in life adjust better to this chronic skin disorder and that they are less socially avoidant. However, long disease duration can also lead to impaired quality of life and obsession, while this group seems to be less depressed or embarrassed. Results from our own work with peer groups of these patients strongly support a positive long-lasting effect of treatment on quality of life of children, adolescents and adults. To which extent vitiligo may contribute to a cumulative life course impairment remains to be shown. PMID:23796814

  10. Impairment of Proprioception After Whiplash Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Uremović, Melita; Cvijetić, Selma; Bošnjak Pašić, Marija; Šerić, Vesna; Vidrih, Branka; Demarin, Vida

    2007-01-01

    Whiplash injury usually occurs in traffic accidents. Persons experienced this injury might have an impairment of proprioception clinically expressed as inability to determine the exact position of their heads. The aim of this study was to examine the loss of proprioception in people who had a whiplash injury. The study included 60 subjects with cervical spine injury, aged 20 to 50 years and 60 healthy volunteers matched by sex and age. The instrument used for cervical spine mobili...

  11. Impaired Fibrinolysis in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Krone, Katie A.; Allen, Kristi L.; McCrae, Keith R

    2010-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by venous and/or arterial thrombosis, or recurrent fetal loss, in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL). The pathogenesis of APS is multifaceted and involves numerous mechanisms including activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, and/or platelets; inhibition of natural anticoagulant pathways such as protein C, tissue factor inhibitor, and annexin A5; activation of the complement system; and impairment of the fibrinolytic syste...

  12. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  13. The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perceived School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Benjamin; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examines whether visual impairment has an impact on a student's perception of the school climate. Using a large national sample of high school students, perceptions were examined for students with vision impairment relative to students with no visual impairments. Three factors were examined: self-reported level of…

  14. Effective Classroom Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Penny R.; Dykes, Mary K.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for including students with visual impairments in general education settings. It explains categories of visual impairments and how students with visual impairments learn. Auditory learning and visual learning accommodations are addressed, and checklists for orientation and mobility adaptations, and for classroom…

  15. Annual research review : conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bogels, S.M.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  16. Special Problems of People with Diabetes and Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses the types of visual impairment caused by diabetes and the unique problems that people with diabetes and visual impairment face. Diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic optic neuropathy are discussed as causes of visual impairment, and specific problems in basic living are identified, including diet,…

  17. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  18. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  19. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  20. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia

  1. Quantitative analysis of brain metabolites in patients,with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolite changes in the brain of patients with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment(VCIND) and mild cognitive impairment(MCI) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy(MRS)

  2. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  3. Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J. Dunn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI is believed to represent a transitional stage between normal healthy ageing and the development of dementia. In particular, aMCI patients have been shown to have higher annual transition rates to Alzheimer's Disease (AD than individuals without cognitive impairment. Despite intensifying interest investigating the neuroanatomical basis of this transition, there remain a number of questions regarding the pathophysiological process underlying aMCI itself. A number of recent studies in aMCI have shown specific impairments in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN, which is a group of regions strongly related to episodic memory capacities. However to date, no study has investigated the integrity of the DMN between patients with aMCI and those with a non-amnestic pattern of MCI (naMCI, who have cognitive impairment, but intact memory storage systems. In this study, we contrasted the DMN connectivity in 24 aMCI and 33 naMCI patients using seed-based resting state fMRI. The two groups showed no statistical difference in their DMN intra-connectivity. However when connectivity was analysed according to performance on measures of episodic memory retrieval, the two groups were separable, with aMCI patients demonstrating impaired functional connectivity between the hippocampal formation and the posterior cingulate cortex. We provide evidence that this lack of connectivity is driven by impaired communication from the posterior cingulate hub and does not simply represent hippocampal atrophy, suggesting that posterior cingulate degeneration is the driving force behind impaired DMN connectivity in aMCI.

  4. The Investigation of Some Physical, Physiological and Anthropometric Parameters of Visually Impaired and Non-Impaired a National Male Judoka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayda, Muhammet Hakan; Karakoc, Onder; Ozdal, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed to analyze some physical, physiological and anthropometric parameters of visually impaired and non-impaired A National male judoka in this study. A total of 14 volunteer A National male judoka, of which 8 were visually impaired (age: 25.12 ± 3.75, disability status: 20-200) and 6 were not visually impaired (age: 21.50 ± 1.51),…

  5. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  6. The effect of hearing impairment on educational achievement of hearing-impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Kakojoibari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing is one of the most vital sensational abilities. Learning, which is the most basic ability for human compatibility to mental development, is affected by hearing ability. The main goal of this article was to review the effect of hearing impairment on educational achievement of hearing-impaired students, especially in the field of basic learning skills (reading, writing, and mathematics.Methods: In this article, the researches on the effect of hearing impairment on educational achievement were reviewed. There were 37 articles extracted from different databases such as Iran Medex, Scopus, PubMed, Magiran, Iran Journal, Google Scholar, and 12 credible books published from 1944 to 2013. In order to search in these databases, educational achievement and other related keywords were used.Conclusion: Hearing impairment affects listening skills, which is a mental process and is known as the first lingual skill. Subsequently, other lingual skills and learning abilities like educational achievement are affected as well. In order to decrease the educational gap in hearing-impaired students, it is very important to interfere in early stages and use of presentation methods to improve lingual skills in educational system.

  7. Evaluation of packet loss impairment on streaming video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Hua-xia; LI Chong-rong; QIU Sheng-ke

    2006-01-01

    Video compression technologies are essential in video streaming application because they could save a great amount of network resources. However compressed videos are also extremely sensitive to packet loss which is inevitable in today's best effort IP network. Therefore we think accurate evaluation of packet loss impairment on compressed video is very important. In this work, we develop an analytic model to describe these impairments without the reference of the original video (NR) and propose an impairment metric based on the model, which takes into account both impairment length and impairment strength. To evaluate an impaired frame or video, we design a detection and evaluation algorithm (DE algorithm) to compute the above metric value. The DE algorithm has low computational complexity and is currently being implemented in the real-time monitoring module of our HDTV over IP system. The impairment metric and DE algorithm could also be used in adaptive system or be used to compare diffeient error concealment strategies.

  8. [Impaired theory of mind in anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Egyed, Katalin; Pászthy, Bea; Németh, Dezsö

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, which is characterized by a continuously growing occurrence in the population and by the shift of the onset for earlier ages. The understanding of factors playing role in AN and the importance of effective prevention is an essential issue in science as well as in the society. AN also affects the social domain of life, patients with AN may exhibit impaired social interaction, social isolation, difficulties in emotion recognition and egocentric thinking in cognitive processing. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the theory of mind (ToM) deficits is anorexia nervosa. Although previous studies have reported ToM deficits in autism and in schizophrenia, the number of studies investigating ToM functioning in eating disorders are particularly low. Even though ToM difficulties, such as the affective ToM impairments were found in AN, however, the evidence of cognitive ToM deficits in anorexia patients is still lacking. Twenty anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy control adolescent girls participated in the experiment. EDI, BAT, Fallon-Rozin Test and Anamoprhic Micro Body Image Assesment Programme questionnaires and body-image tests were applied to discriminate anorexia nervosa group from healthy control group. The Hungarian version of Faux Pas Recognition Test was applied to evaluate ToM functioning. Compared to healthy control group, impairment in ToM functioning was found in AN group, especially in affective mental state attribution. Our results can raise new aspects for research, therapy and prevention of anorexia nervosa.

  9. Resilience and vision impairment in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetford, Clare; Bennett, Kate M; Hodge, Suzanne; Knox, Paul C; Robinson, Jude

    2015-12-01

    Some people fare better than others when faced with adversity; they appear to be more 'resilient'. This article explores the concept of resilience in the context of vision impairment using two linked sets of narrative interview data from 2007 to 2010. Three case studies were analysed in detail using a framework approach based upon a social-ecological model of resilience and vision impairment. Within the model a range of assets and resources are identified which influence an individual's capacity for resilience. A set of criteria were used to establish the extent to which each individual appeared to be resilient at each point in time. Analysis revealed that it is not merely the presence or absence of individual, social, and community resources - but how these resources interact with each other - that influences resilience and can create a risk to wellbeing. To possess only some of these resources is not sufficient; there is a co-dependency between these resources which requires the presence of other resources for resilience to be achieved. Resilience is not a fixed state; individuals can become more or less resilient as their circumstances and resources change over time. We suggest that the concept of resilience has much to offer the field of vision impairment as it allows the identification of enablers as well as areas of barriers to improving people's health and wellbeing and suggests further opportunities for service providers to engage with clients, even those who appear to be supported, as people's social, economic and emotional landscapes continue to change over time, rather than identifying deficit. PMID:26568213

  10. Early Pavlovian conditioning impairs later Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariviere, N A; Spear, N E

    1996-11-01

    Four experiments tested the effects in the rat of very early experience with stimuli to be used later for Pavlovian conditioning. Beginning on postnatal Day 12, prior to the development of substantial detection and effective perception of visual and auditory stimuli, rats were given five daily experiences with either lights or tones and a footshock known to be an effective unconditioned stimulus at these ages. Twenty-four hours after the last of these experiences, pairings of either the light or tone and the unconditioned stimulus were given with parameters established to yield a moderate degree of conditioning in untreated preweanlings (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 determined that early experience with paired or unpaired presentations of either the light or tone and the unconditioned stimulus resulted in a failure to condition to these same lights or tones on postnatal Day 17, although nontreated pups from the same litters conditioned quite effectively. Experiment 3 determined that this early conditioning experience with either paired or unpaired presentations of the lights or tones and the unconditioned stimulus yielded impaired conditioning on postnatal Day 17 in the alternative sensory modality as well, although again nontreated siblings conditioned quite effectively. Experiment 4 replicated the results of each of Experiments 2 and 3 and determined in addition that despite the impairment in conditioning that resulted from early paired or unpaired experience with the stimuli of conditioning, early experience with the individual stimuli of conditioning-with only the CS, the US, or the context-did not result in a similar impairment in conditioning. Although the results were unexpected, they may be understood in part in terms of intersensory competition during development, and there is precedent in the literature for similar interfering effects of early learning on later learning in a variety of species.

  11. Endocrine disruptors and childhood social impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S

    2011-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and 2002 (n=404) were analyzed for phthalate metabolites and BPA. Mother-child pairs were asked to return for a follow-up assessment when the child was between the ages of 7 and 9 years. At this visit, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n=137), a quantitative scale for measuring the severity of social impairment related to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the general population. In adjusted general linear models increasing log-transformed low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with greater social deficits (β=1.53, 95% CI 0.25-2.8). Among the subscales, LMWP were also associated with poorer Social Cognition (β=1.40, 95% CI 0.1-2.7); Social Communication (β=1.86, 95% CI 0.5-3.2); and Social Awareness (β=1.25, 95% CI 0.1-2.4), but not for Autistic Mannerisms or Social Motivation. No significant association with BPA was found (β=1.18, 95% CI -0.75, 3.11). Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with childhood social impairment in a multiethnic urban population. Even mild degrees of impaired social functioning in otherwise healthy individuals can have very important adverse effects over a child's lifetime. These results extend our previous finding of atypical neonatal and early childhood behaviors in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure. PMID:21182865

  12. What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child's language development is deficient for no obvious reason. For many years, there was a tendency to assume that SLI was caused by factors such as poor parenting, subtle brain damage around the time of birth, or transient hearing loss. Subsequently it became clear that these factors were far less important than genes in determining risk for SLI. A quest to find “the gene for SLI” was undertaken, but it soon became apparent that no sin...

  13. Cognitive impairments in patients with brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Zakharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data of Russian and foreign authors and the results of this paper authors’ investigation of higher cerebral functions in patients who have sustained brain injury (BI. It shows their high prevalence, the predominance of cognitive impairments (CI over neurological disorders in patients with mild and moderate injury, presents their quantitative and qualitative features (a preponderance of focal symptoms in severe injury and neurodynamic disorders in mild injury, describes the predictors of their course and prognosis (the degree of injury is one of the most important predictors, and discusses current trends in the medical correction of detected abnormalities.

  14. Residual impairment after lower extremity fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, C; Frandsen, P A; Röck, N D

    1998-01-01

    to the hospital for an interview and a clinical assessment 6 months later. The disability was measured by administering the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) to all patients by an interview process. SIP scores were calculated for pretraumatic and posttraumatic states. The pretraumatic SIP scores described...... the functional status before the injury. Additionally, three major aspects of impairments were measured 6 months after the fractures: range of motion, muscle strength, and pain. Most patients had a significantly higher SIP score 6 months after the fracture(s) than pretraumatically. The mean overall SIP score...

  15. Mild cognitive impairment is becoming more psychosocial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Frans; de Vugt, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have underlined the need for more studies of early psychosocial interventions for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia (Moniz-Cook, Vernooij-Dassen, Woods, & Orrell, 2011 ). In the last 10 years, MCI has become more 'psychosocial' and a starting point for professionals to help patients and their nearest ones to deal with their handicaps, to cope with a future that is insecure and gloomy, and to get prepared for the possibility of further decline and dependency. It is timely that Aging & Mental Health is devoting this paper, a special section in this issue with contributions dealing with psychological and social aspects of MCI. PMID:23402425

  16. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS......MCI), nonmemory domains (naMCI), and multiple domains (mdMCI). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between MCI status and mobility performance in the Habitual Gait Speed, Figure of 8 Walk, Short Physical Performance Battery, and self-reported Late Life Function and Disability Instrument...

  17. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  18. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Rogova; Fomin, V. V.; I. V. Damulin; E. G. Minakova; O. Yu. Selivanova; Yu. A. Petleva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs), the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of...

  19. Modeling Speech Intelligibility in Hearing Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheidiger, Christoph; Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Models of speech intelligibility (SI) have a long history, starting with the articulation index (AI, [17]), followed by the SI index (SI I, [18]) and the speech transmission index (STI, [7]), to only name a few. However, these models fail to accurately predict SI with nonlinearly processed noisy...... is not yet available. As a firrst step towards such a model, this study investigates to what extent eects of hearing impairment on SI can be modeled in the sEPSM framework. Preliminary results show that, by only modeling the loss of audibility, the model cannot account for the higher speech reception...

  20. Impaired fasting glycaemia vs impaired glucose tolerance: similar impairment of pancreatic alpha and beta cell function but differential roles of incretin hormones and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The impact of strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) vs isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) may differ depending on the underlying pathophysiology. We examined insulin secretion during OGTTs and IVGTTs, hepatic and peri...

  1. A conceptual framework for evaluating impairments in myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis is characterized by weakness and fatigability of different muscle groups, including ocular, bulbar and the limbs. Therefore, a measure of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia needs to reflect all the relevant impairments, as well as their variations with activity and fatigue. We conducted a qualitative study of patients with myasthenia, to explore their experiences and related impairments, aimed at developing a conceptual framework of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia gravis. METHODS: Twenty patients representing the spectrum of disease participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed by content analysis using an inductive approach with line-by-line open coding. Themes were generated from these codes. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified: the severity of the impairments and fatigability (i.e., triggering or worsening of an impairment with activity. The impairments were further classified within body regions (ocular, bulbar and axial/limbs. Fatigability was described as a phenomenon affecting the whole body but also affecting specific impairments, and was associated with fluctuation of the symptoms. Patients were concerned that clinical examination at a single point in time might not reflect their true clinical state due to fatigability and fluctuations in severity. CONCLUSIONS: This conceptual framework reflects the relevance of both severity and fatigability in understanding impairment-based disease severity in myasthenia. This framework could inform the development of impairment measures in myasthenia gravis.

  2. Does Stroke Impair Learning in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia das Dores Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess cognitive development and learning in children who have had strokes. Method. Twenty-nine stroke patients and 18 children with no brain lesions and no learning impairments were evaluated. For the cognitive assessment, Piaget's clinical method was used. Writing, arithmetic, and reading abilities were assessed by the school performance test. Results. The mean age at evaluation was 9.6 years. Among the 29 children, 20 had early lesions (mean of 2.4 years old. The stroke was ischemic in 18 subjects; there were 7 cases of recurrence. Six children could not answer the tests. A high index of cognitive delay and low performance in writing, arithmetic, and reading were verified. Comparison with the control group revealed that the children who have had strokes had significantly lower performances. Conclusion. In this sample, strokes impaired cognitive development and learning. It is important that children have access to educational support and cognitive rehabilitation after injury. These approaches may minimise the effects of strokes on learning in children.

  3. Impairments of social motor coordination in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that motor coordination of interacting people plays a crucial role in the success of social exchanges. Abnormal movements have been reported during interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and a motor coordination breakdown could explain this social interaction deficit, which is one of the main and earliest features of the illness. Using the dynamical systems framework, the goal of the current study was (i to investigate whether social motor coordination is impaired in schizophrenia and (ii to determine the underlying perceptual or cognitive processes that may be affected. We examined intentional and unintentional social motor coordination in participants oscillating hand-held pendulums from the wrist. The control group consisted of twenty healthy participant pairs while the experimental group consisted of twenty participant pairs that included one participant suffering from schizophrenia. The results showed that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved while intentional social motor coordination was impaired. In intentional coordination, the schizophrenia group displayed coordination patterns that had lower stability and in which the patient never led the coordination. A coupled oscillator model suggests that the schizophrenia group coordination pattern was due to a decrease in the amount of available information together with a delay in information transmission. Our study thus identified relational motor signatures of schizophrenia and opens new perspectives for detecting the illness and improving social interactions of patients.

  4. Mild behavioral impairment and risk of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taragano, FE; Allegri, RF; Krupitzki, H; Sarasola, D; Serrano, CM; Loñ, L; Lyketsos, CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia, at least for some patients. Behavioral symptoms in MCI are associated with a higher risk of dementia, but their association with dementia risk in patients without MCI is unknown. Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) refers to a late life syndrome with prominent psychiatric and related behavioral symptoms in the absence of prominent cognitive symptoms, which may also be a dementia prodrome. Objective To compare MCI and MBI patients and to estimate the risk of dementia development in these two groups. Method A consecutive series of 358 patients (239 with MCI; and 119 with MBI) presenting to an outpatient general hospital specialty clinic were followed for up to 5 years until conversion to dementia or censoring. Results 34% of MCI patients and over 70% of patients with MBI developed dementia (Logrank p=0.011). MBI patients without cognitive symptoms were more likely to develop dementia (Logrank p<0.001). MBI patients were more likely to develop dementia due to frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) as opposed to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Conclusion MBI appears to be a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. MBI (specifically those without cognitive symptoms) may confer a higher risk for dementia than MCI and is likely an FTD prodrome in many cases. These findings have implications for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of patients with dementia in late life, by focusing on the emergence of new behavioral symptoms. PMID:19323967

  5. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  6. Retinal Vascular Fractals and Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Ong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60 years from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study who underwent detailed clinical examinations including retinal photography, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Retinal vascular parameters were assessed from optic disc-centered photographs using a semiautomated program. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered, and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND and dementia were diagnosed according to standard diagnostic criteria. Results: Among 268 eligible nondemented participants, 78 subjects were categorized as CIND-mild and 69 as CIND-moderate. In multivariable adjusted models, reduced retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions were associated with an increased risk of CIND-mild and CIND-moderate. Reduced fractal dimensions were associated with poorer cognitive performance globally and in the specific domains of verbal memory, visuoconstruction and visuomotor speed. Conclusion: A sparser retinal microvascular network, represented by reduced arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, was associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that early microvascular damage may be present in preclinical stages of dementia.

  7. Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Eizadi-Mood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients’ memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs’ poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV. Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20–64 years were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43±9.02 and 50.62±9.12, respectively (P<0.001. Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation.

  8. Retinal Vascular Fractals and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi-Ting; Hilal, Saima; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Xu, Xin; Chen, Christopher; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Wong, Tien Yin; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60 years) from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study who underwent detailed clinical examinations including retinal photography, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Retinal vascular parameters were assessed from optic disc-centered photographs using a semiautomated program. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered, and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) and dementia were diagnosed according to standard diagnostic criteria. Results Among 268 eligible nondemented participants, 78 subjects were categorized as CIND-mild and 69 as CIND-moderate. In multivariable adjusted models, reduced retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions were associated with an increased risk of CIND-mild and CIND-moderate. Reduced fractal dimensions were associated with poorer cognitive performance globally and in the specific domains of verbal memory, visuoconstruction and visuomotor speed. Conclusion A sparser retinal microvascular network, represented by reduced arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, was associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that early microvascular damage may be present in preclinical stages of dementia. PMID:25298774

  9. Vestibular Impairment in Frontotemporal Dementia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Nakamagoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies to date have attempted to evaluate frontotemporal lobar degeneration from the perspective of the vestibular system. Objective: The present study examined vestibular function in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD clinical syndrome and evaluated whether vestibular disorders are involved in the clinical symptoms due to FTD. Methods: Fourteen patients with FTD syndrome, as well as healthy elderly controls without dementia, were included in the present study. All subjects underwent vestibular function tests using electronystagmography, such as caloric tests and visual suppression (VS tests, in which the induced caloric nystagmus was suppressed by visual stimuli. The association between clinical symptoms and vestibular function in the FTD syndrome group was further examined. Results: In the FTD syndrome group, caloric nystagmus was not necessarily suppressed during VS tests. Furthermore, VS was observed to be significantly impaired in FTD syndrome patients with gait disturbance as compared to those without such disturbance. Conclusion: The present study revealed that impairment of VS in patients with FTD results in an inability to regulate vestibular function by means of visual perception, regardless of multiple presumed neuropathological backgrounds. This could also be associated with gait disturbance in patients with FTD syndrome.

  10. Probabilistic Sequence Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI causes slight but noticeable disruption in cognitive systems, primarily executive and memory functions. However, it is not clear if the development of sequence learning is affected by an impaired cognitive system and, if so, how. The goal of our study was to investigate the development of probabilistic sequence learning, from the initial acquisition to consolidation, in MCI and healthy elderly control groups. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT to measure probabilistic sequence learning. Individuals with MCI showed weaker learning performance than the healthy elderly group. However, using the reaction times only from the second half of each learning block – after the reactivation phase - we found intact learning in MCI. Based on the assumption that the first part of each learning block is related to reactivation/recall processes, we suggest that these processes are affected in MCI. The 24-hour offline period showed no effect on sequence-specific learning in either group but did on general skill learning: the healthy elderly group showed offline improvement in general reaction times while individuals with MCI did not. Our findings deepen our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and time course of sequence acquisition and consolidation.

  11. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  12. Enhancing Wheelchair Manoeuvrability for Severe Impairment Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Tomari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of individuals with severe motor impairments are unable to control their wheelchair using a standard joystick. Even when they can facilitate the control input, navigation in a confined space or crowded environments is still a great challenge. Here we propose a wheelchair framework that enables the user to issue the command via a multi‐input hands free interface (HFI, which subsequently assists him/her to overcome difficult circumstances using a multimodal control strategy. Initially the HFI inputs are analysed to infer the desired control mode and the user command. Then environmental information is perceived using a combination of laser and Kinect sensors for determining all possible obstacle locations and outputting a safety map around the wheelchair’s vicinity. Eventually, the user’s command is validated with the safety map to moderate the final motion, which is collision free and the best for the user’s preference. The proposed method can reduce the burden of severe impairment users when controlling wheelchairs by continuously monitoring the surroundings and can make them move easily according to the users’ intention.

  13. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia.

  14. 20 CFR 416.913 - Medical and other evidence of your impairment(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(s). 416.913 Section 416.913 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... about your functional limitations compared to children your age who do not have impairments in acquiring... about and manipulating objects, caring for yourself, and health and physical well-being. (d)...

  15. Metabolic inflexibility is a common feature of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation. Impaired metabolic flexibility is related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but whether metabolic flexibility is impaired in individuals with the pre-diabetic states isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) is unknown. Using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry, we measured peripheral insulin sensitivity, lipid and glucose oxidation, and thus metabolic flexibility in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 20), i-IFG (n = 18) and i-IGT (n = 28). During insulin stimulation, individuals with i-IGT displayed reduced insulin sensitivity including reduced glucose oxidation. Interestingly, those with i-IFG exhibited reduced glucose oxidation and a slightly elevated lipid oxidation rate during insulin infusion despite having normal total peripheral glucose disposal. Thus, metabolic flexibility was significantly reduced in individuals with both i-IFG and i-IGT even after adjustment for BMI and insulin sensitivity. The data indicate that metabolic inflexibility may precede the development of overt peripheral insulin resistance in pre-diabetic individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm this notion. PMID:21207234

  16. Awareness of Academic Writing among Hearing Impaired Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoya, Miyoko

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the teaching of academic writing to hearing impaired (Deaf) students. The study assesses awareness of academic writing by students and covers 135 students at the Division for the Hearing Impaired at Tsukuba College of Technology. The study shows that; 1. the interest and motivation of hearing impaired students in academic writing is very high 2. students are aware of their inability, but cannot recognize where they experience problems.

  17. Type 2 diabetes and cognitive impairment: linking mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Luchsinger, José A.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript provides a brief review of current concepts in the mechanisms potentially linking type-2-diabetes (T2D) with cognitive impairment. Existing epidemiologic studies, imaging studies, autopsy studies and clinical trials provide insights into the mechanisms linking T2D and cognitive impairment. There seems to be little dispute that T2D can cause cerebrovascular disease and thus cause vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Whether T2D can cause late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) re...

  18. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 ...

  19. Topics in accounting for impairment of fixed assets

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaal, Erlend

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three topics related to the accounting for impairment of fixed assets, represented by five papers. The first topic is an empirical research into the functionality of the new generation of impairment standards. The second topic is an analytical discussion of one particular measurement aspect of the new impairment standards, which is their mandated discounting technique and the treatment of future tax cash flows. The third topic is a historical research into the or...

  20. Impaired regulatory B cells in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian Rong; Rezania, Kourosh; Soliven, Betty

    2016-08-15

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs) attenuate the severity of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent manner. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of human Bregs in MG focusing on CD19(+)CD1d(hi) CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) subsets. We found that MG patients exhibited a decrease in the frequency of both Breg subsets and IL-10 producing B cells within each subset, which correlated with disease severity. In addition, there was impaired suppression of Th1 polarization in MG. These findings, taken together with EAMG data, indicate that Bregs play an important role in regulating the severity of MG. PMID:27397074

  1. Performance Visualization for Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Hiraga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We have been teaching computer music to hearing impaired students of Tsukuba College of Technology for six years. Although students have hearing difficulties, almost all of them show an interest in music. Thus, this has been a challenging class to turn their weakness into enjoyment. We thought that performance visualization is a good method for them to keep their interest in music and try cooperative performances with others. In this paper, we describe our computer music class and the result of our preliminary experiment on the effectiveness of visual assistance. Though it was not a complete experiment with a sufficient number of subjects, the result showed that the show-ahead and selected-note-only types of performance visualization were necessary according to the purpose of the visual aid.

  2. The concept of vascular cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, J V

    2002-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is increasingly recognised to reflect an outmoded concept in that it identifies cases too late for preventive therapy to have an opportunity to prevent the development of dementia and uses a cognitive paradigm inappropriately based on Alzheimer's disease. A replacement is urgently required and a new concept, that of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), has been proposed to meet this need. It is imperative that criteria for VCI are developed on the basis of knowledge and data rather than supposition and assumption, as was the case for VaD. This review details the state of knowledge that we have now reached concerning the fundamental points of severity and cognitive paradigm and also covers a number of other imaging-related essential points embracing atrophy, leukoaraiosis, infarct volume and infarct location. Finally, the increasingly important concept of mixed dementia (co-existent Alzheimer's disease and VCI) is discussed.

  3. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    that participant generally behave altruistic and assisted fellow participants to evacuate. There are examples of elderly people guiding and assisting children to evacuate, deaf people assisting mobility impaired people, and able-bodied individuals who lend a helping hand to a blind participant and guide him......Fire have always been a threat to human beings and claim lives every year. A lot is done to ensure fire safety in our buildings an structures, but fires still occur and lives are lost. In the past decades there has been a trend towards more and more complex buildings, which challenge fire safety...... engineers and the prescriptive fire safety codes. Consquently, performance based fire codes is developed and implemented in countires around the world. Performance based codes allow for use of engineering tools and calculations. Meanwhile, accessibility to the building environment have likewise gained...

  4. Cognitive impairment in heart failure patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Leto; Mauro Feola

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive damage in heart failure (HF) involves different domains thus interfering with the ability for single patient to self-care and to cope with treatment regimens, modifying symptoms and health behaviours. Many cerebral and functional changes were detected in brain imaging, involving areas of both grey and white matter deputed to cognition. Although various instruments are available to explore cognition, no consensus was obtained on better tools to be used in HF population. Reduction in cerebral blood flow, decreased cardiac output, altera-tions of cerebrovascular reactivity and modification of blood pressure levels are the main features involved in the etiopathogenetic mecha-nisms of cognitive deficit. Several cardiac variables, laboratory parameters, demographic and clinical elements were studied for their possible relation with cognition and should be properly evaluated to define patients at increased risk of impairment. The present review gathers avail-able data pointing out assured information and discussing possible areas of research development.

  5. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  6. Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Young Lee,1,2 Sooyeon Kho,1,2 Hye Bin Yoo,1,2 Soowon Park,1,2 Jung-Seok Choi,1,2 Jun Soo Kwon,3 Kyung Ryeol Cha,4 Hee-Yeon Jung1,21Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University, 2Seoul Metropolitan Government – Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Osan Mental Hospital, Gyeonggi, South KoreaObjective: This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results.Methods: We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate.Results: In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group.Conclusion: Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD.Keywords: spatial behavior, Alzheimer's disease, user computer interface, cognition

  7. Impaired lysosomal cobalamin transport in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Hongyun; Ruberu, Kalani; Garner, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is required for erythrocyte formation and DNA synthesis and it plays a crucial role in maintaining neurological function. As a coenzyme for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, cobalamin utilization depends on its efficient transit through the intracellular lysosomal compartment and subsequent delivery to the cytosol and mitochondria. Lysosomal function deteriorates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lysosomal acidification is defective in AD and lysosomal proteolysis is disrupted by AD-related presenilin 1 mutation. In this study, we propose that AD related lysosomal dysfunction may impair lysosomal cobalamin transport. The experiments use in vitro and in vivo models of AD to define how lysosomal dysfunction directly affects cobalamin utilization. SH-SY5Y-AβPP mutant cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor to induce lysosomal amyloid-β accumulation. We metabolically labeled these cells with [57Co] cobalamin and isolated purified lysosomes, mitochondria, and cytosol fractions. The results indicated that proteasome inhibition was associated with lysosomal amyloid-β accumulation and a doubling of lysosomal [57Co] cobalamin levels. We also used AβPPxPS1 transgenic AD mice that were intraperitoneally injected with [57Co] cobalamin. The amount of [57Co] cobalamin in the major organs of these mice was measured and the subcellular [57Co] cobalamin distribution in the brain was assessed. The results demonstrated that lysosomal [57Co] cobalamin level was significantly increased by 56% in the AβPPxPS1 AD mouse brains as compared to wild type control mice. Together these data provide evidence that lysosomal cobalamin may be impaired in AD in association with amyloid-β accumulation. PMID:25125476

  8. Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory in infected seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Almost 30% of humans present a Toxoplasma gondii positive antibody status and its prevalence increases with age. The central nervous system is the main target. However, little is known about the influence of asymptomatic i.e. latent Toxoplasmosis on cognitive functions in humans. To investigate neurocognitive dysfunctions in asymptomatic older adults with T. gondii positive antibody status a double-blinded neuropsychological study was conducted. The participants were classified from a population-based sample (N=131) of healthy participants with an age of 65 years and older into two groups with 42 individuals each: Toxoplasmosis positive (T-pos; IgG>50 IU/ml) and Toxoplasmosis negative (T-neg; IgG=0 IU/ml). The outcome measures were a computer-based working-memory test (2-back) and several standardized psychometric tests of memory and executive cognitive functions. T-pos seniors showed an impairment of different aspects of memory. The rate of correctly detected target symbols in a 2-back task was decreased by nearly 9% (P=0.020), corresponding to a performance reduction of about 35% in working memory relative to the T-neg group. Moreover, T-pos seniors had a lower performance in a verbal memory test, both regarding immediate recall (10% reduction; P=0.022), delayed recognition (6%; P=0.037) and recall from long-term memory assessed by the word fluency tests (12%; P=0.029). In contrast, executive functions were not affected. The effects remained mostly unchanged after controlling for medication. The impairment of memory functions in T-pos seniors was accompanied by a decreased self-reported quality of life. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxoplasmosis and an increasing population of older adults this finding is of high relevance for public health.

  9. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eAfonso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  10. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  11. Ventilatory chaos is impaired in carotid atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mangin

    Full Text Available Ventilatory chaos is strongly linked to the activity of central pattern generators, alone or influenced by respiratory or cardiovascular afferents. We hypothesized that carotid atherosclerosis should alter ventilatory chaos through baroreflex and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Chaotic dynamics of inspiratory flow was prospectively evaluated in 75 subjects undergoing carotid ultrasonography: 27 with severe carotid stenosis (>70%, 23 with moderate stenosis (<70%, and 25 controls. Chaos was characterized by the noise titration method, the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated in the frequency domain. In the control group, 92% of the time series exhibit nonlinear deterministic chaos with positive noise limit, whereas only 68% had a positive noise limit value in the stenoses groups. Ventilatory chaos was impaired in the groups with carotid stenoses, with significant parallel decrease in the noise limit value, correlation dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent, as compared to controls. In multiple regression models, the percentage of carotid stenosis was the best in predicting the correlation dimension (p<0.001, adjusted R(2: 0.35 and largest Lyapunov exponent (p<0.001, adjusted R(2: 0.6. Baroreflex sensitivity also predicted the correlation dimension values (p = 0.05, and the LLE (p = 0.08. Plaque removal after carotid surgery reversed the loss of ventilatory complexity. To conclude, ventilatory chaos is impaired in carotid atherosclerosis. These findings depend on the severity of the stenosis, its localization, plaque surface and morphology features, and is independently associated with baroreflex sensitivity reduction. These findings should help to understand the determinants of ventilatory complexity and breathing control in pathological conditions.

  12. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream.

  13. Visually Impaired Children's Acceptances on Assistive Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulnadwan Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The government of Malaysia is considering serious efforts in promoting the usage of computers among disabled people. Currently, the availability of computer applications especially related to creative contents for disabled people in Malaysia is infancy and very expensive. Research and expertise in the area of Assistive Technology (AT in Malaysia is still uncommon and not extensively utilized. Therefore research involving special communities such as disabled people on the usage of electronic applications should be focused because records show that their population populations are increasing. Hence, this research will be tailored for Visually-Impaired (VI learners. In Malaysia, visual impairment is one of the highest registered disabilities. Approach: This study presents an ongoing project that determines whether the VI children can accept the Assistive Courseware (AC as one of the effective tools in their learning process. Specification identification, AC development and testing and evaluation are three activities involved in this study. In addition, data have been collected through qualitative approaches. Results: The results highlight four important elements for incorporated in an AC for VI children. Through the testing and evaluation, it was found that the VI children accept the AC due to interesting usage of audio, graphic, text and easy navigation method. Conclusion: In a nutshell, the positive responses prove that the AC not only exposes the VI children to the world of technology but also educates them in terms of interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills and motivation. The recommended future work is to produce a much comprehensive AC which focuses on interactivity, various multimedia elements, multiple intelligence elements and multiple stages of exercise in granting value-added AC not only for VI children in Malaysia but also to other world VI communities in the world.

  14. PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCE OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT ON THE INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osisanya AYO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with hearing impairment are confronted with a lot of problems due to the condition of their disability. This has a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being with multiplying effect on their interpersonal relationship. Therefore, this study investigated the psycho-social influence of hearing impairment on interpersonal behavior of youths with hearing loss.MethodologyThe study adopted a survey research design. A sample consisting of 211 participants with hearing loss were purposively selected from the Federal College of Education (Special Oyo, Nigeria. A questionnaire, part of Psycho-social Competence Scale (PCS, was used for data collection with reliability coefficient of 0.72.ResultsThe findings revealed that hearing impairement affects social interaction of youths with hearing impairment, hearing loss affects emotional well-being of youths with hearing impairment and youths with hearing impairment feel inferior in company of persons without hearing impairment. Based on this, it was recommended that a friendly home environment should be made and youths with hearing impairment should be advised to accept their loss and take it as a challenge that can be used to achieve a better end and the society should have right attitude and beliefs toward youths with hearing impairment.

  15. Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessells Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ≤ 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 30–60 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment. Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.8–1.8 whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.6–14.5 with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/μl. In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.54–6.1, male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.39–2.56 and CD4 Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited.

  16. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; SUZUKI, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wr...

  17. Impaired neural discrimination of emotional speech prosody in children with autism spectrum disorder and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, R; Lepistö-Paisley, T; Vanhala, R; Alén, R; Kujala, T

    2016-08-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficient social and communication skills, including difficulties in perceiving speech prosody. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes (sad, scornful and commanding) in natural word stimuli in typically developed school-aged children and in children with ASD and language impairment. We found that the responses to a repetitive word were diminished in amplitude in the children with ASD, reflecting impaired speech encoding. Furthermore, the amplitude of the MMN/LDN component, reflecting cortical discrimination of sound changes, was diminished in the children with ASD for the scornful deviant. In addition, the amplitude of the P3a, reflecting involuntary orienting to attention-catching changes, was diminished in the children with ASD for the scornful deviant and tended to be smaller for the sad deviant. These results suggest that prosody processing in ASD is impaired at various levels of neural processing, including deficient pre-attentive discrimination and involuntary orientation to speech prosody. PMID:27291458

  18. Adults with Intellectual Impairment Who Stammer: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Jois; Collier, Ruth; King, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual impairments have a high prevalence of stammering. Characteristic speech and associated behaviours are also different in quality and more variable between individuals than those of the typical adult population. This paper describes a speech and language therapy group with two adults with intellectual impairments and…

  19. Impairment-Aware Path Selection in Translucent Optical Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, F.A.; Beshir, A.A.; Orda, A.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical impairments, such as noise and signal distortions, negatively affect the quality of information transport in optical networks. The effect of physical impairments augments with distance and bit rate of the signal to the point that it becomes detrimental to the information transfer. To revers

  20. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to…

  1. Impairments in Learning Due to Motivational Conflict: Situation Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Nina K.; Grund, Axel; Hilckmann, Kristina; Fries, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although many theories mention distractions by conflicting alternatives as a problem for self-regulation, motivational conflicts are rarely considered when explaining impairments in learning. In two studies, we investigate the assumption of motivational interference theory that students show different amounts of impairments in learning depending…

  2. Factors of Problem Behavior in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittjer, Carl J.; Hirshoren, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    The Behavior Problem Checklist was completed by teachers of 104 students in a residential school for the visually impaired. Overall, the visually impaired children tended to have problem-behavior patterns similar to other populations and these patterns were largely independent of the visual handicap. (Author)

  3. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  4. Listening Skills Materials for Visually Impaired Students: Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Bernadette

    The catalog lists 24 commercially available listening skills materials for visually impaired students. Materials were selected for inclusion by a committee of educators for the visually impaired; some materials may require minimal modification (such as transcribing answer sheets into braille). An introduction describes seven functional areas of…

  5. Monterey Learning Systems: Improving Academic Achievement of Visually Impaired Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Kathryn M.

    1977-01-01

    Tested was the premise that the academic competencies of visually impaired learners could be enhanced by training procedures that combine auditory and visual skills in a project using the Monterey Learning Systems Reading and Mathematics Programs with 29 visually impaired print readers. (Author/MH)

  6. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  7. Language-Impaired Children's Comprehension of Synthesized Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Holly J.

    1988-01-01

    The Token Test for Children was given in both synthesized-speech and natural-speech versions to 11 language impaired children (aged 8-10 years) and to 11 control subjects. Scores of the impaired children on the synthesized version were significantly lower than the synthesized-speech scores of the control group or of their own scores on the…

  8. Educating Students Who Have Visual Impairments with Other Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Silberman, Rosanne K.

    The 15 papers in this book on teaching students who have visual impairments and other disabilities are grouped into three parts which examine first, characteristics of students with visual impairments and other disabilities; second, the instructional process, curriculum, and methods; and, third, disability-specific curriculum. The papers are: (1)…

  9. Using Simulations To Understand Older Adults with Sensory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubok, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes two popular models for increasing sensitivity to sensory impairment in the elderly and details a third model used in training human service students and practitioners. Ideas and techniques presented work toward understanding the impact of sensory impairment on the daily life of older adults and to identify coping techniques to improve…

  10. Visual Impairment and Self-Esteem: What Makes a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    This account follows on from the research report "Visual impairment and its impact on self-esteem" (Bowen, 2010) published in this journal. The original article reported the results of an investigation of self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with visual impairment. Four children, whose self-esteem was measured as "low" or "very…

  11. 38 CFR 3.385 - Disability due to impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disability due to... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.385 Disability due to impaired hearing. For the purposes of applying the laws administered by VA, impaired hearing will be considered to be a disability when...

  12. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Mehlsen, Jesper; Knudsen, Gitte M;

    2006-01-01

    .0+/-2.0 bpm) compared to the controls (21.7+/-2.2 bpm, p=0.001, Tukey' test). Systolic blood pressure fell during head-up tilt only in patients with severe cirrhosis. Our results imply that cerebral autoregulation was impaired in the most severe cases of liver cirrhosis, and that those with impaired cerebral...

  13. Hearing impairment and renal failure associated with RMND1 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Kirstine; Neland, Mette; Wibrand, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    of the RMND1 homopolymeric complex was highly impaired. The two siblings had a markedly milder phenotype and longer survival compared to previously reported patients. In addition, they had renal failure and hearing impairment. These two newly described patients contribute to delineation of the clinical...

  14. Factors Affecting the Reading Media Used by Visually Impaired Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudiras, Dimitrios B.; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios Ch.; Papageorgiou, Virginia E.; Stergiou, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reading media (braille, cassettes, screen-reader, screen-magnifier, large print, low vision aids, CCTV) used by visually impaired adults. This article reports the results of a research project involving 100 people with visual impairment. The participants were interviewed and asked to fill in a questionnaire to…

  15. White Matter Damage and Cognitive Impairment after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria; Greenwood, Richard; Powell, Jane Hilary; Leech, Robert; Hawkins, Peter Charlie; Bonnelle, Valerie; Patel, Maneesh Chandrakant; Counsell, Serena Jane; Sharp, David James

    2011-01-01

    White matter disruption is an important determinant of cognitive impairment after brain injury, but conventional neuroimaging underestimates its extent. In contrast, diffusion tensor imaging provides a validated and sensitive way of identifying the impact of axonal injury. The relationship between cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury…

  16. Enriching the Ensemble Experience for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siligo, Wayne Roy

    2005-01-01

    This article will give music educators some practical tools and information for helping students with visual impairments enjoy the ensemble experience. The author has used these tools as music director at the California School for the Blind (CSB) and as a musician who is visually impaired. All observations and techniques mentioned here come out of…

  17. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  18. Research the mobile phone operation interfaces for vision-impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yen-Ting; Leung, Cherng-Yee

    2012-01-01

    Due to the vision-impaired users commonly having difficulty with mobile-phone function operations and adaption any manufacturer's user interface design, the goals for this research are established for evaluating how to improve for them the function operation convenience and user interfaces of either mobile phones or electronic appliances in the market currently. After applying collecting back 30 effective questionnaires from 30 vision-impairment, the comments have been concluded from this research include: (1) All mobile phone manufactures commonly ignorant of the vision-impairment difficulty with operating mobile phone user interfaces; (2) The vision-impairment preferential with audio alert signals; (3) The vision-impairment incapable of mobile-phone procurement independently unless with assistance from others; (4) Preferential with adding touch-usage interface design by the vision-impairment; in contrast with the least requirement for such functions as braille, enlarging keystroke size and diversifying-function control panel. With exploring the vision-impairment's necessary improvements and obstacles for mobile phone interface operation, this research is established with goals for offering reference possibly applied in electronic appliance design and . Hopefully, the analysis results of this research could be used as data references for designing electronic and high-tech products and promoting more usage convenience for those vision-impaired.

  19. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette;

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD....

  20. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette;

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD...

  1. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  2. Inferences and Word Associations of Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Markham, Rosalyn; Hlavacek, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of children (ages 6-12) with visual impairments (n=15) and sighted children (n=15) on two tasks involving inferences found some differences between the two groups when the information was visual, but not when it was nonvisual. Visual impairment affected some aspects of a word association task. (Contains references.)…

  3. Divergent Thinking of Children with Severe Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Markham, Roslyn

    1999-01-01

    This study compares scores on the Alternate Uses Test of 19 Australian children (ages 4 to 12) with severe visual impairments, and 19 controls. Comparison of mean scores revealed no significant differences between groups, however, the range of scores reflected in the standard deviations were higher for those with visual impairments. (CR)

  4. Determinants of social participation of visually impaired older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess determinants of social participation among visually impaired older adults. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired persons (a parts per thousand yen55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation center. Determinants (i.e., sociodemographic, physical, soci

  5. Perceived social support in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P

    2013-11-01

    The study assessed perceived availability of support from parents, peers, and teachers in adolescents with and without visual impairment. Adolescents with visual impairment perceived lower levels of parental support but higher levels of support from teachers than sighted adolescents, and these differences remained stable across a 2-year interval. There was considerable heterogeneity within the groups as adolescents with visual impairment were most often found in clusters with high levels as well as low levels of all assessed sources of support. High perceived support from all sources showed positive associations with life-satisfaction of adolescents with and without visual impairment. As lower levels of perceived parental support of students with visual impairment were based on students from residential schools, we conclude that measures would be welcomed for improvement of parent-child contacts during the school days. PMID:24060727

  6. CONTEMPOPARY VIEWS TO SIGN LANGUAGE OF HEARING IMPAIRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojka TATAREVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The place of the sign language in education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden.Hearing impaired people ought to have a possibility of access to vital information, so they can move step by step, to live as useful members of society.Sign language is nonverbal communication which appears as a kind of compensation of the language lack, a means of development of that activity an opinion of unlimited human communicative nature.Mimic sign language in the system of education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden take a primary place. The school with Hearing impaired children are bilingual. In the schools sign language is taken as a training language and it is available to every child.Contemporary views and practice tell us that teaching of hearing impaired children with sign language is more effective and more available.

  7. Aging neuromodulation impairs associative binding: a neurocomputational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chen; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2005-06-01

    Relative to young adults, older adults are particularly impaired in episodic memory tasks requiring associative binding of separate components into compound episodes, such as tasks requiring item-context and item-item binding. This associative-binding deficit has been attributed to senescent changes in frontal-hippocampal circuitry but has not been formally linked to impaired neuromodulation involving this circuitry. Previous neurocomputational work showed that impaired neuromodulation could result in less distinct neurocognitive representations. Here we extend this computational principle to simulate aging-related deficits in associative binding. As expected, networks with simulated deficiency in neuromodulation resulted in less distinct internal representations than did networks simulating the processing and performance of young adults, and were also more impaired under task conditions that required associative binding. The findings suggest that senescent changes in neuromodulatory mechanisms may play a basic role in aging-related impairment in associative binding by reducing the efficacy of distributed conjunctive coding. PMID:15943670

  8. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer; Karstensen, Helena G; Siebner, Hartwig; Tommerup, Niels; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin' Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals.

  9. Self-motion direction discrimination in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ivan; Grabherr, Luzia; Hartmann, Matthias; Mast, Fred W

    2015-11-01

    Despite the close interrelation between vestibular and visual processing (e.g., vestibulo-ocular reflex), surprisingly little is known about vestibular function in visually impaired people. In this study, we investigated thresholds of passive whole-body motion discrimination (leftward vs. rightward) in nine visually impaired participants and nine age-matched sighted controls. Participants were rotated in yaw, tilted in roll, and translated along the interaural axis at two different frequencies (0.33 and 2 Hz) by means of a motion platform. Superior performance of visually impaired participants was found in the 0.33 Hz roll tilt condition. No differences were observed in the other motion conditions. Roll tilts stimulate the semicircular canals and otoliths simultaneously. The results could thus reflect a specific improvement in canal-otolith integration in the visually impaired and are consistent with the compensatory hypothesis, which implies that the visually impaired are able to compensate the absence of visual input.

  10. Physical impairment aware transparent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Jean-Christophe; Morea, Annalisa; Zami, Thierry; Leplingard, Florence

    2009-11-01

    As illustrated by optical fiber and optical amplification, optical telecommunications have appeared for the last ten years as one of the most promising candidates to increase the transmission capacities. More recently, the concept of optical transparency has been investigated and introduced: it consists of the optical routing of Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) channels without systematic optoelectronic processing at nodes, as long as propagation impairments remain acceptable [1]. This allows achieving less power-consuming, more scalable and flexible networks, and today partial optical transparency has become a reality in deployed systems. However, because of the evolution of traffic features, optical networks are facing new challenges such as demand for higher transmitted capacity, further upgradeability, and more automation. Making all these evolutions compliant on the same current network infrastructure with a minimum of upgrades is one of the main issues for equipment vendors and operators. Hence, an automatic and efficient management of the network needs a control plan aware of the expected Quality of Transmission (QoT) of the connections to set-up with respect to numerous parameters such as: the services demanded by the customers in terms of protection/restoration; the modulation rate and format of the connection under test and also of its adjacent WDM channels; the engineering rules of the network elements traversed with an accurate knowledge of the associated physical impairments. Whatever the method and/or the technology used to collect this information, the issue about its accuracy is one of the main concerns of the network system vendors, because an inaccurate knowledge could yield a sub-optimal dimensioning and so additional costs when installing the network in the field. Previous studies [1], [2] illustrated the impact of this knowledge accuracy on the ability to predict the connection feasibility. After describing usual methods to build

  11. Impairment in visual cognition in patients with Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neural pathway for visual information processing involves retina, lateral geniculate body, primary visual cortex, and higher visual cortical areas, all of which have been reported to be disordered either functionally or pathologically in Parkinson disease (PD). As elementary visual disorders, there have been studies that reported reduced contrast sensitivity for middle to high spatial frequencies and impaired blue color perception. Most of those studies suggested retina as the damaged cite that is responsible for the impairments, whereas some studies pointed to the possible cortical involvement. Impairments of higher visual functions also have been reported. In the dorsal stream, impairments of object localization, depth perception, and mental rotation have been reported. In the ventral stream, object perception and visual integration of objects have been found to be impaired. A meta-analysis study, however, concluded that although there may be impairments in higher order functions like attention and problem solving capacity there is no firm evidence for the impairments of higher visual functions. Neuroimaging studies have found a relationship between reduced metabolism centered in the parietal lobe and impaired performance in higher visual functions. Impaired identification of overlapping figures has been reported in dementia with Lewy bodies a disease that is akin to PD. Capacity to discriminate textured areas has been found to be damaged in PD. We conducted a fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study to explore the relationship between brain metabolism and perception of overlapping figures, perception of shapes defined by texture differences and perception of subjective contours in PD. It revealed that there is a correlation between reduced activation in lateral occipital complex and impaired performance for these tasks, suggesting some compromised ventral rout functions. (author)

  12. Education Practices Incorporating Technologies in the Field of Visual Impairments at a Special Needs Education School for Orthopedically Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagi, Manabi; Amano, Kazuhiko; Shinya, Mikihide

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of technological applications for specific educationalvisual impairments at a special needs education school for orthopedically impaired children. Tactilegraphics and voice IC tag recorders were introduced as educational materials for students who haddifficulties in visual recognition and speech production. Compared with conventional educationalmaterials, these innovative technologies were expected to increase student interest and overallsatisfaction.

  13. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  14. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  15. Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, R; Berglund, B; Berglund, U; Lindvall, T; Wennberg, A

    1986-12-01

    The olfactory perception of 20 men (tank cleaners) exposed to petroleum products (while cleaning oil tanks) was examined. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). They were matched with regard to sex, age, and smoking habits. Odor detection thresholds and the perceived odor intensity of four odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapor (gas phase of heating oil heated to +40 degrees C), were determined. The results suggested that the tank cleaners had higher absolute odor thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapor than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odor intensity. The tank cleaners displayed an odor deficit analogous to the hearing loss known as "loudness recruitment," ie, normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odor deficit was therefore named "odor intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleaners, to be associated with occupational exposure to oil vapor.

  16. Thal fundoplication in neurologically impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V; Ashcraft, K W; Sharp, R J; Murphy, P J; Snyder, C L; Gittes, G K; Bickler, S W

    1996-06-01

    Children with neurological impairment (NI) frequently require feeding gastrostomy, and this often aggravates or produces gastroesophageal reflux (GER). From 1976 to 1994, 141 children with severe NI underwent Thal fundoplication and gastrostomy (GT). GER was evident in 80%; in the rest, fundoplication was an adjunct to GT. Ph results were positive in 38 cases, and 57 children had reflux according to the barium studies. There were no major intraoperative complications. Disruption of the repair and/or recurrent GER was noted in 14 cases (10%); 8 were redone as Thals, and 6 were converted to Nissen procedures. Pyloroplasty was done later in 9 children (6%). Bowel obstruction was seen in 4 patients (3%). Clinical follow-up (mean, 54 months) showed improvement in 96%; only 5 of the 141 (3.2%) have residual symptoms. Of the patients with an intact Thal, 67% could burp or vomit. The ability to vomit may protect the Thal fundoplication and avoid disruption of the repair. PMID:8783112

  17. Extinction memory is impaired in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Daphne. J.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Milad, Mohammed R.; Rauch, Scott L.; Pitman, Roger K.; Orr, Scott P.; Cassidy, Brittany S.; Walsh, Jared P.; Goff, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in emotional processing and social cognition, which may result from disruption of the underlying neural mechanism(s) governing emotional learning and memory. To investigate this possibility, we measured the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and delayed recall of extinction in schizophrenia and control subjects. Methods 28 schizophrenia and 18 demographically-matched control subjects underwent a two-day fear conditioning, extinction learning and extinction recall procedure, in which skin conductance response (SCR) magnitude was used as the index of conditioned responses. Results During fear acquisition, 83% of the controls and 57% of the patients showed autonomic responsivity (‘responders’), and the patients showed larger SCRs to the stimulus that was not paired with the unconditioned stimulus (CS−) than the controls. Within the responder group, there was no difference between the patients and controls in levels of extinction learning; however, the schizophrenia patients showed significant impairment, relative to the controls, in context-dependent recall of the extinction memory. In addition, delusion severity in the patients correlated with baseline skin conductance levels. Conclusions These data are consistent with prior evidence for a heightened neural response to innocuous stimuli in schizophrenia and elevated arousal levels in psychosis. The finding of deficient extinction recall in schizophrenia patients who showed intact extinction learning suggests that schizophrenia is associated with a disturbance in the neural processes supporting emotional memory. PMID:18986648

  18. Impaired nonspecific cellular immunity in experimental cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughneen, P T; Drath, D B; Kulkarni, A D; Rowlands, B J

    1987-11-01

    The abilities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), to demonstrate chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and superoxide release after bile duct ligation in the rat were investigated to determine the effect of cholestasis on nonspecific cellular immune mechanisms. Chemotactic response to C5a and FMLP, phagocytosis of 14C labeled Staphylococcus aureus, and zymosan-induced superoxide release were evaluated 21 days after bile duct ligation (BDL), sham operation, or in normal controls. Serum total bilirubin level was elevated after BDL (p less than 0.01). Chemotactic ability was similar to each group. PMN phagocytic uptake of 14C labeled Staphylococcus aureus was depressed in BDL (p less than 0.05). BDL rats exhibited impaired PAM phagocytic indices and improved PMN superoxide release (p less than 0.03). PAM superoxide release was similar in each study group. Alterations in phagocytic function with cholestasis are important deficits in nonspecific cellular immunity that may contribute to the high incidence of infective complications associated with obstructive jaundice. PMID:2823730

  19. Rodent Models of Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Kimura-Ohba, Shihoko; Thompson, Jeffrey; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID), which is an increasingly important cause of dementia in the elderly, lacks effective treatments. Many different types of vascular disease are included under the diagnosis of VCID, including large vessel disease with multiple strokes and small vessel disease with lacunar infarcts and white matter disease. Animal models have been developed to study the multiple forms of VCID. Because of its progressive course, small vessel disease (SVD) is thought to be the optimal form of VCID for treatment. One theory is that the pathophysiology involves hypoxic hypoperfusion resulting in injury to the white matter and neuronal death. Bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCAO) in a normotensive rat, which reduces cerebral blood flow, induces hypoxia with white matter damage; this model has been used to test drugs to block the injury. Another model is the spontaneously hypertensive/stroke prone rat (SHR/SP). Hypertension leads to small vessel disease resulting in progressive damage to the white matter, cortex, and hippocampus. Bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) with coils or ameroid constrictors produces a slower development of changes than BCAO, avoiding the acute ischemia. A few studies have been done with the two-clip, two-vessel occlusion renal model for induction of hypertension. There are benefits and drawbacks to each of these models with the model selected depending on the type of vascular damage that is to be studied. This review describes the most commonly used models, and the drugs that have been used to reduce the damage. PMID:27498679

  20. Impairment of the glymphatic system after diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Guangliang;

    2016-01-01

    The glymphatic system has recently been shown to clear brain extracellular solutes and abnormalities in glymphatic clearance system may contribute to both initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Despite that diabetes is known as a risk factor for vascular diseases, little is known ho......-induced cognitive deficits. Whole brain MRI provides a sensitive, non-invasive tool to quantitatively evaluate cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid exchange in Type-2 diabetes mellitus and possibly in other neurological disorders, with potential clinical application.......The glymphatic system has recently been shown to clear brain extracellular solutes and abnormalities in glymphatic clearance system may contribute to both initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Despite that diabetes is known as a risk factor for vascular diseases, little is known how...... diabetes affects the glymphatic system. The current study is the first investigation of the effect of diabetes on the glymphatic system and the link between alteration of glymphatic clearance and cognitive impairment in Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats. MRI analysis revealed that clearance of cerebrospinal...

  1. Impaired water barrier function in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Takenouchi, K; Ito, M

    1995-01-01

    In acne vulgaris, abnormal follicular keratinization is important for comedo formation, yet the precise mechanisms of comedogenesis are not known. The present study examined the interrelationship between sebum secretion rate (SSR), lipid content and water barrier function (WBF) of the stratum corneum (SC) in 36 acne patients and 29 control subjects. All major SC lipid classes were separated and quantified by thin-layer chromatography/photodensitometry. WBF was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the hygroscopic properties and waterholding capacity of the SC. The SSR over a period of 3 h was significantly higher in patients with moderate acne than in control subjects, but no significant difference was noticed between patients with mild acne and control subjects. Significant differences between patients with both moderate and mild acne and control subjects were noted in the amount of sphingolipids (ceramides and free sphingosine), but not for any other lipid classes. Furthermore in acne patients, lower amounts of sphingolipids were observed corresponding with a diminished WBF. These results suggest that an impaired WBF caused by decreased amounts of ceramides may be responsible for comedo formation, since barrier dysfunction is accompanied by hyperkeratosis of the follicular epithelium.

  2. Impaired Fibrinolysis in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Katie A.; Allen, Kristi L.; McCrae, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by venous and/or arterial thrombosis, or recurrent fetal loss, in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL). The pathogenesis of APS is multifaceted and involves numerous mechanisms including activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, and/or platelets; inhibition of natural anticoagulant pathways such as protein C, tissue factor inhibitor, and annexin A5; activation of the complement system; and impairment of the fibrinolytic system. Fibrinolysis—the process by which fibrin thrombi are remodeled and degraded—involves the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and is tightly regulated. Although the role of altered fibrinolysis in patients with APS is relatively understudied, several reports suggest that deficient fibrinolytic activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease in these patients. This article discusses the function of the fibrinolytic system and reviews studies that have reported alterations in fibrinolytic pathways that may contribute to thrombosis in patients with APL. Some of these mechanisms include elevations in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels, inhibitory antibodies against tPA or other components of the fibrinolytic system, antibodies against annexin A2, and finally, antibodies to β2-glycoprotein-I (β2GPI) that block the ability of β2GPI to stimulate tPA-mediated plasminogen activation. PMID:20425534

  3. NCOA4 Deficiency Impairs Systemic Iron Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bellelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cargo receptor NCOA4 mediates autophagic ferritin degradation. Here we show that NCOA4 deficiency in a knockout mouse model causes iron accumulation in the liver and spleen, increased levels of transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, and liver hepcidin, and decreased levels of duodenal ferroportin. Despite signs of iron overload, NCOA4-null mice had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia. Under an iron-deprived diet (2–3 mg/kg, mice failed to release iron from ferritin storage and developed severe microcytic hypochromic anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis associated with increased erythropoietin levels. When fed an iron-enriched diet (2 g/kg, mice died prematurely and showed signs of liver damage. Ferritin accumulated in primary embryonic fibroblasts from NCOA4-null mice consequent to impaired autophagic targeting. Adoptive expression of the NCOA4 COOH terminus (aa 239–614 restored this function. In conclusion, NCOA4 prevents iron accumulation and ensures efficient erythropoiesis, playing a central role in balancing iron levels in vivo.

  4. Computer interfaces for the visually impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gerry

    1991-01-01

    Information access via computer terminals extends to blind and low vision persons employed in many technical and nontechnical disciplines. Two aspects are detailed of providing computer technology for persons with a vision related handicap. First, research into the most effective means of integrating existing adaptive technologies into information systems was made. This was conducted to integrate off the shelf products with adaptive equipment for cohesive integrated information processing systems. Details are included that describe the type of functionality required in software to facilitate its incorporation into a speech and/or braille system. The second aspect is research into providing audible and tactile interfaces to graphics based interfaces. Parameters are included for the design and development of the Mercator Project. The project will develop a prototype system for audible access to graphics based interfaces. The system is being built within the public domain architecture of X windows to show that it is possible to provide access to text based applications within a graphical environment. This information will be valuable to suppliers to ADP equipment since new legislation requires manufacturers to provide electronic access to the visually impaired.

  5. Evaluation of functional impairment in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Rohini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a chronic disease, the course of which is punctuated by exacerbations and remissions. The impact of a chronic, relapsing, and disfiguring disease such as psoriasis on occupational, social, and other areas of functioning is substantial and needs attention. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the level and nature of functional impairment in psoriasis. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients attending the dermatology clinic of a rural hospital were studied for psychiatric comorbidity and the level of functioning, using a semistructured questionnaire. Results: Psoriasis affected social functioning of 48% patients, led to decreased work efficiency in 51.1%, and to subjective distress at work in 62.8% of patients. Stress in home environment and interpersonal relationships was reported by 69.8%. Social and occupational functioning worsened with increasing severity of psoriasis after 1-year duration of illness. Patients complaining of pruritis frequently had anxiety disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was detected in 67.4% cases. Conclusion : Substantial proportion of patients suffered deterioration of functioning, especially with increasing duration of illness. Thus, timely attention by dermatologists is needed in order to limit the disability caused by psoriasis. To achieve this, liaison with psychiatrist would be crucial along with illness education and emotional support.

  6. Assessing depression related severity and functional impairment: the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Ito

    Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.

  7. Impaired DNA replication within progenitor cell pools promotes leukemogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Bilousova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism.

  8. Late life depression with cognitive impairment: Evaluation and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo H Wilkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Consuelo H Wilkins1,2, Jose Mathews2, Yvette I Sheline21Department of Medicine (Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science; 2Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Older adults with depression often present with signs and symptoms indicative of functional or cognitive impairment. These somatic symptoms make evaluating and treating depression in older adults more complex. Late life depression (LLD, depression in adults over the age of 65, is more frequently associated with cognitive changes. Cognitive impairment in LLD may be a result of the depressive disorder or an underlying dementing condition. Memory complaints are also common in older adults with depression. There is a wide range of cognitive impairment in LLD including decreased central processing speed, executive dysfunction, and impaired short-term memory. The etiology of cognitive impairment in LLD may include cerebrovascular disease, a significant risk factor for LLD, which likely interrupts key pathways between frontal white matter and subcortical structures important in mood regulation. Because depressive symptoms often coexist with dementia, it is important to determine the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive change. If depressive symptoms pre-date the cognitive impairment and cognitive symptoms are mild and temporary, LLD is the likely etiology of the cognitive impairment. If cognitive changes appear prior to depressive symptoms and persist after LLD is successfully treated, an underlying dementia is more likely. Clinicians should be exclude common conditions such as thyroid disease which can contribute to depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment prior to treating LLD. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy can be effective in treating LLD. Subsequent evaluations following treatment should also reassess cognition.Keywords: late life depression, cognitive impairment, diagnosis, treatment

  9. Relatedl factors of cognitive impairment after stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang Chen; Yueji Sun; Haiyan Liu; Yunqiao Ding; Shujuan Liu; Jinghua Chen; Xueying Wang; Zhenpeng Han; Fang Qu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment after stroke associates with various factors, such as age, educational years, etc. Besides concerning about the recovery of limb function after stroke, we should also focus on the rehabilitation of cognition. Moreover, we'd better pay attention to the control of all the risk factors of stroke, and improve the quality of life in stroke patients.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors that affect cognitive impairment after stroke.DESIGN: A related factors analysis.SET-FINGS: Department of Neurology of Dalian Port Hospital and Dalian Second People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 148 stroke inpatients were selected from Department of Neurology, Dalian Port Hospital and Dalian Second People's Hospital from April 2004 to December 2005, including 100 males and 48females, aging 45-75 years with an average age of (67±8) years; Their educational years ranged 2-10 years with an average of (6.1 ±3.7) years; The disease course ranged 15-30 days; All were right-handed. Inclusive criteria: All were accorded with the diagnostic standard set by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease; Confirmed by CT or MRI; Informed consents were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: After the disease conditions were stable, the patients were assessed with Wechsler memory scale (WMS) and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). WMS included forward and backward recitation of numbers and short-term memory (verbal memory, visual recognition). The number of times for correct and wrong classifications in WCST and the time to complete the trail making tests A and B were recorded. The focal volume, area and layer were recorded at 24 hours after admission. The general data of the patients were recorded, including name, sex, age, educational years, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus.Electroencepalograph (EEC) was examined to record the wave shape, blood lipids were detected, and the cognition related indexes were analyzed with the

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters program system provides impaired water data and impaired water features reflecting river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated...

  11. The phenomenology of the intersubjective impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Ines

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggest that the disorders of the self include a disturbance of the most elementary component of self - the minimal self. Characterizing these disorders and understanding the mechanisms involved remain a challenge to medical epistemology and health care professionals. In the present work, I bring together concepts of different fields, such as neuroscience, epistemology and phenomenology. The main goal is to show that the second-person perspective can be used to point out particular features of social cognition and its related psychopathology. Taking the hypothesis that the second-person perspective is the congruence point between an objective process and the subjective experience, I will attempt to explain schizophrenia as a self-related deficit, first in the light of the first-person and the third-person perspective and afterward, in the light of the poorly less understood second-person perspective. On the one hand, the first-person experience is correlated both with space and time. In fact, psychiatric patients report subjective experiences that can be understood within research on the bodily self, such as (1) spatially incongruent proprioception and (2) impaired sense of time as the basic mechanism that allows conscious experience. On the other hand, the second-person approach has already begun to prove productive within social cognition research, pointing out the importance of experiencing and interacting with others as our primarily way well-being. I will phenomenological analyse subjective and intersubjective experience in the disorders of the self and derive practical consequences to evidence-based medicine. PMID:27237551

  12. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  13. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  14. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  15. The phenomenology of the intersubjective impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Ines

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggest that the disorders of the self include a disturbance of the most elementary component of self - the minimal self. Characterizing these disorders and understanding the mechanisms involved remain a challenge to medical epistemology and health care professionals. In the present work, I bring together concepts of different fields, such as neuroscience, epistemology and phenomenology. The main goal is to show that the second-person perspective can be used to point out particular features of social cognition and its related psychopathology. Taking the hypothesis that the second-person perspective is the congruence point between an objective process and the subjective experience, I will attempt to explain schizophrenia as a self-related deficit, first in the light of the first-person and the third-person perspective and afterward, in the light of the poorly less understood second-person perspective. On the one hand, the first-person experience is correlated both with space and time. In fact, psychiatric patients report subjective experiences that can be understood within research on the bodily self, such as (1) spatially incongruent proprioception and (2) impaired sense of time as the basic mechanism that allows conscious experience. On the other hand, the second-person approach has already begun to prove productive within social cognition research, pointing out the importance of experiencing and interacting with others as our primarily way well-being. I will phenomenological analyse subjective and intersubjective experience in the disorders of the self and derive practical consequences to evidence-based medicine.

  16. Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Durham, T.; Otto, C.; Grounds, D.; Davis, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006 there have been 6 reported cases of altered visual acuity and intracranial pressure (ICP) in long duration astronauts. In order to document this risk and develop an integrated approach to its mitigation, the NASA Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and Human Research Program (HRP) have chosen to use the Human System Risk Board (HSRB) and the risk management analysis tool (RMAT). The HSRB is the venue in which the stakeholders and customers discuss and vet the evidence and the RMAT is the tool that facilitates documentation and comparison of the evidence across mission profiles as well as identification of risk factors, and documentation of mitigation strategies. This process allows for information to be brought forward and dispositioned so that it may be properly incorporated into the RMAT and contribute to the design of the research and mitigation plans. The evidence thus far has resulted in the identification of a visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) project team, updating of both short and long duration medical requirements designed to assess visual acuity, and a research plan to characterize this issue further. In order to understand this issue more completely, a plan to develop an Accelerated Research Collaboration (ARC) has been approved by the HSRB. The ARC is a novel research model pioneered by the Myelin Repair Foundation. It is a patient centered research model that brings together researchers and clinicians, under the guidance of a scientific advisory panel, to collaborate and produce results much quickly than accomplished through traditional research models. The data and evidence from the updated medical requirements and the VIIP ARC will be reviewed at the HSRB on a regular basis. Each review package presented to the HSRB will include an assessment and recommendation with respect to continuation of research, countermeasure development, occupational surveillance modalities, selection criteria, etc. This process will determine the

  17. Nonmainstream dialect use and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, J B; McDonald, J L

    2001-02-01

    Most work looking at specific language impairment (SLI) has been done in the context of mainstream dialects. This paper extends the study of SLI to two nonmainstream dialects: a rural version of Southern African American English (SAAE) and a rural version of Southern White English (SWE). Data were language samples from 93 4- to 6-year-olds who lived in southeastern Louisiana. Forty were classified as speakers of SAAE, and 53 were classified as speakers of SWE. A third were previously diagnosed as SLI; the others served as either age-matched (6N) or language-matched (4N) controls. The two dialects differed in frequency of usage on 14 of the 35 coded morphosyntactic surface patterns; speakers of these dialects could be successfully discriminated (94%) from each other in a discriminant analysis using just four of these patterns. Across dialects, four patterns resulted in main effects that were related to diagnostic condition (SLI vs. 6N), and a slightly different set of four patterns showed effects that were related to developmental processes (4N vs. 6N). More interestingly, the surface characteristics of SLI were found to manifest in the two dialects in different ways. A discriminant function based solely on SAAE speakers tended to misclassify SWE children with SLI as having normal language, and a discriminant function based on SWE speakers tended to misclassify SAAE unaffected children as SLI. Patterns within the SLI profile that cut across the two dialects included difficulties with tense marking and question formation. The results provide important direction for future studies and argue for the inclusion of contrastive as well as noncontrastive features of dialects within SLI research. PMID:11218104

  18. Impaired Hyperemic Response to Exercise Post Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Durand

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow through the superficial femoral artery quantified with ultrasonography before and immediately after 10 second contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC of the test limb. Blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic limb of stroke subjects was significantly reduced at all load levels compared to control subjects even after normalization to lean muscle mass. Of variables measured, increased blood flow after an 80% MVC was the single best predictor of paretic limb strength, the symmetry of strength between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, coordination of the paretic limb, and physical activity. The impaired hemodynamic response to high intensity contractions was a better predictor of lower limb function than resting perfusion measures. Stroke-dependent weakness and atrophy of the paretic limb do not explain the reduced hyperemic response to muscle contraction alone as the response is similarly reduced in the non-paretic limb when compared to controls. These data may suggest a role for perfusion therapies to optimize rehabilitation post stroke.

  19. Sleep impairment is a threat to good health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Bonke, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    Long-term sleep impairment is related to an increased risk of somatic health problems, e.g. overweight, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, energy-rich or fatty foods and light from computer screens close to bedtime may counteract impaired...... sleep. A quiet, dark and well-tempered bedroom and physical activity during the day may have a positive impact on sleep. Impaired sleep may be related to stress and conditions at home or at work. Psychological sleep treatment is free of adverse side effects with effects comparable to effects of medical...

  20. Positivity effect specific to older adults with subclinical memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional content and tested memory at three time points (immediate/20 min/1 wk). Cognitively normal older adults were stratified into those with and without subclinical memory impairment. We found that the positivity effect was limited to those with subclinical memory impairment, suggesting that consideration of subclinical memory impairment is necessary for understanding age-related emotional memory alterations. PMID:27421893

  1. Concordance Rates for Cognitive Impairment among Older African American Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Kiddoe, Jared; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Andel, Ross; Christopher L Edwards

    2009-01-01

    We calculated concordance rates and heritability for cognitive impairment in 95 same-sexed pairs of African American twins from the Carolina African American Twin Study on Aging (CAATSA). The average age of the sample was 59.6 yrs (SD = 8.6 years, range 50–88 years) and 60% of the sample was female. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) was used in the assessment of cognitive impairment. We lowered the cutoff for cognitive impairment based on our previous research with African A...

  2. The biological basis of language: insight from developmental grammatical impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K J; Pinker, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), a genetic developmental disorder, offers insights into the neurobiological and computational organization of language. A subtype, Grammatical-SLI (G-SLI), involves greater impairments in 'extended' grammatical representations, which are nonlocal, hierarchical, abstract, and composed, than in 'basic' ones, which are local, linear, semantic, and holistic. This distinction is seen in syntax, morphology, and phonology, and may be tied to abnormalities in the left hemisphere and basal ganglia, consistent with new models of the neurobiology of language which distinguish dorsal and ventral processing streams. Delineating neurolinguistic phenotypes promises a better understanding of the effects of genes on the brain circuitry underlying normal and impaired language abilities. PMID:25172525

  3. Diabetes and microvascular disease in Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brundel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of cerebrovascular disease in the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia is increasingly recognized. Cerebrovascular damage is heterogeneous, ranging from a clinical stroke to more insidious brain changes. The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been introduced,

  4. Hydrography - MO 2013 Section 303d Delisted Impaired Lakes (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains information about paired water bodies and pollutants that have been delisted from Missouri’s 303(d) List of impaired waters due to Total...

  5. Does brain injury impair speech and gesture differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilbe Göksun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often use spontaneous gestures when talking about space, such as when giving directions. In a recent study from our lab, we examined whether focal brain-injured individuals’ naming motion event components of manner and path (represented in English by verbs and prepositions, respectively are impaired selectively, and whether gestures compensate for impairment in speech. Left or right hemisphere damaged patients and elderly control participants were asked to describe motion events (e.g., walking around depicted in brief videos. Results suggest that producing verbs and prepositions can be separately impaired in the left hemisphere and gesture production compensates for naming impairments when damage involves specific areas in the left temporal cortex.

  6. Impairment of Methotrexate Transport Is Common in Osteosarcoma Tumor Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sowers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma does not respond well to conventional dose methotrexate but does respond to high-dose methotrexate. Previous work has indicated that this resistance may be due to impaired transport of methotrexate across the cell membrane. In this study, the PT430 competitive displacement assay was adapted to evaluate methotrexate transport in 69 high-grade osteosarcoma tumor samples. All samples studied were shown to have relatively impaired methotrexate transport by PT430 assay. Ninety-nine percent of the samples had less than 20% PT430 displacement by methotrexate. Eighty-eight percent exhibited displacement by methotrexate at less than 50% of the displacement by trimetrexate. The high frequency of impaired transport suggests the presence of decreased functionality of the reduced folate carrier protein. The overwhelming presence of impaired transport may explain why methotrexate needs to be given in high doses to be effective in osteosarcoma therapy and suggests that reduced folate carrier-independent antifolates should be explored.

  7. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes......, and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers. COMMENTARY...

  8. Ergonomics and accessibility for people with visual impairment in hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Larissa Nascimento; de Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a diagnosis of luxury or superior hotels in the city of Natal, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in northeastern Brazil, in what concerns accessibility to the visually impaired. The main objective is to present the guiding principles to design actions and interventions that must be considered in the preparation or revision of technical standards and manuals of good practice in accessibility related to people with visual impairments who are hotel users. The survey showed that the hotels do not meet the normative indications of accessibility, their facilities are in-accessible (have prevented access) or of reduced accessibility and its employees are not prepared to provide adequate hospital services for people with visual impairment. It was concluded that some of the accessibility problems faced by people with visual impairments are also faced by people in general.

  9. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  10. Sleep impairment and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice; Lange, Theis; Hallqvist, Johan;

    2014-01-01

    fatality and subsequent cardiovascular events following first-time acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: There were 2,246 first-time AMI cases. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: SLEEP IMPAIRMENT WAS ASSESSED...... BY THE KAROLINA SLEEP QUESTIONNAIRE, WHICH COVERS VARIOUS INDICES OF IMPAIRED SLEEP: disturbed sleep, impaired awakening, daytime sleepiness, and nightmares. Case fatality, defined as death within 28 days of initial AMI, and new cardiovascular events within up to 10 y of follow-up were identified through national...... registries. In women, disturbed sleep showed a consistently higher risk of long-term cardiovascular events: AMI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.00), stroke (HR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.19-5.76), and heart failure (HR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.18-4.97), whereas no clear effect of impaired...

  11. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariegold E. Wollam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013 when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms.

  12. Assessing Decision-Making Capacity in Patients with Communication Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, Molly; Peterson, Andrew; Lazosky, Andrea; Gofton, Teneille; Weijer, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy requires physicians to respect patient autonomy when present, and to protect the patient who lacks autonomy. Fulfilling this ethical obligation when a patient has a communication impairment presents considerable challenges. Standard methods for evaluating decision-making capacity require a semistructured interview. Some patients with communication impairments are unable to engage in a semistructured interview and are at risk of the wrongful loss of autonomy. In this article, we present a general strategy for assessing decision-making capacity in patients with communication impairments. We derive this strategy by reflecting on a particular case. The strategy involves three steps: (1) determining the reliability of communication, (2) widening the bandwidth of communication, and (3) using compensatory measures of decision-making capacity. We argue that this strategy may be useful for assessing decision-making capacity and preserving autonomy in some patients with communication impairments. PMID:27634720

  13. Voice and GPS Based Navigation System For Visually Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Gawari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the architecture and implementation of a system that will help to navigate the visually impaired people. The system designed uses GPS and voice recognition along with obstacle avoidance for the purpose of guiding visually impaired. The visually impaired person issues the command and receives the direction response using audio signals. The latitude and longitude values are received continuously from the GPS receiver. The directions are given to the user with the help of audio signals. An obstacle detector is used to help the user to avoid obstacles by sending an audio message.GPS receivers use NMEA standard. With the advancement in voice recognition it becomes easier to issue commands regarding directions to the visually impaired.

  14. 45 CFR 1308.7 - Eligibility criteria: Health impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or acute health problem which adversely affects learning. (b) The health impairment classification... programs; or (v) Inattention due to cultural or language differences. (3) An attention deficit disorder... confirmed by independent information from a second observer....

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal. Neurology 2014;82:317 – 325. 2. Norton M, Breitner ... 42:1252 – 1256. e34 © 2014 American Academy of Neurology PATIENT PAGE Section Editors David C. Spencer, MD ...

  16. Cognitive impairment and self-care in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduk AM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra M Hajduk,1,2 Stephenie C Lemon,3 David D McManus,1,2,4 Darleen M Lessard,1 Jerry H Gurwitz,1,2,4 Frederick A Spencer,5 Robert J Goldberg,1,2 Jane S Saczynski1,2,4 1Division of Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases and Vulnerable Populations, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 3Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 4Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Heart failure (HF is a prevalent chronic disease in older adults that requires extensive self-care to prevent decompensation and hospitalization. Cognitive impairment may impact the ability to perform HF self-care activities. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and adherence to self-care in patients hospitalized for acute HF. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants: A total of 577 patients (mean age = 71 years, 44% female hospitalized for HF at five medical centers in the United States and Canada. Measurements and methods: Participants were interviewed for information on self-reported adherence to self-care using the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale. We assessed cognitive impairment in three domains (memory, processing speed, and executive function using standardized measures. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record review. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between cognitive impairment and self-care practices adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results: A total of 453 patients (79% were impaired in at least one cognitive

  17. Cognitive impairments after critical illness. Methodology, incidences and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Brain dysfunction describes the wide range of alterations in brain function from persistent vegetative state to minor cognitive impairments. It has become evident that brain dysfunctions that arise during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay are associated with mortality, morbidity, post-ICU functional status and rehabilitation. Brain dysfunction in ICU patients is therefore of major interest both in clinical practice and research. Cognitive impairment is one of several types o...

  18. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED PUPILS IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cankar, Franc; Deutsch, Tomi; GLOBACNIK Bojana; PINTERIC Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the last years, the demand to include children with special needs in the mainstream kindergartens and schools in Slovenia has grown. This brought with it the need for changing the role of the special schools and institutes for children with special needs and for their transformation into resource centres. Methodology: We pilot tested a resource centre for support of blind and visually impaired children. We included 15 educational institutes and one blind or visually impair...

  19. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guimond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal memory (VM represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments.

  20. Managing the care of patients who have visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Sue; Scott, Eileen

    An ageing population means that the incidence of people who are visually impaired will increase. However, extending the role of ophthalmic nurses will promote delivery of a more effective health service for these patients. Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a basis for addressing the care of patients with visual impairment is a means of ensuring that they receive high quality, appropriate care at the right time.

  1. Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tolea MI; Galvin JE

    2015-01-01

    Magdalena I Tolea,1 James E Galvin1–3 1Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background: Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both ...

  2. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Finocchietti, Sara; Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2-dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point...

  3. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...... heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of awareness. The results demonstrate that subjective memory problems should not be a mandatory prerequisite in suspected dementia or MCI, which makes reports from informants together with thorough clinical interview and observation central when assessing suspected...

  4. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  5. Education Differences in Life Expectancy With Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Fiona E.; Jagger, Carol; Miller, Laura L; Brayne, Carol; ,

    2009-01-01

    Background Low education has an impact on life expectancy and level of cognition, but little is known on its effect on life expectancy with cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) collected population-based longitudinal data on people aged 65 years and older including measures of education and cognitive impairment, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), for five geographically diverse areas around England and Wales int...

  6. Muscle Strength and Flexibility without and with Visual Impairments Judoka's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine muscle strength and flexibility of judoka with and without visual impairments. A total of 32 male national judoka volunteered to participate in this study. There were 20 male judoka without visual impairments (mean ± SD; age: 19.20 ± 5.76 years, body weight: 66.45 ± 11.09 kg, height: 169.60 ± 7.98 cm, sport…

  7. Attentional and executive impairments in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function.......Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function....

  8. Preschool children's attitude toward deaf and hearing impaired peers

    OpenAIRE

    Lojk, Manca

    2016-01-01

    Deaf and hearing impaired children are children with special needs. According to the World Health Organization, deafness is one of the most serious forms of disability. It is an invisible disability, which is not only physical but also affects the cognitive, social-emotional, motor and speech development. Hearing impaired people have difficulty communicating and integrating into the environment where they live, study or spend free time. Children in pre-school education have different percepti...

  9. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mark P Mattson; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on ...

  10. Impairment of Methotrexate Transport Is Common in Osteosarcoma Tumor Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Gorlick; Levy, Adam S.; John H. Healey; Paul A. Meyers; Wenzel, Bethanne D.; Condon Richardson; Rebecca Sowers

    2010-01-01

    Osteosarcoma does not respond well to conventional dose methotrexate but does respond to high-dose methotrexate. Previous work has indicated that this resistance may be due to impaired transport of methotrexate across the cell membrane. In this study, the PT430 competitive displacement assay was adapted to evaluate methotrexate transport in 69 high-grade osteosarcoma tumor samples. All samples studied were shown to have relatively impaired methotrexate transport by PT430 assay. Ninety-nine pe...

  11. Inflexible Minds: Impaired Attention Switching in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Henderikus G O M Smid; Martens, Sander; de Witte, Marc R.; Bruggeman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of sustained attention is assumed to be a core cognitive abnormality in schizophrenia. However, this seems inconsistent with a recent hypothesis that in schizophrenia the implementation of selection (i.e., sustained attention) is intact but the control of selection (i.e., switching the focus of attention) is impaired. Mounting evidence supports this hypothesis, indicating that switching of attention is a bigger problem in schizophrenia than maintaining the focus of attention. To sh...

  12. How to reduce errors in applying impairment tests

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christian; Plenborg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Fair value accounting has become predominant in accounting as a vast number of IAS/IFRS standards are based on fair value accounting, including IAS 36 Impairment of assets. Fair value accounting for goodwill is technically challenging, since market prices are not observable. Thus, valuation technologies must be applied in order to test goodwill for impairment. While prior research on goodwill has concentrated on either the (dis)advantages for each accounting procedure for goodwill or exami...

  13. Identity Crisis of Teenagers with Hearing Impairment in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Suheir .S. Sabbah

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the degree of identity crises of teenagers with hearing impairment and the levels of the dimensions of this crises and revealing the impact of the following variables: gender, grade, economic level, age, degree and nature of the difficulty on the degree of the identity crisis. The results showed the identity crisis of the teenagers with hearing impairment was. Ideological Ego Identity, Interpersonal Ego Identity, relation with the other sex, and Identity verses...

  14. Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Poststroke Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Gupta; Abhijit Dasgupta; Geeta Anjum Khwaja; Debashish Chowdhury; Yogesh Patidar; Amit Batra

    2014-01-01

    Background. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) cause significant patient and caregiver morbidity in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Objectives. To study and compare the occurrence and severity of BPSD between multi-infarct dementia (MID), subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD), and strategic infarct subtypes of poststroke VCI and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms with the severity of cognitive impairment. Methods. Sixty patients with poststroke ...

  15. Impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    expression analysis and proteomics have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress in muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects, and recent work suggests that impaired mitochondrial activity is another early defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This review...... will discuss the latest advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes with focus on possible links between impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction....

  16. Enhancing Color Representation for the Color Vision Impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jia-Bin; Wu, Sih-Ying; Chen, Chu-Song

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast re-coloring algorithm to improve the accessibility for the color vision impaired. Compared to people with normal color vision, people with color vision impairment have difficulty in distinguishing between certain combinations of colors. This may hinder visual communication owing to the increasing use of colors in recent years. To address this problem, we re-map the hue components in the HSV color space based on the statistics of local characteristics of the or...

  17. Elements of successful communication skills of people with visually impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Zlodej, Marsela

    2013-01-01

    The main topic of the thesis are the answers to the questions, what are the factors of successful communication of persons with visual impairment, and what are the beliefs about communicating that affect on successful communication. The systematic review of the literature identifies communication as a concept and the specification of communication of people with visual impairment. Irrational beliefs are defined; what they are and why they arise. Some ways of learning communication of persons ...

  18. Amortisation versus impairment of goodwill and accounting quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hulzen, van, P.; Alfonso, L.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper there has been made a comparison between the amortisation and the impairment methods for accounting for goodwill, with regards to their associated effects on accounting quality. Based on two qualitative characteristics of accounting information, as formulated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the effects of the new impairment method are examined using a value relevance and a timeliness model. The sample consists of European companies that adopted this new m...

  19. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  20. Association of family history and consanguinity with permanent hearing impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Heramba Ganapathy Selvarajan; Ravi Kumar Arunachalam; Rajashekar Bellur; Kalyani Mandke; Roopa Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Risk factors for hearing impairment can offer important information for both the family and health-care providers regarding etiology, other associated health problems, and risk of recurrence in sub-sequent pregnancy. Family history and consanguinity indicates the possible involvement of genetic factors. Objective: The aim of the study is to find the strength of association of family history and consanguinity with permanent hearing impairment in infants. Materials and Methods: A ca...

  1. Impaired movement timing in neurological disorders: rehabilitation and treatment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Michael J.; Peter E Keller

    2015-01-01

    Timing abnormalities have been reported in many neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). In PD, motor-timing impairments are especially debilitating in gait. Despite impaired audiomotor synchronization, PD patients’ gait improves when they walk with an auditory metronome or with music. Building on that research, we make recommendations for optimizing sensory cues to improve the efficacy of rhythmic cuing in gait rehabilitation. Adaptive rhythmic metronomes (that synchronize...

  2. Vascular Cognitive Impairment: risk factors and brain MRI correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Reijmer, Y. D.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease plays an important role in the development of dementia, also in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, are associated with a two-fold increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The development of cognitive impairment due to vascular disease is potentially preventable if patients are recognized and treated early. The present thesis gives more insight in the early stages of cognitive impairment in...

  3. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, CM; Deutsch, R; Collier, AC; Morgello, S.; Letendre, S; Clifford, D; Gelman, B.; McArthur, J.; McCutchan, JA; Simpson, DM; Duarte, NA; Heaton, RK; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in HIV-infected individuals, as is syphilis. Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, invades the central nervous system early in disease. We hypothesized that HIV-infected patients with a history of syphilis or neurosyphilis would have more cognitive impairment than HIV-infected individuals without these infections. Eighty-two of 1574 enrollees in CHARTER, a prospective, observational study, had reactive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. The...

  4. Oxidative Injury and Neuropathy in Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James W.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Vincent, Andrea M.; Freimann, Catherine L.; Sullivan, Kelli A; Eva L Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with the development of neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to determine if neuropathy developed in the female Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of IGT and type 2 diabetes. The ZDF rat develops impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) when fed a control diet, and frank diabetes when fed a high fat diet. Following 10 weeks of hyperglycemia, sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and compound motor acti...

  5. Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic fatigue: a preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, E; Cope, H; David, A

    1993-01-01

    Subjective impairment of memory and concentration is a frequent complaint in sufferers from chronic fatigue. To study this, 65 general practice attenders identified as having chronic fatigue were administered a structured psychiatric interview and a brief screening battery of cognitive tests. Subjective cognitive impairment was strongly related to psychiatric disorder, especially depressed mood, but not fatigue, anxiety, or objective performance. Simple tests of attention and concentration sh...

  6. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs, the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of і60 ml/min/1.73 m2, signs of renal lesion; 20 with Stages III CKD: a GFR of <60–30 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 11 with Stages VI CKD: a GFR of <30–15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results and discussion. CIs were more common in the patients with Stages III–IV than in those with Stages I–II, as shown by the scores of the mini-mental state examination (p<0.001, the frontal assessment battery (p=0.001, and the regulatory function test (p<0.001. These tests showed that the magnitude of CIs increased with the higher stage of CKD. Stages III–IV CKD is an independent predictor of CIs in persons with predialysis-stage kidney lesion. CIs were found to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, abdominal obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and patient age. The signs of atherosclerotic lesion of the common carotid arteries and the indicators of arterial stiffness were also associated with the incidence and magnitude of CIs in CKD. The detection of CIs in patients with early CKD allows one to timely initiate adequate therapy aimed particularly at improving cerebral circulation, eliminating the impact of risk factors, and slowing down the vascular remodeling. The management tactics for patients with CKD must involve the identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, and duplex scanning of the wall of the common carotid arteries may be used as a noninvasive method to assess the risk of the development and progression of CIs in predialysis CKD. 

  7. Impaired NHEJ function in multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Clara [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Betti, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Singh, Sheetal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Toor, Amir [Department of Internal Medicine, VCU Health Systems, Richmond, VA (United States); Vaughan, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)], E-mail: andrew.vaughan@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu

    2009-01-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by multiple chromosomal aberrations. To assess the contribution of DNA repair to this phenotype, ionizing radiation was used to induce DNA double strand breaks in three MM cell lines. Clonogenic survival assays showed U266 (SF4 = 15.3 + 6.4%) and RPMI 8226 (SF4 = 12.6.0 + 1.7%) were radiation sensitive while OPM2 was resistant (SF4 = 78.9 + 4.1%). Addition of the DNA-PK inhibitor NU7026 showed the expected suppression in radiation survival in OPM2 but increased survival in both radiation sensitive cell lines. To examine non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair in these lines, the ability of protein extracts to support in vitro DNA repair was measured. Among the three MM cell lines analyzed, RPMI 8226 demonstrated impaired blunt ended DNA ligation using a ligation-mediated PCR technique. In a bacterial based functional assay to rejoin a DNA break within the {beta}-galactosidase gene, RPMI 8226 demonstrated a 4-fold reduction in rejoining fidelity compared to U266, with OPM2 showing an intermediate capacity. Ionizing radiation induced a robust {gamma}-H2AX response in OPM2 but only a modest increase in each radiation sensitive cell line perhaps related to the high level of {gamma}-H2AX in freshly plated cells. Examination of {gamma}-H2AX foci in RPMI 8226 cells confirmed data from Western blots where a significant number of foci were present in freshly plated untreated cells which diminished over 24 h of culture. Based on the clonogenic survival and functional repair assays, all three cell lines exhibited corrupt NHEJ repair. We conclude that suppression of aberrant NHEJ function using the DNA-PK inhibitor NU7026 may facilitate access of DNA ends to an intact homologous recombination repair pathway, paradoxically increasing survival after irradiation. These data provide insight into the deregulation of DNA repair at the site of DNA breaks in MM that may underpin the characteristic genomic instability of this disease.

  8. The thiazole derivative CPTH6 impairs autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Y; Desideri, M; Gabellini, C; De Luca, T; Carradori, S; Secci, D; Nescatelli, R; Candiloro, A; Condello, M; Meschini, S; Del Bufalo, D; Trisciuoglio, D

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the thiazole derivative 3-methylcyclopentylidene-[4-(4'-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl]hydrazone (CPTH6) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CPTH6 is able to affect autophagy. By using several human tumor cell lines with different origins we demonstrated that CPTH6 treatment induced, in a dose-dependent manner, a significant increase in autophagic features, as imaged by electron microscopy, immunoblotting analysis of membrane-bound form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3B-II) levels and by appearance of typical LC3B-II-associated autophagosomal puncta. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of elevated markers of autophagy induced by CPTH6 treatment, we silenced the expression of several proteins acting at different steps of autophagy. We found that the effect of CPTH6 on autophagy developed through a noncanonical mechanism that did not require beclin-1-dependent nucleation, but involved Atg-7-mediated elongation of autophagosomal membranes. Strikingly, a combined treatment of CPTH6 with late-stage autophagy inhibitors, such as chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, demonstrates that under basal condition CPTH6 reduces autophagosome turnover through an impairment of their degradation pathway, rather than enhancing autophagosome formation, as confirmed by immunofluorescence experiments. According to these results, CPTH6-induced enhancement of autophagy substrate p62 and NBR1 protein levels confirms a blockage of autophagic cargo degradation. In addition, CPTH6 inhibited autophagosome maturation and compounds having high structural similarities with CPTH6 produced similar effects on the autophagic pathway. Finally, the evidence that CPTH6 treatment decreased α-tubulin acetylation and failed to increase autophagic markers in cells in which acetyltransferase ATAT1 expression was silenced indicates a possible role of α-tubulin acetylation in

  9. Correlative factors of cognitive impairment in patients with lacunar infarcts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiujuan; Yao Xiaoxin; Guo Youmin; Zhang Gejuan; Yang Junle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the relationships between cognitive impairment in patients with lacunar infarcts and quantitative CT measures and to determine the independent correlative factors of cognitive impairment. Methods Neuropsychological examination was conducted for 128 patients with acute lacunar infarct. Number, location, and volume of infarcts, cerebral atrophy index and severity of white matter lesions (WMLs) were measured and recorded. Results The number of lacunar infarcts in cognitive impairment (CI) group was significantly larger than that in cognitive normal (CN) group. Mean width of sulcus and sylvian fissure, index of frontal horn and ventricular-brain ratio (VBR) were significantly different in both groups. There were more patients with 3 grades or 4 grades WMLs in CI group (62%) than those in CN group (22%). The total volume of lacunar infarcts showed no statistically significant difference. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the number of lacunar infarcts in frontal subcortex and thalamus, the volume of infarcts in anterior periventricular white matter, width of cerebral sulcus and sylvian fissure were correlated with cognitive impairment respectively. Additionally, age and education were correlative factors of cognitive impairment in patients with lacunar infarct. Conclusion Correlative factors of cognitive impairment in patients with lacunar infarct are not merely one feature, but a combination of infarct features (number, location, and volume), cortical atrophy and host factors (age and education).

  10. Disruption of persistent nociceptive behavior in rats with learning impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Ma

    Full Text Available Despite the subjective nature of pain experience with cognitive and affective dimensions, preclinical pain research has largely focused on its sensory dimension. Here, we examined the relationship between learning/memory and nociceptive behavior in rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. Learning impairment was induced by bilateral hippocampal injection of a mixed Aβ solution, whereas persistent nociception produced in these rats by complete Freund's adjuvant-induced ankle inflammation. Those rats with learning impairment showed a diminished development of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and a shorter time course of nociceptive behavior without alteration of their baseline nociceptive threshold. In rats with pre-established hyperalgesia and allodynia due to ankle inflammation, bilateral intra-hippocampal injection of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor promoted the earlier recovery of nociceptive behavior. Moreover, expression of Aβ, NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and protein kinase Cγ was upregulated, whereas the choline acetyl transferase expression was downregulated, in the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and/or spinal cord of rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. The data indicate that learning impairment could disrupt the response to a state of persistent nociception, suggesting an important role for cognitive maladaptation in the mechanisms of chronic pain. These results also suggest that a preclinical model of combined learning impairment and persistent nociception may be useful to explore the brain mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain.

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters by Causes of Impairment and Probable Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under Section 303(d) of the CWA, states, territories, and authorized tribes (referred to here as states) are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These are...

  12. Bicaudal C1 promotes pancreatic NEUROG3+ endocrine progenitor differentiation and ductal morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemaire, Laurence A; Goulley, Joan; Kim, Yung Hae;

    2015-01-01

    that line the ducts during development, and in the ducts after birth, but not in differentiated endocrine or acinar cells. Genetic inactivation of Bicc1 leads to ductal cell over-proliferation and cyst formation. Transcriptome comparison between WT and Bicc1 KO pancreata, before the phenotype onset, reveals......, and suggest a new candidate gene for syndromes associating kidney dysplasia with pancreatic disorders, including diabetes....

  13. PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCE OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT ON THE INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    AYO Osisanya; Adeniyi Sam OLUFEMI; GREGORY Udoh Godwin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with hearing impairment are confronted with a lot of problems due to the condition of their disability. This has a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being with multiplying effect on their interpersonal relationship. Therefore, this study investigated the psycho-social influence of hearing impairment on interpersonal behavior of youths with hearing loss.MethodologyThe study adopted a survey research design. A sample consisting of 211 participants with hearing l...

  14. Impaired Statistical Learning of Nonadjacent Dependencies in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinjen Julie eHsu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Being able to track dependencies between syntactic elements separated by other constituents is crucial for language acquisition and processing (e.g., in subject-noun/verb agreement. Although long assumed to require language-specific machinery, research on statistical learning has suggested that domain-general mechanisms may support the acquisition of nonadjacent dependencies. In this study, we investigated whether individuals with specific language impairment (SLI—who have problems with long-distance dependencies in language—also have problems with statistical learning of nonadjacent relations. The results confirmed this hypothesis, indicating that statistical learning may subserve the acquisition and processing of long-distance dependencies in natural language.

  15. Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolea MI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena I Tolea,1 James E Galvin1–3 1Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background: Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both aspects of functionality and the relative contribution of its components, muscle mass and strength.Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older (mean age =68.1±10.6 years; 65% female were recruited and underwent physical functionality, anthropometry, and cognitive testing. Participants with low muscle mass were categorized as pre-sarcopenic; those with low muscle mass and muscle strength as sarcopenic; those with higher muscle mass and low muscle strength only were categorized as non-sarcopenic and were compared on risk of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26; Ascertaining Dementia 8 ≥2, physical impairment (Mini Physical Performance Test <12, both, or neither by ordinal logistic regression. Results: Compared to controls, those with sarcopenia were six times more likely to have combined cognitive impairment/physical impairment with a fully adjusted model showing a three-fold increased odds ratio. The results were consistent across different measures of global cognition (odds ratio =3.46, 95% confidence interval =1.07–11.45 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; odds ratio =3.61, 95% confidence interval =1.11–11.72 for Ascertaining Dementia 8. Pre-sarcopenic participants were not different from controls. The effect of sarcopenia on cognition is related to low muscle strength rather than low muscle mass. Conclusion: Individuals with sarcopenia are not only more likely to have single but also to have dual

  16. Primary circuit iodine model addition to IMPAIR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osetek, D.J.; Louie, D.L.Y. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guntay, S.; Cripps, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    As part of a continuing effort to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) with complete iodine analysis capability, a task was undertaken to expand the modeling of IMPAIR-3, an iodine chemistry code. The expanded code will enable the DOE to include detailed iodine behavior in the assessment of severe accident source terms used in the licensing of U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs). IMPAIR-3 was developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland, and has been used by ARSAP for the past two years to analyze containment iodine chemistry for ALWR source term analyses. IMPAIR-3 is primarily a containment code but the iodine chemistry inside the primary circuit (the Reactor Coolant System or RCS) may influence the iodine species released into the the containment; therefore, a RCS iodine chemistry model must be implemented in IMPAIR-3 to ensure thorough source term analysis. The ARSAP source term team and the PSI IMPAIR-3 developers are working together to accomplish this task. This cooperation is divided into two phases. Phase I, taking place in 1996, involves developing a stand-alone RCS iodine chemistry program called IMPRCS (IMPAIR -Reactor Coolant System). This program models a number of the chemical and physical processes of iodine that are thought to be important at conditions of high temperature and pressure in the RCS. In Phase II, which is tentatively scheduled for 1997, IMPRCS will be implemented as a subroutine in IMPAIR-3. To ensure an efficient calculation, an interface/tracking system will be developed to control the use of the RCS model from the containment model. These two models will be interfaced in such a way that once the iodine is released from the RCS, it will no longer be tracked by the RCS model but will be tracked by the containment model. All RCS thermal-hydraulic parameters will be provided by other codes. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  17. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... blindness. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... impairment including blindness. (a) A child is classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with.... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in...

  18. Clinical and audiological evaluation of hearing impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafarullah Beigh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily activities, interpersonal relationship, employment, and general well being; among such skills, communication skills are essential to a successful life for all individuals. Such skills affect education, adequate hearing acuity is of paramount importance and acts as a prerequisite in the overall personality development of an individual. Hearing impairment at any age has serious effects on the day to day life of an individual and he/she feels handicapped socially, emotionally, and scholastically. A child stuck with this malady is a back bencher in the class, excommunicative, and absent-minded. This study was conducted in order to find out various causes of hearing impairment in children and to study role of various audiological and radiological tests in finding the cause of impaired hearing in children. Aims and Objectives: To assess the possible etiological causes of hearing impairment in children. Study role of various audiological tests in finding the cause of impaired hearing in children. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of ENT and HNS of government medical college Srinagar. A total of 150 children of age range 0-14 years visited our ENT Department with complaints of impaired hearing, but only 70 children who met the inclusion criteria of impaired hearing and defective/delayed speech were selected for this study. Results of initial evaluation by means of comprehensive clinical history and followed by proper thorough systemic physical examination from head to toe was performed. These hearing impaired children were subjected to various subjective and objective tests; pure tone audiometry and behavioral observation audiometry were performed for subjective tests and impedance audiometry, Oto-acoustic emissions (OAE, and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA were performed for objective tests. Results: Possible etiological cause on the basis of history were birth anoxia (2

  19. [Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Bacterial Meningitis and Encephalitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairments, including dementia, can present as first symptoms at the acute stage, and/or as sequelae in the chronic stages, in some patients with bacterial meningitis (BM) or encephalitides. BM and encephalitides are lifethreatening neurological emergencies, and early recognition, efficient decision-making, and rapid commencement of therapy can be lifesaving. Empirical therapy should be initiated promptly whenever BM or encephalitides are a probable diagnosis. In this article cognitive impairments, including dementia, presenting in patients with BM, Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis, and Anti N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis are reviewed. In the above mentioned diseases, cognitive impairment without fever might be observed at the time of disease onset. cognitive impairment has been also noted in some aged or immunocompromised patients at the onset of BM. Immediate memory disturbance as one of the first symptoms of HHV-6 encephalitis presented in 74% of patients with this disease. Cognitive impairment, including dementia as sequela, was also found in 10-27% of patients with BM, 54-69% of patients with HSVE, 33% of HHV-6 encephalitis patients, and 39% of patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Suitable therapeutic management of these diseases at the acute stage is thus required in order to avoid these sequelae. PMID:27056850

  20. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  1. Visual impairment in South Africa: achieve-ments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Sacharowitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in South Africa are reviewed against the existing services and limitations in the country. The magnitude1 of visual impair-ment  and  the  projected  increase  worldwide over the coming decades have been recognized as having potentially far-reaching social, eco-nomic and quality of life implications for not only the affected individuals but also for their families and communities. Two-thirds or more of all blindness is avoidable, in that the causes are  preventable  or  treatable.2,  3  Early  detec-tion, prevention and management programs are needed to reduce the impact of visual impair-ment. Approximately 80% of the South African population is indigent, relying on public hospi-tals and clinics and the remaining 20% of the population has access to private health care.4 As the majority of eye care professionals are in private practice, access to eye care services are available to only a minority of the population. This paper reviews the current services in South Africa and the challenges that lie ahead.

  2. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  3. Vascular cognitive impairment: Current concepts and Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alladi Suvarna

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease is termed "Vascular Cognitive Impairment" (VCI and forms a spectrum that includes Vascular Dementia (VaD and milder forms of cognitive impairment referred to as Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI. VCI represents a complex neurological disorder that occurs as a result of interaction between vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and brain parenchymal changes such as macro and micro infarcts, haemorrhages, white matter changes, and brain atrophy occurring in an ageing brain. Mixed degenerative and vascular pathologies are increasingly being recognised and an interaction between the AD pathology, vascular risk factors, and strokes is now proposed. The high cardiovascular disease burden in India, increasing stroke incidence, and ageing population have contributed to large numbers of patients with VCI in India. Inadequate resources coupled with low awareness make it a problem that needs urgent attention, it is important identify patients at early stages of cognitive impairment, to treat appropriately and prevent progression to frank dementia.

  4. Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-01

    Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy. PMID:20712172

  5. Prevalence of oral health status in visually impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVKK Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The epidemiological investigation was carried out among 228 children selected from two schools of similar socioeconomic strata in and around Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 128 visually impaired and 100 normal school going children in the age group of 6-15 years. The examination procedure and criteria were those recommended by W.H.O. in 1997. Results: The mean DMFT/deft was 1.1 and 0.17,0.87 and 0.47 in visually impaired and normal children, respectively. Oral hygiene levels in both groups were: mean value in good category was 0.19 and 0.67, in fair category was 0.22 and 0.1, and in poor category 0.40 and 0.23 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Trauma experienced children were 0.29 and 0.13 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Conclusion: The conclusions drawn from this study were that there was a greater prevalence of dental caries, poorer oral hygiene, and higher incidence of trauma in visually impaired children.

  6. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. A comparison of oral hygiene status and dental caries experience among institutionalized visually impaired and hearing impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal K Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience among institutionalized visually impaired and hearing impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years in Bhopal city of Madhya Pradesh located in Central India. Materials and Methods: A total of 95 hearing impaired and 48 visually impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years were recruited from special care institutions (one institution of hearing impaired and two institutions of visually impaired in Bhopal city. Information related to different study variables was obtained from both groups. Oral hygiene index simplified (OHI[S], decayed,extracted, filled teeth (deft and DECAYED, MISSING, FILLED TETTH (DMFT indices were used to record the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience. Results: Mean OHI(S score for hearing impaired was 1.15 ± 0.72 while it was 1.51 ± 0.93 for visually impaired children (P < 0.05. Mean DMFT score was 1.4 ± 1.95 and 0.94 ± 1.45 among hearing impaired and visually impaired respectively. The hearing impaired had a mean deft score of 0.47 ± 1.01 and in visually impaired it was 0.19 ± 0.79 and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral hygiene status of hearing impaired children was better than visually impaired and the difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference between both groups with respect to DMFT. The hearing impaired children had significantly higher deft than visually impaired.

  8. Employment subvention of visually impaired persons in České Budějovice

    OpenAIRE

    PALEČKOVÁ, Zdeňka

    2011-01-01

    The work pursues the employment subvention of visually impaired persons. The theoretical section classifies a visually impaired person, it deals with the education system, employment of visually impaired persons problems and legal regulations. The practical section investigates with forms and ways the employment subvention is offered to visually impaired persons and how the workers of organisations are good at employment of visually impaired persons problems and their opinion about it. The re...

  9. Measuring hope among families impacted by cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Amanda E; Terhorst, Lauren; Gentry, Amanda; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2016-07-01

    The current exploratory investigation aims to establish the reliability and validity of a hope measure, the Herth Hope Index, among families impacted by early cognitive impairment (N = 96). Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the measure. Bivariate analyses were used to examine construct validity. The sample had moderately high hope scores. A two-factor structure emerged from the factor analysis, explaining 51.44% of the variance. Both factors exhibited strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas ranged from .83 to .86). Satisfaction with social support was positively associated with hope, supporting convergent validity. Neurocognitive status, illness insight, and depression were not associated with hope, indicating discriminant validity. Families impacted by cognitive impairment may maintain hope in the face of a potentially progressive illness, regardless of cognitive status. The Herth Hope Index can be utilized as a reliable and valid measure of hope by practitioners providing support to families impacted by cognitive impairment. PMID:24784938

  10. Reduced prevalence of cognitive impairment in families with exceptional longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare;

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Family studies of centenarians and long-lived persons have found substantial familial aggregation of survival to extreme ages; however, the extent to which such familial longevity is characterized by cognitively intact survival is not established. OBJECTIVE To determine whether families...... with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1870 individuals (1510 family members and 360 spouse controls) recruited...... through the Long Life Family Study. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Prevalence of cognitive impairment based on a diagnostic algorithm validated using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data set. RESULTS The cognitive algorithm classified 546 individuals (38.5%) as having cognitive impairment...

  11. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment in older patients with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kah Poh; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Holmes, Holly M.; Hsu, Tina; Inouye, Sharon K.; Karuturi, Meghan S.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Magnuson, Allison; Whitehead, Mary I.; Wong, Melisa L.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) can occur during or after chemotherapy and represents a concern for many patients with cancer. Among older patients with cancer, in whom there is little clinical trial evidence examining side effects like CRCI, many unanswered questions remain regarding risk for and resulting adverse outcomes from CRCI. Given the rising incidence of cancer with age, CRCI is of particular concern for older patients with cancer who receive treatment. Therefore, research related to CRCI in older patients with cancers is a high priority. In this manuscript, we discuss current gaps in research highlighting the lack of clinical studies of CRCI in older adults, the complex mechanisms of CRCI, and the challenges in measuring cognitive impairment in older patients with cancer. Although we focus on CRCI, we also discuss cognitive impairment related to cancer itself and other treatment modalities. We highlight several research priorities to improve the study of CRCI in older patients with cancer. PMID:27197918

  12. E-LEARNING FOR THE VISION IMPAIRED: A HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Permvattana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems faced by vision impaired students are different from those experienced by sighted students. Most e-learning environments are designed for sighted students, utilizing complex visual images and interactive features; however students with acute vision impairments are not able to utilize these features and must rely on applications to translate the contents of screen displays and documents into forms that are accessible. Learning environments for people with physical disabilities need specific considerations in design and implementation to ensure their appropriateness and accessibility. This paper initially discusses specific problems faced by students with acute vision impairments and how e-learning environments need to address these problems in order for the student to achieve the same learning outcomes as sighted students. A brief outline of the research method is followed by a description of the holistic model proposed for accessible e-learning environment design.

  13. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  14. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Strauss, Gitte I; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    by norepinephrine infusion (NE). The severity of liver disease was assessed using the Child-Pugh scale (class A, mild; class B, moderate; class C, severe liver dysfunction).NE increased blood pressure similarly in the controls (27 (24-32) mmHg) and patients with the most severe liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C, 31 (26.......0+/-2.0 bpm) compared to the controls (21.7+/-2.2 bpm, p=0.001, Tukey' test). Systolic blood pressure fell during head-up tilt only in patients with severe cirrhosis. Our results imply that cerebral autoregulation was impaired in the most severe cases of liver cirrhosis, and that those with impaired cerebral......Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is lost in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. The cause of this is unknown. We determined whether autonomic dysfunction was related to impaired cerebral autoregulation in patients with cirrhosis. Fourteen patients with liver cirrhosis and 11 healthy volunteers...

  15. Vascular and neurodegenerative cognitive impairments: a clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zakharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the exact cause of cognitive impairment (CI is of great importance for appropriate patient management and disease prognosis. The paper describes a patient with moderate CI, with respect of whom both vascular and neurodegenerative pathology may be discussed. A specific example is used to consider the currently accepted approaches to the differential diagnosis of the most common nosological entities of cognitive impairment, including an analysis of its clinical neurological and neuropsychological symptoms and the results of instrumental and neuroradiological examinations. The present-day ideas on mixed (vascular and degenerative CIs are set forth. The specific features of patient management in relation to the etiology of CI, as well as the place of neurometabolic therapy in the treatment of these impairments are discussed. 

  16. Brain areas impaired in oral and verbal apraxic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As both oral and verbal apraxia are related to vocal orofacial musculature, this study aimed at identifying brain regions impaired in cases with oral and verbal apraxia.In this non-experimental study, 46 left brain damaged subjects (17 females aged 23-84 years, were examined by oral and verbal apraxia tasks. Impaired and spared Broca's area, insula, and middle frontal gyrus in the left hemisphere were checked from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans utilizing Talairach Atlas. Data were analyzed using chi-square test.Insula was significantly impaired in both forms of oral and verbal apraxia and different severities and prominent forms of both apraxias (P < 0.05. Broca's area was slightly less involved than insula in two forms of apraxia.As the damage of insula was more prominent in both forms of apraxias, it seems that oral and verbal apraxia may have commonalities regarding their underlying brain lesions.

  17. Neural origins of psychosocial functioning impairments in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Elliott, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Major depressive disorder, a complex neuropsychiatric condition, is associated with psychosocial functioning impairments that could become chronic even after symptoms remit. Social functioning impairments in patients could also pose coping difficulties to individuals around them. In this Personal View, we trace the potential neurobiological origins of these impairments down to three candidate domains-namely, social perception and emotion processing, motivation and reward value processing, and social decision making. We argue that the neural basis of abnormalities in these domains could be detectable at different temporal stages during social interactions (eg, before and after decision stages), particularly within frontomesolimbic networks (ie, frontostriatal and amygdala-striatal circuitries). We review some of the experimental designs used to probe these circuits and suggest novel, integrative approaches. We propose that an understanding of the interactions between these domains could provide valuable insights for the clinical stratification of major depressive disorder subtypes and might inform future developments of novel treatment options in return. PMID:26360902

  18. Behavior problems in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Verónica; Grañana, Nora E; Richaudeau, Alba; Torres, Silvio; Giannotti, Adrián; Suburo, Angela M

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavior in a group of children with specific language impairment in its 2 subtypes (expressive and mixed receptive/expressive). After exclusion of other psychiatric conditions, we evaluated 114 children of ages 2 to 7 years using language developmental tests and behavioral screening scales. Behavior problems appeared in 54% of the children. Withdrawn was the most frequently found syndrome in preschool children, whereas anxious/depressed and social problems were the most frequent in older children. The high frequency of behavioral syndromes in children with specific language impairment is remarkable and requires the awareness of primary attendants and specialists. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and aggressive and rule-breaking behavior can obscure identification of the language impairment. Taking into account this relationship would improve the chances of a timely and appropriate intervention. PMID:24272522

  19. Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents with ages 15-54 years as a function of their parents' substance-related impairment and parents' treatment history. In addition, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared with nonaffected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills.

  20. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lum, J. A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Page, D.;

    2012-01-01

    at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed......According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which...... for Children, declarative memory with the Children's Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared...