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Sample records for bicarbonated mineral water

  1. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shinnosuke Murakami; Yasuaki Goto; Kyo Ito; Shinya Hayasaka; Shigeo Kurihara; Tomoyoshi Soga; Masaru Tomita; Shinji Fukuda

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysi...

  2. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  3. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?

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    S. Schoppen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p < 0.0001. Insulin concentrations showed a significant time effect (p < 0.0001 and a significant water x time interaction (p < 0.021. At 120 min insulin levels with BMW-1 were significantly lower than with LMW (p = 0.022. Postprandial insulin concentrations showed significantly different patterns of mineral water intake depending on HOMA n-tiles (p = 0.016. Conclusion: Results suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity after BMWs consumption. This effect is more marked in the women, who have higher HOMA values. These waters should be considered part of a healthy diet in order to prevent insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoppen, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; A. M.ª Pérez-Granados; Gómez-Gerique, J.A.; Sarriá, B.; S. Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar Vaquero

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood sam...

  5. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  6. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina

  7. Lithium mineral waters

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    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.The surface waters arising from a natural source or updated by drilling and whose physical and chemical characteristics that may exert dynamic pharmaco-therapeutic are considered therapeutic mineral waters. Mineral waters are waters that have a variable content of salts, gas, minerals, radioactive elements, which gives them therapeutic properties. In the past, name of mineral water was attributed to all shallow or groundwater mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes have been given the name of curative water.Lithium arouses a great scientific interest because, although his structure is so simple, easy to analyze, with chemical and physical properties well established the myriad of the effects on biological systems by influencing many cellular processes and molecular and the mechanism of action are still unclear generates a mystery that modern science attempting to decipher.

  8. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2012-04-20

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) leaching from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 4})]{sub 2} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding into important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of G975 Arthrobacter oxydans strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorus-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 1-10 mM in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile cultureware with inserts was used in non-contact bioleaching experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest the G975 bacteria is able to enhance U(VI) leaching from autunite without the direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the U(VI) bioleaching from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  9. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  10. Lithium mineral waters

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu Constantin; Munteanu Diana

    2011-01-01

    Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of hea...

  11. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  12. Origin and transport of CO2 in the highly mineralized water system of the Pannonian Tertiary Basin (northeast Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal waters with high bicarbonate mineralization (up to 7500 ppm) were examined. The origin and transport of CO2 are the main questions which will be addressed in discussing the evolution of this fluid system. 3 refs

  13. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  14. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Skaar, Don

    2014-09-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO(3) rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO(3) (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed. PMID:24909548

  15. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  16. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Ginanni Corradini; Edoardo Poli; Adriano De Santis; Aldo Roda; Carolina Colliva; Patrizia Simoni; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Flaminia Ferri; Michela Mordenti; Luigi Iuliano; Maria Siciliano; Maria Antonella Burza; Bruno Sordi; Barbara Caciotti; Maria Pacini

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease.METHODS:Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n =20) or tap (n =20) water controlled drinking.Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound,blood vitamin E,oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol.and 7-ketocholesterol),bile acid (BA),triglycerides,total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Food consumption,stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily.RESULTS:Blood lipids,oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption.Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P <0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL).Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83-1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol).The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid.The number of pasta (P < 0.001),meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group.Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups.CONCLUSION:Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  17. CONTROL OF CADMIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION INTERFERENCES DURING THE DIALYSIS OF CADMIUM IN HIGH BICARBONATE ALKALINITY AQUATIC-LIFE BIOASSAY WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation of cadmium carbonate during the dialysis of cadmium in a high bicarbonate alkalinity natural water, was linked to a significant source of error when determining dialyzate cadmium concentrations. The relative standard deviation was reduced by approximately four-f...

  18. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  19. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  20. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Liu; Chengliang Sun; Xingxing Liu; Xiaolin He; Miao Liu; Hao Wu; Caixian Tang; Chongwei Jin; Yongsong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the ...

  1. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  2. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 mg.dm-3) can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222Rn, concentration of Unat, volume 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm3.year-1 (0.4 dm3.day-1) for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  3. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  4. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Khelil-Arfa, Hajer; Faverdin, Philippe; Boudon, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20% DM (Na(-)) and 0.50% DM (Na(+))] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4 mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of...

  5. Contributions of isotopic techniques to the understanding of mineral water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first isotopes used were those of water itself, being an intrinsic part of the molecule and forming ideal tracers. Oxygen 18 and deuterium finally quashed the notion of juvenile water by demonstrating that mineral water had a meteoric origin. They also make it possible to locate the zone supplying the mineral water system by determining its mean depth on the basis of isotopic height gradients. Tritium from thermonuclear devices which was particularly abundant in precipitation during the decade 1963-1973 was used at an early stage to identify the presence of recent, post-nuclear water in mineral water springs. Isotopes of dissolved elements, being exposed to chemical and biochemical fractionating, are a more delicate matter. They are used to determine the origin of the elements and to untangle the history of the water. Carbon 13 has been used to demonstrate the deep magmatic origin of the CO2 in most mineral waters that contain it. It is used to investigate the interactions between the CO2 gas, the bicarbonates and the limestone matrix, knowledge of which is essential for radiocarbon dating of ground water. The initial hopes that sulphur 34 would make it possible to distinguish sulphates dissolved in evaporites from those resulting from the action of micro-organisms. Nitrogen 15 is still little used in the field of mineral waters, in which nitrate concentrations are usually very low. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs

  6. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of methanogenesis in production water of high-temperature oil reservoirs amended with bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Chao eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CDCS facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form (0~90 mM with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs.

  7. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of Methanogenesis in Production Water of High-temperature Oil Reservoirs Amended with Bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Chao; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CDCS) facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form; 0∼90 mM) with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs. PMID:27047478

  8. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of Methanogenesis in Production Water of High-temperature Oil Reservoirs Amended with Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Chao; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CDCS) facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form; 0∼90 mM) with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs. PMID:27047478

  9. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  10. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish - why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Rod W.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp

    2002-01-01

    Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange......Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange...

  11. Corrosion control using hydroxide and bicarbonate alkalising agents in water drinking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torres-Lozada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The water supply industry is faced with three phenomena of great importance: the aggressiveness, corrosion, and incrustation of water distribution systems (WDS, which are primarily due to the low alkalinity of water sources and the addition of chemicals used in water treatment processes, which require pH adjustments during the last stage of the treatment process before going into the WDS. This article presents the results of using Ca(OH2 and NaOH with doses between 2 and 20 mg L−1 and NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 between 10 and 250 mg L−1 to adjust the pH of water treated from the Cauca River, which is located in Cali, Colombia, using stabilisation indices normally used in water treatment plants for pH monitoring processes and to better predict the behaviour of water in the WDS. The results indicate that for the case of the surface water source studied, which exhibits low alkalinity levels, the evaluated alkalising agents, with the exception of NaHCO3, can create conditions that lead to the precipitation of a~protective calcium carbonate film. Because the pH values that guarantee an adequate pH adjustment are higher (8.7–9.0 than those specified by the Colombian water code and because other international rules indicate that these values do not compromise the health of consumers, it is advisable to review and adjust the code in this respect.

  12. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cidália Dionísio Pereira; Milton Severo; João Ricardo Araújo; João Tiago Guimarães; Diogo Pestana; Alejandro Santos; Rita Ferreira; António Ascensão; José Magalhães; Isabel Azevedo; Rosário Monteiro; Maria João Martins

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate...

  13. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Xingxing; He, Xiaolin; Liu, Miao; Wu, Hao; Tang, Caixian; Jin, Chongwei; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the best ability to suppress R. solanacearum due to its highest capacity to increase soil and NO2(-) contents and pH. However, AW was more suitable to controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum because it had a lower cost and its application rate of 0.25 g N kg(-1) soil could effectively suppress the survival of R. solanacearum. Additionally, soil microbial activity and community populations were restored to their initial state four weeks after the application of each fumigant, indicating that the three fumigants had few detrimental impacts on soil microbial activity and community structure with an exception of the suppression of R. solanacearum. The present study provides guidance for the selection of a suitable alkaline nitrogenous amendment and its application rate in controlling bacterial wilt. PMID:26738601

  14. Elimination of bicarbonate interference in the binding of U(VI) in mill-waters to freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze-dried preparations of Chlorella vulgaris will accumulate U(Vl) from alkaline, bicarbonate-containing waters collected from uranium mill process streams, provided that the pH is pre-adjusted to between 4.0 and 6.0. Bicarbonate ion complexes the uranyl ion in these waters and seriously interferes with the binding of U(Vl) to the algal cells at pH values above 6.0. No binding of U(Vl) to the algae occurred at the natural pH of 8.0 when Chlorella vulgaris was suspended in untreated mull-waters containing up to 2.5 x 10-4M U(Vl). However, when the pH of these waters was lowered from 8.0 to near 5.0, with nitric acid, nearly quantitative binding of U(Vl) to the alga was achieved. Binding is rapid and largely unaffected by ions including Na+, Cl-, NO3-, -OAc, and SO42-. Our results indicate that provided steps are taken to eliminate bicarbonate interference, such as adjustment of the pH to near 5.0, dried algal biomass could prove useful for the removal and recovery of U(Vl) from high carbonate-containing waters

  15. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Azrina Azlan; Hock Eng Khoo; Mohd Aizat Idris; Amin Ismail; Muhammad Rizal Razman

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and m...

  16. Proportional influence of sea water and bicarbonate on the production of Spirulina sp. biomass with light-emitting diode lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vasquez-Villalobos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the influence of the variables seawater proportion (% and bicarbonate concentration on Spirulina sp. biomass production, using a Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD to evaluate the optimal regions of biomass production (ϕ, adaptation phase (λ, specific growth rate (µ and generation time (G, using for each treatment the Gompertz mathematical model. The highest values of biomass (ϕ log N/N0 : 0.93 were obtained at 168.8 hours; in a culture medium with pH 8.8±0.1; at a temperature of 25°C; with salinity of 1.2% and 1.6 gL of bicarbonate. The lowest value of ϕ was 0.45±0.01; coincidentally obtained in repetitions of the central point, using a salinity of 0.7% and 3.0g/L of bicarbonate; in a medium with pH 9.1±0.4 to 25°C; which shows the importance of salinity provided by the volume of seawater relative to bicarbonate, in the production of Spirulina biomass. The lighting was 2.7±1.2 klx, provided by a White LightEmitting Diode (WLED during 12 continuous hours and an air injection of 0.86±0.09 L/s by a photo bioreactor with a 200 mL capacity. Only the values of ϕ, adjusted properly to the Response Surface with an R2 of 0.99 for a quadratic mathematical model and p < 0.05 with a 2.4% average absolute error.

  17. Dynamics of water confined in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O-D stretching mode of dilute HOD in H2O probes the local environment and the hydrogen bond network of confined water. The dynamics of water molecules confined in the interlayer space of montmorillonites (Mt) and in interaction with two types of cations (Li+ and Ca2+) but also with the negatively charged siloxane surface are studied. The results evidence that the OD vibrational dynamics is significantly slowed down in confined media: it goes from 1.7 ps in neat water to 2.6 Ps in the case of Li+ cations with two water pseudo-layers (2.2-2.3 ps in the case of Ca2+ cations) and to 4.7 ps in the case of Li+ cations with one water pseudo-layer. No significant difference between the two cations is noticed. In this 2D confined geometry (the interlayer space being about 0.6 nm for two water pseudo-layers), the relaxation time constants obtained are comparable to the ones measured in analogous concentrated salt solutions. Nevertheless, and in strong opposition to the observations performed in the liquid phase, anisotropy experiments evidence the absence of rotational motions on a 5 ps time scale, proving that the hydrogen bond network in the interlayer space of the clay mineral is locked at this time scale. (authors)

  18. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  19. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H2O, which allows one to identify the 222Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 105 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H2O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium (226Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  20. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  1. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226Ra and 228Ra levels. (author)

  2. Natural radionuclides in some romanian medicinal mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive minerals occur irregularly in the bedrock, similar to other minerals and they dissolve easily in water. Bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity including uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. The natural radioactivity results from water passing through deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials.Many mineral water springs are traditionally used as drinking mineral water sources in the area.During the period from 1997 to 2000, we accomplished a study that had as basic objectives the radioactivity control of the drinking mineral waters according to existing standards and evaluation of doses to population by ingestion of mineral water (bottled waters commercially available for human intake and some spring waters).For this reason, we were interested in finding out the extent to which these waters can be a natural radiation source. This survey aimed at assessing the radioactive content of these waters and their contribution to the population exposure.The presented data contribute to a national database concerning the natural radioactive content of Romanian mineral waters. A hypothetical person that undergoes a cure of mineral water by ingestion, inhalation and immersion is receiving an average supplementary dose of 3 μSv over background radiation of 2,512 μSv.y-1 due to all natural radiation sources in Romania. The contribution of mineral water used in therapeutic purposes to the natural irradiation of population is very slight, almost insignificant. This supports the conclusion that these spring mineral waters can be used without any restrictions for drinking or bathing / washing for medical therapy of ailing persons even other sources of exposure are also taken into account. (N.C.)

  3. Natural radionuclides in some romanian medicinal mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botezatu, E.; Iacob, O. [Institute of Public Health, Iasi (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive minerals occur irregularly in the bedrock, similar to other minerals and they dissolve easily in water. Bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity including uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. The natural radioactivity results from water passing through deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials.Many mineral water springs are traditionally used as drinking mineral water sources in the area.During the period from 1997 to 2000, we accomplished a study that had as basic objectives the radioacty control of the drinking mineral waters according to existing standards and evaluation of doses to population by ingestion of mineral water (bottled waters commercially available for human intake and some spring waters).For this reason, we were interested in finding out the extent to which these waters can be a natural radiation source. This survey aimed at assessing the radioactive content of these waters and their contribution to the population exposure.The presented data contribute to a national database concerning the natural radioactive content of Romanian mineral waters. A hypothetical person that undergoes a cure of mineral water by ingestion, inhalation and immersion is receiving an average supplementary dose of 3 {mu}Sv over background radiation of 2,512 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} due to all natural radiation sources in Romania. The contribution of mineral water used in therapeutic purposes to the natural irradiation of population is very slight, almost insignificant. This supports the conclusion that these spring mineral waters can be used without any restrictions for drinking or bathing / washing for medical therapy of ailing persons even other sources of exposure are also taken into account. (N.C.)

  4. Águas minerais de algumas fontes naturais brasileiras Mineral waters from brazilian natural sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. P. Rebelo

    1999-07-01

    -gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. RESULTS. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25oC, 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l, magnesium (0.0 to 18mg/l and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l contents are relatively low. CONCLUSION. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectivelly, similar to local tap water.

  5. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  6. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  7. Mineralized water depleted in deuterium and production technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralized water depleted in deuterium is similar to natural water but has an isotopic content of 30-120 ppm D/(D+H). One can obtain mineralized water depleted in deuterium both in continuous and in discontinuous way by mixing deuterium depleted water with strong mineralized water obtained by vacuum distillation at atmospheric pressure of natural water. The mixture is saturated with oxygen by bubbling dry air into it at ambient temperature. This invention allows obtaining a product depleted in deuterium similar to natural water with biostimulating properties that can be used as developing medium for living organisms or for human use. The invention has the following qualities: allows the production of deuterium depleted water with chemical composition similar to natural water; allows the precise control of deuterium content in the product. (authors)

  8. GEORGIA''S FRESH MINERAL WATER FOR EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Tvalchrelidze, Alexander; Silagadze, Avtandil

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the issues relating to Georgia's fresh mineral water supplies, their unproductive use today, and the daily increase in demand for these resources in Europe. Based on this, the authors offer possible alternatives for transporting fresh mineral water from Georgia to Europe by means of a water pipeline and present several preliminary feasibility parameters of this project. The authors think the project will be economically profitable for all the interested parties, includin...

  9. Concentrations of uranium and thorium in bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of uranium and thorium in commercial bottled mineral waters (81 domestic and 11 foreign products) have been analyzed using ICP-MS. Domestic bottled mineral waters exhibit very wide range of the uranium concentrations (0.1–3300 ng/L). However uranium concentrations of most samples were below 100 ng/L. There is no obvious correlation between the values of hardness and the uranium concentrations of the domestic bottled mineral waters. The uranium concentrations of foreign bottled mineral waters tended to be much higher than those of domestic ones (up to 4000 ng/L), and the values of hardness correlate roughly with the uranium concentration. It may be due to interactions between limestone and groundwater. Thorium concentrations of both domestic and foreign bottled mineral waters are typically less than 3.0 ng/L. Concentrations of uranium and thorium in bottled mineral waters were greatly lower than provisional guideline values defined by WHO. Therefore, it can be considered that there is no health risk chemically/radioactively induced by natural uranium and thorium in commercial mineral waters currently available in Japan, especially in Kyoto City. (author)

  10. Uranium and thorium contents in bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four types of mineral waters bottled in Japan and 42 types of foreign mineral waters were analyzed especially for U and Th by ICP-MS. Japanese bottled waters exhibited rather low U concentrations below its detection limit of 2 ng/L up to 1.3 μ g/L. They are all below the Japanese water standard for U concentration. Foreign bottles showed a wide range of U contents up to 16 μ g/L and smaller Th contents up to 30 ng/L. Apparently, some foreign mineral waters contained a large amount of U exceeding the Japanese water standard. In spite of this, such mineral waters may be used as a readily-available uranium (and thorium) sample solution. Other various aquatic samples such as rainwater, lake water, river water, and tap water were also analyzed for U and Th. In Japan, U concentrations are of the order of several to several tens of ng/L for various samples in general, which is in accordance with those of bottled mineral waters. Uranium concentrations may be used as a key for environmental monitoring, as exemplified by water of Ashida River, Hiroshima Prefecture. (author)

  11. Theoretical aspects of competitiveness of the industry of mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Azarian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article presents theoretical aspects of the concept and content of economic competitiveness for its competitive positions. Authors found positive trends, essential trends of increasing the competitiveness of the food industry as a complex system. The article shows theoretical basis for the competitiveness of the industry of mineral water, clarifies the concepts of competitiveness. Authors suggest development of the main directions of improving the competitiveness of the food complex sector. The results of the analysis. Authors generalized theoretical experience of the concept and scope of the use of the methodology of competitiveness; analysis of the competitiveness of the industry of mineral water, revealed positive trends; developed the main directions of improving the competitiveness of the sector in food complex. Analysis of the mineral waters of Ukraine reveals the following competitive advantages: the ability to produce high quality products with an unique competitive advantage. Creating favorable conditions relevant resources and innovation of enterprises in order to increase their profitability, improve the culture of consumption of mineral water Ukrainian production, the elimination of the innovative and trend- to-market at the optimum time dictated by the marketing activity and consumer demand. Interaction with competitive firms, leaders of the study and implementation of international experience in the production and marketing strategy and sales, cooperation within the industry and with other industries in the country and with similar industries abroad, presence of unique recipes, advanced manufacturing, processing its own base; infrastructure. Conclusions and directions of further researchers. There is an intensive foreign investment in the development of the industry of mineral water. Formation of the state of quality and safety, monitoring compliance with in terms of quality and security of mineral

  12. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  13. ORIGIN OF LIFE AND LIVING MATTER IN HOT MINERAL WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  14. Geochemistry of mineral water and gases of the Razdolnoe Spa (Primorye, Far East of Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Investigated Na–HCO3 water associated with coalbed methane. • 7 isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, δ13CCH4, δDCH4, δ18OCO2, δ13CCO2 and 3H) were analyzed. • The chemical changes of water during methanogenesis are geochemically estimated. • Marine microbial origin of methane. • δ13CCO2 from the Razdolnoe Spa has carbonate reduction genesis. - Abstract: New isotopic and chemical data on the sodium bicarbonate water and associated gases from the Razdolnoe Spa located in the coastal zone of Primorsky Kray of the Russian Far East, together with previous stable isotope data (δ18O, δD, δ13C), allow elucidation of the origin and evolution of the groundwater and gases from the spa. The water is characterized by low temperature (12 °C), TDS – 2.5–6.0 g/L, high contents of B (∼5 mg/L) and F (4.5 mg/L) and low contents of Cl and SO4. Water isotopic composition indicates its essentially meteoric origin which may comply with an older groundwater that was recharged under different (colder) climatic conditions. Major components of bubbling gases are CH4 (68 vol%), N2 (28%) and CO2 (4%). The obtained values δ13C and δD for CO2 and CH4 definitely indicate the marine microbial origin of methane. Thus the high methane content in the waters relates to the biochemical processes and presence of a dispersed organic matter in the host rocks. Based on the regional hydrogeology and the geological structure of the Razdolnoe Spa, Mesozoic fractured rocks containing Na–HCO3 mineral water and gases are reservoir rocks, a chemical composition of water and gases originates in different environmental conditions

  15. Natural radioactivity of hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of ground waters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclides and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its parent radionuclides (Utot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great Arab-African Faults Systems). In all the cases the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author) 7 refs. 1 figs

  16. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  17. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  18. The significance of water phase transition in the hydrothermal mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is the main composition of the geo-fluid in the hydrothermal mineralization. The phase transition of water is also the key factor to understand the processes of hydrothermal mineralization, as well as the reactions among various substances and the geological evolutions. The paper, takes the iso-pressure heat capacity (Cp) for example of physicochemical properties, has studies the changing regularity of Cp according to temperature and pressure in the crust with the method from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and showed that the phase transition of water can cause the sharp variations of the physicochemical properties of water and is one of the essential factors to hydrothermal mineralization. From the study the paper has also revealed the interior coupling relations between the phase transitions of water and fracture or magma activities. Furthermore, the article suggests that the corresponding relations between fracture epoch and metallogenic epoch can be created by the aid of the water phase transitions and concludes the phase transition of water is the important factor to control the hydrothermal mineralization. (authors)

  19. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql-1); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq-1) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql-1). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  20. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  1. Natural radioactivity in Portuguese mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 226Ra, 210Pb and 222Rn have been analysed in most of the bottled waters commercially available in Portugal, as well as in some spring waters. Concentrations up to about 2 Bq.l-1, with a geometric mean of 27 mBq.l-1 were observed for 226Ra. For 210Pb a geometric mean of 18 mBq.l-1 with values ranging from 2 to 392 mBq.l-1 and for 222Rn a geometric mean of 17 Bq.l-1 with values ranging from -1 were measured. These values are compared with concentrations reported for other countries. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The effective dose equivalents due to the intake of 226Ra and 210Pb present in these waters are expected to range from about 5 x 10-3 to 0.2 mSv.y-1. Dose equivalents to the stomach due to 222Rn intake through water consumption are estimated to reach values around 20 mSv.y-1. (author)

  2. Seasonal variation of 226Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 226Ra and 222Rn have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region, which is located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, one of the biggest weathered alkaline intrusions of the world. In this plateau can be found many health resorts[based on springs of thermal and mineral waters. The Aguas da Prata spring waters show a large variety of composition. It has been observed bicarbonates, carbonates and sulphates salts in these mineral waters. The 226Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of a Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate. The measurement was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. The 222Rn concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation method. Water samples were randomly collected at 9 spring sites over a period of one year, in order to evaluate the seasonal variation of these radionuclides. Lower concentrations were found mostly in the rainy season (summer), which presents 80% of the annual rainfall of the region (1500 mm/year). Higher concentrations up to 2223 mBq/L for 226Ra and 131 Bq/L for 222Rn have been observed in waters with low level of soluble salts. Waters which present high levels of carbonate and sulphate salts showed maximum values of 316 mBq/L for 226Ra and 30 Bq/L for 222Rn. This behaviour is mainly due to the physicochemical properties of these radionuclides in water as well as to the lithologic structure of the aquifers. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA; Radiana Mariana TAMBA - BEREHOIU

    2015-01-01

    15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significan...

  4. Cholangiocyte anion exchange and biliary bicarbonate excretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús M Banales; Jesús Prieto; Juan F Medina

    2006-01-01

    Primary canalicular bile undergoes a process of fluidization and alkalinization along the biliary tract that is influenced by several factors including hormones, innervation/neuropeptides, and biliary constituents. Theexcretion of bicarbonate at both the canaliculi and the bile ducts is an important contributor to the generation of the so-called bile-salt independent flow. Bicarbonate is secreted from hepatocytes and cholangiocytes through parallel mechanisms which involve chloride efflux through activation of Cl- channels, and further bicarbonate secretion via AE2/SLC4A2-mediated Cl-/HCO3-exchange. Glucagon and secretin are two relevant hormones which seem to act very similarly in their target cells (hepatocytes for the former and cholangiocytes for the latter). These hormones interact with their specific G protein-coupled receptors, causing increases in intracellular levels of cAMP and activation of cAMP-dependent Cl- and HCO3- secretory mechanisms. Both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes appear to have cAMP-responsive intracellular vesicles in which AE2/SLC4A2 colocalizes with cell specific Cl- channels (CFTR in cholangiocytes and not yet determined in hepatocytes) and aquaporins (AQP8 in hepatocytes and AQP1 in cholangiocytes). cAMP-induced coordinated trafficking of these vesicles to either canalicular or cholangiocyte lumenal membranes and further exocytosis results in increased osmotic forces and passive movement of water with net bicarbonate-rich hydrocholeresis.

  5. Arsenic removal from water by iron-sulphide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In bench-scaled experiments, iron-sulphide minerals, pyrite and pyrrhotite are used as adsorbents for arsenic removal from As-spiked water of As5+ and As3+ species. The adsorption rate, efficiency, As-adsorption stability and the associated pH conditions have been examined. Observations indicate that these iron-sulphide minerals are very efficient to adsorb arsenic from water for both As5+ and As3+ species. Similar to other studies, As3+-adsorption shows a slower rate than As3+. The stability of the adsorbed arsenic seems closely related to the pH values of the solution. A lower pH level commonly less than 4.0 is required to protect the adsorbed arsenic from serious oxidation and backward release. Fining of the mineral powders and shaking of the solution during adsorption enhance the adsorption efficiency and adsorption rate. For practical use of the method presented in this study, the waste produced should be managed with great care to keep it from redistribution over water system. A further study of the protection for the waste from oxidation on real water systems will greatly enhance the application of the strong ability of arsenic adsorption by these minerals, which is observed from this study.

  6. Mineral water and radioactivity. Technical report n. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report aims at giving to people taking charge of mineral water analysis, information needed to the interpretation of radioactivity monitoring results. It provides bulk notions on the radioactivity (biological and environmental effects), regulations and reference texts of the WHO (World Health Organization). Examples of activities and absorbed doses calculation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  8. Hydrogen isotope analysis of natural water and inclusion water in minerals by zinc metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of D/H ratio analyses of natural water, inclusion water and structure water in minerals have been established on hydrogen gas obtained by quantitative reduction of water passing over hot zinc metal. The vacuum line and hydrogen isotope concentration ratios are available. The results agree well with in the analytical errors. The experimental procedure of the method is presented in detail

  9. Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Raj; R Kuriyan; A V Kurpad

    2006-06-01

    Measurement of rates of in vivo substrate oxidation such as that of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, are based on tracer (14C or 13C) data, and often depend on the isotopic content of expired CO2. The recovery of tracer-labelled CO2 generated from the oxidation of 13C labelled substrates may not be 100% over short term. This can lead to underestimation of oxidation rate of substrates, and consequently a correction for the incomplete recovery of tracer has to be applied by the determination of the recovery of 13CO2 in the breath during tracer bicarbonate infusions. We have studied the recovery of tracer-labelled bicarbonate using a bolus administration model, and further characterized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed during the change from a fasted state to fed state. Recovery of bicarbonate was lower at 69% and 67% (fasted and fed state) than the value of 71% and 74% found during earlier longer term of continuous infusions. During feeding, there was a 20-fold increase in the flux of bicarbonate between the central compartment and the compartment that was equivalent to the viscera. This study shows that the difference between the fasted and fed state recovery of tracer bicarbonate similar to that obtained with continuous infusions, and that bicarbonate fluxes show large changes between different compartments in the body depending on metabolic state.

  10. Hydro chemistry of public-benefit-declared mineral and medicinal waters in the province of Leon; Hidroquimica de las aguas minerales y minero-medicinales declaradas de utilidad publica en la provincia de Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller Urdiales, A.; Gomez Fernandez, E.; Martinez Moran, O.; Moran Palao, A. [Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Minera, Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad de Leon, Leon (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    In this work the inventory of historically Public-Benefit-declared mineral and medicinal waters of Leon is set out. these waters are studied through 26 parameters. These parameters are divided in the following groups: general features (source emergence temperature), pH, conductivity, dry residue, dissolved oxygen and CDO, major components (bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium), oligoelements (manganese, lead, zinc, cobalt and boron), undesirable components (ammonium, nitrites and nitrates), and other components (fluoride, hydrogen sulphur, silica, lithium and iron). These features are chareacteriszed in relation to dry residue at 110 degree centigree and are classified according Firstly to characteristic components (ferruginous, sulphurous, fluorous...), and secondly, to major anions and cations (calcium-bicarbonated, magnesium-sulfated...). (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Interactions of Water with Mineral Dust Aerosol: Water Adsorption, Hygroscopicity, Cloud Condensation, and Ice Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Cziczo, Daniel J; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-04-13

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the major types of aerosol present in the troposphere. The molecular level interactions of water vapor with mineral dust are of global significance. Hygroscopicity, light scattering and absorption, heterogneous reactivity and the ability to form clouds are all related to water-dust interactions. In this review article, experimental techniques to probe water interactions with dust and theoretical frameworks to understand these interactions are discussed. A comprehensive overview of laboratory studies of water adsorption, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation of fresh and atmspherically aged mineral dust particles is provided. Finally, we relate laboratory studies and theoretical simulations that provide fundemental insights into these processes on the molecular level with field measurements that illustrate the atmospheric significance of these processes. Overall, the details of water interactions with mineral dust are covered from multiple perspectives in this review article. PMID:27015126

  12. Wastewater treatment technologies and water recycling in mining and mineral extraction processes – a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kivi, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to consider the possibilities in reasonable and efficient water usage and high water recycling rate in mining and mineral processing industry. Wastewater treatment technologies for different mineral industry wastewaters are described and the basic chemistry behind the processes explained. The thesis also describes the reasons for water use in mineral extraction processes, the wastes formed in the processing of ore and minerals, the common reagents used in mineral proc...

  13. Extraction of tungsten from bicarbonate solutions by MTAA salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on investigations of tungsten extraction from bicarbonate reextracts prepared during reprocessing of carbonate solutions of autoclave-carbonate leaching of mineral raw material and so through ammonium reextraction of polymeric tungsten compounds with preparation of concentrated by tungsten reextracts for separation of conditioned ammonium paratungstate. Variants of proposed technological scheme are discussed

  14. Concentration of 226Ra in Iranian bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally radioactivity in particular those emitting alpha particles, make the largest contribution to the world population exposure. The sources of these radionuclides initiated from the uranium and thorium decay series. 226Ra is one the most important radionuclides that comes through ground water to food chain. In recent years the consumption of mineral water in many countries including Iran has increased to a great extent. Therefore the 226Ra concentrations of different types of bottled mineral water were determined and the committed effective dose for adults is calculated. In this work the concentration levels of 226Ra were measured in 42 samples related to 14 types of bottled natural mineral water commercially available in supermarkets. The applied method for this measurement was emanation method with a minimum detection limit of 2 mBq L-1. For each experiment 3 bottles mineral water (each bottle contains 1.5 L) were used. After adjusting the pH below 2 by concentrated HCl, the Radium was coprecipitated with barium and lead as sulfate. The precipitation was dissolved in alkaline EDTA (C10H14N2O8.2H2O) and placed in 20 mL bubbler. The nitrogen gas with a purity of 99.99% was passed through the bubbler to remove any existing of 222Rn before the ingrowth. The bubbler was sealed and stored for 21 days at 5 deg. C for ingrowth of 222Rn. for calculation the committed effective dose for adults from drinking 40 l a-1 of bottled mineral water the ingestion dose conversion coefficients from the IAEA publications is used. Concentration of 226Ra ranged from 2.0 to 12.3 mBq L-1. In one case 12.3 mBq L-1 was measured, which provides 0.138 μSv committed effective dose for adults in the case of consumption rate of 40 L a-1. As it is shown in 61.5% of the investigated bottled water the concentration levels were between 2-10 mBq L-1, in 23% less than 2 mBq L-1 and in 15.5% more than 10 mBq L-1 was found)

  15. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CALCIUM BICARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ye; Xiaofei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Surface modification of calcium bicarbonate powder with isopropyl triisostearoyl titanate (TTS) by microwave-assisted heating was studied in the present work. The features of microwave treated powder show obvious superiority to those of powder samples treated by traditional surface modification method and of untreated calcium bicarbonate - in suspension turbidity, suction potential, contact angle with water, and mechanical properties of their composites with PVC resin.

  16. Catalytic Kinetic Determination of Bicarbonate and Carbonate in Leather Water by FIA%FIA-催化动力学法在线测定制革用水HCO3-和CO32-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞凌云; 尚永昌; 安胜波; 卢艳青; 张新申

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection catalytic kinetic spectrophotometic method was developed for the rapid determination of bicarbonate and carbonate in water. The chromogenic reaction of trivalent chromium and xylenol orange is catalysed by bicarbonate and carbonate under heating condition. The optimum analysis conditions are as follows: detection wavelength is 550nm, temperature is 75 ℃;the length of the reaction coil is 3.9m; the volume of the sampling loop is 250μL; the concentration of chromogenic reagent R1 ( xylenol orange) is 0.004g/L and the concentration of chromogenic reagent R2 ( Chromium Nitrate) is 0.04mol/L. When the concentration of bicarbonate and carbonate was between 10mg/L and 220mg/L, the peak height was proportional was to the content of bicarbonate; the linear correlation coefficient is 0. 998 7; the relative standard deviation is 0. 609% measuring 10 times repeatedly. And the method is used to determine the content of bicarbonate in several samples, and it shows its good reproducibility and accuracy, with the recoveries of standard addition between 97.88% and 99.47%.%根据三价铬与二甲酚橙在碳酸氢根或碳酸根的催化作用下发生的显色反应,建立了流动注射催化动力学分光光度法,对水中的碳酸氢根和碳酸根浓度进行了检测.通过对各种影响因素进行优化,确定最佳分析条件为:波长550nm,温度75℃,反应圈3.9m,进样环体积250μL,R1显色液二甲酚橙的浓度为0.004g/L,R2显色液硝酸铬的浓度为0.04mol/L.HCO3-和CO32-含量在10~220mg/L范围内峰高与浓度成正比,线性相关系数为R2=0.9987,精密度RSD=0.609%(n=10).用该法检测实际水样中的碳酸氢根时,加标回收率为97.88%~99.47%,具有良好的重现性和准确性.

  17. Mineral and Protein-Bound Water and Latching Action Control Mechanical Behavior at Protein-Mineral Interfaces in Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nacre structure consists of laminated interlocked mineral platelets separated by nanoscale organic layers. Here, the role of close proximity of mineral to the proteins on mechanical behavior of the protein is investigated through steered molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations indicate that energy required for unfolding protein in the proximity of mineral aragonite is several times higher than that for isolated protein in the absence of the mineral. Here, we present details of specific mechanisms which result in higher energy for protein unfolding in the proximity of mineral. At the early stage of pulling, peaks in the load-displacement (LD plot at mineral proximity are quantitatively correlated to the interaction energy between atoms involved in the latching phenomenon of amino acid side chain to aragonite surface. Water plays an important role during mineral and protein interaction and water molecules closer to the mineral surface are highly oriented and remain rigidly attached as the protein strand is pulled. Also, the high magnitude of load for a given displacement originates from attractive interactions between the protein, protein-bound water, and mineral. This study provides an insight into mineral-protein interactions that are predominant in biological nanocomposites and also provides guidelines towards design of biomimetic nanocomposites.

  18. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  19. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in mineral bottled water according to difference in mineral content: Application of the Weibull model

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou, Sandrine; Leguérinel, Ivan; Garrec, N.; Renard, M. A.; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Federighi, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis proposed by Evans et al. [2003. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9(10), 1219–1225] that mineral bottled water accidentally contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni would represent a risk factor for Campylobacter infection. Culturability of C. jejuni cells inoculated in low- and high-mineral bottled water during storage at 4 1C i...

  20. Measuring and analyzing on natural radioactive nuclide uranium concentration in mineral water from market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Laser-fluorescence analyzing technology and adopting the standard mix method, the measuring and analyzing on mineral water was made. Seventeen samples of mineral water were chosen. The LMA-3 type laser trace analysis instrument was employed. The measuring result showed that the uranium content of the mineral water belongs in normal radioactive background level

  1. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  2. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  3. Time dependent FTIR spectra of mineral waters after contact with air

    CERN Document Server

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    FTIR spectra of mineral waters of Slavyanovskaya, Aqua Montana, Bad Harzburger and Christinen with time from first contact of water with open air were analysed. The kinetic of spectral changes of Slavyanovskaya mineral water in the regions of stretch, deformation and intermolecular vibrations was measured. The spectral changes do not correlate with chemical contamination of mineral water and degassing process. The observed spectral changes could be due to different structure of mineral water in liquid state, which is destroyed after air contact. The observed spectral behaviour of Slavyanovskaya is correlated with the catalytic activity of mineral water, which was saved without contact with air. The characteristic time of spectral dependence (669 seconds) is close to the characteristic time of catalytic activity loss (600 seconds) of mineral water at air contact. The spectra results support the medical studies that show the activity of mineral water near spring, and the loosing activity of water after long tim...

  4. Influence of UV radiation on the microflora of mineral waters mineralized differently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was carried out on mineral waters with evaporation residues of 25 to 106 mg/l and 6300 to 6500 mg/l, resp., and turbidities up to 50 mg/l SiO2 and numbers of germs up to 5 . 104 ml-1. The parameters of the radiation device are: rate of water flow 2 to 7 l/min, radiation dosage 1.9 to 8.2 kWs/m2, wavelength 253.7 nm. As expected, the elimination performance with regard to the percent efficiency is dependent on the number of germs in the raw water, but the numbers of germs for the pseudomonades, mesophilic and gram-negative germs are always lower than 20/ml in clear raw water. Waters with turbidity values higher than 15 mg/l SiO2 must be filtered prior to exposure. Iron and manganese bacteria are impaired only slightly, which leads to a rapid aftergrowth in the water. (author)

  5. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF CARBONATED MINERAL WATERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonated water baths represent a method used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in some spa resorts in Romania. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of the filtration of depth waters through volcanic soils that contain carbon dioxide. The most important effect is the direct effect of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed through the skin, with an absorption coefficient of 30-35 ml/min/sqm body surface area. An excitation of vascular receptors and a dilation of dermal papillae, responsible for skin erythema, occur. The effects of the carbonated water bath on the cardiovascular system are the following: decrease of peripheral resistance by the direct action of carbon dioxide on arterioles and arteriovenous anastomoses; increase of both systolic and diastolic cardiac output, not by central mechanism as in the case of hot baths, but initially, by passive peripheral vasodilation, without increased venous return; subsequently, by accumulation in the cutaneous venous system, venous return towards the right heart will be increased, with a higher diastolic filling and a higher stroke volume. Carbonated water baths increase arteriolar blood flow in the skin, the vasodilator effect being directly proportional to the carbon dioxide concentration in the mineral bath. The effect of external carbonated water treatment is based on mechanical and thermal action, as well as on the chemical properties of carbon dioxide, its influence being either local or postabsorptive. Carbonated water baths are a therapeutic method that is also used in the treatment facilities of the Baile Tusnad spa resort, under the supervision of qualified medical experts, in a pleasant environment close to nature.

  6. Natural radionuclides in drinking water and mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabulated data are presented showing the annual average concentrations in a great variety of water samples of different geographical origin as well the resulting effective annual doses to infants (about 0.02 mSv) and adults (about 0.004 mSv). It is shown that this radiation dose is a negligible component of the total average annual dose to the population from natural radiation sources. (orig./CB)

  7. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  8. Mineral carbonation in water-unsaturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultramafic mine tailings have an untapped capacity to sequester CO2 directly from air or CO2-rich gas streams via carbonation of tailings minerals [1]. The CO2 sequestration capacity of these sites could be exploited simply by increasing the supply of CO2 into tailings, such as through circulation of air or flue gas from mine site power plants [1,2]. Mine tailings storage facilities typically have heterogeneously distributed pore water [1], affecting both the reactive capacity of the porous medium and the exposure of reactive phases to CO2 [3]. We examine the physical reaction processes that govern carbonation efficiency in variably saturated porous media using meter-scale column experiments containing the tailings mineral, brucite [Mg(OH)2], that were supplied with 10% CO2 gas streams. The experiments were instrumented with water content and gas phase CO2 sensors to track changes in water saturation and CO2concentration with time. The precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates as rinds encasing brucite particles resulted in passivation of brucite surfaces and an abrupt shut down of the reaction prior to completion. Moreover, the extent of reaction was further limited at low water saturation due to the lack of water available to form hydrated Mg-carbonates, which incorporate water into their crystal structures. Reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY [4] revealed that the instantaneous reaction rate was not strongly affected by water saturation, but the reactive capacity was reduced significantly. Surface passivation and water-limited reaction resulted in a highly non-geometric evolution of reactive surface area. The extent of reaction was also limited at high water content because viscous fingering of the gas streams injected at the base of the columns resulted in narrow zones of highly carbonated material, but left a large proportion of brucite unreacted. The implication is that carbonation efficiency in mine tailings could be maximized by targeting an

  9. Method for strontium isolation from high-mineralized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to isolate strontium from high-mineralized waters containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and strontium chlorides, which differ from the prototype method in a considerable decrease in energy consumption with the preservation of a high degree of Sr, Mg and Ca isolation selectivity, has been suggested. According to the method suggested mineralized waters are treated with alkali (NaOH) in the amount of 95-97% of stoichiometry by magnesium, then after separation of magnesium hydroxide precipitate mother liquor is treated with sodium carbonate in the amount of 50-60% of stoichiometry by calcium. After separation of calcium carbonate precipitate mother liquor is treated with NaOH in the amount of 130-135% of stoichiometry by calcium. After separation of calcium hydroxide precipitate from mother liquor by means of sodium carbonate introduction strontium carbonate is isolated. The degree of strontium extraction in the form of SrCO3 constitutes 90.5% of its content in the initial solution. The method presented can be used for strontium separation from natural and waste waters

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  11. Con: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Rigothier, Claire; Combe, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is often observed in advanced chronic kidney disease, with deleterious consequences on the nutritional status, bone and mineral status, inflammation and mortality. Through clearance of the daily acid load and a net gain in alkaline buffers, dialysis therapy is aimed at correcting metabolic acidosis. A normal bicarbonate serum concentration is the recommended target in dialysis patients. However, several studies have shown that a mild degree of metabolic acidosis in patients treated with dialysis is associated with better nutritional status, higher protein intake and improved survival. Conversely, a high bicarbonate serum concentration is associated with poor nutritional status and lower survival. It is likely that mild acidosis results from a dietary acid load linked to animal protein intake. In contrast, a high bicarbonate concentration in patients treated with dialysis could result mainly from an insufficient dietary acid load, i.e. low protein intake. Therefore, a high pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration should prompt nephrologists to carry out nutritional investigations to detect insufficient dietary protein intake. In any case, a high bicarbonate concentration should be neither a goal of dialysis therapy nor an index of adequate dialysis, whereas mild acidosis could be considered as an indicator of appropriate protein intake. PMID:27411724

  12. Hydrogeochemistry and strontium isotopes of spring and mineral waters from Monte Vulture volcano, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a study that was conducted to determine the relationship between hydrogeochemical composition and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the Mt. Vulture spring waters. Forty samples of spring waters were collected from local outcrops of Quaternary volcanites. Physico-chemical parameters were measured in the field and analyses completed for major and minor elements and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios. A range of water types was distinguished varying from alkaline-earth bicarbonate waters, reflecting less intense water-rock interaction processes to alkali bicarbonate waters, probably representing interaction with volcanic rocks of Mt. Vulture and marine evaporites. The average 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios suggest at least 3 different sources. However, some samples have average Sr isotope ratios (0.70704-0.70778) well above those of the volcanites. These ratios imply interaction with other rocks having higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios, probably Triassic evaporites, which is substantiated by their higher content of Na, SO4 and Cl. The Sr isotope ratios for some samples (e.g. Toka and Traficante) are intermediate between the value for the Vulture volcanites and that for the local Mesozoic rocks. The salt content of these samples also lies between the value for waters interacting solely with the volcanites and the value measured in the more saline samples. These waters are thus assumed to result from the mixing of waters circulating in volcanic rocks with waters presumably interacting with the sedimentary bedrock (marine evaporites)

  13. Estimates concentrations in bottled 222Rn of the dose due to mineral waters in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a radionuclide that has the main role in exposure. Radon in water causes exposure in whole body but the largest dose being received by the stomach, as EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that radon in drinking water causes about 168 cancer deaths per year: 89percentfrom lung cancer caused by breathing released to the indoor air from water and 11percentfrom stomach cancer caused by consuming water containing radon. Now days the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. Surveys and reports on radon in most surface waters is low compared with radon level in groundwater and mineral water. In our work, the concentration of Rn(222) was determined in some bottled mineral waters available in Iran , and in next step the dose contribution ; due to ingestion ; for 1 l d-1 bottled mineral water consumption.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic survey of Efteni hot and mineralized waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope techniques are widely used to explain hydrodynamic structures of geothermal systems together with geologic, geophysics and geochemical studies. Especially, because isotope exchange reactions are sensitive to temperature changes, water-rock interactions and other physicochemical processes such as mixing and steam separation, isotope techniques have become indispensable tool in geothermal investigations. In this study, hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of Efteni and Derdin hot and mineralized springs located about 10 km southeast of city of Duezce have been carried out in terms of isotope techniques in geothermal researches. Surface manifestations of relatively low-temperature springs emerge on Duezce fault, a normal component dominated fault segment in the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS). As a result of geochemical studies it has been determined that each of the springs are feeding from different reservoirs of distinct lithologies. Reservoir temperature of Efteni spring (113-135 degree) has been estimated higher than reservoir temperature of Derdin spring (80-104 degree) based on chalcedony geothermometers. Nevertheless, 18O shift which has been interpreted as a result of isotopic exchange at high temperatures between the water and the rock minerals is observed only in Derdin spring. In addition, it has been determined that tritium content of Derdin spring is about ∼2 TU units which in an evidence of recent recharge, whereas it is approximately ∼0 TU in Efteni spring. In the scope of this study, thermal reservoirs and physical processes that affect both springs are distinguished and hydrothermal structures of the springs are determined by chemical and isotopic analyses. Geothermometer equations which are used to estimate reservoir temperatures have been correlated via isotope techniques and especially dilution processes such as surface water mixing has been differentiated in Derdin Spring water

  15. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  16. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  17. K-40 Radioactivity in Underground Mineral Waters of Seismoactive Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiometry technique was used for the detection of ''4''0K natural radionuclide in thermal mineral waters from the Tashkent geodynamic polygon where the powerful earthquake (1981 y) took place. For the study of the change in 4''0K radioactivity connected with the process of the occurrence of powerful earthquake, the method of regular observation has been applied. The detection of ''4''0K radioactivity during 610 days/showed that it changed strongly before (∼ 3.5 d) powerful earthquake processing most strong property of the earthquake's harbinger. The''4''0K radioactivity has higher value 33-45 hours until the earthquake. After the earthquake during 2-3 days the value of ''4''0K radioactivity was decreased till the daily average level

  18. Mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments by effect of bicarbonate ions in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Akai, Junji; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic leaching by bicarbonate ions has been investigated in this study. Subsurface sediment samples from Bangladesh were treated with different carbonate and bicarbonate ions and the results demonstrate that the arsenic leaching efficiency of the carbonate solutions decreased in the order of Na2CO3>NaHCO3>BaCO3>MnCO3. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate ions extracted arsenic most efficiently; Na2CO3 leached maximum 118.12 microg/l of arsenic, and NaHCO3, 94.56 microg/l of arsenic from the Ganges delta sediments after six days of incubation. The arsenic concentrations extracted in the batch experiments correlated very well with the bicarbonate concentrations. The kinetics study of arsenic release indicates that arsenic-leaching rate increased with reaction time in bicarbonate solutions. Bicarbonate ions can extract arsenic from sediment samples in both oxic and anoxic conditions. A linear relationship found between arsenic contents in core samples and those in leachates suggests that dissolved arsenic concentration in groundwater is related to the amount of arsenic in aquifer sediments. In batch experiment, bicarbonate solutions effectively extracted arsenic from arsenic adsorbed iron oxyhydroxide, reflecting that bicarbonate solutions may mobilize arsenic from iron and manganese oxyhydroxide in sediments that are ubiquitous in subsurface core samples. Carbonate ion may form complexes on the surface sites of iron hydroxide and substitute arsenic from the surface of minerals and sediments resulting in release of arsenic to groundwater. Like in the batch experiment, arsenic and bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh correlated very well. Therefore, bicarbonate leaching is presumed to be one important mechanism to mobilize arsenic in bicarbonate dominated reducing aquifer of Bangladesh and other parts of the world as well. PMID:14602108

  19. A computational chemical study of penetration and displacement of water films near mineral surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larter Steve R

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on organic–water mixtures near mineral surfaces. These simulations show that, in contrast to apolar compounds, small polar organic compounds such as phenols can penetrate through thin water films to adsorb on these mineral surfaces. Furthermore, additional simulations involving demixing of an organic–water mixture near a surfactant-covered mineral surface demonstrate that even low concentrations of adsorbed polar compounds can induce major changes in mineral surface wettability, allowing sorption of apolar molecules. This strongly supports a two-stage adsorption mechanism for organic solutes, involving initial migration of small polar organic molecules to the mineral surface followed by water film displacement due to co-adsorption of the more apolar organic compounds, thus converting an initial water-wet mineral system to an organic-covered surface. This has profound implications for studies of petroleum reservoir diagenesis and wettability changes.

  20. Electronic tongue: a versatile tool for mineral and fruit-flavored waters recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Luís G.; Alberto, Zelda; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Peres, António M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural mineral waters (still), effervescent natural mineral waters (sparkling) and aromatized waters with fruit-flavors (still or sparkling) are an emerging market. In this work, the capability of a potentiometric electronic tongue, comprised with lipid polymeric membranes, to quantitatively estimate routinely quality physicochemical parameters (pH and conductivity) as well as to qualitatively classify water samples according to the type of water was evaluated. The study showed that a linear...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF MAIN MINERAL WATER ROMANIAN MARKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOME TOXICOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

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    Radiana TAMBA - BEREHOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze 15 Romanian brands of mineral waters and in this purpose therey were bought from a hypermarket. The content of nitrates, nitrites and pH have been determined for each of the 15 mineral waters using the modern known techniques. A number of two-thirds (66.67% of the producers did not specify the nitrates content of mineral waters on the label. The firms which mentioned the content of nitrates on the label have not been correct as the tested value of nitrates was higher than the one stated on the label. The mean of nitrates in the tested mineral waters was 5.89 ± 2.88 mg/l, well below the maximum limits (50 mg/l. The fact that most producers do not specify the mineral waters nitrites content, this is not a health issue for consumers, because the research results showed that the presence of nitrites in the Romanian mineral waters is extremely low, somewhere besides the detection limits of the analytical method used. The nitrites content of tested mineral waters was significantly lower in waters with a greater pH. In fact, the increasing the pH of mineral waters by one unit, determined the reducing of nitrites amount by about 32% (r = 0.57 *. As a practical conclusion, consumers could use this criterion in choosing the type of water they want to drink.

  2. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta18O(SO42-) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta18O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta18O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta18O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  3. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidália Dionísio Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model. The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  4. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  5. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  6. Physico-chemical, microbiological and pharmacological stability of therapeutic mineral WATERs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmoiu Madalina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For a natural mineral water to be bottled and then sold as table water, besides some physicochemical characteristics that define it, must come from a natural source (spring, well, borehole with a high purity biological and microbiology.Most chemical compounds, expressed major elements, trace elements, gases, some undissociated compounds closely correlated with water temperature and pH they have a role in assessing qualitative characterization and classification of mineral waters.Variety composition of mineral water generated their many uses in both the therapeutic and the water table.Physico-chemical composition and microbiological indicators values for drinking must belong to a high degree of stability for certain periods of time.Degree of physical and chemical stability of mineral waters in general is closely related to chemical equilibrium achieved naturally when water does not undergo any transformation (being bottled just by adding carbon dioxide, or may undergo significant changes technological processes (deferizare, desulfurization, degassing, etc.

  7. Determination of Radiation Hazard Arising from the 40K Content of Bottled Mineral Water in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven different brands of mineral water available in Malaysia were assessed in comparison with two criteria for ingested radiation dose. It is concluded that mineral water can only contribute a very small fraction of the typical daily intake of potassium, and that the radiation dose acquired from any of the brands can never exceed a small fraction of the recommended limits. (author)

  8. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of mineral water and the legislation standards

    OpenAIRE

    Daimio Chaves Brito; Arialdo Martins da Silveira Junior; Alan Cavalcanti da Cunha; Priscila Nazaré de Freitas Brito; Debora Cristina Isacksson Lima; Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque Cunha

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological mineral water parameters in the city of Macapá and verify their compliance with the legislation. The accepted legal standards for potable water for human consumption in Brazil are established by Board Resolution - RDC 274/2005 of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) - which regulates mineral water and Ordinance 518/2004 of the Ministry of Health which defines minimum standards for drinking water. W...

  10. The effect of irrigation with chlorinated and bicarbonated waters of high salinity on the yields of the yields of the rose bush

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, A.; Fernández, M.; Eleizalde Luzárraga, María Benigna; Altares, M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the application of poor-quality irrigation water is frequently the cause of the salinization of the soils given over to the cultivation of roses in Tenerife we carried out an irrigation trial with two waters of high salinity at concentrations of 15,70 meq/l of Cl-, and 13,60 meq/l of CO$H- respectively. Both types of water caused a significant reduction in the yields of the cultivar "Sonia", which was greater in the treatment with chlorinated water. The quality of the flower (expressed ...

  11. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF MAIN MINERAL WATER ROMANIAN MARKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOME TOXICOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Radiana TAMBA - BEREHOIU; Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-01-01

    The paper aimed to analyze 15 Romanian brands of mineral waters and in this purpose therey were bought from a hypermarket. The content of nitrates, nitrites and pH have been determined for each of the 15 mineral waters using the modern known techniques. A number of two-thirds (66.67%) of the producers did not specify the nitrates content of mineral waters on the label. The firms which mentioned the content of nitrates on the label have not been correct as the tested value of nitrates was high...

  13. Origins of high pH mineral waters from ultramafic rocks, Central Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the geochemical, isotopic (2H, 18O, 13C, 3H and 14C) and numerical modelling approaches to evaluate possible geological sources of the high pH (11.5)/Na-Cl/Ca-OH mineral waters from the Cabeco de Vide region (Central-Portugal). Water-rock interaction studies have greatly contributed to a conceptual hydrogeological circulation model of the Cabeco de Vide mineral waters, which was corroborated by numerical modelling approaches. The local shallow groundwaters belong to the Mg-HCO3 type, and are derived by interaction with the local serpentinized rocks. At depth, these type waters evolve into the high pH/Na-Cl/Ca-OH mineral waters of Cabeco de Vide spas, issuing from the intrusive contact between mafic/ultramafic rocks and an older carbonate sequence. The Cabeco de Vide mineral waters are supersaturated with respect to serpentine indicating that they may cause serpentinization. Magnesium silicate phases (brucite and serpentine) seem to control Mg concentrations in Cabeco de Vide mineral waters. Similar δ2H and δ18O suggest a common meteoric origin and that the Mg-HCO3 type waters have evolved towards Cabeco de Vide mineral waters. The reaction path simulations show that the progressive evolution of the Ca-HCO3 to Mg-HCO3 waters can be attributed to the interaction of meteoric waters with serpentinites. The sequential dissolution at CO2 (g) closed system conditions leads to the precipitation of calcite, magnesite, amorphous silica, chrysotile and brucite, indicating that the waters would be responsible for the serpentinization of fresh ultramafic rocks (dunites) present at depth. The apparent age of Cabeco de Vide mineral waters was determined as 2790 ± 40 a BP, on the basis of 14C and 13C values, which is in agreement with the 3H concentrations being below the detection limit

  14. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a)...

  15. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  16. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K;

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal rel...

  17. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  18. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical and isotopic properties and reservoir temperature of mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir region, Turkey. Areas which have been included in this study are Savcih, Karakurt, Terme, Bulamach and Mahmutlu. Mahmutlu and Bulamach waters are mainly of the Na-Cl type, Savcih waters are of the Na-HCO3-Cl type and Karakurt and Terme waters are mainly of the Ca-HCO3 type. The Saturation Index values of the waters have been evaluated and mineralized thermal waters were found to be saturated with respect to the calcite and dolomite minerals but undersaturated with respect to the halite mineral in spite of being NaCl type. The results of hydrochemical and environmental isotope (18O, D,3H) analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and have varying component of relatively old water. The reservoir temperature of the five areas of thermal manifestations fall between 50 and 100 degC. Highest temperatures of about 100 degC have been estimated for Bulamach and Mahmutlu using various chalcedony geothermometers. Mahmutlu mineralized thermal water has longer residence times and higher reservoir temperature compared to other geothermal areas in Kirsehir Province. (author)

  19. Determination of 226Ra in mineral waters by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was the determination of volume activity of Ra-226 in mineral waters by liquid scintillation spectrometry on TRICARB 2900TR spectrometer and determination of Ra-226 in packed mineral and table waters and comparison of determination of Ra-226 after co-precipitation Ba(Ra)SO4 by two methods: by measurement with scintillation detector NA 6201 II; by liquid scintillation spectrometry on TRICARB 2900TR with the software QuantaSmart

  20. Norwalk-Like Virus Sequences in Mineral Waters: One-Year Monitoring of Three Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Beuret, Christian; Kohler, Dorothe; Baumgartner, Andreas; Lüthi, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent study, RNA with nucleotide sequeces specific for “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLV) was detected in 11 different brands of European mineral waters. To clarify this finding, a 1-year monitoring study was conducted. Samples of three European brands of mineral water without gas were monitored weekly by reverse transcriptase PCR using generic and genogroup-specific oligonucleotides. Additional analyses were performed to investigate a possible correlation between NLV sequence contamination a...

  1. Evaluation of mineral bottled water samples for different physical and chemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of drinking water is regulated in most countries under recommendation and legal requirements. For developing countries regulations are framed by World Health Organization (WHO) since 1984 and onwards. Normally ground water and surface water (River, lacks, springs) are used for bottlers choice of water. In the present paper we have evaluated the pure water supplied by many factories in bottles with different brand names. Such mineral water was analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. The quality of bottled water is compared with U. ?S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for bottled water and World Health Organization standards for drinking water. (author)

  2. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  3. Determination of long-lived natural Ra isotopes, 226Ra, in mineral and spring waters from Caxambu (MG) and Aguas de Lindoia (SP) spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lived Ra isotopes, 226Ra and 228Ra, natural distribution in mineral and spring waters from Caxambu (MG) and Aguas de Lindoia (SP) water parks. In Caxambu mineral waters it was observed 228Ra activity concentrations slightly higher than those of 226Ra. The elevated content of carbonates and bicarbonates of these waters can result in an increased solubility of the both Ra isotopes and may play an important role for the fate of 228Ra and its equilibrium distribution between solid and liquid phases. In Caxambu Thermal Spa, arithmetic mean activities ranged from 83 mBq L-1 to 3599 mBq L-1 and from 60 mBq L-1 to 4481 mBq L-1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The highest 226Ra activity was found in Venancio Spring, while the maximum 228Ra activity value was determined in Ernestina Guedes. 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios varied from 0.079 (Conde D'Eau and Princesa Isabel Spring) to 4.2 (Mairink II Spring). In Aguas de Lindoia, arithmetic mean activities ranged from 4.6 mBq L-1 to 41 mBq L-1 and from 30 mBq L-1 to 54 mBq L-1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The maximum 226Ra activity concentration was found in the bottled mineral water Sao Jorge, while the higher 228Ra activity concentration was determined in Santa Filomena Spring (public station 2). 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios varied from 1.2 (bottled mineral water Sao Jorge) to 9.1 (bottled mineral water Jatoba 1). This work also performed the dose assessment due to the ingestion of 226Ra and 228Ra in Caxambu and Aguas de Lindoia mineral and spring waters. The committed effective doses were estimated by using a conservative dosimetric model and taking into account the results over a lifetime (70 years) following intake of both long-lived Ra isotopes. The results from this radiological evaluation showed that the guidance committed effective dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 recommended by World Health Organization was exceeded in almost all samples studied in Caxambu, except for Viotti

  4. Characterization of mineral-solution interface and its implications for water-rock interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivine-water interface under hydrothermal conditions (600-790degC, 1kb) are characterized by SEM, XPS and hydrogen depth profiling using nuclear reaction. The near surface region is rich in H and depleted with Mg. The chemical shift of XPS peaks indicates structural reconstruction at the near surface. The present results and the previous studied indicate the formation of the hydrogen rich surface layer depends on various factors including mineral structure, solution composition and temperature. It is correlated with dissolution rate. Probably, permeation of water into mineral through defects or micropore space and diffusion in the permeating water are important processes in water-rock interactions. (author)

  5. Authigenic Mineralization of Silicates at the Organic-water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, B.; Wallace, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    It is relatively common for some fraction of organic material to be preserved in the sedimentary rock record as disseminated molecular fragments. The survival of wholly coherent tissues from primarily soft-bodied organisms is far more unusual. However, the literature is now well- populated with spectacular examples of soft-tissue preservation ranging from a 2,600 year old human brain to the tissues of the Ediacaran biota that have survived ~600 million years. Some of the most exceptional examples of soft tissue preservation are from the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, however, nearly all modes of fossil preservation during this time are debated. Clay mineral templates have been implicated as playing a role in several types of soft tissue preservation, including Burgess Shale and Beecher's Trilobite-type preservation, and more recently, Bitter Springs-type silicification. Yet, there is still much debate over whether these clay mineral coatings form during early stage burial and diagenesis, or later stage metamorphism. This research addresses this question by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to investigate the nucleation and growth of silicate minerals on model biological surfaces. Herein we present preliminary results on the deposition of hydrous magnesium silicates on self-assembled monolayers (-OH, -COOH, -CH3, and -H2PO3 terminated surfaces) at ambient conditions.

  6. 87Sr/86Sr isotope composition of bottled British mineral waters for environmental and forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral waters in Britain show a wide range of 87Sr/86Sr isotope compositions ranging between 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7059 from Carboniferous volcanic rock sources in Dunbartonshire, Scotland to 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7207 in the Dalradian aquifer of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The 87Sr/86Sr composition of the waters shows a general correlation with the aquifer rocks, resulting in the waters from older rocks having a more radiogenic signature than those from younger rocks. This wide range of values means that the Sr isotope composition of mineral water has applications in a number of types of studies. In the modern commercial context, it provides a way of fingerprinting the various mineral waters and hence provides a method for recognising and reducing fraud. From an environmental perspective, it provides the first spatial distribution of bio-available 87Sr/86Sr in Britain that can be used in modern, historical and archaeological studies

  7. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  8. Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boron WF

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Together, the Na(+-coupled HCO(3(- transporters and the AE family of anion exchangers (i.e., Cl-HCO3 exchangers comprise the bicarbonate transporter (BT superfamily. Virtually all BTs are important for the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i in cells throughout the body. Specific BTs also play roles in cell-volume regulation, as well as for the transport of salt and/or acid-base equivalents across many epithelia. Electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters (NBCe's play key roles in HCO(3(- reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule, and HCO(3(- secretion by the pancreatic duct. Electroneutral NBC's (NBCn's regulate pH(i in vascular smooth muscle and are present in/near axons in the brain. Finally, the Na(+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger (NDCBE's appear to be the major pH(i regulators in CNS neurons. A characteristic of most, but not all, BT's is that they are inhibited rather effectively by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-4,4'-disulfonate (DIDS.

  9. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. Objective: To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. Methods: We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. Results: The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40159.68 mg/L. In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L. Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Discussion: Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium.

  10. 222Rn, 220Rn and other dissolved gases in mineral waters of southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity due to 222Rn and 220Rn in mineral waters occurring at São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil, that are extensively used for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other. The measurements of these alpha-emitting radionuclides were also accompanied by the monitoring of temperature and some dissolved gases (O2, CO2 and H2S) in 75 water sources located in 14 municipalities of those states. Eight water sources yielded 220Rn activity concentration values below the detection limit of 4 mBq/L. On other hand, 222Rn activity concentration values exceeding the WHO guidance level of 100 Bq/L in drinking-water for public water supplies were found in two springs, named Villela and Dona Beja, whose discharge occurs in areas characterized by the presence of enhanced levels of natural radioelements in rocks. The obtained results were compared with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters (BCMW) that was established in 1945 and is still in force in the country. The 222Rn and 220Rn activity concentration data allowed perform dose radiation calculations based on the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), whose implications for health risk have been also considered in this paper. - Highlights: • First thoron data in mineral waters occurring in well-known Brazilian spas. • Integration of thoron and radon data with those of others dissolved gases in mineral waters. • Comparison of the acquired data with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters. • Comparison of the radiation dose due to radon and thoron in the mineral waters

  11. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in Kenya.The chemical composition of waters from rivers entering the Konya Basin is different from the composition of those from rivers in Kenya. The initial composition of these rivers determines the ...

  12. Glyphosate behavior at soil and mineral-water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessagno, Romina C. [INQUIMAE and Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon II, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rpessagno@qi.fcen.uba.ar; Torres Sanchez, Rosa M. [CETMIC, CC 49, (B1896ZCA) M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires Province (Argentina)], E-mail: rosats@cetmic.unlp.edu.ar; Santos Afonso, Maria dos [INQUIMAE and Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon II, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: dosantos@qi.fcen.uba.ar

    2008-05-15

    Adsorption isotherms and surface coverage of glyphosate, N-phosphonomethylglycine (PMG), in aqueous suspensions of three Argentine soils with different mineralogical composition were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH. Zeta potential curves for PMG/soils system were also determined. Montmorillonite and soil sample surface charges were negative and increased as the amount of adsorbed PMG increased, showing that the surface complexes are more negative than those formed during the surface protonation. PMG adsorption on soils were described using Langmuir isotherms and the affinity constants, and the maximum surface coverage was estimated at pH 4 and 7 using a two-term Langmuir isotherm, the mineralogical composition percentages, and maximum surface coverage and Langmuir constants for pure minerals. The influence of organic matter (OM) and iron content of soils on the PMG adsorption was evaluated. The surface coverage of PMG decreased when the OM and iron content decreased for minerals and soils. - Adsorption isotherms, surface coverage and zeta potential curves of glyphosate in aqueous suspensions of montmorillonite and three Argentine soils were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH.

  13. Glyphosate behavior at soil and mineral-water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption isotherms and surface coverage of glyphosate, N-phosphonomethylglycine (PMG), in aqueous suspensions of three Argentine soils with different mineralogical composition were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH. Zeta potential curves for PMG/soils system were also determined. Montmorillonite and soil sample surface charges were negative and increased as the amount of adsorbed PMG increased, showing that the surface complexes are more negative than those formed during the surface protonation. PMG adsorption on soils were described using Langmuir isotherms and the affinity constants, and the maximum surface coverage was estimated at pH 4 and 7 using a two-term Langmuir isotherm, the mineralogical composition percentages, and maximum surface coverage and Langmuir constants for pure minerals. The influence of organic matter (OM) and iron content of soils on the PMG adsorption was evaluated. The surface coverage of PMG decreased when the OM and iron content decreased for minerals and soils. - Adsorption isotherms, surface coverage and zeta potential curves of glyphosate in aqueous suspensions of montmorillonite and three Argentine soils were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH

  14. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  15. Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion Involves Two Proton Pumps*

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A.; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H+/HCO3− transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na+/K+-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps,...

  16. A fast and simple method for the determination of radium-226 in aqueous samples (drinking water, mineral water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described which allows direct determination of the radium-226 content in aqueous samples within a few hours. An exchanger for specific ions on a PAC basis is used in a special application. The evaluation is based on the measurement of the 4.78 MeV α-particles of radium-226. The method is described, and its application to over 200 samples of drinking water and mineral water in the Federal Republic of Germany is reported. The average radium-226 concentration in drinking water from the Saarland is appr. 0.12 pCi of radium-226 per litre, and appr. 1.8 pCiof radium-226 per litre in mineral water from German mineral springs. (orig.)

  17. Mineral content of sorghum genotypes and the influence of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Caroline Liboreiro; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Simeone, Maria Lúcia Ferreira; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Camila Santana

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a source of several minerals whose content may vary depending on the genotype and the production environment. The objective of this study was to screen sorghum genotypes for mineral content and to investigate the effect of water stress on it. A large variability was observed in the mineral content of 100 sorghum genotypes grown in environments without (WoWS) and with water stress (WthWS). The water stress decreased Mn, P, Mg and S contents in 100, 96, 93 and 56% of genotypes, respectively. The genotypes and other factors seemed to have more impact than water stress on K, Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn levels. In 100 sorghum genotypes, 2 were classified as excellent sources of Fe and 25 of Zn, in both environments. The best two genotypes to Fe content were SC21 and SC655 and to Zn were SC320 and SHAN-QUI-RED which showed great potential for use in biofortification. PMID:27507491

  18. Increasing wheat production while decreasing nitrogen losses from ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of a 4-year field experiment were i) to investigate the effects of rate and timing of application of ammonium bicarbonate on N-uptake efficiency by irrigated winter wheat, ii) to determine the fate of fertilizer N in wheat followed by maize, and iii) to study nitrate dynamics in the soil after N-fertilizer application to evaluate groundwater pollution by leaching. Nitrogen-application rates significantly affected wheat grain yields and straw dry matter. Grain yields were higher with 150 than with 225 kg N ha-1, whereas the highest fractional recoveries of N from ammonium bicarbonate occurred with 75 kg N ha-1 (38.5% in 1994-95 and 33.5% in 1996-97). On the basis of grain yield, N recovery and soil-N balance, ammonium bicarbonate at 150 kg N ha-1, was the optimum rate, when applied basally and as a top dressing to wheat. Subsequent yields of maize stover and grain were affected by N applied to the wheat, suggesting that fertilizer recommendations, in terms of rate and timing, should be made on the basis of effects on the cropping rotation as a whole. Water-holding capacity of the soil was poor, therefore large applications of N are likely to cause nitrate pollution of ground water. (author)

  19. Testing of Mineral types of abrasives for abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Martinec, Petr; Sitek, Libor

    Vol. 1. St. Louis : WJTA, 2001 - (Hashish, M.), s. 291-303 [2001 WJTA American Water jet Conference. Minneapolis (US), 18.08.2001-21.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : water jet * cutting * abrasive Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineral ogy

  20. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral and thermal spring waters of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological assessment of bottled mineral waters and thermal spring waters collected from various natural sources in Turkey was carried out using gross alpha and gross beta counting techniques. For 40 samples of bottled mineral water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was determined to be 164 mBq l-1 (min.:7 mBq l-1; max.: 3042 mBq l-1), whereas the gross beta activity concentration was found to be 555 mBq l-1 (min.: 21 mBq l-1; max.: 4845 mBq l-1). For 24 samples of thermal spring water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was obtained to be 663 mBq l-1 (min.: 18 mBq l-1; max.: 3070 mBq l-1). The gross beta activity concentration for these samples, on the other hand, was determined to be 3314 mBq l-1 (min.: 79 mBq l-1; max.: 17955 mBq l-1). These values lead to the average annual effective doses of 313 μSv for mineral waters and 1805 μSv for thermal spa waters, which are found to be higher than those recommended for drinking waters by the World Health Organization. It should be noted, however, that one will get less dose from mineral waters since the daily consumption is much lower than 2 l that these calculations assume. (authors)

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of mineral water and the legislation standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daimio Chaves Brito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological mineral water parameters in the city of Macapá and verify their compliance with the legislation. The accepted legal standards for potable water for human consumption in Brazil are established by Board Resolution - RDC 274/2005 of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA - which regulates mineral water and Ordinance 518/2004 of the Ministry of Health which defines minimum standards for drinking water. Water samples in 20 L bottles of three different trademarks acquired in six commercial localities were analyzed monthly. Physicochemical parameters were compared with those predicted in the legislation for turbidity, pH, nitrate, iron, manganese, aluminum, fluoride, and microbiological indicators such as total coliform and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that the pH was often below the limit allowed by public supply. Deviation from the recommended concentration was most exceeded for aluminum, presenting values significantly high to the standards allowed in two trademarks. Fluoride concentrations were close to zero, although the legislation recommends values between 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L. The microbiological parameters in some localities and all trademarks registered total coliform, but Escherichia coli were present in only one sample. The mineral water consumed has been considered a safe product compared to other sources, but this study showed that the mineral water marketed in Macapá was often not in accordance with the law. Special attention is recommended for monitoring water quality in 20 L bottles.

  2. First-principles calculation of H/D isotopic fractionation between hydrous minerals and water

    OpenAIRE

    Meheut, M.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, Etienne; Mauri, F.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen fractionation laws between selected hydrous minerals (brucite, kaolinite, lizardite, and gibbsite) and perfect water gas have been computed from first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations. The beta-factor of each phase was calculated using the harmonic phonon dispersion curves obtained within density functional theory. All the fractionation laws show the same shape, with a minimum between 200 degrees C (brucite) and 500 degrees C (gibbsite). At low temperatures, the mineral/liq...

  3. Hydrogeological and isotopic properties of hot and mineral water in Konya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konya has important potential amound of hot and mineral waters in Inner Anatolia Region. Hot springs surrounding Konya are located in nort at Cihanbeyli region and in east at Karapinar-Eregli region and in west at Beysehir-Seydisehir-Ilgin region. Each thermal spring has geological, hydrogeological and physicochemical properties differs from another. Hot and mineral waters around Cihanbeyli have temperature range from 17,5 to 29 degrees, their discharge is 1,2 lt/sn. Total mineralisation of these springs range from 4587 to 5139,5 mg/lt. Thermal springs around Karapynar- Ereoli region have temperature between 18-28 degree, discharge between 0,45-2 lt/sn and total mineralisation between 5207-35449 mg/lt. The temperatures and discharges of hot and mineral waters of Beypehir-Seydisehir-Ilgin region are suitable for thermal tourism. They are important geothermal resources in Konya. The water temperature range from 27 to 41degrees, discharge range from 15 to 50 lt/sn and classified as low mineralised. Aquifers of these springs are Paleosoic marbles and their characteristics have been controlled by fault dynamics. The thermal waters of nort-Konya are classified as 'F-Na-HCO3 hot and mineral waters'according to AIH. The thermal water of Karapynar is classified as 'S-Na-HCO3 hot and mineral water', and the water of Eregli is classified as 'I-F-Na-Cl hot and mineral water'. Chemical properties of the thermal waters of west-Konya are Aquatherm. The whole thermal waters classified according to Piper diagramme; the northest grouped in region 6, the eastern grouped in region 7, the western grouped in regions 5, 6, 9. The thermal waters have 'Rav waters' properties according to Giggenbach diagramme. The reservuar rock temperature is calculated due to geothermometers as 250 degrees, and water depths are ranging from 500 to 1000 m. The waters heating from volcanism and geothermal gradient. It is necassary to increase the thermal waters temperatures and discharges with drillings to

  4. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces. PMID:27433998

  5. Geochemical Insight from Nonlinear Optical Studies of Mineral-Water Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Paul A.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-05-01

    The physics and chemistry of mineral-water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral-water boundaries.

  6. RESEARCH AND VALORISATION HISTORY OF MINERAL WATERS IN BRAŞOV COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEREŢ RODICA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are different types of mineral water in several settlements of Braşov County, such as Perşani, Rodbav, Homorod, Rupea, Codlea, Grid, Veneţia de Jos, Zizin, Tărlungeni, etc. This paper aims to briefly present a history of research and valorisation of mineral waters within the main settlements of Braşov County. It is based on relevant information extracted from pertinent scientific papers, archival research, interviews with local people and authorities, and field observations performed between 2010 and 2013. The paper highlights novel aspects with regard to the first mentions and descriptions of the county’s mineral waters, exploitation facilities and their current state.

  7. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  8. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  9. [Analysis of fluoride concentration in mineral waters in the Araraquara region in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, I M; Valsecki Júnior, A

    1998-10-01

    It has been shown that people of all ages can benefit from the topical and systemic effects of water fluoridation. However, the increase in consumption of bottled water, either to substitute for or supplement consumption of water from public sources, has implications for safe fluoride supplementation. Taking that into consideration, in 1995 we analyzed the fluoride content in 31 commercial brands of mineral water in the region of Araraquara, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fluoride concentration as determined by our analysis was compared to the concentration of fluoride specified on each label. Only 25% of the products studied listed the fluoride concentration on their labels. In addition, among 31 mineral water brands, 26 listed the date when the chemical analysis to determine chemical composition had been performed. Of these, 20 had not been put through the annual chemical analysis determined by Brazilian law. Based on these results, if the mineral waters tested had been the only source of drinking water, fluoride supplementation would have been necessary in 69% of the samples analyzed. In the case of children up to 6 years of age who use products containing fluoride, such as topical gels, mouthwashes or toothpastes, supplementation should be recommended only if commercially bottled water is the only source of water used, not only for drinking but for cooking as well. PMID:9924506

  10. Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

    2010-10-01

    Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 μm/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 μm/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 μm/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 μm/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

  11. Mineral waters in Brazil: an analysis of the market and institutional framework for integrated and sustainable management

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro dos Santos Portugal Júnior; Bastiaan Philip Reydon; Nilton dos Santos Portugal

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the mineral water market in Brazil, based on three important considerations: first, the market structure prevailing in this segment is analyzed, addressing the evolution and main groups that make up the Brazilian market for mineral waters; next, we make a brief reference to the legal and institutional framework on mineral waters; and finally, we analyze the directions for integrated and sustainable environmental management in this segment. In this way, we ...

  12. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  13. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  14. Floating bioplato for purification of waste quarry waters from mineral nitrogen compounds in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Ivanova, Lyubov A; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadezhda V

    2016-08-23

    A bioplato was organized at Kirovogorskiy pond-settling of OLKON Company (the city of Olenegorsk, in Murmansk region) to reduce the content of nitrogen mineral compounds in water which come into the pond with the quarry waters after blasting operations using nitrogen compounds. The assortment of aboriginal plants was selected, a method of fixing and growing them on the water surface was developed, and observations of their vegetation were carried out. The dynamics of nitrogen compounds was determined in the laboratory and with full-scale tests. The coverage area pond by plants for the effective reduction of mineral nitrogen compounds was calculated. The use of floating bioplato helped to reduce content of ammonium and nitrite to maximum permissible levels or even lower in pond water. Also there was a tendency towards reduction of nitrate concentrations in water. The developmental technology can be used in any climatic zone with a specific assortment of plants-ameliorants. PMID:27220259

  15. Bicarbonate-Regulated Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke MS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC represents a novel form of mammalian adenylyl cyclase structurally, molecularly, and biochemically distinct from the G protein-regulated, transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs. sAC possesses no transmembrane domains and is insensitive to classic modulators of tmACs, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and P site ligands. Thus, sAC defines an independently regulated cAMP signaling system within mammalian cells. sAC is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ion both in vivo in heterologously expressing cells and in vitro using purified protein. sAC appears to be the predominant form of adenylyl cyclase (AC in mammalian sperm, and its direct activation by bicarbonate provides a mechanism for generating the cAMP required to complete the bicarbonate-induced processes necessary for fertilization, including hyperactivated motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. Immunolocalization studies reveal sAC is also abundantly expressed in other tissues which respond to bicarbonate or carbon dioxide levels suggesting it may function as a general bicarbonate/CO(2 sensor throughout the body.

  16. Isotopic and hydrochemical properties of hot and mineralized waters in SW Konya geothermal field (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located at southwest part of Konya (Central Anatolia). The basement formation of the area is Caltepe, deposited from Early Cambrian through Middle Cambrian. Seydisehir Formation which is composed of alternating slate, sandstone and metasandstone overlies conformably the overthrown Caltepe Formation and is Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician in age. Seydisehir Formation is conformably underlined by Neocene in age Tarasci Limestone. Alluvium is Quaternary-Present in age. The hot and mineralized waters located in the study area around Ilicatepe and Kavakkoy villages have a temperature range between 31 deg. C and 46 deg. C, flow rate between 1.42 and 5 L/s and a total dissolved mineral between 2218-3500 mg/L. Aquifer of these waters are the porous limestone and dolomitic limestone of the Qaltepe formation. The travertine cones occur as a result of water activity. The waters classified according to the AIH standards are Ca, Na, HCO3, and B bearing hot and mineralized water. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of geothermal waters reveal meteoric origin. They have more negative δ18O and δ2H values, and lower 3H contents compared to cold waters. The geothermal water aquifers are recharged from higher altitudes and are hardly affected by recent precipitations. (author)

  17. Mars Gully: No Mineral Trace of Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the Centauri-Hellas Montes region was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 2107 UTC (4:07 p.m. EST) on Jan. 9, 2007, near 38.41 degrees south latitude, 96.81 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is slightly wider than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) at its narrowest point. Narrow gullies found on hills and crater walls in many mid-latitude regions of Mars have been interpreted previously as cut by geologically 'recent' running water, meaning water that flowed on Mars long after impact cratering, tectonic forces, volcanism or other processes created the underlying landforms. Some gullies even eroded into sand dunes, which would date their formation at thousands to millions of years ago, or less. In fact, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showed two of the gullies have bright deposits near their downslope ends - but those deposits were absent in images taken just a few years earlier. The bright deposits must have formed within the period 1999-2004. Has there been running water on Mars so recently? To address that question, CRISM and MRO's other instruments observed the bright gully deposits. CRISM's objective was to determine if the bright deposits contained salts left behind from water evaporating into Mars' thin air. The high-resolution imager's (HiRISE's) objective was to determine if the small-scale morphology was consistent with formation by running water. This CRISM image of a bright gully deposit was constructed by showing 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometer light in the red, green, and blue image planes. CRISM can just resolve the deposits (highlighted by arrows in the inset), which are only a few tens of meters (about 150 feet) across. The spectrum of the deposits barely differs from that of the surrounding material, and is just a little brighter. This difference could simply be

  18. Characteristics of thermal-mineral waters in Backa region (Vojvodina) and their exploitation in spa tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosic, Kristina; Pivac, Tatjana; Romelic, Jovan; Lazic, Lazar; Stojanovic, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (RS)

    2011-01-15

    Hydropower, biomass, biogas, biofuels, wind power, solar energy and geothermal energy are the major resources to provide Backa region with most of its. Backa extends between 45 16' and 46 22' of the northern latitude and 18 36' and 20 37' of the eastern longitude. It occupies the north-eastern part of Vojvodina, i.e. the most north-western part of the Republic of Serbia. That is historical-geographic territory bordered on the Danube on its western and eastern side, the Tisa on its eastern side and with the state border towards Hungary on the north. In this paper, the focus will be on renewable sources, specifically geothermal energy in Backa region. The paper analyzes the characteristics of thermal-mineral waters in Backa, the condition and possibilities of their exploitation in spa tourism, and in other economic branches. The tradition of thermo-mineral waters exploitation in spas and public baths is rather long. Today, this type of thermo-mineral waters exploitation in Backa is the widest spread. Permanent, i.e. continuous exploiters of thermal-mineral waters in Backa are primarily balneal-rehabilitation centres and exploiters using the water for technological purposes. (author)

  19. Radioactive risk evaluation of mineral water in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Metropolitan Region of Recife (MRR), Pernambuco State, Brazil, is well supplied in groundwater resources, mainly because of the water quality and exploitation capability of the Beberibe aquifer. The MRR is also located over uranium-bearing phosphate deposits of the coastal region of the Northeastern Brazil. Such sedimentary rocks present U3O8 content of 30-500 mg kg-1 (average of 150 mg kg-1), being considered one of the highest occurrences of this kind of deposit in the world. The mineral water recharging areas, when in contact with the uranium-phosphate rocks, may increase the radioactive contamination of water due to the leaching and transport of U and other radioactive chemical elements from the rocks to the groundwater. Taking into account the continuous increasing of production and preferential drinking of bottled mineral water in the region, notoriously in the last decade, this study encompassed the first results of gross alpha and beta activities in the bottled mineral water of the MRR. The determination of the alpha and beta activities was carried out in nine commercial mineral water brands from springs located in different regions over the Beberibe aquifer, using a low background gas flow proportional counter, model CanberraR S5-XLB. The methodology consisting of concomitant water evaporation steps in planchets was modified from the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The levels of activities ranged from (35 ± 3) to (85 ± 5), and (200 ± 9) to (330 ± 8) mBq L-1 for the gross alpha and beta activities, respectively. A consistent spatial variation in the radioactivity levels in mineral water was observed for MRR springs, in which radiation decreased according to the increasing of distance from the MRR area. Since outcrops of phosphate rocks containing uranium have been already detected in the urban area, mineral water resources within the MRR might be in contact with uranium enriched rocks in the deeper geological layers

  20. Content of 226Ra in tap and mineral waters of the Republic of Croatia and possible health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the study of the content of 222Ra in drinking water of Croatia: tap water from the public supply system of several major urban centres and bottled mineral water from two mineral water springs. 222Ra was determined by alpha-spectrometric measurement after radiochemical separation. The study showed that 222Ra concentrations for investigated categories of waters are below the levels at which any unacceptable dose due to ingestion would arise. (author)

  1. Factor affecting the properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Prichapan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct fortification of minerals and vitamins into food may induce chemical degradation, change the level of bioavailability or decrease the sensory quality of food products. The strategy to solve these problems is encapsulation technology. Numerous investigations described the use of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W emulsions as encapsulation system. The properties and encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsions are influenced by emulsion components, the emulsification processes, and environmental conditions. The recently published results of research done on the factors affecting the properties of W/O/W emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins including form and concentration of core materials, concentration of inner water phase and lipophilic emulsifier, type and concentration of oil phase, type and concentration of hydrophilic emulsifier and stabilizer and the pH of the outer water phase have been reviewed in this article.

  2. Calibration and validation of measures a total alpha beta counter in the tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks due to contamination of mineral waters are essentially risk internal radiation following ingestion of radionuclides which brought us in this study to determine the global alpha and beta of the Tunisian mineral water. We used an alpha beta global counter. The results obtained by this technique have shown that alpha activity of these 10 waters are all lower than 50 mBq / l and are varied between 3.75 and 8.4 mBq / l and beta activity was found only 9 waters are also lower than 50 mBq / l (between 7.17 and 18.25) when only one is between 100 and 500 mBq / l (101.17).

  3. DETERMINATION OF COPPER AND ZINC IN MINERAL WATERS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of copper and zinc in mineral waters were determined by atomic spectroscopy with preliminary extraction of metals. Validation of the technique was carried out by the method of standard additions and proved the reliability of analytical data.

  4. THE CHLOROSODIUM MINERAL WATERS IN ALBA COUNTY, LASTING TOURISTIC PROTECTION AND CAPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CIANGĂ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a continuation of the research and assessment of the resources of chlorosodium mineral waters on the territory of the Transylvanian Depression, especially regarding the emersion of salty springs, which are still not to be found in the literature of specialty.Therefore, this time, Alba County will be analyzed, a county in which certain researches have been made previously. Field research could also be added, representing the only possibility to update the data regarding the existent salty springs.The first already known examples are the chlorosodium mineral waters billeted in lakes situated in Ocna Mureş. As locations with chlorosodium mineral waters which appear at the surface under the form of salty springs with a salinity exceeding 1 g/l, as compared to the specified ones, Ocnişoara, Cetatea de Baltă, Petrisat - Blaj, Crăciunelu de Jos, Secăşel, Dumitra and Draşov are to be mentioned.As far as the protection of these resources is concerned, the main debated issues are related to phenomena such as their clogging and sweetening, which determines many springs of chlorosodium mineral waters to become ephemeral.

  5. Simple and fast determination of Rb and Cs in mineralized waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and fast method for Rb and Cs determination was proposed for the technological control of mineralized underground waters and sea lye processing. The direct determination is rather difficult because of the very high content of Br, Na, Fe etc. Sodium tetraphenyl borate (Kalignost) was used for the precipitation of Rb and Cs

  6. Factor affecting the properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Prichapan; Utai Klinkesorn

    2014-01-01

    The direct fortification of minerals and vitamins into food may induce chemical degradation, change the level of bioavailability or decrease the sensory quality of food products. The strategy to solve these problems is encapsulation technology. Numerous investigations described the use of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions as encapsulation system. The properties and encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsions are influenced by emulsion components, the emulsification processes...

  7. Decontamination of low-mineralized radioactively contaminated water by the method of electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers potentialities of treatment of low-mineralized waters for cesium and strontium radionuclides by the method of electrodialysis in multi chamber apparatus. It is shown that water decontamination by electrodialysis achieves established sanitary norms under its simultaneous deep desalination that is not always justified because of high power expenditures. That is why electrodialysis is expedient only for the plants with low productivity

  8. Impact of enterprises of Ural mineral resource complex on water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliya Maratovna Bobrova; Oksana Yur'evna Il'ina; Gennadiy Andreevich Studenok; Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Tseytlin

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the negative impact of mining and metallurgical enterprises of the Middle and South Urals on water resources. Authors define characteristic pollutants for mineral resources complex, including ferrous, nonferrous metallurgy and mining enterprises of building materials. Authors also show the information about water pollution contaminants, including metals, nitrogen compounds, sulfates, manganese and other substances. The article describes main causes of pollution and measu...

  9. Climatic and landscape controls on water transit times and silicate mineral weathering in the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rademacher, Laura; Troch, Peter A.; Brooks, Paul D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Chorover, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The critical zone (CZ) can be conceptualized as an open system reactor that is continually transforming energy and water fluxes into an internal structural organization and dissipative products. In this study, we test a controlling factor on water transit times (WTT) and mineral weathering called Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT). We hypothesize that EEMT, quantified based on local climatic variables, can effectively predict WTT within—and mineral weathering products from—the CZ. This study tests whether EEMT or static landscape characteristics are good predictors of WTT, aqueous phase solutes, and silicate weathering products. Our study site is located around Redondo Peak, a rhyolitic volcanic resurgent dome, in northern New Mexico. At Redondo Peak, springs drain slopes along an energy gradient created by differences in terrain aspect. This investigation uses major solute concentrations, the calculated mineral mass undergoing dissolution, and the age tracer tritium and relates them quantitatively to EEMT and landscape characteristics. We found significant correlations between EEMT, WTT, and mineral weathering products. Significant correlations were observed between dissolved weathering products (Na+ and DIC), 3H concentrations, and maximum EEMT. In contrast, landscape characteristics such as contributing area of spring, slope gradient, elevation, and flow path length were not as effective predictive variables of WTT, solute concentrations, and mineral weathering products. These results highlight the interrelationship between landscape, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes and suggest that basic climatic data embodied in EEMT can be used to scale hydrological and hydrochemical responses in other sites.

  10. Redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers carbon mineralization in dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-04-01

    Summer droughts are common in temperate forests and especially the upper soil horizons experience soil drought. Drought events can be accompanied by negative effects for forest ecosystems but many plants can reduce drought stress by hydraulic redistribution (HR). Similar processes were recently described for ectomycorrhizal networks but no information is available for mycelia networks of saprotrophic fungi. They strongly contribute to belowground nutrient cycling, C and N mineralization. We hypothesize that redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers mineralization of organic matter in soils under drought conditions. The impact of HR by saprotrophic fungi on mineralization was determined using mesocosms comprising two chambers, separated by a 2 mm air gap to prevent bulk flow of water. After inoculation with fungal cultures and a growth phase, both chambers were desiccated. Subsequently, only chamber I was rewetted while chamber II was treated with 13C labelled plant material. CO2 samples were collected over 7 days after rewetting and analyzed for stable isotope ratio. In addition, enzymatic activity of chitinases and cellobiohydrolases in chamber II was determined after 7 days using the soil zymographie method with fluorogenic 4-Methylumbelliferyl-substrates. A negative control was provided by mesocosms in which hyphal connections between the chambers were severed before rewetting. Intact fungal connections between the chambers led to a strong increase in volumetric water content in chamber II after rewetting of chamber I and the CO2 had a higher enrichment in 13C than in the control mescosms with severed connections. Enrichment started 48 h after rewetting and continued for the rest of the experiment. This resulted in a more than two fold higher total carbon mineralization after 7 days in chamber II of mesocosms with intact hyphal connections. In addition, enzyme activities were also strongly increased compared to controls. In conclusion, mycelia networks

  11. Development of technological modes for preparation of mineral water for sports drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kovalenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Conducted research study is devoted to development of technological modes of desalination of natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water for water treatment technologies in the production of beverages for athletes. Materials and methods. Samples of initial water and water that has been desalinated using the experimental installation with different modes were investigated. Measuring of temperature mode of crystallizer was carried out using temperature sensors and digital thermometer. Quality indicators of the water samples using Photometer Palintest 7500 and standard techniques weredetermined. Resultsand discussion.The influence of different factors of the process of freezing on the quality of desalinated natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water "Kuyalnik" was investigated. The patterns of distribution of components of initial water between the frozen solid phase, and a concentrated solution in the process of freezing are identified. For the majority of the investigated factors order of traffic was such: Ca 2+ >HCO -3 >(Na+>Cl- >(Mg2+>SO2-4 >K+, and with a decrease in water salinity so: Ca2+>SO2-4 >(Na+>Cl- >(HCO-3 >Mg2+>K+. Summary of the study results allowed to recommend the following technological parameters of the carrying out the process of desalination of natural mineral sodium chloride water by freeze: operating temperature mode of crystallizer, which is changing in the process from -2 to -4 ° C, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water at the beginning of the process of freezing - 3,7 g/dm 3, duration of the desalination process (process without cooling - 60 minutes, one step of freezing, melting of solid phase under ambient conditions without prior separation of the frozen solid phase. With such technological modes of the carrying out the process of freezing it is possible to obtain water with mineral composition, mainly with existing relevant recommendations to the mineral composition of

  12. Zeta-potential and flotability of the scheelite mineral in different type of waters, Part 2: Flotability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dragan B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study floatability of the mineral sheelite from mine 'Rudnik', central Serbia. Flotation tests of the mineral in a Hallimond tube cell were carried out in four different types of water, namely: tap water, distilled water, rain water and spring water. All types of water had different hardness and conductivity as well as natural pH values. It was found that the flotability of mineral scheelite depends on the hardness and electro-conductivity of the chosen type of water as well as on Ca2+ content. Also, it was found the floatability of mineral depends on the scheelite particle size fraction used in microflotation experiments. Presented results may be useful for proper selection of type of water, as well of the type of reagents used in flotation processes.

  13. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.; Goff, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  14. The role of water and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding on microdamage progression in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiaodu; Zhou, Yanheng; Rong, Qiguo

    2014-02-01

    Microdamage would be accumulated in bone due to high-intensity training or even normal daily activity, which may consequently cause fragility fracture or stress fracture. On the other hand, microdamage formation serves as a toughening mechanism in bone. However, the mechanisms that control microdamage initiation and accumulation in bone are still poorly understood. Our previous finite element model indicated that different interfacial properties between mineral and collagen in bone may lead to distinct patterns of microdamage accumulation. Therefore, the current study was designed to examine such prediction and to investigate the role of water and mineral-collagen interactions on microdamage accumulation in bone. To address these issues, 48 mice femurs were divided randomly into four groups. These groups were dehydrated or treated with perfluorotripropylamine (PFTA) or NaF solution to change water distribution and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding in bone. After three-point bending fatigue tests, the types of microdamage (i.e., linear microcracks or diffuse damage) formed in bone were compared between different groups. The results suggested that (1) bone tissues with strong mineral-collagen interfacial bonding facilitate the formation of linear microcraks, and (2) water has little contribution to the growth of microcracks. PMID:24122969

  15. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 19, which is incorporated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dioxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 239... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Enteric Viruses in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, mineral water is widely consumed and as of yet there have been no studies done in the country that aim to detect enteric viruses in this water source. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of the human adenovirus (HAdV, the human rotavirus genogroup A (GARV and the human enterovirus (hEV in mineral water samples from six different brands that are commercialized in southern Brazil, using molecular techniques and comparing the results with bacterial indicators. Samples of 1.5 L and 500 mL were analyzed for viruses through PCR and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Additionally, heterotrophic bacteria were assayed using a commercial kit. The most prevalent virus was adenovirus (32.5% followed by rotavirus (25% and enterovirus (17.5%. Total and thermotolerant coliforms were absent in all samples and only three samples out of the 60 analyzed presented heterotrophic bacteria contamination. We conclude that, following the example taken into consideration regarding the public supply of drinking water, stricter measures for microbiological control should also be applied to mineral water so that this actually becomes a safer alternative.

  18. Determination of iron in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLANDAS KAZLAUSKAS

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods for the determination of Fe in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS are suggested. The results of the investigation of selectivity of the proposed AAS method proved that this procedure is not affected by high concentrations of other metals. The calibration graph for iron was linear at levels near the detection limit up to at least 0.10 mg ml-1. For the determination of microamounts of iron in mineral waters, an extraction AAS technique was developed. Iron was retained as Fe-8-oxyquinoline complex and extracted into chloroform. The optimal conditions for the extraction of the iron complex were determined. The AAS method was applied to the determination of Fe in mineral waters and natural waters from different areas of Lithuania. The accuracy of the developed method was sufficient and evaluated in comparison with a photometric method. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure could be successfully applied for the analysis of water samples with satisfactory accuracy.

  19. Hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies of mineral and thermal waters from Aguas de Lindoia and Lindoia, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground circulation of the so-called mineral waters of Aguas de Lindoia and Lindoia is conditioned by fractures of Complex Amparo crystalline rocks. The geologic studies and its evolutionary history are so important for understanding the origin, circulation and mineralization of these explored waters. The chemical analysis of the waters both from springs and wells pointed to low mineralization with about 100 mg/l TDS. The bi carbonated calcic and calcic-magnesian content was interpreted as coming from alteration processes of silicate minerals. The isotopes δ 18 O and δ 2 H concentrations indicate the meteoric origin, different recharge zones and evaporation phenomena in the springs and wells waters on the study area. The Radon-222 radioactivity used to classification of mineral waters in this legislation is dubious because it is unstable (3,82 days) and may be dangerous to human. (author)

  20. Pro: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis is common in dialysis patients. Bicarbonate administration via the dialysate helps maintain the acid-base balance in these patients. Serum bicarbonate level in dialysis patients is determined by several factors that include dietary protein intake, nutritional status and dialysis prescription, etc. Additionally, a meaningful interpretation of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients requires an understanding of complexities involving its measurement. Both very low as well very high levels of serum bicarbonate have been associated with adverse outcomes in observational studies. However, recent observational data, when adjusted for the confounding effects of nutritional status, do not associate higher predialysis serum bicarbonate with adverse consequences. At this time, there are no prospective studies available that have examined the association of serum bicarbonate with hard outcomes in dialysis patients. The ideal level of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is therefore unknown. This article examines the available data with regard to the benefits of higher predialysis serum bicarbonate. PMID:27411723

  1. Radionuclides of 210Po, 234U and 238U in drinking bottled mineral water in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the radioactive content of drinking mineral bottled water in Poland was carried out. 210Po, 238U and 234U activity concentrations were determined by alpha-spectrometry with low-level-activity silicon detectors. The results revealed that the mean concentration of 210Po, 238U and 234U in analyzed water sample were 1.28, 0.80 and 0.80 mBq x dm-3, respectively. The effective doses due to the polonium and uranium emissions were calculated for bottled drinking water. (author)

  2. Effect of natural and man-made factors on mineral composition of Ardon river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on change of landscapes and biota (plants, algae, amphibious) are submitted as a result of natural catastrophes (mud-stream) and man-made factors (construction of a gas main and hydroelectric power station). It is shown, that the specified factors in some cases change not only structure of landscapes and a chemical compound of natural and industrial waters, but also a character of invasion of organisms. The certain influence of size of suspended matter of Ardon river waters on their general mineralization was discovered. Contents of heavy metals in waters of Ardon river is not critical and is in acceptable hygienic parameters.

  3. Removal of heavy metals from water by zeolite mineral chemically modified. Mercury as a particular case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research works on the removal of mercury from water by zeolite minerals show that a small quantity of this element is sorbed. In this work the mercury sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of Cu(l l), Ni(l l) and/or Zn(l l) by a Mexican zeolite mineral, natural and modified by cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, was investigated in acidic p H. The zeolite minerals were characterized by X- Ray diffraction Ftir, scanning electron microscopy and semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury from aqueous solutions was quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite samples treated with Na CI and modified with cisteaminium chloride (0.375 mmol/g) or cistaminium dichloride(0.475 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of the zeolite minerals modified with cisteaminium chloride and cistaminium dichloride without treating them with Na CI. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite minerals modified with thiourea was the lowest. The diffusion coefficients and sorption isotherms for mercury were determined in the natural, treated with Na CI and, treated with Na CI and then modified with the cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride zeolite samples. The retention of mercury was the highest for the zeolite minerals treated Na CI and then modified with cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, with adsorption capacity of 0.0511 and 0.0525 mmol Hg/g, respectively. In this research work, it was found that the retention of mercury by the modified minerals was not affected by the presence of Cu (Il), Zn(l l) y Ni (I l) under the experimental conditions. (Author)

  4. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    disposed of by sending it back to the head of a wastewater treatment plant. The system has proven to reduce the mass of nitrogen, COD, and water in the reject water, and can possibly reduce phosphorus and other substances. The overall effect is a reduction in the substance recycle within a wastewater......The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...... the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic...

  5. THE CHLOROSODIUM MINERAL WATERS IN CLUJ COUNTY, LASTING TOURISTIC PROTECTION AND CAPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Cianga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chlorosodium mineral waters in Cluj County, lastingtouristic protection and capitalization. This study represents a continuation ofthe research and assessment of the resources of chlorosodium mineral waters onthe territory of Transylvania Depression, especially regarding the appearance ofsalt springs, which are still not to be found in the literature of specialty.The first step was made by the researcher Chintăuan Ioan, Doctor in Geologyfor Bistriţa-Năsăud County in 2002, and it was continued by the authors of thisstudy, in the first volume dedicated to the Air & Water conference from 2010, forSibiu County.Therefore, Cluj County will be analysed this time, a county to which certainresearches have been done before. Field research could be also added to these,representing the only possibility to update the data regarding the existent salt springs.The first examples already known are the clorosodium mineral waters billeted inlakes situated in Turda, Cojocna, Sic and Ocna Dejului. As locations withchlorosodium mineral waters which appear at the surface under the form of saltsprings with a salinity exceeding 1 g/l, as compared to the 4 ones specified, firstlythe old, abandoned resorts from Someşeni are to be remembered and the lake withsalt water formed in the place of a spring from Pata that is found near the garbagepit of Cluj-Napoca Municipality and many other spots with salt springs found onthe map of Cluj County, such as those located from north towards south: Mica,Gherla, Gădălin, Geaca, Miceşti, Valea Florilor, etc.As far as the protection of these resources is concerned, the main debatedproblems are related to phenomena such as their clogging and sweetening, whichdetermines many springs of chlorosodium mineral waters to become ephemeral.As regards the touristic exploitation of these touristic localtions, the onlyarranged are the one situated in Turda, which is declared to be a touristic balnealresort, Cojocna, Ocna Dejului, and

  6. Influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Saoudi, Fethi; Chiha, Mahdi; Pétrier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    The influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonolytic degradation of cationic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), in water was investigated. As a consequence of ultrasonic cavitation that generates .OH radicals, carbonate radicals were secondary products of water sonochemistry when it contains dissolved bicarbonate or carbonate ions. The results clearly demonstrated the significant intensification of sonolytic destruction of RhB in the presence of bicarbonate and carbonate, especially at lower dye concentrations. Degradation intensification occurs because carbonate radicals sonochemically formed undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals. The generated carbonate radicals are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as RhB. Therefore, at low dye concentrations, carbonate radical presents a more selective reactivity towards RhB molecules than hydroxyl radical. In the presence of bicarbonate, degradation rate reached a maximum at 3 g L(-1) bicarbonate, but subsequent addition retards the destruction process. In RhB solutions containing carbonate, the oxidation rate gradually increased with increasing carbonate concentration up to 10 g L(-1) and slightly decreased afterward. Carbonate radicals sonochemically generated are suitable for total removal of COD of sonicated RhB solutions. PMID:19910116

  7. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method. As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and dehydration in alkaline aqueous solutions with рН = 9–10, resulting in synthesis from separate molecules larger organic molecules as polymers and short polipeptides. It was shown that hot alkaline mineral water with temperature from +65 0C to +95 0C and pH value from 9 to 11 is more suitable for the origination of life and living matter than other analyzed water samples. The pH value of seawater on contrary is limited to the range of 7,5 to 8,4 units. Two common local maximums were observed in the IR-spectra of jellyfish and seawater, which were more pronouncedly expressed in IR-spectra of jellyfish.

  8. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  9. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  10. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-11-24

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (-0.03 MPa) into dry (-9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm ⋅ min(-1) in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250-350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  11. Isotopic and hydrochemical properties of hot and mineralized waters in SW Konya Geothermal Field (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located at southwest part of Konya (Central Anatolia). The basement formation of the area is Caltepe, deposited from Early Cambrian through Middle Cambrian. Seydisehir Formation which is composed of alternating slate, sandstone and metasandstone overlies conformably the overthrown Caltepe Formation and is Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician in age. Seydisehir Formation is conformably underlined by Tarasci Limestone, Neogene in age. Alluvium is Quaternary-Present in age. The hot and mineralized waters are located in the study area around Ilicatepe and Kavakkoy village having temperature range between 31 deg. C and 46 deg. C, flow rate between 1.42 and 5.0 L/s and total dissolved solids between 2,218-3,500 mg/L. Aquifers of these waters are the porous limestone and dolomitic limestone of the Caltepe Formation. The travertine cones occur as a result of water activity. The groundwaters are classified according to the AIH standards are Ca, Na, HCO3, and B bearing hot and mineralized water. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of geothermal waters reveal meteoric origin. They have more negative δ18O and δ2H values and lower 3H contents compared to cold waters. The geothermal water aquifers are recharged from higher altitudes and they are hardly affected by recent precipitations. (author)

  12. Effect of bicarbonate on efficacy of oral rehydration therapy: studies in an experimental model of secretory diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, E. J.; A.J. WATSON; Walker-Smith, J A; Farthing, M J

    1988-01-01

    In situ perfusion of rat intestine was used to evaluate the effect of bicarbonate on the efficacy of a low sodium (35 mmol/l) glucose-electrolyte oral rehydration solution in normal and cholera toxin-treated rat small intestine. In normal intestine, absorption of water was greater (108 (8.1) microliters/min/g; p less than 0.01) and sodium secretion less (-4.3 (0.3) mumol/min/g; p less than 0.01) from the oral rehydration solution containing bicarbonate than from the solution in which bicarbon...

  13. IR-based Water Quantification in Nominally Anhydrous High-Pressure Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Müller, Monika; Rhede, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine traces of OH and H2O in minerals and glasses. The application is based on the Beer Lambert law A = ɛ*c*t, where A is the absorbance, ɛ the absorption coefficient, e.g. in L mol H2O-1 cm-2, c the concentration in mol/L and t the thickness in cm. It has been shown in numerous experimental and theoretical studies, i.e. Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) that ɛ generally increases with decreasing wavenumbers. However, this general trend seems to be valid only for hydrous minerals and glasses and should not be applied to water quantification in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) which incorporate traces of water in their structures (e.g. Rossman 2006, Thomas et al. 2009). For example, Bell et al. (2003) showed that if the general IR calibration of Paterson (1982) is adopted, the water concentration of olivine is underestimated by about 25 %. A similar result has been obtained by Deon et al. (2010) for Mg-wadsleyite. Thomas et al. (2009) evidenced using a large variety of analytical methods that not using mineral-specific IR-calibrations for the OH quantification in NAMs (e.g. SiO2 polymorphs and olivine) leads to either underestimation as for olivine or overestimation of the water content as for stishovite and coesite. Thus, to quantify the water content of NAMs mineral specific absorption coefficients are needed but unfortunately only for a few minerals available. In this study we propose that within a polymorphic mineral series of the same composition ɛ positively correlates with the density and negatively with the molar volume of the respective mineral phase. To prove this hypothesis we determined ɛ-values for synthetic hydrous ringwoodite samples ranging in composition from xMg = 0.0 to 0.6 by combining results of FTIR-spectroscopy with those of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The ɛ-values plot well below the general calibration curves of Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997

  14. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  15. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  16. FEATURES OF TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Влидимирович Беляев

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to describe the situation taken place with integration of marketing communications in the region. The author conducted research aimed at identifying the most popular and effective forms of communication with the consumer, allowing in detail to characterize the state of the advertising market of Caucasian Mineral Waters. Information concluded in article may be used by companies present in the Caucasian Mineral Waters region, to form notion about the effectiveness of the regional channels of communication with customers and building a more efficient model of advertising policy, also its could be useful for specialists, which are working in marketing communication and advertising sphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-34

  17. δ18O isotope map-generation of European mineral waters, applications and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin of food. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a general understanding of the relation of the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. Besides mineral water, the agricultural products wheat, honey, olive oil and lamb meat are investigated. As one part of the study a detailed δ18O map for groundwater will be generated by the isotope results of 600 samples of European mineral waters. These groundwater isotope maps provide a multitude of applications not only for authenticity of food, but for groundwater recharge and climate studies, criminal forensics as well as archaeology too. (author)

  18. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10−3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption

  19. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  20. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Warr, Laurence N.; André Friese; Florian Schwarz; Frieder Schauer; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Gregory M. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contai...

  1. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing) and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance) nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their resul...

  2. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dušanka Inđić; Zdravko Perović; Slavica Vuković; Zlata Klokočar-Šmit

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70) and mancozeb (Dithane M-70), insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50) and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL), several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super) and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made dire...

  3. A case study of water chemistry and design of de-mineralized water plant at HWP-Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the development of the chemistry parameters of process feed water used for exchange unit (XU) for initial enrichment of heavy water as part of production process at HWP-K. It also highlights the benefits accrued by the effective control of chemistry parameters in the form of improved feed processing rate, sustained and trouble free operation resulting in higher heavy water production at lower energy and production cost. Further reduction in cost of producing de-mineralized quality water can be achieved by adopting layered resin bed which is a new concept where a layer of weak resin is put on top of strong resin with similar characteristics in a single vessel. The benefit of stoichiometric efficiency of regeneration of weak resins is fully utilised in reducing the consumption of regenerants while retaining ability of strong resin to remove weak ions thus maintaining quality of processed water as same. (author)

  4. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of the radionuclide 226Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  5. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  6. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  7. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  8. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42‑ ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42‑ ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  9. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  10. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  11. The therapeutic effect of carbogaseous natural mineral waters in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinteza Delia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome is a complex of metabolic disturbances that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Entity includes: dyslipidemia (altered lipid profile, with increasing levels of serum triglycerides and low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, which promotes the development of atherosclerosis, high blood sugar (diabetes type II or increased insulin resistance, hypertension, abdominal obesity syndrome, proinflammatory, prothrombotic syndrome. In the last 20 years, there was a continuous increase in individuals suffering from this syndrome, the cause remains unknown, but several studies also claim that it is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Of environmental factors, diet low in micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium and potassium seems to be an essential contributor element (Feldsein et al, 2007, Cidalia Pereira et al, 2011. Decreased intake of sodium and increased intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, proposed by Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension - DASH diet (Van Leer et al 1995, Meigl et al 2008 leads to optimized blood pressure. Even in the absence of increased sodium intake, low levels of magnesium in the blood and cells can induce in some conditions, hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance or completely metabolic syndrom.Among the methods proposed to correct dietary intake of micronutrients, natural mineral water, often very complex in terms of chemical composition and versatile in terms of the intended effect is one handy, safe and simple.Although used in order to preserve the health from ancient times, scientific studies proving natural mineral water effects on the human body takes place only since the twentieth century. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of deep water filtering through volcanic soils, which contain CO2, carbon dioxide, thus obtained, will help dissolve other elements contained in the soil layers

  12. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.;

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express...... non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were...... H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and...

  13. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  14. Improved methods for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled mineral waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, Rita; Cunha, Joaquim; Teixeira, Paula; Paul A. Gibbs

    2001-01-01

    At this time the European Union regulations require that the heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) of mineral waters be assessed at two recovery temperatures: 22°C for 72 h and 37°C for 24 h. This procedure is time consuming and expensive. Development of new rapid methods for microbiological assessment of the microbial flora in the bottled water is an industry-driven need. The objectives of this work were to develop a method for the HPC that utilises only one recovery temperature and one incuba...

  15. Water-mineral interaction in hygromechanics of clays exposed to environmental loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-mineral interaction in narrow interstices (<3 nm) in dense, saturated clays is discussed in view of recent experimental findings and molecular dynamics simulations. Consequences to the macroscopic behavior are considered. A mixture theory for two interacting constituents is developed. Effects of temperature and chemicals are discussed. A postulate of mass transfer of absorbed water from solid to fluid fraction caused by thermal or chemical load is then discussed. Theory of plasticity of clays affected by heat or chemicals is developed to deal with the effects of thermal and chemical consolidation

  16. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    OpenAIRE

    Carneado, S.; Hernández-Nataren, E.; López Sánchez, José Fermín; Sahuquillo Estrugo, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 oC were not subject to Sb mi...

  17. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus; Rask-Madsen, J

    1997-01-01

    contaminating the oesophagusaccounted for 14% and 3%, respectively, of total oesophageal bicarbonate output. CONCLUSIONS: Bicarbonate secretory capacity of the humanoesophagus is less than previously assumed, and the clinical relevance of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate for mucosal defence may be......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus...... median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...

  18. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

    2005-02-01

    Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

  19. Bicarbonate secretion in vivo by rat distal tubules during alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction and alkali loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Harrison, V

    1991-01-01

    To examine in vivo the separate effects on distal tubule JtCO2, of dietary chloride restriction, bicarbonate loading, and changes in luminal chloride concentration, we microperfused distal tubules at a physiologic flow rate (8 nl/min) with solutions containing either 45 or 0 mM chloride (after gluconate substitution). Rats were fed a diet containing zero, minimal, or normal amounts of chloride, while drinking either water or a solution of 0.15 M sodium bicarbonate. Neither extracellular fluid...

  20. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  1. Natural and artificial (90Sr radionuclides in some carbonated mineral waters used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A radiological characterization of 7 different carbonated mineral water samples collected in the local supermarkets in the area of Belgrade (produced in Serbia was carried out. Analysis included determination of gross alpha and gross beta activities. The obtained results showed that the natural activity concentrations of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in carbonated mineral water samples were within World Health Organization recommended levels, except for the Heba Strong and Kiseljak samples where the beta activity exceeds 1 Bq/L. For these two water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of 90Sr by oxalic method. The instrumentation used to count the gross alpha and gross beta activities, as well as for 90Sr, was a/b low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. Gamma spectrometric measurements were performed using a HPGe Canberra detector with a counting efficiency of 20%. The annual effective dose equivalent due to ingestion of investigated waters was calculated for age group >17, and obtained values are lower than 0.1 mSv recommended reference level. Finally, a comparison of the investigated waters with worldwide data was made. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  2. Temporal variation patterns of radon in mineral waters along the Cota Mil Highway, Caracas, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon in potable mineral waters along the Cota Mil Highway at two sites, La Castellana with five sampling points within 20 meters of each other and two collection points at the San Jose site were carried out from November, 1997 to December, 1998. Temporal radon variation patterns will be presented for the seven sampling points, which had very different water flow rates and short-term variations. The extraction of the radon from mineral waters was accomplished in the laboratory a few hours after sampling and the measurements were performed employing a radiation monitor with a scintillation cell 18 hours latter to insure that the radon and its decay products were in equilibrium. The results suggest that the increase of radon from the middle of February to the middle of November can be related to the decrease in atmospheric temperature and rainfall. The large differences in the minimum and maximum values of radon and the short-term variations show the need for many measurements over a year to quantify a correct annual value to be employed in dose calculation for radiological impact studies on human health. Finally, it was also concluded that water sampling points with very low water flow rates are more suitable for investigating the possible relation between radon anomalies and seismic events. (author)

  3. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  4. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1–0.2 μg L−1, −1–0.8 μg L−1, −1–0.1 μg L−1 and −1–1.7 μg L−1, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  5. Benthic solute exchange and carbon mineralization in two shallow subtidal sandy sediments: Effect of advective pore-water exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Perran L. M.; Wenzhofer, Frank; Glud, Ronnie N.;

    2007-01-01

    proceeded predominantly through sulfate reduction when benthic mineralization rates were high and advective pore-water flow low as a result of poorly developed topography. Previous studies of benthic mineralization in shallow sandy sediments have generally ignored these dynamics and, hence, have overlooked...

  6. Determination of 210Po in Slovak mineral waters by sorption on ZnS(Ag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In determining of 210Po it was followed according to the Czech technical standard CSN 75 7626 Water quality - Determination of polonium-210. The aim of this work was to optimize the conditions for sorption of 210Po on ZnS (Ag) from acidic environment from the model solutions. The effect of pH of the sample, its volume and the presence of NaCl on the sorption of 210Po on ZnS (Ag) was studied. Three types of filters for filtering ZnS (Ag), Synpor, paper and glass fiber filters were tested. Bulk activity of 210Po was determined in the samples of Slovak mineral waters and healing waters as well as in water samples from antimony mine (mine Rufus) near the village Poproc (rural Kosice district). (author)

  7. Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320

  8. In situ non-linear spectroscopic approaches to understanding adsorption at mineral-water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decades, significant advances have been made in the study of adsorption processes at mineral-water interfaces. In particular, surface-enhanced infrared (IR) techniques, and, more recently, non-linear vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy have provided novel insights into the structure and dynamics of these interfaces. The driving forces behind adsorption at mineral substrates are as diverse as the set of commonly encountered adsorbates, which range from simple inorganic ions to organic molecules from the smallest to the largest polymers. Electrostatics, cooperative processes, self-assembly into mesoscopically ordered aggregates and specific chemical interactions all play an important role. In this topical review, particular consideration is given to organic adsorbates including surfactants, because of their eminent technological importance for the modification of surface properties and their omnipresence in the environment. This review demonstrates that non-linear optical methods greatly extend the well-established linear IR techniques and provide many opportunities for surface science to advance our understanding of the structure and dynamics of mineral-water interfaces. (topical review)

  9. Uranium release from boom clay in bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of natural uranium from Boom Clay was studied to better understand the mechanisms governing the solid-liquid partitioning of uranium. Batch leaching experiments suggested that the portion of natural uranium released from clay is associated with colloids at a low bicarbonate concentration prevailing in Boom Clay. At increased bicarbonate concentrations, uranium was present predominantly as dissolved species indicating a formation of uranium carbonate complexes. The in situ aqueous uranium concentration, i.e., the concentration in the pore waters collected by piezometers was found to be 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower than the one measured by the batch techniques. These results illustrated that the batch techniques may cause a remobilization of uranium containing colloids from clay surfaces into solution when clay is suspended, agitated, and mechanically perturbed. These colloids are attributed to artefacts and are not considered to exist in situ because of the high compaction of Boom Clay. Due to the presence of colloids, a laboratory derived solid-liquid partitioning coefficient is not equivalent to and cannot simply be converted to the distribution coefficient Kd currently used in performance assessment calculations. (orig.)

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  11. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards. PMID:25174358

  12. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Milleo Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4-2,B,N Total Kjedahl (NTK, NO3--N, and NH4+-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4-2 by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3-and N-NH4+ by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda's alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%, Fe (84,3%, P (97,4%, S-SO2-2 (64,9%, B (56,1%, N-NO3 (94,7% and N-NH4+ (95,2%, whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%, Mg (67,7% and NTK (56,6%. The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L-1, was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation.

  13. STUDY FOR METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT ORGANIZATION FOR QUALITUY ESTIMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES IN PHYTOTHERAPY AT THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS RESORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of phytotherapy pharmaceutical services quality estimation support at the Caucasian Mineral Waters resorts on the basis of quality nianagement

  14. Migration behaviour of 14C labelled bicarbonate, HTO and 131I in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment studies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Boom clay indicated the importance of the radionuclides 14C and 129I. The migration properties of these radionuclides in Boom clay are studied by Flow-Through type diffusion experiments. In the diffusion tests a mixture of 14C labelled bicarbonate, tritiated water (HTO) and carrier free 131C labelled bicarbonate, tritiated water (HTO) and carrier free 131I sodium iodide (NaI) is used. The isotope 131I is used as an equivalent for 129I. The mixture allows for a good comparison of the migration behviour of the three different species. The mean value of the diffussion constant for bicarbonate is 1.8x10-6, for iodide 4.2x10-6 and for tritiated water 6.2x10-6 cm2.s-1. For the interpretation of the experiments we consider sorption (isotopic exchange), diffusion and first order chemical reaction. The results of the diffusion tests are consistent with the concept of the diffusion accessible porosity and proves the importance of this concept. The diffusion accessible porosity for both bicarbonate and iodide is 0.11. The results are important for the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository in the clay formation. (orig.)

  15. Removal of organic pollutants in model water and thermal wastewater using clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Emese; Vajda, Krisztina; Veréb, Gábor; Dombi, András; Mogyorósi, Károly; Ábrahám, Imre; Májer, Marcell

    2011-01-01

    Water treatment method was developed for the removal of different anionic dyes such as methyl orange and indigo carmine, and also for thymol applying sodium bentonite and cationic surfactant - hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) - or polyelectrolytes (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, poly-DADMAC and poly-amines). The removal efficiency of these model substrates was examined in model water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, HPLC and TOC analysis. The clay mineral and HTAB were added in one step to the polluted model water in Jar-test experiments. The influence of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the applied clay mineral and the presence of polyaluminium chloride coagulant (BOPAC) were also tested for the water treatment process. The structures of the in situ produced and pre-prepared organoclay composites were compared by XRD analysis. The rapid formation of organoclay adsorbents provided very efficient removal of the dyes (65-90 % in 3-10 mg/L TOC(0) range) with 200 mg/L sodium bentonite dose, however thymol was less efficiently separated. Adsorption efficiencies of the composites were compared at different levels of ion exchange such as at 40, 60 and 100 %. In the case of thymol, the elimination of inorganic carbon from the model water before the TOC analysis resulted in some loss of the analysed volatile compound therefore the HPLC analysis was found to be the most suitable tool for the evaluation of the process. This one-step adsorption method using in situ formed organoclay was better performing than the conventional process in which the montmorillonite-surfactant composite is pre-preapared and subsequently added to the polluted water. The purification performance of this method was also evaluated on raw and artificially polluted thermal wastewater samples containing added thymol. PMID:21929471

  16. A study of efficacy of physical water treatment devices for mineral fouling mitigation using artificial hard water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Physical Water Treatment (PWT) technologies using different catalytic materials and an electronic anti-fouling device in the mitigation of mineral fouling in a once-through flow system with mini-channel heat exchanger. Effects of flow velocity and water hardness on the effectiveness of PWT technologies were experimentally studied. The artificial water hardness varied from 5.0 to 10 mol/m3 as CaCO3. For 10 mol/m3 solution, fouling resistance reduced by 13-40% depending on flow velocity and types of PWT devices. On the other hand, fouling resistance reduced by 21-29% depending on the PWT devices for 5 mol/m3 solutions. The PWT device using alloy of Cu and Zn as catalyst (CM2) was slightly more effective than the others. SEM photographs of scale produced from the 10 mol/m3 solution at 1.0m/s indicated that calcium carbonate scales without PWT devices were needle-shaped aragonite, which is sticky, dense and difficult to remove. Scales with the PWT devices showed a cluster of spherical or elliptic shape crystals. Both the heat transfer test results and SEM photographs strongly support the efficacy of PWT technologies using catalytic materials and an electronic anti-fouling device in the mitigation of mineral fouling

  17. Adsorption of natural surfactants present in sea waters at surfaces of minerals: contact angle measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt; Pogorzelski, Stanisław J.; Adriana Mazurek

    2009-01-01

    The wetting properties of solid mineral samples (by contact angles) in original surfactant-containing sea water (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic) were characterised under laboratory conditions on a large set (31 samples) of well-classified stones of diverse hydrophobicity using the sessile drop (ADSA-P approach), captive bubble and inclined plate methods. An experimental relation between the static contact angle θeq and stone density ρ was obtained in the form θeq = Bρ + C, where B = 12.23 ± 0.92, C =...

  18. Water availability in peat-mineral mixes and sands in oil sands reclamation, NE Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil productivity is a function of the soil's ability to provide moisture to plants. This study was initiated by Suncor and Syncrude to determine the water holding capacity of peat-mineral mixtures in the oil sands region. Other concepts dealt with in this presentation include soil drainage classification, soil moisture regime classification, soil permeability, the hydrological regime and the interactions of these phenomena. A further objective was to incorporate this information in a publication entitled 'Land capability classification for forest ecosystems in the oil sands region', scheduled to be released in November 1997

  19. Water-rock interaction during mineral carbonation and volcanic ash weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Helgi Arnar Alfreðsson 1984

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered one of the greatest challenges of this century. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the means proposed to lower the atmospheric CO2 content. The aim of the CarbFix project in Iceland was to design and test a CO2 re-injection system, in which CO2 from the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant was injected, fully dissolved in water, into basaltic rocks. In this way the carbon is mineralized upon basalt dissolution by the precip...

  20. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D. L. (David L.); Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Fialips, C. I. (Clair I.); Carey, J. W. (James W.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.)

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (minerals and zeolites, have been proposed as possible M20-bearing constituents on Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOTTLED MINERAL AND DRINKING WATERS SOLD IN ESKİŞEHİR (TURKEY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of bottled natural spring and mineral water, purchased at different markets in Eskişehir (Turkey markets, was investigated. Applying the membrane filtration method, the aliquots of water samples were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Es- cherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila. Aerobic bacteria were counted as Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (HPC ml-¹ by incubation at 22 and 37 ⁰C. While Bacillus species in bottled mineral water samples have also been determined, any bacteria or contamination in bottled drinking water samples have not found.

  2. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion and...... either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were...... measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and...

  3. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  4. Isolamento de amebas de vida livre a partir de água mineral engarrafada Isolation of free-living amoebae from bottled mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Coutinho Salazar

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas amebas dos gêneros Vahlkampfia, Glaeseria, Acanthamoeba, Filamoeba, Amoeba, Platyamoeba e Hartmanella de dez diferentes marcas de água mineral engarrafadas, servidas no Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brasil. Somente uma das marcas foi negativa para protozoários, enquanto que de todas as outras foram isoladas amebas de vida livre. O significado desses resultados é discutido como um indicador de qualidade da água mineral usada comercialmente, destacando-se o fato de que alguns desses microorganismos são potencialmente patogênicos.Amoebae of the genera Vahlkampfia, Glaeseria, Acanthamoeba, Filamoeba, Amoeba, Platyamoeba and Hartmanella were isolated from ten different brands of bottled mineral water used in Rio de Janeiro. Of these brands, only one was negative after an incubation period of twenty days, while the others were all positive for free living amoebae. The results are discussed as an indicator of the quality of commercially used mineral water and it is stressed that some of these microorganisms are potentially pathogenic.

  5. Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.

  6. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Carlos Fernández-Fernández; David Mouriño-Bayolo; Elvira Castro-Quintela; Alberto Domínguez-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial ...

  7. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags, on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting.

  8. Calcium phosphate growth beneath a polycationic monolayer at the air-water interface: effects of oscillating surface pressure on mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Mathias; Bleek, Katrin; Kita-Tokarczyk, Katarzyna; Reiche, Jürgen; Shkilnyy, Andriy; Schacher, Felix; Müller, Axel H E; Taubert, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    The self-assembly of the amphiphilic block copolymer poly(butadiene)-block-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] at the air-water interface and the mineralization of the monolayers with calcium phosphate was investigated at different pH values. As expected for polyelectrolytes, the subphase pH strongly affects the monolayer properties. The focus of the current study, however, is on the effect of an oscillating (instead of a static) polymer monolayer on calcium phosphate mineralization. Monitoring of the surface pressure vs. mineralization time shows that the monolayer is quite stable if the mineralization is performed at pH 8. In contrast, the monolayer at pH 5 shows a measurable decrease of the surface pressure already after ca. 2 h of mineralization. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that mineralization at low pH under constant oscillation leads to small particles, which are arranged in circular features and larger entities with holes of ca. 200 nm. The larger features with the holes disappear as the mineralization is continued in favor of the smaller particles. These grow with time and form necklace-like architectures of spherical particles with a uniform diameter. In contrast, mineralization at pH 8 leads to very uniform particle morphologies already after 2 h. The mineralization products consist of a circular feature with a dark dot in the center. The increasing contrast of the precipitates in the electron micrographs with mineralization time indicates an increasing degree of mineralization vs. reaction time. The study therefore shows that mechanical effects on mineralization at interfaces are quite complex. PMID:20835481

  9. Study of the separation of strontium from solutions which imitate natural waters of increased mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown by experiments on synthetically prepared solutions that it is possible to separate strontium and calcium by carbonate precipitation from the larger part of the magnesium accompanying them in natural high mineral waters. In this way the residual content of strontium is reduced to a value of 40-50 mg/liter and, under conditions of removing CO2 from the solution, to 5-10 mg/liter. The high ionic strength of the solution prevented a more complete precipitation of strontium. Magnesium may be isolated from the filtrate after precipitation of the calcium-strontium mixture. The possibility has been shown of isolating strontium from the mixture of carbonates by means of pyrolysis at 1100-12000 and the selective solution of SrO in hot water

  10. Interactions of 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes with soil minerals in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes are often modified to be stable in the aqueous phase by adding extensive hydrophilic surface functional groups. The stability of such CNTs in water with soil or sediment is one critical factor controlling their environmental fate. We conducted a series of experiments to quantitatively assess the association between water dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and three soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, or shale) in aqueous solution under different sodium concentrations. 14C-labeling was used in these experiments to unambiguously quantify MWCNTs. The results showed that increasing ionic strength strongly promoted the removal of MWCNTs from aqueous phase. The removal tendency is inversely correlated with the soil minerals’ surface potential and directly correlated with their hydrophobicity. This removal can be interpreted by the extended Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (EDLVO) theory especially for kaolinite and smectite. Shale, which contains large and insoluble organic materials, sorbed MWCNTs the most strongly. - Graphical abstract: The stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an aqueous system containing kaolinite, smectite or shale as model soil minerals is investigated using the 14C-labeling technique. Highlights: ► The interactions between MWCNTs and kaolinite, smectite, or shale were probed. ► Surface potential and hydrophobicity of the particles governs their interactions. ► EDLVO can be used to interpret the interactions. ► Insoluble organic materials in shale strongly sorb MWCNTs.

  11. Analysis of mineral water from Brazil using total reflection X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) has become a competitive technique for the determination of trace elements in samples that the concentrations are lower than 100 ng ml-1. In this work, thirty-seven mineral waters commonly available in supermarkets of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by SRTXRF. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for calibration of the system. Mineral water samples of 10 μl were added to Perspex sample carrier, dried under infrared lamp and analyzed for 200 s measuring time. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian legislation

  12. Survey and analysis of deep water mineral deposits using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present knowledge of the location, quality, quantity and recoverability of sea floor minerals is severely limited, particularly in the abyssal depths and deep water within the 200 mile Exclusion Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the U.S. Pacific Islands. To improve this understanding and permit exploitation of these mineral reserves much additional data is needed. This paper will discuss a sponsored program for extending existing proven nuclear survey methods currently used on the shallow continental margins of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico into the deeper waters of the Pacific. This nuclear technology can be readily integrated and extended to depths of 2000 m using the existing RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the PISCESE V manned deep submersible vehicle (DSV) operated by The University of Hawaii's, Hawaii Underseas Research Laboratory (HURL). Previous papers by the authors have also proposed incorporating these nuclear analytical methods for survey of the deep ocean through the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUX). Such a vehicle could extend the use of passive nuclear instrument operation, in addition to conventional analytical methods, into the abyssal depths and do so with speed and economy not otherwise possible. The natural radioactivity associated with manganese nodules and crustal deposits is sufficiently above normal background levels to allow discrimination and quantification in near real time

  13. Studying the Hydrological Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms of Life in hot Mineral Water with HDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition, the temperature and the pH value of water were analyzed in experiments with prognosis of primary hydrosphere and hydrological conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water with HDO. For this aim we performed experiments with hot mineral water and seawater from Bulgaria and water with varying content of deuterium using IR- and DNES-spectroscopy. As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. The reactions of condensation–dehydration occurring in alkaline aqueous solutions at t = 65–95 0C and рН = 9–10, resulting in synthesis from unorganic molecules the larger organic molecules as polymers and short polipeptides, were discussed, as well as the possible mechanisms of the deuterium accumulation in form of HDO in hot water. It was shown that hot alkaline mineral water with temperature from +65 0C to +95 0C and the pH value from 9 to 11 is more suitable for the origination of life and living matter than other analyzed water samples. In hot mineral waters the local maximums in IR-spectra are more manifested compared to the local maximums obtained in IR-spectra of the same water at a lower temperature. The difference in the local maximums from +20 0C to +95 0C at each +5 0C according to the Student t-criterion makes up p < 0,05.

  14. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  15. Investigation of the Buffering Function of Aluminum being in Equilibrium with the Mineral Kaolinite in Acidic Natural Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a computer model to investigate the buffering function of aluminum being in equilibrium with mineral kaolinite in acidic natural water. Factors affecting the theoretical pH values are discussed. The model is verified by analyzing practical water samples.

  16. Influence of a mineral water on the rheological characteristics of reconstituted infant formulas and diluted cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottoli, A; Decarlis, S; Giannì, M L; Giovannini, M

    1997-01-01

    A bottled spring water with a low mineral content was compared with tap water in the reconstitution and/or dilution of five different infant formulas and cows' milk. The osmolality, buffering power and renal solute load potential of the formulas reconstituted with the bottled water were all significantly lower than when tap water was used (P water was used to dilute cows' milk, the morphology of milk casein precipitates (after addition of rennet) was finer and more dispersed than when tap water was used. For formula reconstitution and milk dilution, a benefit, in terms of solute/electrolyte balance, appears to be conferred on infants by the improved rheological characteristics of modified milks reconstituted or diluted with this bottled mineral water. PMID:9364290

  17. Hydrogeochemistry of thermal and mineralized waters in the Diyadin (Ağri) area, Eastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diyadin reservoir is a low T-fracture zone systems. • Thermal spring waters are mainly of Ca(Na)-HCO3 and Ca(Mg)-SO4 types. • Chemical re-equilibrium has not been achieved for most water samples. • Recharge and mixing by young cold surface water reduces the temperature of geothermal systems. • High contents of B, Li, Cs, Sr, Rb, As, Ba and F derive from enhanced water–rock interaction. - Abstract: The Diyadin Geothermal area, located in the eastern part of Anatolia (Turkey) where there has been recent volcanic activity, is favorable for the formation of geothermal systems. Indeed, the Diyadin geothermal system is located in an active geodynamic zone, where strike-slip faults and tensional cracks have developed due to N–S regional compression. The area is characterized by closely spaced thermal and mineralized springs, with temperatures in the range 30–64 °C, and flowrates 0.5–10 L/s. Thermal spring waters are mainly of Ca(Na)-HCO3 and Ca(Mg)-SO4 types, with high salinity, while cold groundwater is mostly of Ca(Na, Mg)-HCO3 type, with lower salinity. High contents of some minor elements in thermal waters, such as F, B, Li, Rb, Sr and Cs probably derive from enhanced water–rock interaction. Thermal water samples collected from Diyadin are far from chemical equilibrium as the waters flow upward from reservoirs towards spring vents and possibly mix with cooler waters. The temperatures of the deep geothermal reservoirs are estimated to be between 92 and 156 °C in Diyadin field, based on quartz geothermometry, while slightly lower estimates are obtained using chalcedony geothermometers. The isotopic composition of thermal water (δ18O, δ2H, δ3H) indicates their deep-circulating meteoric origin. The waters are likely to have originated from the percolation of rainwater along fractures and faults to the deep hot reservoir. Subsequent heating by conduction due to the presence of an intrusive cupola associated with the Tendurek volcano

  18. Application of stable isotopes (18O, D) to study the provenience of mineral waters from some locations of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic study (18O, D) of mineral waters from some locations (Bucovina, Covasna, Tusnad and Someseni) in Romania was carried out in a tentative to identify their origin. The investigations of waters from Bucovina, Covasna and Someseni (Springs No.1, 2, and 15) indicates the meteoric provenience, having the deuterium content of meteoric water, but shifted to higher 18O content. This 18O shift is the result of isotopic exchange of the water oxi gen with the rocks oxygen in its trajectory to discharge. The Spring No. 8 waters from Someseni Spa and Tusnad waters present the water isotopic content of mixed deep water with shallower meteoric water having heavier isotopic (D, 18O) content. The Spring No.3 waters from Someseni Spa present the springtime isotopic pulse, like a Becas brook, with water depletion in D and 18O isotopes proving pollution with surrounding snow water. (authors)

  19. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97 % on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated. (author)

  20. Radium and 40K in Algerian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in the five most popular Algerian bottled mineral waters have been found to be 13.9 to 148.9 mBq l-1, 7.2 to 52.9 mBq l-1 and -1, respectively. Ratios of 226Ra to 228Ra activities ranged from 1.0 to 13.66 with a mean of 5.62. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of these waters have been estimated for three age categories (infants, children and adults) using the measured activities of these radionuclides and assuming the World Health Organisation's default water intake rate. Annual doses for children and adults have been found to be well below the 0.1 mSv y-1 reference dose level, whereas for the most vulnerable group the annual effective dose from all the waters exceeds the reference value and contributes 12% to the mean annual dose from natural exposure. (authors)

  1. Fundamental aspects of oily waters treatment from the mineral industries by electrolytic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merma, A.G.; Gonzales, L.V.; Torem, M.L. [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    There is an immediate need to develop innovative and more effective techniques for treatment of wastewaters as regulations on effluent wastewater discharge are becoming increasingly prevalent. The mining and metallurgical industries generate wastewaters that contain stable oil-in-water emulsions, arising from residues of liquid streams that serve the purpose of lubrication, cooling, cleaning and corrosion prevention in the equipment used in those industries. Chemically stabilized oil-water emulsions produced in the mineral industries can be treated using an electrocoagulation technique that considers the effects of operating parameters such as initial pH, current density, reaction time, electrode area/liquid volume ratio and electrode materials on the separation of oil as measured by the chemical oxygen demand. The paper discussed electrocoagulation as well as the materials and methods for the study, including oil in water emulsions; the experimental apparatus; and the experimental procedure. It was concluded that the electrolysis of this kind of oil in water emulsions with aluminum electrodes resulted in pH neutralization regardless of the initial pH tested. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Adsorption of natural surfactants present in sea waters at surfaces of minerals: contact angle measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The wetting properties of solid mineral samples (by contact angles in original surfactant-containing sea water (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic were characterised under laboratory conditions on a large set (31 samples of well-classified stones of diverse hydrophobicity using the sessile drop (ADSA-P approach, captive bubble and inclined plate methods. An experimental relation between the static contact angle θeq and stone density ρ was obtained in the form θeq = Bρ + C, where B = 12.23 ± 0.92, C = - (19.17 ± 0.77, and r2 = 0.92. The histogram of θeq distribution for polished stone plates exhibited a multimodal feature indicating that the most abundant solid materials (hydrophilic in nature have contact angles θeq = 7.2, 10.7, 15.7 and 19.2º, which appear to be applicable to unspecified field stones as well. The contact angle, a pH-dependent quantity, appears to be a sensitive measure of stone grain size, e.g. granite. The captive bubble method gives reproducible results in studies of porous and highly hydrophilic surfaces such as stones and wood. The authors consider the adsorption of natural sea water surfactants on stone surfaces to be the process responsible for contact angle hysteresis. In the model, an equation was derived for determining the solid surface free energy from the liquid's surface tension γLV it also enabled the advancing θA and receding θR contact angles of this liquid to be calculated. Measurements of contact angle hysteresis Δθ (=θA - θR with surfactant-containing sea water and distilled water (reference on the same stone surfaces allowed the film pressure ΔΠ (1.22 to 8.80 mJ m-2, solid surface free energy ΔγS (-17.03 to -23.61 mJ m-2 and work done by spreading ΔWS (-1.23 to -11.52 mJ m-2 to be determined. The variability in these parameters is attributed to autophobing, an effect operative on a solid surface covered with an adsorptive layer of surfactants. The wetting behaviour of solid particles is of great

  3. Chemical and isotopic compositions of minerals and waters from the Campi Flegrei volcanic system, Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, G. M.; Cortecci, G.; Franco, E.; Stanzione, D.

    1999-08-01

    Based on their δ 34S signature, sulfate minerals and native sulfur around fumaroles and hot water pools from the Campi Flegrei volcanic area derive from supergenic oxidation of volcanic H 2S. Their mean δ 34S value (-0.2±1.7‰) matches with that of fumarolic H 2S at Solfatara (-0.3±0.3‰), as well as with the δ 34S of +1.4‰ obtained for total sulfur in fresh trachyte from the area. All δ 34S values indicate a mostly deep-seated origin for sulfur. Thermal waters were analysed for major and minor chemistry and for oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur isotope compositions. Pools at Pisciarelli are filled with evaporated meteoric water heated by rising (magmatic) gases. The water δ 18O (+3.8±1.3‰) and δ 2H (+6.5±2.2‰) values in these steam-heated waters are controlled by mixing and evaporation effects, and the δ 34S value of dissolved sulfate (-1.3±0.3‰) basically agrees with supergenic oxidation of deep-seated H 2S as the major source of sulfur. Instead, water from thermal springs and wells elsewhere in the Campi Flegrei appears to be a mixture between dilute meteoric and saline marine components. The latter may be local seawater from the bay of Pozzuoli. The δ 18O and δ 2H values of waters sampled during 1993-1994 range from -5.6 to +0.3‰ and from -33 to -3.4‰, respectively. The δ 34S values of dissolved sulfate range between -0.1 and +19.5‰. In general, sulfate is probably derived essentially from two sources, both within the volcanic cover, i.e., oxidation/dissolution of pyrite and anhydrite, and marine water. An occasional source of water and sulfate is represented by (magmatic) gases, which directly interact with shallow meteoric water as in the case of the Hotel Tennis well yielding steam-heated water with δ 18O=-1.5±0.2‰, δ 2H=-17±1‰ and δ 34S=-0.1‰.

  4. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs. A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL. The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

  5. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K;

    1996-01-01

    with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means...

  6. Stability of Fluorosurfactant Adsorption on Mineral Surface for Water Removal in Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effectiveness of rock wettability alteration for water removal during gas production from tight reservoir depends on the surfactant adsorption on the pore surface of a reservoir. This paper selected typical cationic fluorosurfactant FW-134 as an example and took advantage of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and atomic force microscope (AFM to investigate its adsorption stability on the rock mineral surface under the oscillation condition at high temperature for a long time. The experimental results indicate that the F element content on the sample surface increases obviously, the surface structure of fluorine-carbonization also undergoes a significant change, and the fluorine surfactant exhibits a good interfacial modification and wettability alteration ability due to its adsorption on the pore surface transforming the chemical structure of the original surface. The adsorption increases indistinctly with the concentration of over 0.05% due to a single layer adsorption structure and is mainly electrostatic adsorption because the chemical bonding between the fluorosurfactant and the rock mineral surface, the hydrogen bonding, is weak and inconspicuous.

  7. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus....../day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusionor 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfusedoesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The...... median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...

  8. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  9. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  10. Oil/water droplet formation by temperature change in the water/c(16)e(6)/mineral oil system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, D; Solans, C; Gutiérrez, J M; Garcia-Celma, M J; Olsson, U

    2006-03-28

    Droplet sizes of oil/water (O/W) nanoemulsions prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, in the water/C16E6/mineral oil system, have been compared with those given by a theoretical droplet model, which predicts a minimum droplet size. The results show that, when the phase inversion was started from either a single-phase microemulsion (D) or a two-phase W+D equilibrium, the resulting droplet sizes were close to those predicted by the model, whereas, when emulsification was started from W+D+O or from W+D+Lalpha (Lalpha = lamellar liquid crystal) equilibria, the difference between the measured and predicted values was much higher. The structural changes produced during the phase inversion process have been investigated by the 1H-PFGSE-NMR technique, monitoring the self-diffusion coefficients for each component as a function of temperature. The results have confirmed the transition from a bicontinuous D microemulsion at the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) temperature to oil nanodroplet dispersion in water when it is cooled to lower temperatures. PMID:16548551

  11. Removal of cyanobacteria and microcystin by natural plant-mineral combinations in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baik-Ho; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2013-02-01

    The removal or mitigation of cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins is a necessity to ensure safe drinking water and recreational water. As a feasible agent to control cyanobacterial bloom, a novel plant-mineral composite (PMC) was developed and optimized through laboratory and field testing over the past 3 years. Based on previous studies, we treated cyanobacterial bloom water (mainly Microcystis and Synechocystis) with 0.05 mg/L PMC at the small eutrophic reservoir; 2 h later, we collected samples and analyzed them in the laboratory. The intra-cellular (c-MC) and dissolved microcystin-LR (d-MC) were measured using an ELISA method. The PMC exhibited a remarkable removal of both c-MC (47.3 %) and d-MC (95.8 %) within 2 days. In addition, notable decreases (on average, 78 % of the control) in the chlorophyll-a, suspended solids, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand values, in zooplankton and in the phytoplankton density (83.9 %) were verified after 48 h. These results indicate that the PMC is more effective in controlling d-MC than c-MC, suggesting a possible method to mitigate such hazardous chemicals as agrochemicals and endocrine disrupters in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23196372

  12. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence N. Warr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98% of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  13. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  14. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author)

  15. Qualidade microbiológica de águas minerais Microbiological quality of mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de S. Sant´Ana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e quatro amostras de água mineral envasadas, de diferentes marcas, foram examinadas quanto à contaminação por coliformes totais, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococos, Clostrídios sulfito redutores a 46ºC, de acordo com o preconizado pela RDC 54/00 do Ministério da Saúde. Empregou-se a metodologia da membrana filtrante. Em nenhuma das amostras foi detectada a presença de clostrídios sulfito redutores a 46ºC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e enterococos. A contaminação por coliformes totais e E.coli, detectada em 25% e 20,4% das amostras, respectivamente, sugere falhas higiênicas ao longo do processo e contaminação fecal recente. Tais amostras apresentam-se em desacordo com os padrões microbiológicos legais estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira. Devem-se adotar práticas higiênicas rigorosas em todo processamento, com o objetivo de obter-se produtos seguros, já que tratamentos não podem ser utilizados visando a redução/eliminação da contaminação.Forty four samples of bottled mineral water, from different brands, were examined for total coliforms, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococci and sulfide reducing clostridia, according to the Brazilian legal standard. The membrane-filter was the metodology used. None of the samples showed contamination by sulfide reducing clostridia, enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Total coliforms and E.coli were detected in 25% and 20.4% of the samples respectively sugesting poor hygiene along the process and recent faecal contamination. Such samples were in disaccordance with the Brazilian microbiological specifications. The bottled mineral water must be produced under good manufacturing practices with the objective to obtain safe products, since treatments can not be used to reduce/eliminate the contamination.

  16. Some observations on use of siliceous mineral waters in reduction of corrosion in RCC structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, C.

    The corrosion-resisting characteristics of reinforcement in cement blended with siliceous mineral wastes viz. gold tailing and flyash have been evaluated by using an accelerated corrosion technique. The additions of these mineral admixtures...

  17. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  18. Mineral waters in Brazil: an analysis of the market and institutional framework for integrated and sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro dos Santos Portugal Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the mineral water market in Brazil, based on three important considerations: first, the market structure prevailing in this segment is analyzed, addressing the evolution and main groups that make up the Brazilian market for mineral waters; next, we make a brief reference to the legal and institutional framework on mineral waters; and finally, we analyze the directions for integrated and sustainable environmental management in this segment. In this way, we sought to contextualize the market’s legal, institutional and economic parameters, as well as the implications of these parameters that can be decisive in the environmental management process, which companies can use to enhance the excellence of that process. These changes imply that mineral water be included in the national policy of water resources, named the PNRH, and not as an ore. It should also be included in the National Plan of Solid Waste (PNRS, with a complete view of the product life cycle.

  19. Wettability alteration by trimeric cationic surfactant at water-wet/oil-wet mica mineral surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wettability of oil reservoir rock affects the efficiency of the oil recovery process by reducing the capillary force. Methyldodecylbis [2-(dimethyldodecylammonio) ethyl] ammonium tribromide is a trimeric cationic surfactant that contains three dodecyl chains and three quaternary ammonium head groups connected by divinyl groups. The surfactant was synthesized, purified and used as a new wetting alteration agent. This paper focuses on the ability of this trimeric cationic surfactant to alter the wettability of water-wet and oil-wet mica mineral surfaces. The contact angle data of the solid-liquid interface in oil/water/solid three-phase system show that the trimeric cationic surfactant, when compared with single- and double-chain cationic surfactant, is a more effective wetting agent for water-wet and oil-wet mica surfaces at lower concentration. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the surfactant molecules have formed a monolayer to reverse the wetting properties. On the water-wet surface, the surface is suffused with negative charge, which could attract the cationic head of surfactant, and leave the hydrophobic tails exposed. In contrast, on the oil-wet surface, the hydrophobic tails were attracted by hydrophobic interactions to the oil film between the surfactant and the crude oil. The hydrophilic heads were left outside to form a hydrophilic layer, which could explain the wettable to hydrophilic trend. Alteration to the degree of wettability is mainly dependent on the adsorption areas of the surfactant. The data show that the ability of the trimeric cationic surfactant affect the wettability is independent of surface tension.

  20. Reactive transport modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration via bicarbonate brine injection in the Rose Run sandstone formation: A comparison with traditional CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Kendall, T.; Seeker, R.; Constantz, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    One by-product of the Calera process to make building materials from CO2 is a bicarbonate solution that contains a variable fraction of the CO2 captured from flue gas. Injection of this fluid into the subsurface has advantages over CO2 injection in terms of technical risks, environmental issues, cost, safety, and public acceptance. With bicarbonate injection, there is no need of a cap-rock, as the solution is non-volatile, and will not be buoyant because it is of comparable density to the host fluids. Although a bicarbonate fluid has less CO2 mass per unit volume than supercritical CO2 (in our example, 34 times less), a large injection zone footprint is not a strong disadvantage because detailed site characterization, in particular of cap-rock integrity, is less critical. Moreover, the amount of CO2 that needs trapping is reduced by an amount equal to the carbon in the mineralized cement by-product. Bicarbonate injection can be carried out in relatively shallow aquifers, which reduces the pumping energy needed for emplacement. In terms of desirable long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms, bicarbonate injection greatly accelerates solubility and mineral trapping into hours and days as compared to decades or more for liquid CO2 injection. Thus, bicarbonate injection is a practical demonstration of fluid mixing at field scale. To assess the potential for geological storage of CO2 in American Electric Power’s (AEP) Mountaineer site, 1D reactive transport models have been constructed to compare bicarbonate with CO2 injection and upscale the mixing problem from batch experiments to the field. For CO2 injection, CO2 forms a completely dried-out zone near the borehole, which may result in halite efflorescence and may be a concern for well-bore injectivity. Simulations predict that after 10,000 years, the CO2 partial pressure remains above 200 bars, and the solution pH remains below 5 within a one kilometer radius of the wellbore. Consequently, the dissolved CO2 is about 1

  1. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. The radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (EmporeTM Radium Disks) and 210Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226Ra

  2. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneado, S; Hernández-Nataren, E; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 °C were not subject to Sb migration. At 40 °C there was a significant increase in Sb concentration, although the maximum limit established by the European Union (5.0 μgL(-)(1)) was not exceeded, whereas at 60 °C samples were subject to considerable Sb migration after 30 days of storage. In this case, the maximum limit established by the European Union was exceeded and both Sb (V) and Sb (III) were detected. PMID:25053092

  3. Determination of 210 Pb in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 210 Pb have been analyzed in 12 mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata city. The 210 Pb concentration was determined through 210 Bi, by measuring the gross beta activity of the 210 Pb Cr O4 precipitate after separation from interfering elements by complexation with nitrile tri acetic acid at basic pH. The 210 Bi beta activity was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. Concentrations ranging from lower limit of detection to 1240 mBq/L were observed for 210 Pb. The radiochemical procedure adopted presented a chemical yield around 85% and a lower limit of detection of 4,9 mBq/L. Dose calculations were performed in order to evaluate the importance of this radionuclide to the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of these waters. Based upon measured concentrations, committed effective doses up to 1,1 mSv/y and committed doses to the bone up to 1.7 x 101 mSv/y were observed for 210 Pb. (author). 64 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Gabriele [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: gabriele.wallner@univie.ac.at; Wagner, Rosmarie [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Katzlberger, Christian [Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, CC Radiation Protection and Radiochemistry, Spargelfeldstrasse 191, A-1226 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U. The radium isotopes as well as {sup 210}Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore{sup TM} Radium Disks) and {sup 210}Po was determined by {alpha}-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by {alpha}-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF{sub 3}. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from {sup 228}Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from {sup 226}Ra.

  5. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra. PMID:18243442

  6. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  7. Investigations carried out on the intake of the thermo mineral water of the Kezhovica Spa near the town of Shtip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One exploration borehole of 500 meters in depth was carried near the Kezhovica spa in 1975/76 in order to find out the possibility for the utilization of the thermo mineral water. Granites in which the thermo mineral waters are located are intensely fractured by tectonic movements 450 meters in depth. In the parts lying deeper than 150 meters the fractures are filled with calcite precipitated by warm waters. The thermo mineral water near the Kezhovica spa is not self-potential and it is sub artesian. The temperature of the water in the boreholes ranges from 23 to 50oC and the capacity amounts from 0.165 to 0.200 I/s. The future explorations should consist of drilling wells and draw downs with pumps that can be used at temperatures of up to 60oC. Drilling of such wells should be done using clean water, particularly near the capture well in order to avoid closing of fractures that drain the warm water from depth. (Original)

  8. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  9. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence or...... absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin...

  10. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  11. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japan...

  12. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  13. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  14. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  15. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  16. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. PMID:26561755

  17. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  18. Practical considerations for bicarbonate loading and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg 1-2 h before exercise) can temporarily increase blood bicarbonate concentrations, enhancing extracellular buffering of hydrogen ions which accumulate and efflux from the working muscle. Such 'bicarbonate loading' provides an ergogenic strategy for sporting events involving high rates of anaerobic glycolysis which are otherwise limited by the body's capacity to manage the progressive increase in intracellular acidity. Studies show that bicarbonate loading strategies have a moderate positive effect on the performance of sports involving 1-7 min of sustained strenuous exercise, and may also be useful for prolonged sports involving intermittent or sustained periods of high-intensity work rates. This potential to enhance sports performance requires further investigation using appropriate research design, but may be limited by practical considerations such as gut discomfort or the logistics of the event. The effect of chronic use of bicarbonate supplementation prior to high-intensity workouts to promote better training performance and adaptations is worthy of further investigation. While this relatively simple dietary strategy has been studied and used by sports people for over 80 years, it is likely that there are still ways in which further benefits from bicarbonate supplementation can be developed and individualized for specific athletes or specific events. PMID:23765347

  19. Factors contributing to the formation of carbonated mineral water systems in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 65 occurrences of carbonated mineral water (CMW within the territory of Serbia. More than 93 % of these systems are found in the geotectonic unit referred to as the Vardar Zone and on the fringes of nearby units. To the east, west and north of the Vardar Zone, CMWs are either rare or nonexistent. The area featuring CMWs is characterized by Tertiary magmatism, a complex geology and deep neotectonic structures. Based on δ13C values of CO2 and HCO3 - in several CMWs in Serbia, and also in carbonates and CO2 from liquid inclusions in several hydrothermal deposits around the world, it was concluded that CO2 in the lithosphere of Serbia could originate from hydrothermal carbonates, and carbonates from sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The findings clearly showed that the main generators of CO2 are located in the Vardar Zone and that CO2 degasification is accomplished through temperature metamorphosis of carbonates (dolomite, calcite. Based on the carbonate transformation temperatures and the temperature conditions in the lithosphere of Serbia, the CO2 might be the result of temperature-induced carbonate transformation below a depth of 3 km. Therefore, the conclusion of the study of CMWs in Serbia is that the formation of CMW systems in the lithosphere depends on the geochemical, temperature, and the magmatic and structural-neotectonic conditions.

  20. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  1. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Effects of bicarbonate and sulfate ions on the pitting corrosion behavior of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China is to enclose the spent nuclear fuel in sealed metal canisters which are embedded in bentonite clay hundreds meters down in the bed-rock. The choice of container material depends largely on the redox conditions and the aqueous environment of the repository. One of the choices for the fabrication of waste canisters is copper, because it is thermodynamically stable under the saline, anoxic conditions over the large majority of the container lifetime. However, in the early aerobic phase of the geological disposal the corrosion of copper could take place, and the corrosion behavior of copper would be influenced by the complex chemical conditions of groundwater markedly. Pitting corrosion of copper often take place in power plants or air-conditioning condensate water. The corrosion environment usually contains bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride ions. In the early stage of geological disposal, if the aerobic water with bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride ions immersion repository, the pitting corrosion of copper may occur. The content of bicarbonate and sulfate ion in the water chemistry environment, as well as the synergy between them, could affect the behavior of pitting seriously. The content of bicarbonate and chloride ion in the water chemistry environment, as well as the synergy between them, could affect the behavior of pitting seriously. The researchers generally agreed that chloride ions would promote the occurrence of pitting corrosion of copper, and bicarbonate ions will lead to surface passivation and inhibition of pitting. However, there is no systematic work in this area. In our work, the cycle polarization behavior and surface morphology of pitting has been investigated in HCO3- and Cl- mixed solution, respectively by electrochemical cyclic polarization test and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the circular polarization curves of copper could be divided into four types. The

  3. Hydrogeological investigations for mineral water and CO2 gas in the village of Bac, Bitola, The Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce; Petrov, Dimitar

    2005-01-01

    Tree exploration drill holes were dug in the Neogene Middle Pliocene sediments in the vicinity of the village of Bac for the investigation of the mineral water and CO2 gas. The first drill hole (B 1) was dug 30 m in depth indicated a water bearing horizon in o to 26.4 m thick grey marly sandstone with a free level aquifer and ground water 2.2 m at depth and yield of 10l/s. The second and third drill holes (ED-1 and ED-2) were dug 301 m to depth and determined a free level aquifer, a sub ar...

  4. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg2+-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg0). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested. - Highlights: • Mercury mobilization pathways from three Hg bearing minerals were studied. • Their electronic properties were analysed using quantum mechanical modelling. • Cinnabar and corderoite are not photodegradable, but mercuric chloride is. • The trend is reversed for dissolution induced by the presence of halogen couples. • Photocatalytic removal of Hg from air and

  5. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Pieve, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.dapieve@gmail.com [Université libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Boulevard du Triomphe, CP 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Stankowski, Martin [LU Open Innovation Center, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Country Unknown); Hogan, Conor [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Country Unknown); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR–ISM), University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Physics Department, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg{sub 3}S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), and mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO{sub 2} as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg{sup 2+}-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg{sup 0}). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested. - Highlights: • Mercury mobilization pathways from three Hg bearing minerals were studied. • Their electronic properties were analysed using quantum mechanical modelling. • Cinnabar and corderoite are not photodegradable, but mercuric chloride is. • The trend is reversed for dissolution induced by the presence of halogen couples.

  6. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  7. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pieve, Fabiana; Stankowski, Martin; Hogan, Conor

    2014-09-15

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg(2+)-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg(0)). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested. PMID:24982025

  8. Effects of Temperature and Water Saturation on CO2 Production and Nitrogen Mineralization in Alpine Wetland Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-Qin; OUYANG Hun; XU Xing-Liang; ZHOU Cai-Ping; ZHANG Feng

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between carbon (C) production and nitrogen (N) mineralization were investigated in two alpine wetland soils of the Tibetan Plateau using laboratory incubation under different temperatures (5, 15, 25, and 35 ℃) and water saturation (noninundation and inundation). A significant positive relationship was found between CO2 production and N mineralization under increasing temperatures from 5 to 35 ℃ with the same water saturation condition in the marsh soil (r2 > 0.49, P < 0.0001) and the peat soil (r2 > 0.38, P < 0.002), and a negative relationship with water saturation increasing at the same temperature, especially 25 and 35 ℃, in the marsh soil (r2 > 0.70, P < 0.009) and the peat soil (r2 > 0.61, P < 0.013). In conclusion, temperatures and water saturation could regulate the relationship between CO2 production and net N mineralization in the Tibetan alpine marsh and peat soils.

  9. Modelling of water-gas-rock geo-chemical interactions. Application to mineral diagenesis in geological reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral diagenesis in tanks results from interactions between minerals, water, and possibly gases, over geological periods of time. The associated phenomena may have a crucial importance for reservoir characterization because of their impact on petrophysical properties. The objective of this research thesis is thus to develop a model which integrates geochemical functions necessary to simulate diagenetic reactions, and which is numerically efficient enough to perform the coupling with a transport model. After a recall of thermodynamic and kinetic backgrounds, the author discusses how the nature of available analytic and experimental data influenced choices made for the formalization of physical-chemical phenomena and for behaviour laws to be considered. Numerical and computational aspects are presented in the second part. The model is validated by using simple examples. The different possible steps during the kinetic competition between two mineral are highlighted, as well the competition between mineral reaction kinetics and water flow rate across the rock. Redox reactions are also considered. In the third part, the author reports the application of new model functions, and highlights the contribution of the modelling to the understanding of some complex geochemical phenomena and to the prediction of reservoir quality. The model is applied to several diagenetic transformations: cementation of dolomitic limestone by anhydride, illite precipitation, and thermal reduction of sulphates

  10. Use of fracture filling mineral assemblages for characterizing water-rock interactions during exhumation of an accretionary complex: An example from the Shimanto Belt, southern Kyushu Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Metcalfe, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Various fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals in fracture walls were formed by fluid-rock interaction during the exhumation of the Palaeogene Shimanto Belt of Kyushu, Japan, which is located in an accretionary complex. Each mineral formed under favourable geological conditions and can be used to estimate the conditions of accretion and formation of the related rock sequences. Petrographic observations, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were made on fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals from boreholes of ca. 140 m depth, drilled in the Shimanto Belt. Results reveal that the secondary minerals were formed in three major stages distinguished by the sequential textural relationships of the minerals and the interpreted environment of mineral formation. Filling mineral assemblages show that the studied rock formation has been subducted to a depth of several km and the temperature reached was ca. 200-300 °C. After the subduction, the rock formation was uplifted and surface acidic water penetrated up to 80 m beneath the present ground surface. The acid water dissolved calcite fracture filling minerals to form the present groundwater flow-paths, which allowed recent wall rock alteration to occur. The results shown here imply that filling mineral assemblages can be an effective tool to evaluate the environmental changes during exhumation of an accretionary complex.

  11. Degradation and mineralization of petroleum by two bacteria isolated from coastal waters. Degradation and mineralization of petroleum in sea water: limitation by nitrogen and phosphorus. Technical report No. 2, January-December 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R.M.; Bartha, R.

    1971-12-31

    Within the framework of a study on the oil biodegradation potential of the sea the ability of a Flavobacterium sp. and Brevibacterium sp. to metabolize a paraffinic crude oil and a chemically defined hydrocarbon mixture was investigated. Major components of the crude oil were identified by combination gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The rate and extent of total hydrocarbon biodegradation was measured. Degradation started after a 2 to 4 day lag period, and reached its maximum within two weeks. At this time up to 60% of the crude oil was degraded. n-Paraffins were preferentially degraded as compared to branched chain hydrocarbons. Biodegradation and mineralization of petroleum, added at 1% (v/v) to freshly collected sea water, were measured using gas-liquid chromatographic, residual weight, and CO/sub 2/-evolution techniques. Only 3% of the added petroleum was biodegraded and 1% was mineralized in unamended sea water after 18 days and incubation. Added nitrate, phosphate supplements in combination increased petroleum biodegradation and mineralization. Attempts to clean up oil spills with the aid of microorganisms should take into consideration the nutritional deficiencies of sea water.

  12. Qualification of Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Mineral-Water Interactions in Dilute Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis report is to qualify the thermochemical database data0.ymp.R2 (DTN: MO0302SPATHDYN.000 [DIRS 161756], qualified by this report) and supporting calculations (DTNs: MO0302SPATHDYN.001 [DIRS 161886], and MO0303SPASPEQ2.000 [DIRS 162278]), which were originally documented in ''Data Qualification: Update and Revision of the Geochemical Thermodynamic Database, Data0.ymp'' (Steinborn et al. 2003 [DIRS 161956]). This original document still serves as the record of development of the data0.ymp.R2 database (DTN: MO0302SPATHDYN.000 [DIRS 161756]). The data0.ymp.R2 thermodynamic database (DTN: MO0302SPATHDYN.000 [DIRS 161756]) was developed for use with software code EQ3/6 (EQ3/6 V8.0, STN: 10813-8.0-00) (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162228]) and software code EQ6 (EQ6 V7.2bLV, STN: 10075-7.2bLV-02) (BSC 2002 [DIRS 159731]) to conduct geochemical modeling of mineral-fluid interactions involving aqueous solutions (ionic strengths of up to one molal; see Section 6.5) and temperatures of up to 300 C along the liquid-vapor saturation curve of pure water. The data0.ymp.R2 database (DTN: MO0302SPATHDYN.000 [DIRS 161756]) is an update of the previously qualified predecessor database data0.ymp.R0 (DTN: MO0009THRMODYN.001 [DIRS 152576]). The scope of this report is limited to qualification of the updates, as well as identification and evaluation of certain errors and discrepancies as discussed

  13. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  14. 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Po concentrations of bottled mineral waters in Italy and their dose contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the importance of bottled mineral water in human diet with special regard to children in lactation period, a monitoring of natural radioactivity in some bottled mineral waters produced in Italy was performed. Gross alpha and beta activities and 226Ra, 238U, 234U, and 210Po concentrations were measured. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by standards ISO 9696 and ISO 9697; for 226Ra determination liquid scintillation was used. The 238U and 234U concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry after their separation from matrix by extraction chromatography and electroplating. 210Po was measured by alpha spectrometry. The results revealed that the concentrations (mBq L-1) of 226Ra, 238U, 234U, and 210Po ranged from -1; for infants (-1

  15. Effects of soil type and water saturation on growth, nutrient and mineral content of the perennial forage shrub Sesbania sesban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Truong Hoang; Brix, Hans

    2015-01-01

    salt content prevents establishment and growth. The nutrient and mineral contents of the plants, and hence the nutritional value of the plants as e.g. fodder or compost crops, is high. However, soil type and water level interactively affect growth and tissue composition. Hence, optimal growth......Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr is a perennial N2-fixing tree with high potential for use in agricultural production systems as a green manure and livestock forage. We studied the interactive effects of soil type and water level on the growth, biomass allocation, nutrient and mineral content of S. sesban...... the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Sesbania sesban grew well with relative growth rates (RGR) around 0.08 g g-1 d-1 in all studied soil types, except the saline soil where plants died. In the low-pH (3.9) acid sulfate soil, that constitute more than 40% of the Mekong delta, the RGR of the plants was slightly...

  16. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 1. Radiochemical analysis of 214Bi in Ena and Ikeda mineral spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A couple of educational experiments have been developed using natural radioactivity contained in mineral spring water and a small GM counter. These experiments are safe and inexpensive enough to be conducted at high school or university, nevertheless they are quantitative enough for learners to observe half-life of 214Pb and 214Bi, and to help them understand the concept of radioactive equilibrium between them. (author)

  17. Application of molecular orbital calculation for evaluating binding force of water molecules sorbed on surface of 2:1 type clay mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the bonding force subjecting on the water molecule sorbed on the surface of 2:1 type clay mineral by using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculation, and compare it with the binding forces of solid and liquid phases of water. We can consider that molecular orbital calculation is a useful and helpful tool for characterizing the properties of water molecules present in the clay minerals. (author)

  18. 226Ra Concentration of Hungarian Bottled Mineral Waters and Estimation of the Dose Deriving from Their Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The concentration of 226Ra was measured in most of the bottled mineral waters commercially available in Hungary. The 226Ra concentration exceeded the 100 mBqL-1 value in six cases out of the investigated 29 types of mineral waters. In most of the cases, 226Ra concentration does not reach the 100 mBqL-1 value. 100-800 mBqL-1 values were found in five cases and 3 BqL-1 was measured in one case. This concentration means 0.3 mSvyear-1 dose load in case of 1 Lday-1 consumption, but in case of children (12-17 years old populace) it can reach the 1.6 mSvyear-1. When measuring the 226Ra concentration in soft drinks made from this latter mineral water, 2.6 BqL-1 concentration was determined which means 1.4 mSvyear-1 dose load in the 12-17 years age-group when 1 Lday-1 is consumed from these drinks. (author)

  19. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus;

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H-2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after...... pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n=17) and ranitidine (n=9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid...

  20. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of chitosan scaffolds with a precursor sacrificed method in ethanol/water mixed solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic mineralization was performed on a large scale by a rapid and efficient approach. Chitosan scaffolds were placed in a mixed solution of urea, ethanol and distilled water, followed by the introduction of dibasic sodium phosphate (0.1M and calcium chloride (0.1M with the molar ratio of 1.67. These mixed solvents was then adjusted to weakly alkaline by adding sodium hydroxide solution. Finally the reaction mixture was sealed and kept at 80ºC for predetermined time. The composition and morphology of the apatite and the hybrid scaffolds were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The mechanism of nucleation and growth of crystals was discussed as well. The results revealed that chitosan scaffolds improved the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HAP crystals. With the extension of mineralization time, the mineral layers on the outer surface and inner section of chitosan scaffolds increased as well. Furthermore, the compressive strength and modulus of the HAP-chitosan scaffolds biocomposites increased to 0.55±0.003 and 29.29±1.25 MPa respectively. Such one-pot approach may be extended to the mineralization of other materials and will have a broad application in the future.

  1. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavender, G; Bird, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer...

  2. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Supply on Spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.) Growth and SoilMineral N Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of conventional and optimized water and nitrogen managements on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)growth and soil mineral N (Nmin) residues were compared in an open field experiment in which water balance method and N recommendation with the KNS-system were included. It was shown that the conventional water treatment (seasonal irrigated amount: 175 mm) reduced spinach growth compared to the water balance treatments (seasonal irrigated amount: 80 and 85 mm) at the same N supply level due to N loss through leaching caused by excessive water supply. Although 309 kg N ha-1 was applied in the conventional N treatment, compared to 82 and 66 kg N ha-1 in the optimum N treatments, no significant difference in crop yield was investigated between the N treatments with the same irrigation practice. N uptake in spinach and soil residual Nmin contents were also significantly affected by the irrigation practices. The conventional water supply not only decreased water use efficiency, but also resulted in excessive NO-3-N being leached below the root zone. In order to meet the same target value of N requirement for the next crop, cauliflower, based on the KNS-system, at least extra 50 kg N ha-1 was needed in the conventional water treatments in comparison to the water balance treatment.

  3. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on grey water footprint in a fertirrigated crop under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). In semiarid scenarios with low water quality, where the irrigation is necessary to maintain production, green WF is zero because the effective rainfall is negligible. As well as blue WF includes: i) extra consumption or irrigation water that the farmer has to apply to compensate the fail of uniformity on discharge of drips, ii) percolation out of control or salts leaching, which depends on the salt tolerance of the crop, soil and quality of irrigation water, to ensure the fruit yield. The major concern is grey WF, because the irrigation and nitrogen dose have to be adjusted to the crop needs in order to minimize nitrate pollution. This study is focused in assessment mineral and organic fertilization on grey WF in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions, which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12

  4. Experiment Study on the Removal of Phosphorus in Eutrophic Water Bodies by the Utilization of Mineral Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Yiming

    For seeking a new method to solve the problem of eutrophication, we have made the experiments of removing phosphorus in eutropic water by use of mineral calcite. The results indicate that the mineral calcite can remove phosphorus from the solution, and that the initial phosphorus concentration may influence the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The dephosphorization rate is high when the initial phosphorus concentration is 5 mg/L, and phosphorus can be removed by 88.48%; the dephosphorization rate may reach 69.94% when the initial phosphorus concentration is 3 mg/L; at 1.2 mg/L initial concentration only 12.68% phosphorus can be removed. Increasing temperature can also raise the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The result of TEM shows that the Ca-P precipitation is not in crystalline state.

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in soils, sediments, and surface water of mineral licks, Dunkel Mine, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska: GLARSU report #10

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers heavy metal concentrations in soils, sediments, and surface water of mineral licks in Dunkel Mine, Denali National Park and Preserve. The...

  6. Evaluation of water, sucrose and minerals effective diffusivities during osmotic treatment of pork in sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nićetin Milica R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective diffusivities of water, sucrose and minerals in osmotic treatment of pork cubes (M. triceps brachii were calculated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM, with respect to temperature (20, 35 and 50oC and concentration of sugar beet molasses, (60, 70 and 80% w/w. The numerical solution of Fick's' law for unsteady-state mass transfer in a perfect cube configuration was used to calculate the effective diffusivities of water, sucrose and minerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg. Zugarramurdi and Lupin's model was used to predict the equilibrium condition, which was shown to be appropriate for water loss and solute uptake during osmotic treatment. Effective diffusivity of water was found to be in the range of 6.95×10-10 - 8.03×10-10 m2s-1, the sucrose effective diffusivity was between 6.39×10-10 and 8.25×10-10 m2s-1, while diffusivities for minerals were in the range 6.34×10-10 - 8.82×10-10 m2s-1, for Na, 6.27×10-10 - 7.43×10-10 m2s-1, for K, 6.44×10-10 - 8.94×10-10 m2s-1, for Ca and 3.47×10-10 - 5.66×10-10 m2s-1, for Mg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31055

  7. Frugivorous bats drink nutrient- and clay-enriched water in the Amazon rain forest: support for a dual function of mineral-lick visits

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanem, Simon J.; Ruppert, Hans; Kunz, Thomas H.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    In Central Amazonia, large mammals create water-filled puddles when consuming soil. These mineral licks are visited by pregnant and lactating frugivorous bats; possibly for two reasons. Frugivorous bats could supplement their mineral-depleted fruit diet by drinking salty water, or they could buffer dietary plant secondary compounds by consuming soil. We analysed bat fruits from Ecuador and showed that they are depleted in elemental concentrations (Na, K, P) compared with similar f...

  8. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    ridge system, sulfide minerals crystallize from the hot water directly onto the volcanic rocks surrounding the hydrothermal vent leading to the formation of hollow, chimney like sulfide structure through which the hot water continues to flow... systems, which are in turn an integral component of global mid-ocean ridge system. Hydrothermal systems are composed of convection cells in the crust and upper mantle through which seawater freely circulates reacting with magmatic material, which...

  9. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  10. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  11. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2016-01-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3− <=> CO32− + H+, when HCO3− is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80–100 atoms) to represent t...

  12. Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said

  13. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  14. Survival, growth and mineral accumulation in ash Fraxinus excelsior L. seedlings irrigated with water treatment effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Selahvarzi, Bahareh; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigation with water treatment effluent on the growth and chemical constituents of ash seedlings Fraxinus excelsior L. according as soil chemical properties. This research was conducted at the site near to the Eastern Tehran water treatment plant. Ash seedling were planted in pots in three score rows After measuring their primary dimensions, the seedlings were irrigated with water treatment effluent, well water and water mix (50% wel...

  15. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  16. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). RESULTS Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells...

  17. Linked reactivity at mineral-water interfaces through bulk crystal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Svetlana V; Rosso, Kevin M

    2008-04-11

    The semiconducting properties of a wide range of minerals are often ignored in the study of their interfacial geochemical behavior. We show that surface-specific charge density accumulation reactions combined with bulk charge carrier diffusivity create conditions under which interfacial electron transfer reactions at one surface couple with those at another via current flow through the crystal bulk. Specifically, we observed that a chemically induced surface potential gradient across hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) crystals is sufficiently high and the bulk electrical resistivity sufficiently low that dissolution of edge surfaces is linked to simultaneous growth of the crystallographically distinct (001) basal plane. The apparent importance of bulk crystal conduction is likely to be generalizable to a host of naturally abundant semiconducting minerals playing varied key roles in soils, sediments, and the atmosphere. PMID:18323417

  18. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  19. Modelling optical properties of organic-mineral complexes in water ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of organic-mineral complexes have been theoretically and experimentally studied in the paper, based on the method of integral light scattering indicatrix. Modelling of optical properties was realized using models of the coated spherical particles with a shell which is constant and changeable in the refractive index profile. General regularities have been revealed and generalized parameters for the method of integral light scattering indicatrix have been suggested

  20. Refinements of water parameters for molecular dynamics: Simulations of adsorption at the clay mineral/aqueous solution interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, L.; Yu, C.; Teppen, B.J.;

    1999-01-01

    In the context of a long-term program involving molecular dynamics simulations of adsorption phenomena at the clay mineral/aqueous solution interface, we are testing the viability of combining a force field that we developed specificially for clays with other, independently derived potential...... parameters for molecular species which are important in clay adsorption. For the current study the importance of variations in the potential parameters of water were investigated and polarization effects on oxygen studied as a function of intermolecular interactions. For this purpose ab initio MP2/6-311GG...... hydrated clays is described....

  1. Oxygen consumption during mineralization of organic compounds in water samples from a small sub-tropical reservoir (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha-Santino Marcela Bianchessi da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assays were carried out to evaluate the oxygen consumption resulting from mineralization of different organic compounds: glucose, sucrose, starch, tannic acid, lysine and glycine. The compounds were added to 1 l of water sample from Monjolinho Reservoir. Dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon were monitored during 20 days and the results were fitted to first order kinetics model. During the 20 days of experiments, the oxygen consumption varied from 4.5 mg.l-1 (tannic acid to 71.5 mg.l-1 (glucose. The highest deoxygenation rate (kD was observed for mineralization of tannic acid (0.321 day-1 followed by glycine, starch, lysine, sucrose and glucose (0.1004, 0.0504, 0.0486, 0.0251 and 0.0158 day-1, respectively. From theoretical calculations and oxygen and carbon concentrations we obtained the stoichiometry of the mineralization processes. Stoichiometric values varied from 0.17 (tannic acid to 2.55 (sucrose.

  2. Landfill CH4 oxidation by mineralized refuse: Effects of NH4+-N incubation, water content and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralized refuse, excavated from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that had been closed for more than 10 years, was incubated in livestock wastewater for 150 d to accumulate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and also co-oxidize methane (CH4). The extent of CH4 oxidation and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the incubated mineralized refuse (IMR) were investigated to assess its applicability as a bio-cover material at landfill sites for minimizing total greenhouse gas emission equivalents. From the initial 200 mg nitrogen (N) kg−1 incubated for 120 h, the nitrate-N content produced in the IMR was twice (P 4 concentration of approximately 10% by volume in the headspace, CH4 consumption and net emission of CO2 from the soil, IMR and OMR all agreed well with first-order and zero-order kinetics models for a 120-h incubation (R2 = 0.667 and R2 = 0.995, respectively). Similar to N turnover, the rate of consumption of CH4 by the mineralized refuse was some 50.0% higher than for soil (P 2 generation, the CH4 oxidation rate by IMR was 14.2% (P > 0.05) greater than for OMR and 56.1% (P > 0.05) higher than for soil. Variation of water content and temperature produced substantially higher CH4 consumption rates by IMR than by either OMR or soil. After treatment by livestock wastewater, the CH4 oxidation capacity of mineralized refuse was moderately improved, due to the enhancement of CH4 adsorption by retained suspended solids and the subsequent co-oxidation by the accumulated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. By correlation analysis for the three experimental materials, CH4 oxidation rate was significantly correlated with specific surface area and organic matter content (P 2 generation, NH4+-N nitrification and NO3–-N generation rate (P > 0.05). - Highlights: ► Mineralized refuse was improved through NH4+-N incubation. ► Ammonia oxidizing bacteria were accumulated for methane oxidation. ► Mineralized refuse was very tolerated to extreme climatic conditions.

  3. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  4. Method of disposal of water. Part 2. Micro filtration and removal of bacteria; Mineral water no mizushori. 2. Seimitsu roka jokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakida, M.

    1996-01-05

    This paper describes a treatment of mineral water by using membranes in the mineral water manufacturing line. The manufacturing process consists of collection of natural water, removal of suspended materials by using cartridge filters, and sterilization. The sterilization process may be divided largely into a heat sterilization carried out normally at 140{degree}C for several seconds and a membrane treatment. Sterilization is verified by testing enterococcus and other bacteria. The membrane treatment uses organic material membranes or inorganic material membranes (ceramic membranes). The ceramic membrane is made of a raw ceramic material which is sintered and formed with a large number of pores with prescribed size. Its features include high heat resistance, high corrosion resistance, low pressure loss, high separation performance, and high mechanical strength. Normal temperature bottling is more often used to keep the taste of the original natural water, whereas use of sterilized filling facilities and final bacteria removal immediately before bottling become critical. The ceramic membrane exhibits its feature in the final bacteria removal. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Carbon mineralization and carbonate preservation in modern cold-water coral reef sediments on the Norwegian shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Wehrmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral ecosystems are considered hot-spots of biodiversity and biomass production and may be a regionally important contributor to carbonate production. The impact of these ecosystems on biogeochemical processes and carbonate preservation in associated sediments were studied at Røst Reef and Traenadjupet Reef, two modern (post-glacial cold-water coral reefs on the Mid-Norwegian shelf. Sulfate and iron reduction as well as carbonate dissolution and precipitation were investigated by combining pore-water geochemical profiles, steady state modeling, as well as solid phase analyses and sulfate reduction rate measurements on gravity cores of up to 3.2 m length. Low extents of sulfate depletion and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC production, combined with sulfate reduction rates not exceeding 3 nmolS cm−3 d−1, suggested that overall anaerobic carbon mineralization in the sediments was low. These data showed that the coral fragment-bearing siliciclastic sediments were effectively decoupled from the productive pelagic ecosystem by the complex reef surface framework. Organic matter being mineralized by sulfate reduction was calculated to consist of 57% carbon bound in –CH2O– groups and 43% carbon in –CH2– groups. Methane concentrations were below 1 μM, and failed to support the hypothesis of a linkage between the distribution of cold-water coral reefs and the presence of hydrocarbon seepage. Iron reduction linked to microbial sulfate reduction buffered the pore-water carbonate system and inhibited acid driven coral skeleton dissolution. A large pool of reactive iron was available leading to the formation of iron sulfide minerals. Constant pore-water Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ concentrations in most cores and decreasing Ca2+ and Sr2+ concentrations with depth in core 23-18 GC indicated diagenetic carbonate precipitation. This was consistent

  6. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  7. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  8. Synergistic Effect of Selenium Addition and Water Stress on Melilotus officinalis L. Mineral Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota KOSTOPOULOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of selenium (Se enrichment and water stress on the accumulation of available macro- and micronutrients in Melilotus officinalis L. aerial parts. Plants of M. officinalis were subjected to three levels of Se addition (0, 1 and 3 mg Se L-1 water and to two water treatments: a full irrigation and b limited irrigation (water stress. The above ground biomass (stems and leaves was analyzed for Se, potassium (K, sodium (Na, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn. Se addition differentially affected the K, Mg and Ca content of M. officinalis aerial parts, while it led to the reduction of the micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn. Water stress resulted in the increase of K, Na, Mg, Ca and Cu, and to the decrease of the Fe, Zn and Mn content. An interaction between selenium addition and water treatment was more notable for Ca and Mg, which decreased under water stress at low Se level and for Zn and Cu, which increased under water stress at high Se level. According to our findings, Se-induced increased accumulation of some inorganic ions in the aerial parts of this species under water stress conditions could serve as a means to alleviate the adverse impact of water deficit on important metabolic processes, enhancing M. officinalis tolerance to water stress.

  9. Authentication potential of 87Sr/86Sr in water - reference of signatures in natural mineral water to regional geology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Voerkelius, S.

    2009-04-01

    The study presents the investigation of strontium isotope ratios of about 650 different European natural mineral waters as part of the food traceability project "TRACE" funded by the EU. The 87Sr/86Sr analysis is part of a multi-element approach for authen-ticity which also includes 18O, 2H, 3H, main and trace elements as well as 34S. The analysed 87Sr/86Sr cover a wide range of values from 0.7035 to 0.7777 indicating that the natural mineral water samples cover the span from young mantle derived basal-tic rocks to very old silicic continental crust. The results of the large-scale investigation are used to elaborate a novel spatial predic-tion for strontium isotope ratios by combining the measured data with a GIS based geo-logical map of Europe. The resulting map can be used to predict the strontium isotopic composition of ground-water and as such the composition of bioavailable strontium, which can be taken up by plants and further transferred into the food chain. In this study we show, as an example, that the strontium isotopic composition of honey and wheat from specific sample region within the TRACE project correlates well with that of the natural mineral water as pre-dicted by our map. The proof of principle shown is highly relevant for geographical food authentication as it will allow an assessment of the origin of food products without the immediate need for geographically authenticated materials which may not always be available in the first instance. As such, our approach provides a cost effective first instance screening tool. There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a gen-eral understanding of the relation between the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. As one part of the study detailed isotope maps (e.g. 18O, 87Sr/86Sr) for groundwater will be generated by the isotope re

  10. Major and trace element compositions (including REE) of mineral, thermal, mine and surface waters in SW Germany and implications for water–rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mine, thermal and mineral waters in SW Germany were analyzed for major and trace elements. ► Rare earth elements provide information about interaction with host rocks. ► Rb/Cs ratios indicate interaction with clay minerals. ► Trace elements in calcite precipitates are controlled by incorporation of particles. - Abstract: The near-surface water cycle in a geologically complex area comprises very different sources including meteoric, metamorphic and magmatic ones. Fluids from these sources can react with sedimentary, magmatic and/or metamorphic rocks at various depths. The current study reports a large number of major, minor and trace element analyses of meteoric, mineral, thermal and mine waters from a geologically well-known and variable area of about 200 × 150 km in SW Germany. The geology of this area comprises a Variscan granitic and gneissic basement overlain in parts by Triassic and Jurassic shales, sandstones and limestones. In both the basement and the sedimentary rocks, hydrothermal mineralization occurs (including Pb, Cu, As, Zn, U, Co and many others) which were mined in former times. Mineral waters, thermal waters and meteoric waters flowing through abandoned mines (mine waters) are distributed throughout the area, although the mine waters concentrate in and around the Schwarzwald. The present analyses show, that the major element composition of a particular water is determined by the type of surrounding rock (e.g., crystalline or sedimentary rocks) and the depth from which the water originates. For waters from crystalline rocks it is the origin of the water that determines whether the sample is Na–Cl dominant (deeper origin) or Ca–HCO3 dominant (shallow origin). In contrast, compositions of waters from sedimentary rocks are determined by the availability of easily soluble minerals like calcite (Ca–HCO3 dominant), halite (Na–Cl dominant) or gypsum (Ca–SO4 dominant). Major element data alone cannot, therefore, be used to

  11. Mineralization of 15N-labelled sheep manure in soils of different texture and water contents

    OpenAIRE

    I. K. Thomsen; Schjønning, P.; B. T. Christensen

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of soil moisture and texture on C and N mineralization of applied organic matter, sheep faeces was sandwiched between two halves of intact soil cores and incubated at 20°C. The soils contained 10.8 (L1), 22.4 (L3) and 33.7% (L5) clay, respectively, and were drained to seven different matric potentials in the range –15 to –1500 hPa. Evolution of CO2-C was determined during four weeks of incubation. Contents of NO3-N, 15N and microbial biomass N were determine...

  12. Trace element analysis of mineral and tap water samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of trace element analysis by TXRF of tap water and various brands of bottled mineral water samples which are representative of local and imported brands sold in Nairobi are reported. The variation in elemental concentrations in water samples analyzed were as follows: potassium (K) 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml; calcium (Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml; titanium (Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l; manganese (Mn) 8 to 670 μg/l; iron (Fe) 31 to 540 μg/l; copper (Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l; zinc (Zn) 8 to 4730 μg/l; bromine (Br) 9 to 248 μg/l; rubidium (Rb) 10 to 40 μg/l and strontium (Sr) 10 to 1000 μg/l. Local mineral water samples contain higher levels of trace elements; manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) as compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three component loading factors clusters for: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca); titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), bromine (Br), and zinc (Zn); zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and potassium (K) respectively. The percentage of total variance explained by the components was 31.4, 27.3, and 14.8 respectively. In this study, we also found that a limited spread of 5-6 mm for a 10 μl sample was achieved when the quartz sample carrier was dried in a low pressure (300 mbar) oven at 70 oC for 10 hours. (author)

  13. 87Sr/86Sr-ratios and Sr-contents of deep ground waters, minerals and rocks from the crystalline and the Trias of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the origin of groundwaters and their interaction with the host rock, the amount and ratio of strontium isotopes in groundwaters, vein minerals, authigenic cements and whole rocks were measured in the crystalline basement and Triassic sediments of northern Switzerland. The groundwaters in the fractured basement aquifer generally show Sr-isotope ratios that range between 0.716 and 0.718. These ratios in the groundwaters are mainly determined by reaction with Sr-rich minerals that were formed during a Permian hydrothermal event. With minor exceptions, the Sr-isotope ratios of most vein minerals are not in equilibrium with those of the present groundwaters. The waters of the Buntsandstein aquifer are characterized by slightly lower Sr-isotope ratios and a higher Sr-content than in the corresponding basement aquifer waters. Buntsandstein waters are considered to have evolved from the waters of the basement aquifer through dissolution of calcite and sulphate present in the Buntsandstein. Although the Sr-isotope ratios in Buntsandstein vein minerals and waters are similar the relative amount of Sr (assuming equilibrium partitioning) suggests these vein minerals did not precipitate from the present waters. The much lower Sr-isotope ratio characteristic of waters in the Muschelkalk aquifer (0.708 to 0.709) readily distinguishes these from the Buntsandstein and basement waters. The low Sr-isotope ratios in the Muschelkalk waters are, however, higher than those measured from marine sulphates in the Muschelkalk, and may result from dissolution of dolomite and continental sulphates. Measured variations in the Sr-isotope ratios of successive authigenic minerals indicate that the Sr-isotope composition in the groundwaters fluctuated through geological time. (author) 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Treatment of concentrates which are formed during nanofiltration purification of water with the high mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Рисухін, Володимир Володимирович; Шаблій, Тетяна Олександрівна; Гомеля, Микола Дмитрович

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of treatment of sulfate concentrates, which are formed during nanofiltration purification of mine waters and waters with high salinity. It is shown that the effectiveness of the process depends on the flow and the ratio of reagents

  15. Studies on type and amount of water in the mineral salt of Zechstein; release and migration in the temperature field of final storage sites of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct effect of heat producing waste on the natural salt rock and the minerals it contains as well as its water components have been examined. For the calculations of the amount of water which runs into the boreholes and probably cumulates during the years the equilibrium between boreholes and void spaces is of importance. (DG)

  16. Diagnosis of extraction of mineral water for the city of Águas de Lindóia, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledda Gobbo Freitas Bueno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in natural resources – high consumption, waste and pollution – particularly the water used by the population and the need for healthier habits, the has increased the demand for mineral water, in the society. As a result of increased consumption of mineral water, its extraction increases – more groundwater wells are drilled – and the generation of packaging is becoming bigger and bigger. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of extraction of mineral water in the city of Águas de Lindóia, SP, was raised and analyzed through questionnaires with the city population and water bottlers, as well as data collected from the municipal government in order to identify what this market represents in the local population, and the consequences of the larger production to the environment. The local population consumes mineral water bottled in the city, especially because of their health concern. There is also a large consumption of treated water, what demonstrates trust in the quality and the treatment thereof. The market for bottler industries has shown limited, but companies have a good vision for the future. As for issues related to the environment, companies have carried out with their obligations to the environmental agencies and already have some concern about the subject, such as the reuse of excess water.

  17. Gadolinium block of calcium channels: influence of bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, L M; Brown, T A; Dingledine, R

    1991-11-01

    The selectivity of block of voltage-activated barium (Ba2+) currents by lanthanide ions was studied in a rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell line (F11-B9), rat and frog peripheral neurons, and rat cardiac myocytes using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Gadolinium (Gd3+) produced a dose-dependent and complete inhibition of whole-cell Ba2+ current in all cells studied, including cells expressing identified dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type currents and omega-conotoxin-sensitive N-type currents. Like Gd3+, lutetium (Lu3+) and lanthanum (La3+) blocked all Ba2+ current with little selectivity for different components of the whole-cell current. Gd3+ block of Ba2+ currents was incomplete, however, when sodium bicarbonate (5-22.6 mM) was added to the standard HEPES-buffered external Ba2+ solution. In rat DRG neurons and F11-B9 cells, a fraction of the whole-cell Ba2+ current recorded in the presence of bicarbonate was resistant to block by saturating concentrations of Gd3+ (50-100 microM). The resistant current inactivated more rapidly than the original current giving the appearance that, under these conditions, Gd3+ block is more selective for the slowly inactivating component of the whole-cell current. Bicarbonate modification of Gd3+ block occurred both before and after omega-conotoxin block of N-type currents in rat DRG neurons, suggesting that even in the presence of bicarbonate, Gd3+ block was not selective for N-type currents. PMID:1786527

  18. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  19. Equilibrium of Groundwater with Carbonate Minerals of the Water-Bearing Rocks under Anthropogenic Impact (by the example of Kishinev, Moldova)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents calculation results of equilibrium of groundwater in Kishenev with a variety of secondary carbonate minerals. It is shown that the groundwater-rock system is in equilibrium with some minerals, such as calcite, magnesite, dolomite, siderite, but at the same time is not in equilibrium with strontianite. It indicates that secondary mineral precipitation is possible. Specific nitrate chemical water type, which is rarely observed in nature and characterized by the presence of anthropogenic impact in this territory, in some cases is of higher saturation as compared to calcite, dolomite and magnesite due to the fact that nitrate ion content increases with the increase of calcium content

  20. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: estrogenic activity in the E-Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disruptors is well documented by biomonitoring data. However, this information is limited to few chemicals like bisphenol A or phthalate plasticizers. To account for so-far unidentified endocrine disruptors and potential mixture effects we employ bioassays to detect endocrine activity in foodstuff and consequently characterize the integrated exposure to endocrine active compounds. Recently, we reported a broad contamination of commercially available bottled water with estrogenic activity and presented evidence for the plastic packaging being a source of this contamination. In continuation of that work, we here compare different sample preparation methods to extract estrogen-like compounds from bottled water. These data demonstrate that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may lead to false-negative results when testing water extracts in bioassays. Using an optimized sample preparation strategy, we furthermore present data on the estrogenic activity of bottled water from France, Germany, and Italy: eleven of the 18 analyzed water samples (61.1%) induced a significant estrogenic response in a bioassay employing a human carcinoma cell line (MCF7, E-Screen). The relative proliferative effects ranged from 19.8 to 50.2% corresponding to an estrogenic activity of 1.9-12.2 pg estradiol equivalents per liter bottled water. When comparing water of the same spring that is packed in glass or plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), estrogenic activity is three times higher in water from plastic bottles. These data support the hypothesis that PET packaging materials are a source of estrogen-like compounds. Furthermore, the findings presented here conform to previous studies and indicate that the contamination of bottled water with endocrine disruptors is a transnational phenomenon. PMID:21050888

  1. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively. PMID:25970905

  2. Clogging of water supply wells in alluvial aquifers by mineral incrustations, central Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Majkić-Dursun Brankica; Vulić Predrag; Dimkić Milan

    2015-01-01

    The formation of incrustations on public water supply well screens reduces their performance considerably. The incrustations increase hydraulic losses, reduce the capacity of the well and screen, affect the quality of the pumped water and increase maintenance costs. In alluvial environments, the most common deposits are iron and manganese hydroxides. However, the rates of formation, compositions and levels of crystallization vary, depending on the geochemic...

  3. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn [Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC, UMR 5805 CNRS), Laboratoire de Physico- et Toxico-Chimie de l' Environnement (LPTC), Université de Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Viglino, Liza [Danone Waters Analytical Center, Aqualab, Place de la Gare, 74500 Evian-Les-Bains (France); Di Gioia, Lodovico [Danone Research, R and D Waters Division, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lachassagne, Patrick [Danone Waters France, Environment and Water Resources Division, BP 87, 11 av. Général Dupas, 74500 Evian-Les-Bains cedex (France); Budzinski, Hélène, E-mail: h.budzinski@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC, UMR 5805 CNRS), Laboratoire de Physico- et Toxico-Chimie de l' Environnement (LPTC), Université de Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng

  4. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng

  5. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kamau

    Unconventional gas and hydraulic fracturing is helping to increase natural gas production, which is widely viewed in the U.S. as a key asset to bolstering a clean and energy-independent future. Safe and economical management and treatment of water produced during such processes remain of key importance. With the increase of hydrocarbon production and national shale gas production expected to increase threefold and account for nearly half of all natural gas produced by 2035, advanced water treatment and management processes must be investigated, to ensure water conservation and associated economic prudence. The state of the art of produced water treatment technologies is described including the efficacy of plasma to modulate the contents of such aqueous solutions, meeting target parameters and potentially enabling the operation of other treatment technologies. Among other effects, progress is presented on the enhancement of an arc-in-water system to remove bicarbonate ions and prevent the mineral fouling ability of water which causes formation of CaCO3 in heat exchangers and distillation units. Qualitative and quantitative treatment targets of produced water treatment are discussed. Experimental work is conducted to test theories and identify and reproduce favorable effects useful to treating wastewaters. Plasma arc-in-water systems demonstrated capability of producing bicarbonate-depleted wastewaters, with experiments with gas-field produced waters indicating that generation of H+ ions plays a greater role in bicarbonate ion removal than local heating. Tests showed abatement of bicarbonate ions from a range of 684--778 mg/L down to zero. Subsequent scaling/fouling tests with waters ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L bicarbonate ions, in the presence of high calcium ion concentrations, showed that scale thickness, as well as mass on a 1-kW heating element was an order of magnitude less for process water containing 100 mg/L bicarbonate ions compared to process water with 500

  6. Removal of heavy metals from water by zeolite mineral chemically modified. Mercury as a particular case; Remocion de metales pesados del agua por mineral zeolitico quimicamente modificado. Mercurio como un caso particular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin H, T

    2002-07-01

    Research works on the removal of mercury from water by zeolite minerals show that a small quantity of this element is sorbed. In this work the mercury sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of Cu(l l), Ni(l l) and/or Zn(l l) by a Mexican zeolite mineral, natural and modified by cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, was investigated in acidic p H. The zeolite minerals were characterized by X- Ray diffraction Ftir, scanning electron microscopy and semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury from aqueous solutions was quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite samples treated with Na CI and modified with cisteaminium chloride (0.375 mmol/g) or cistaminium dichloride(0.475 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of the zeolite minerals modified with cisteaminium chloride and cistaminium dichloride without treating them with Na CI. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite minerals modified with thiourea was the lowest. The diffusion coefficients and sorption isotherms for mercury were determined in the natural, treated with Na CI and, treated with Na CI and then modified with the cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride zeolite samples. The retention of mercury was the highest for the zeolite minerals treated Na CI and then modified with cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, with adsorption capacity of 0.0511 and 0.0525 mmol Hg/g, respectively. In this research work, it was found that the retention of mercury by the modified minerals was not affected by the presence of Cu (Il), Zn(l l) y Ni (I l) under the experimental conditions. (Author)

  7. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  8. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  9. γ-radiation-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate to polypropylene: the effects of water and mineral acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program involving the modification of polymers to improve their resistance to photodegradation, we have been investigating simple techniques of grafting various vinyl monomers to polyolefins. In a recent publication, Garnett and Yen reported that improved yields of γ-radiation-induced styrene-grafted polyethylene and polypropylene were obtained if the monomer solution in methanol was acidified with a mineral acid. They attributed the result to an increased hydrogen atom yield when acidified methanol is irradiated. The technique appeared attractive for our purposes because prior removal of oxygen from the solution was not necessary and only low radiation doses were required. This preliminary communication reports the results of some of our investigations into the radiation-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto polypropylene (PP) film. The results indicate that the presence of water increases the grafting yield significantly, and this effect is associated with the reduced oxygen concentration in the monomer solution

  10. EURASIAN MINERAL WATER: MATHEMATICAL MODELING, CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR IMPACT ON THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kornilov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of comparative analysis of the composition of the Eurasian hydromineral resources and the assessment of their impact on the physiological condition of a human organism according to biochemical studies of venous blood are presented. Processing of initial data on the composition and properties of mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate, sulphate- hydrocarbonate and chloride-sulphate types and venous blood are made using the method of mathematical modeling, developed by the authors of this article. It is shown that in the balneological impact of hydromineral resources on the body in the blood increases the hemoglobin and oxygen, decreases glucose, and acid-base pH shifted to high alkalinity.

  11. The Formation of Carbonate Minerals and the Mobility of Heavy Metals during Water-CO2-Mafic Rock Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jonas

    basaltic host rock and liberates cations. Ideally, the cations react with the dissolved CO2 and form long time stable carbonate minerals. However, dissolution of the basaltic rock can lead to mobility of toxic metals, which is a potential threat to groundwater supplies and surface waters. Besides carbonate...... with the process of carbonation, and (2) they can form a passivating layer, which inhibit dissolution of the basaltic material and slow down the carbonation process. The purpose of this thesis was to identify formation products, relevant to CarbFix, and assess their ability to immobilize toxic metals...... analyzed for 74 elements. The effluent was alkaline and high release rates of mainly S, Na, Ca, Mg, F and Cl were observed during the first 10 minutes. After 12 hours, the most abundant element released was Si. Secondary phases of Al and Fe precipitated on the ash surfaces and these were suspected of...

  12. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert

    2013-09-01

    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  13. Radioactivity and geochemistry of selected mineral-spring waters in the Western United States; basic data and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, J.K.; Cadigan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on data from 156 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States to analyze relationships among the various parameters measured in the spring waters. Correlation analysis and R-mode factor analysis indicate that three major factors affect water composition in the spring systems studied: (1) duration of water circulation, (2) depth of water circulation, and (3) partial pressure of carbon dioxide. An examination of factor scores indicates that several types of hydrogeologic systems were sampled. Most of the samples are (1) older water from deeper circulating systems having relatively high salinity, high temperature, and low Eh or (2) younger water from shallower circulating systems having relatively low salinity, low temperature, and high Eh. The rest of the samples are from more complex systems. Any of the systems can have a relatively high or low content of dissolved carbonate species, resulting in a low or high pH, respectively. Uranium concentrations are commonly higher in waters of relatively low temperature and high Eh, and radium concentrations are commonly higher in waters having a relatively high carbonate content (low pH) and, secondarily, relatively high salinity. Water samples were collected and (or) measurements were taken at 156 of the 171 mineral-spring sites visited. Various samples were analyzed for radium, uranium, radon, helium, and radium-228 as well as major ions and numerous trace elements. On-site measurements for physical properties including temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, and dissolved oxygen were made. All constituents and properties show a wide range of values. Radium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 300 picocuries per liter; they average 1.48 picocuries per liter and have an anomaly threshold value of 171 picocuries per liter for the samples studied. Uranium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 120 micrograms per liter and average 0.26 micrograms per liter; they

  14. A note on the molecular water content in uranyl carbonate mineral andersonite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, Jakub; Čejka, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 181-187. ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : andersonite * uranyl carbonate * crystal structure * molecular water Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  15. Some observations on use of siliceous mineral waters in reduction of corrosion in RCC structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, C.

    to cement varied between 0 and 20% with difference of every 5% results of the test show that the blending of gold tailing and flyash to cement significantly improves the corrosion resistance performance of concrete exposed to sea water. Maximum reduction...

  16. Analysis of purification of slightly mineralized natural waters from radioactive pollution of nuclear-energetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of purification at sorption pilot plant of fresh water of Ladoga lake contaminated by radionuclides are represented. It is substantiated the purification technology perfecting by means of addition membrane methods to adsorption ones taking into account man-caused pollutions (petroleum derivatives and corrosion products)

  17. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area. PMID:21713493

  18. Uranium and radon concentration measurements in drinking water samples from mineralized zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium (238U) and radon (222Rn) concentrations were determined in drinking water samples collected from different sources such as handpumps, wells and tubewells of various depths from a wide range of 41 different locations of Hamirpur and Kangra districts Himachal Pradesh (HP) and adjoining areas of Jammu and Kashmir (JK), India. 238U and 222Rn concentration measurements in drinking water are important for determination of inhalation and ingestion dosimetry and health effects on the population. Laser Fluorimetry technique has been used for the measurement of Uranium concentration in drinking water samples. Radon measurements in water has been performed by using the appropriate bubbling technique with the Scintillation based radon monitor (SRM), which is free from humidity and has even been recommended by the Radiation Protection Advisory Division (RPAD) BARC, Mumbai. Radon concentration in these samples shows a wide range of variations for different sources and at different locations. The 238U and 222Rn concentrations in these samples has been observed to be in the range of 0.26 ± 0.1 to 29.5 ± 2.5 μgl-1 and 0.86 ± 0.12 to 7.62 ± 0.64 Bql-1 respectively. The measured values of radon concentration are within the recommended safe limits of 4 - 40 Bql-1 (UNSCEAR, 1993) and within the maximum contaminated level (MCL) of 11Bql-1 (USEPA, 1999). The observed uranium concentration values in drinking water samples have also been found to be within the safe limit of 30 μgl-1 as recommended by WHO, 2011 and even are quite less than threshold limit of 60 μgl-1 recommended by AERB, 2004. All measurements were performed in similar environmental conditions for minimal variations in meteorological parameters. (author)

  19. The content of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and the natural radioactive series in the mineral water and tobacco in the two Tienlang and Vinhbao districts of Haiphong city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By method of gamma and beta spectra we have studied the content of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and the natural radioactive series in the mineral water and tobacco of the two Tienlang and Vinhbao districts of Haiphong Suburb. The results give evidence of the content of these radioactive isotopes to be very low and nearly not present in these objects. This also gives evidence of to tobacco and the mineral water of Haiphong Suburb are the pure products on the radioactive aspect. (author). 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. The role of magmatic and meteoric water mixing in mineralization of Shurab poly metal ore deposit South of Ferdowsi: isotope geochemistry and microthermometry evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurab poly metal ore deposit is located in 77 Km south of Ferdows in north of Lut structural zone. Geology of the area includes a Jurassic sedimentary rocks, comprises shale and sandstone of Shemshak Formation, Badamo limestone, and andesite, dacite, rhyodacite and rhyolite volcanic and sub volcanic-calc-alkaline Tertiary rocks as a hydrothermal mineralization host rock. In these rocks, mineralization occurs as both series of NW-SE and E-W trending fault and fracturing. Galena, sphalerite, stibnite, chalcopyrite and pyrite are present as major sulfide ore mineral and frequently shows open-space filling, vein-type and crustified textures. The mineralization is subdivided into two stages, base metal-bearing assemblage (Pb>Zn>Cu) accompanied by first generation pyrite and second stage, stibnite-bearing minerals (stibnite, chalcostibnite, tetrahedrite and bournonite) with subordinate arsenopyrite and late generation pyrite sulfide minerals. Microtermometric measurement of fluid inclusions in co genetic quartz and sphalerite shows homogenization temperatures (Thtotal) between 114degreeC and 275degreeC and salinities between 4.2 to 17.2 wt.% NaCl equiv. Geochemistry of oxygen isotope (relative to SMOW) indicate ranging between +12.5% to +14.8% (mean 13.6%) which assume that mineralizing solutions in the area were a mixture of meteoric and magmatic waters. This study indicated that, mixing, cooling and fluid-rock interactions were the main controlling factors in formation of the Shurab poly metal ore deposit.

  1. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-01

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all

  2. Water Fastness of Screen Printed Pearl Luster Pigments based on Synthetic and Natural Mica on Polyvinyl Chloride Foil and Rich Mineral Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine water fastness of screen printed pearl luster pigments based on synthetic and natural mica on polyvinyl chloride foil and Rich Mineral Paper. Three types of pearl luster pigments were used, each different from the other in composition, interference colour and particle size: one pigment based on synthetic mica (Pigment 1 and two pigments based on natural mica (Pigment 2 and Pigment 3. Pearl luster pigments were applied to the printing base (PVC transparent base in 15wt.% concentration and printed by means of screen printing technique. The test of water fastness was made on prints, where the samples were soaked in distilled water for 6 and 12 days. It was established that this water treatment did not have any significant impact on the durability of screen printed pearl luster pigments. The pigments could demonstrate slightly better water fastness after being printed on Rich Mineral Paper.

  3. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, B.; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, M.A.; Duits, M.H.G.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Ende, van den, A.; Mugele, F.; Collins, I

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to de...

  4. Mineral balances, including in drinking water, estimated for Merced County dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; SANTOS, Jose Eduardo P.; Tabone, Tom J.

    2007-01-01

    Dairy producers must increasingly comply with environmental regulations at the federal, state and local levels. A key to many of the regulations is the development of manure management plans to protect air, water and soil quality. Information on complete nutrient balances and excretion is necessary to control or minimize the loss of nutrients to the environment. Data from 51 randomly selected dairy farms in Merced County, in California’s Central Valley, was used to evaluate the impact of mine...

  5. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  6. Clogging of water supply wells in alluvial aquifers by mineral incrustations, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkić-Dursun Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of incrustations on public water supply well screens reduces their performance considerably. The incrustations increase hydraulic losses, reduce the capacity of the well and screen, affect the quality of the pumped water and increase maintenance costs. In alluvial environments, the most common deposits are iron and manganese hydroxides. However, the rates of formation, compositions and levels of crystallization vary, depending on the geochemical characteristics of the alluvial environment, the microbiological characteristics of the groundwater and the abstraction method. Samples of 15 incrustations were collected from wells that tap shallow alluvial aquifers and were found to be dominated by iron. XRD analyses detected low-crystalline ferrihydrite and manganese hydroxide in the samples collected from the water supply source at Trnovče (Velika Morava alluvial. The incrustations from the Belgrade Groundwater Source revealed the presence of ferrihydrite and a substantial amount of goethite α-FeOOH. Apart from goethite, greigite (Fe3S4 was detected in three samples, while one sample additionally contained bernalite Fe(OH3 and monoclinic sulfur S8. Among carbonates, only siderite was detected. Iron oxidizing bacteria generally catalyze deposition processes in wells, while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB play a role in the biogenic formation of greigite. Determining the nature of the deposited material allows better selection of rehabilitation chemicals and procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37014

  7. Project for investigation of natural mineral water sources by isotopic methods in order to establish the genesis and the protection degree against disturbing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is the development of a methodology for the investigation of mineral spring waters from our country using isotopic techniques and the application of these techniques in hydrology. Based on the measurement of the isotopic distribution of hydrogen (1 H, 2 H, 3 H) and oxygen (18 O, 17 O and 16 O) the history of the samples and also the hydrologic structure of the investigated area will be established. The analysis will result in the establishing of protection measures of mineral water sources against polluting factors using the most appropriate natural tracer agents, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, measured in natural range. The methodology will take into account the isotopic effects in the unsteady evaporation on surface and rainfall waters. The temperature determines the isotopic fractionation of rainfall and it determines a function used in the analysis of 'charging' of underground waters. It must be emphasized that many factors can influence the isotopic content of underground waters and implicitly the isotopic content of mineral spring waters. All these factors, starting from evaporation processes to the isotopic seasonal variation will be monitored and will be considered in an isotopic correlation analysis. Another purpose of this project is tritium monitoring. The feeding degree is established by measuring the concentration of 3 H in earth at various depths. This project aims to monitor different spring waters during two years in order to establish the dynamics and the interference level of underground waters for each hydrographic basin included in this study. (authors)

  8. Heterogeneous Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Persulfate Activated by CuO-Fe3O4: Mechanism, Stability, and Effects of pH and Bicarbonate Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Chen, Chuh-Shun; Tu, Yao-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui; Zhang, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic CuO-Fe3O4 composite was fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method and characterized as a heterogeneous catalyst for phenol degradation. The effects of pH and bicarbonate ions on catalytic activity were extensively evaluated in view of the practical applications. The results indicated that an increase of solution pH and the presence of bicarbonate ions were beneficial for the removal of phenol in the CuO-Fe3O4 coupled with persulfate (PS) process. Almost 100% mineralization of 0.1 mM phenol can be achieved in 120 min by using 0.3 g/L CuO-Fe3O4 and 5.0 mM PS at pH 11.0 or in the presence of 3.0 mM bicarbonate. The positive effect of bicarbonate ion is probably due to the suppression of copper leaching as well as the formation of Cu(III). The reuse of catalyst at pH0 11.0 and 5.6 showed that the catalyst remains a high level of stability at alkaline condition (e.g., pH0 11.0). On the basis of the characterization of catalyst, the results of metal leaching and EPR studies, it is suggested that phenol is mainly destroyed by the surface-adsorbed radicals and Cu(III) resulting from the reaction between PS and Cu(II) on the catalyst. Taking into account the widespread presence of bicarbonate ions in waste streams, the CuO-Fe3O4/PS system may provide some new insights for contaminant removal from wastewater. PMID:25955238

  9. POSSIBLE PROCESSES FOR ORIGIN OF LIFE AND LIVING MATTER IN DEUTERIUM ENRICHED HOT MINERAL WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper the isotopic composition of water and its temperature in the process of evolution of life is analysed. It was proposed an assumption, that under conditions of the primary O 2 free atmosphere, under influence of short-wave solar radiation, geothermal energy and powerful spark discharges, deuterium in form of HDO could be collected in hydrosphere, which physical-chemical properties differ from those of H 2O. There were obtained adapted to the maximal concentration D 2O cell...

  10. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-14

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces. PMID:27030282

  11. Determination of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in mineral spring waters of the Aguas da Prata region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and 228 Ra have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region. The 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by coprecipitation with barium sulphate. The 226 Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of the Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate. The determination of 228 Ra was done by measuring the gross beta activity of the same precipitate. Both measurements were carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. Dose calculations were performed in order to evaluate the relative importance of such radionuclides to the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of these waters. Based upon measured concentrations, committed effective doses up to 5.5 x 10-1 mSv/y and 1.0 x 10-2 mSv/y were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, respectively. These results show that 226 Ra is the main contributor to radiation exposure. (author)

  12. Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark grains - Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3 microns of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths of the 1.4-, 1.9-, 2.2-, and 2.8-micron water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple scattering theory. The 2.8-micron bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress. The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even when 10-20 wt pct opaques are present. The relationships observed and the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures.

  13. Estimates of cancer mortality due to the ingestion of mineral spring waters from a highly natural radioactive region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in order to evaluate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the ingestion of 226Ra, 228Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters from a highly natural radioactive region of Brazil. Water samples were randomly collected at 10 spring sites located in the Aguas da Prata region. A total of eight radium-induced cancers (four head carcinomas plus four bone sarcomas) per 106 exposed persons were predicted. For radon, a total of 23 cases of fatal stomach cancers per 106 exposed persons were estimated. These predictions suggest that chronic ingestion of radium and radon at the levels observed at these springs will result in incremental increases of fatal cancers of 2 and 0.5%, respectively, above the background incidence rate. The uncertainties in evaluating the carcinogenic effects due to radium and radon ingestion were analyzed. These investigations suggest that the true risk due to radium ingestions is likely to be within an order of magnitude in either direction of the risk estimated in the present paper. (author)

  14. Occurrence of natural radium-226 radioactivity in ground water of Sarasota County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1985-01-01

    Water that contains radium-226 radioactivity in excess of the 5.0-picocurie-per-liter limit set in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations was found in the majority of wells sampled throughout Sarasota County. Highest levels were found areally near the coast or near rivers and vertically in the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer where semiconsolidated phosphate pebbles occur. Analysis of data suggests that part of the radium-226 in ground water of Sarasota County is dissolved by alpha particle recoil. In slightly mineralized water, radium-226 concentrations are decreased by ion exchange or sorption. In more mineralized water, other ions compete with radium-226 for ion exchange or sorption sites. Dissolution of minerals containing radium-226 by mineralized water probably contributes a significant fraction of the dissolved radium-226. Two types of mineralized water were present in Sarasota County. One type is a marine-like water, presumably associated with saltwater encroachment in coastal areas; the other is a calcium magnesium strontium surfate bicarbonate type. In general, water that contains high radium-226 radioactivities also contains too much water hardness or dissolved solids to be used for public supply without treatment that would also reduce radium-226 radioactivities. (USGS)

  15. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen flux and salinity of the water saturated mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieganowski A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a possibility current-voltage curve interpretation, registered in the saturated soil, in categories of soil salinity evaluation. A quantity containing the information about the salinity is electric conductivity of the soil. This conductivity can be evaluated by the analysis of the slope of a straight line, fitted into the part of the current-voltage curve, which is responsible for the reduction of hydrogen ions during the electrolysis of the water contained in the soil. It gives a chance to evaluate simultaneously the oxygen flux density and the soil salinity in conditions of maximum humidity, i.e., in a situation, when the availability of oxygen is minimum and it can be a limitation of the plant growth and when the mobility of ions, dissolved in the soil solution is maximum.

  16. [Immediate thyrotropic effects of mineral water Naftussya their autonomic relevence and possibility to forecast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziavkina, N V; Baryliak, L H; Ianchiĭ, O R; Fuchko, O L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical physiological monitoring of 32 men aged 25-60 years with chronic stoneless cholecystitis in the phase of remission found that in 14 patients 75-85 minutes after drinking the bioactive water Naftussya (3 ml/kg, t(0) 18-20 degrees C) the plasma level of total triiodothyronine (T3) was not significantly changed, while in 9 patients it was reduced to 0.26 +/- 0.10 nM/1 (by 11%). In the other 9 patients the level increased to 0.29 +/- 0,04 nM/1 (by 17%). The changes in T3 level correlated negatively with the changes in absolute (r = -0.55) and relative (r = -0.47) power spectral density (PSD) of ultra very low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRV). These changes correlated positively (r = 0.46) with the changes in relative PSD of low-frequency components of HRV. Subject to a weak correlation with HRV parameter pNN50 (r = -0.21) canonical correlation coefficient (R) between changes in HRV parameters and T3 reaches 0.68 (p = 0.002). On the other hand, the changes in T3 correlated with its initial level (r = -0.46), as well as initial levels of moda (r = -0.40), its amplitude (r = 0.30) and absolute PSD of low-frequency components HRV (r = -0.33), i.e. thyrotropic effects conditionized these parameters by 30% (R = 0.55; p = 0.038). The method ofdiscriminant analysis has identified 14 primary parameters that allowed predicting the thyrotropic effect of Naftussya water with 100% accuracy. PMID:24605595

  17. Effect of Tskaltubo radon mineral waters on aggressive behavior of animals and distribution of free amino acids in structures of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of experimental results allow claiming that desamination of the amino acids by radon after treatment with Tskaltubo radon mineral water, decreases and normalizes free amino acids, which is reflected in behavior of animals - aggressive behavior is decreasing and they became more tame. (author)

  18. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  19. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  20. Pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion: challenge of the acinar acid load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHegyi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation of luminal pH by both cell types. Protons co-released during exocytosis from acini cause significant acidosis, whereas, bicarbonate secreted by ductal cells cause alkalization in the lumen. This suggests that the first and probably one of the most important role of bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic ductal cells is not only to neutralize the acid chyme entering into the duodenum from the stomach, but to neutralize acidic content secreted by acinar cells. To accomplish this role, it is more than likely that ductal cells have physiological sensing mechanisms which would allow them to regulate luminal pH. To date, four different classes of acid-sensing ion channels have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract (transient receptor potential ion channels, two-pore domain potassium channel, ionotropic purinoceptor and acid-sensing ion channel, however, none of these have been studied in pancreatic ductal cells. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge of these channels and urge scientists to characterize ductal acid-sensing mechanisms and also to investigate the challenge of the acinar acid load on ductal cells.

  1. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej eGorbatenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells towards more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in the cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1 and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary tumors, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+,HCO3--cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1, are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer.

  2. Study of mineral ion exchangers for strontium removal from nuclear waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of chemical pollution of water have become a major concern and a priority for the nuclear industry. The aim of this work is to study some ion exchangers used for the removal of strontium ions because 90Sr is one of a major pollutant in nuclear liquid wastes. This study allows linking the physical and chemical properties of these materials and their sorption properties. This work presents therefore the synthesis of two materials - sodium nona-titanate and zeolite A - selected for their specific sorption properties of strontium: A second part of this work is dedicated to the study of specific exchange capacities of these materials for the strontium in presence of other elements such as sodium and calcium. Batch experiments were performed and kinetic and ion exchange models have been applied to understand the selectivity of the materials for strontium removal. Sodium nona-titanate and zeolite A are also studied in actual effluents. Monoliths of zeolite A have been also tested in dynamic ion exchange process. This material is promising for the treatment of radioactive effluents in continuous flow because it joins the sorption properties of the zeolite powder with the advantage of a solid with a macroporous network. (author)

  3. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness. PMID:22457081

  4. The effect of fluoride on the distribution of some minerals in the surface water of an Egyptian lagoon at the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada F. El-Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal fluoride distribution in surface waters along Lake Edku and in the supplying land drains, as well as its effect on the formation of carbonated and fluoridated minerals were investigated. The data revealed that fluoride’s content was affected by the chlorinity value of two feeding sources of water in Lake Edku, which were the seawater from El-Maadiya inlet and drainage water from land drains. Fluoride in surface water showed average contents of 0.62–1.59, 0.44–1.53, 0.13–1.07 and 0.23–1.17 mg/l in winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively, with an annual average concentration of 0.8 ± 0.1 mg/l. The annual average of the saturation index (SI of carbonated (calcite, aragonite and dolomite and fluorapatite minerals along Lake Edku had values that exceeded the unity and referred to the over saturation of the lake water in respect to these minerals. In contrast, the average annual SI of fluorite and sellaïte gave values lower than unity. That indicated the under saturation in respect to these two minerals. The high saturation index values for fluorapatite may be related to the low solubility of calcite in apatite supernatants in alkaline conditions. Interestingly, the formation of the fluorapatite mineral leaves a small concentration of it, and that protects Lake Edku’s ecosystem from the destructive impact of fluoride pollution.

  5. New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Stavn, Robert H.; Falster, Alexander U.; Gray, Deric; Gould, Richard W.

    2014-08-01

    Suspended particulate inorganic matter (PIM) and particulate organic matter (POM) often exhibit significant variation both spatially and temporally in coastal oceans. The size distributions and optical properties of these particles are poorly known. Utilizing a newly developed inversion technique from the measured angular scattering pattern, we were able to examine POM and PIM in terms of detailed particle size distributions (PSD) and optical volume scattering functions (VSF), gaining further insights and knowledge of particles that will greatly improve biogeochemical investigations and remote-sensing algorithms. We report the results on two extremes or end-members of possible coastal environments, sediment-laden, turbid Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA and biologically productive, clear water Monterey Bay, California, USA. The optically inferred mass concentrations of PIM and POM, when accounting for the fractal nature of suspended particles, agreed well with the respective gravimetric determinations within the analysis and inversion uncertainty. Despite intra- and inter-site variability, the inferred PSDs in both coastal regions commonly showed an apparent background population of PIM at radii 50 μm. The clearly distinctive PSDs between PIM and POM provide evidence to support the Risović two-component model for suspended particulates. The shape of the VSFs, i.e., the scattering phase functions, for POM are similar between the two sites (backscattering ratio ≈ 0.0015), but the PIM in Monterey Bay exhibited a higher backscattering ratio than in Mobile Bay (backscattering ratios 0.012 vs. 0.008, respectively). At both sites, the mass-specific scattering cross section values for PIM (σ[PIM]) are about 70-80% lower than σ[POM], while the mass-specific backscattering cross section values for PIM (σb[PIM]) are 10-25% greater than σb[POM].

  6. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  7. THE CONFLICTS OF MINERAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL = OS CONFLITOS DO GERENCIAMENTO DA ÁGUA MINERAL NO BRASIL - ESTUDO DE CASO: ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Carramillo Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays conflicts for the insertion of mineral water in the management of water resource are originated in models formulated at different moments of the Brazilian political history. The mineral water legislation (Mineral Water Code, 1945 and Mining Code, 1967 was created into centralized political governments, while the legislation of water resource possesses democratic, decentralized and multi-participative features (Federal Constitution, 1988, and Water Code, 1997. This study comes from an overall analysis of the historical registration of the policy evolution, which was based on the Federal Constitution and the Legislation regarding both mineral and water resources. These conflicts are very complex and fateful, mainly caused by the following reasons: 1 mineral water has been considered an ore, and legally it is not regarded as part of the water cycle; 2 mining areas and area with titles requested for mining have been blocked for land use, and 3 mining areas cover large extensions of the municipalities, constraining cities growth and occupying environmental protecting areas; 4 the creation of supplementary technical rules to attend present needs has caused conflicts with other ministry, state and municipality institutions, as Health Ministry, SERLA-RJ and fire department. This paper concludes that there is a need for inter institutional partnerships to manage the mineral water exploitation, according to their specific competences. The general management of the natural resources exploitation will be under the responsible Ministry (Energy and Mining Ministry. = Atualmente, os conflitos para a inserção da água mineral na gestão dos recursos hídricos decorrem dos diferentes momentos da história da política brasileira. A legislação de água mineral (Código de Águas Minerais de 1945 e Código de Mineração de 1967 originou-se em governos com políticas centralizadoras, enquanto que a legislação de recursos hídricos (Constitui

  8. Excess sodium bicarbonate in the diet and its effect on Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S; Wideman, R F

    1992-09-01

    1. A commercial 62-week-old layer flock experienced an acute drop in egg production and an increase in shell-less egg production within 2 days of consuming feed erroneously formulated to contain over 30 g/kg instead of 3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Other symptoms included increased water consumption, diarrhoea and increased mortality associated with visceral gout. 2. An experiment was conducted to assess the responses of hens under controlled conditions. Twenty Dekalb XL Single Comb White Leghorn hens (50 weeks old) were placed in individual cages, having ad libitum access to water from trough waterers. Ten hens were fed the TEST (High NaHCO3) feed for one week (Test group), and ten hens remained on normal commercial layer ration (Control group). 3. Hens in the Test group had high water consumption and watery droppings, but egg production and mortality were not affected. Physiological evaluations indicated the Test feed caused metabolic alkalosis. Plasma sodium, urine pH and urinary sodium excretion were increased, and glomerular filtration rates were decreased in the Test group. 4. These physiological effects are consistent with known responses to excess sodium intake in domestic fowl. The reduced egg production and increased mortality caused by the Test feed under commercial conditions may be related to more severe dehydration experienced by hens in multi-bird cages supplied by cup-type watering systems. PMID:1327426

  9. Bicarbonate production inhibitors as a novel transmission-blocking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are caused by Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes and female sand flies respectively. These diseases are responsible for the deaths of more than a million people in developing countries every year and effective methods to control their propagation have not been developed at this point. A combination of several strategies for insect control is usually required in order to eliminate the vectors and the disease in a specific area. We believe that a strategy that combines vector population control as well as the simultaneous interruption of the life cycle of these parasites inside such vectors will have a greater impact (over a broader area) on the spreading of these diseases than vector control alone. Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites propagate naturally in the midgut of female anopheline mosquitoes and sand flies in which the pH is slightly alkaline. It has been suggested that the enzyme responsible for generating the bicarbonate necessary to maintain this pH is carbonic anhydrase. However, the molecular and physiological basis that implicate carbonic anhydrase (responsible for bicarbonate production) and bicarbonate transport proteins in the developmental mechanism of the parasites are poorly understood. We have used molecular biology as well as pharmacology to study the role that these proteins play in the development of Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites inside the female dipteran midgut with aims to interrupt their life cycle inside the vector. Disruption of the parasite's life cycle in combination with control strategies that target the insect vector will allow us to design new approaches to interrupt the propagation of these diseases using area-wide insect pest control methods. We have found that treatment of Plasmodium and Leishmania infected blood with carbonic anhydrase and bicarbonate transport inhibitors, interrupts development of these parasites in vitro and in vivo. Methazolamide, a

  10. Anodic behavior of nickel alloys in media containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 22 has been designed to resist corrosion in oxidizing and reducing conditions. Thanks to these properties it is considered a possible candidate for the fabrication of containers of high-level radioactive waste. Since the containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is required in order to produce cracking. It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media potentials below trans-passivity. The aim of this work is to study the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in different media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions in various concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with other alloys containing nickel, and relate them to the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a future job. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni- Cr-Fe), 800h (Ni-Fe- Cr) and 201 (Ni commercially pure) in the following environments: 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3 + 1 mol/L NaCl, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The tests were performed at the following temperatures: 90°C, 75°C, 60°C and 25°C. It was found that alloy 22 has a current peak in the anodic domain at potentials below trans-passivity between 200 and 300 m VECS, when the test temperature was 90°C. The potential, at which this peak occurred, increased with decreasing temperature. Also there was a variation of the peak with the composition of the solution. When bicarbonate ions were added to a solution containing chloride ions, the peak potential shifted to higher current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions. It was found that diminishing the content of

  11. Epoxidation of Alkenes with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide and Quaternary Ammonium Bicarbonate Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kegnæs, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A range of solid and liquid catalysts containing bicarbonate anions were synthesised and tested for the epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The combination of bicarbonate anions and quaternary ammonium cations opens up for new catalytic systems that can help to overcome challen...

  12. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate... Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate, jointly referred to as.... Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of December 8, 2011 (76 FR 76674) (FRL-...

  13. Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, T. A.; Whelan, J. F.

    1997-03-01

    The biosphere's great carbonate deposits, from caliche soils to deep-sea carbonate oozes, precipitate largely as by-products of autotrophic nutrient acquisition physiologies. Protons constitute the critical link: Calcification generates protons, which plants and photosynthetic symbioses use to assimilate bicarbonate and nutrients. A calcium ATPase-based "trans" mechanism underlies most biological calcification. This permits high calcium carbonate supersaturations and rapid carbonate precipitation. The competitive advantages of calcification become especially apparent in light and nutrient-deficient alkaline environments. Calcareous plants often dominate the lower euphotic zone in both the benthos and the plankton. Geographically and seasonally, massive calcification concentrates in nutrient-deficient environments including alkaline soils, coral reefs, cyanobacterial mats and coccolithophorid blooms. Structural and defensive uses for calcareous skeletons are sometimes overrated.

  14. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time......, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from the...... cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question...

  15. The water-soluble matrix fraction from the nacre of Pinctada maxima produces earlier mineralization of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marthe; Pereira-Mouriès, Lucilia; Almeida, Maria José; Milet, Christian; Lopez, Evelyne

    2003-05-01

    Nacre or mother of pearl is a calcified structure that forms the lustrous inner layer of some shells. We studied the biological activity of the water-soluble matrix (WSM) extracted from powdered nacre from the shell of the pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, on the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line from mouse calvaria. This cell line has the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and to mineralize in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured as markers of osteoblast differentiation, and mineralization was analyzed. These studies revealed that WSM stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization by day 6 instead of the 21-day period required for cells grown in normal mineralizing media. We compared the activity of WSM with that of dexamethasone on this cell line. WSM can inhibit alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the activity of dexamethasone on MC3T3-E1 cells. This study shows that nacre WSM could speed up the differentiation and mineralization of this cell line more effectively than dexamethasone. PMID:12781967

  16. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  17. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  18. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  19. Involvement of CFTR in Uterine Bicarbonate Secretion and the Fertilizing Capacity of Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiao,Fei; ZhouChen-Xi; ShiQi-Xian; YuanYu-Ying; YuMei-Kuen; LouisChukwuemekaAjonuma

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFFR)is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in a wide variety of epithelial cells,mutations of which are responsible for the hallmark defective chloride secretion observed in cystic fibrosis(CF).Although CFTR has been implicated in bicarbonate secretion,its ability to directly mediate bicarbonate secretion of any physiological significance has not been shown.We demonstrate here that endometriaI epithelial ceils possess a CFTR-mediated bicarbonate transport mechanism.Co-culture of sperm with endometrial ceils treated with antisense oligonucleotide against CFTR,or with bicarbonate secretion-defective CF epithelial cells,resulted in lower sperm capacitation and egg-fertilizing ability.These results are consistent with a critical role of CFTR in controlling uterine bicarbonate secretion and the fertilizing capacity of sperm,providing a link between defective CFTR and lower female fertility in CF.

  20. Dissolved gas composition of groundwater in the natural spa complex ''Choygan mineral waters'' (East Tuva)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural spa complex Choygan mineral waters, a unique deposit of natural carbon dioxide mineral waters in Siberia, is located in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. There are 33 springs discharge in this area. Spring waters are mainly HCO3-Na-Ca type. TDS varies from 300 mg/L to 2600 mg/L and temperature ranges from 7 °C (in spring 33) to 39 °C (in spring 12), pH varies from 5.9 to 8.3, and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential is from – 170 mV to 236 mV. All studied waters were divided into two groups according to their temperature and geochemical conditions: cold fresh water with oxidizing conditions and warm slightly brackish water with reductive conditions. The gas composition of the studied waters is represented by nitrogen (28-75 vol.%), carbon dioxide (6-65 vol.%), oxygen (7-19 vol.%), radon (4-948 Bq/l). The studied gases differ not only by the content but by the different sources

  1. Geochemistry of uranium in ground waters of the Conlara river Valley, San Luis and Cordoba provinces (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical characteristics of ground waters related with lixiviation, transport and precipitation of uranium in the Conlara river valley (provinces of San Luis and Cordoba (Argentina)) are studied. Anions and cations' distributions, together with hardness, specific conductivity, pH, Eh, and uranium and vanadium contents, have been studied. Those parameters characterize four hidrogeochemical facies along an E-W profile: a calcic strong bicarbonate facies, an alkaline-calcic bicarbonate facies, an alkaline sulfate facies, and a strong alkaline sulfate facies. An ''Interphase zone'' (transition from bicarbonate water to sulfate water), where changes in composition may define a geochemical environment capable of UO2 precipitation, has been determined. The chemical-Thermodynamic studies give a dominance of UDC and UTC complexs ions (even in sulfate waters), so they represent the 99% of present ions. Besides, the calculated values required for equilibrium with uraninite or carnotite resulted much greater than those obtained in the performed experiments. It means that the precipitation of those minerals requires either the presence of greate amounts of uranium or vanadium, or a reducing environment with Eh values smaller than the observed ones. Finally, the steps to be taken in future investigations are suggested in view to a drilling plan where: 1) Priority to the ''Interphase zone'' areas is given. 2) The deepest aquifers in Tertiary sediments of the basin have to be reached in order to get the convenient environmental conditions (i.e. smallest Eh values) for uranium or uranium-vanadium precipitation. (author)

  2. Passive sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through coupled plant-mineral reactions in urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David A C; Renforth, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere is an important planetary carbon dioxide removal mechanism. Naturally, an amount equivalent to all atmospheric carbon passes through the coupled plant-soil system within 7 years. Plants cycle up to 40% of photosynthesized carbon through their roots, providing a flux of C at depth into the soil system. Root-exuded carboxylic acids have the potential to supply 4-5 micromoles C hr(-1)g(-1) fresh weight to the soil solution, and enhance silicate mineral weathering. Ultimately, the final product of these root-driven processes is CO(2), present in solution as bicarbonate. This combines with Ca liberated by corrosion associated with silicate mineral weathering to enter the soil-water system and to produce pedogenic calcium carbonate precipitates. Combining understanding of photosynthesis and plant root physiology with knowledge of mineral weathering provides an opportunity to design artificial soils or to plan land use in ways that maximize removal and sequestration of atmospheric CO(2) through artificially enhanced pedogenic carbonate precipitation. This process requires relatively low energy and infrastructure inputs. It offers a sustainable carbon dioxide removal mechanism analogous to the use of constructed wetlands for the passive remediation of contaminated waters, and is likely to achieve wide public acceptance. PMID:22616942

  3. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  4. Long-term performance of bicarbonate-form anion exchange: removal of dissolved organic matter and bromide from the St. Johns River, FL, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Krystal M; Boyer, Treavor H

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the long-term performance of magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) treatment using bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion (i.e., MIEX-HCO(3)) and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration. This work is important because there are many unknowns concerning the affinity and regeneration efficiency of bicarbonate-form anion exchange, whereas chloride-form anion exchange (i.e., MIEX-Cl resin) is well-studied. Raw water samples were collected approximately two times per month for one year from a single location on the St. Johns River (SJR), FL, USA. The SJR is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 12-26 mg C/L) and bromide (550-1100 μg/L), and is being considered as an alternative drinking water supply. Jar tests were conducted using MIEX-HCO(3) resin, and MIEX-Cl resin was used as a baseline for comparison. The same batch of MIEX-HCO(3) and MIEX-Cl resin was used for the entire study, which was accomplished by regenerating the resins after each jar test in concentrated solutions of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride, respectively, and resulted in 21 regeneration cycles. Maximum removal efficiency was achieved with fresh MIEX-HCO(3) resin and virgin MIEX-Cl resin. Both forms of fresh/virgin MIEX resin also had the same affinity sequence with sulfate ≈ UV-absorbing substance > DOC > bromide. The removal efficiency of both forms of MIEX resin decreased as the number of regeneration cycles increased, with MIEX-HCO(3) resin showing 7-18% lower removals than MIEX-Cl resin after 21 regeneration cycles. The affinity sequence of regenerated MIEX-HCO(3) and MIEX-Cl resins differed from fresh resin with UV-absorbing substances > DOC > sulfate > bromide. Scanning electron microscopy and simulated MIEX-HCO(3) treatment under rapidly changing water quality were also used to improve the understanding of bicarbonate-form anion exchange. The major contribution of this research is a systematic study of the extended use of

  5. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Results. Average salt content (g/100 g ranged from 0.36±0.48 (breakfast cereals to 2.32±1.02 (grilled meat. The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%, pizza (80.7%, salami (73.9%, sausages (72.9%, grilled meat (70.0% and hard cheese (69.6% had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals to 46.4% (grilled meat and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33±0.30 mg and 33±44 mg, respectively. Conclusion. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  6. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 1. Radiochemical analysis of {sup 214}Bi in Ena and Ikeda mineral spring water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masahiro [Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Mariko; Esaka, Takao

    1999-09-01

    A couple of educational experiments have been developed using natural radioactivity contained in mineral spring water and a small GM counter. These experiments are safe and inexpensive enough to be conducted at high school or university, nevertheless they are quantitative enough for learners to observe half-life of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, and to help them understand the concept of radioactive equilibrium between them. (author)

  7. Influence of surface passivation and water content on mineral reactions in unsaturated porous media: Implications for brucite carbonation and CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Anna L.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mineral reactive surface area is an important control on the progress of carbon mineralization reactions that sequester anthropogenic CO2. Dry conditions in unsaturated porous media and the passivation of reactive surface area by secondary phase precipitation complicate predictions of reactive surface during carbon mineralization reactions. Unsaturated brucite [Mg(OH)2] bearing column experiments were used to evaluate the effects of water saturation and hydrous Mg-carbonate precipitation on reaction of brucite with 10% CO2 gas streams at ambient conditions. We demonstrate that a lack of available water severely limits reaction progress largely due to the requirement of water as a reactant to form hydrated Mg-carbonates. The precipitation of a poorly crystalline carbonate phase in the early stages of the reaction does not significantly hinder brucite dissolution, as the carbonate coating remains sufficiently permeable. It is postulated that the conversion of this phase to substantially less porous, crystalline nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] results in passivation of the brucite surface. Although a mechanistic model describing the passivating effect of nesquehonite remains elusive, reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY confirms that conventional geometric surface area update models do not adequately reproduce observed reaction progress during brucite carbonation, while an empirically based model accounting for surface passivation is able to capture the transient evolution of CO2 uptake. Both water limits and surface passivation effects may limit the efficiency of CO2 sequestration efforts that rely on the conversion of mafic and ultramafic rock to carbonate minerals.

  8. Water Fastness of Screen Printed Pearl Luster Pigments based on Synthetic and Natural Mica on Polyvinyl Chloride Foil and Rich Mineral Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Mirica Karlovits; Dragoljub Novakovic; Diana Gregor-Svetec

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempts to examine water fastness of screen printed pearl luster pigments based on synthetic and natural mica on polyvinyl chloride foil and Rich Mineral Paper. Three types of pearl luster pigments were used, each different from the other in composition, interference colour and particle size: one pigment based on synthetic mica (Pigment 1) and two pigments based on natural mica (Pigment 2 and Pigment 3). Pearl luster pigments were applied to the printing base (PVC transpare...

  9. Watering and mineral supply effects on plant production, on hydrosoluble metabolites content and on the antifungal properties of three aromatic plants used as spices

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, O.; Baptista, S.; Passarinho, J.A.; Delgado, F.M.G.; Ricardo, C.P.; Vilas-Boas, L.

    1998-01-01

    Calamintha bactica, Origonum vulgaris and Cuminum cyminum have been studied for their capacities as a source of antifungal compounds. One set of these plants grown under water stress. The other set of plants was submitted to different mineral nutrition. The plant material obtained after grinding, were extracted with MeOH or EtOAc, fractionated with organic solvents, and tested for their antifungal properties. Cladosporium cucumerinum and several Fusarium strains were used as biological target...

  10. Mineral water {sup 222} Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits; Determinacao do decrescimo da atividade de radonio-222 em aguas minerais simulando habitos de consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2001-07-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant {sup 222} Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata ({approx} 1000 Bql{sup -1}); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde ({approx} 400 Brq{sup -1}) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas ({approx} 290 Bql{sup -1}). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of {sup 222} Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on {sup 222} Rn activity on site. (author)

  11. Oxidation of sulphide minerals-VI Ferrous and ferric iron in the water-soluble oxidation products of iron sulphide minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, H F

    1979-06-01

    A pseudo-kinetic method has been developed for determining the ferrous and ferric iron in the water-soluble oxidation products of pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite, and ores and concentrates containing them. Two determinations are required for each material. In one, the total iron is determined with 1,10-phenanthroline after reduction to Fe(II). In the other, the reduction of Fe(III) is retarded by complexation with fluoride. The difference in the amount of ferrous phenanthranoline complex produced in these two determinations is a function of the original FE(III) concentration and of time. PMID:18962467

  12. Bicarbonate Secretion in the Murine Gallbladder - Lessons for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthbert AW

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the gallbladder of mammalian species has absorptive and secretory functions. An important function is the secretion of a bicarbonate rich fluid that helps neutralise stomach acid and provides an appropriate environment for intestinal enzymes. In cystic fibrosis (CF this secretory function is lost. This study concerns the bicarbonate secreting activity of murine gallbladders in vitro using wild type and CF mice and four main questions are considered as follows: a Does the murine gallbladder secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and is this prevented in CF? b Can the secretory activity in CF gallbladders be restored by gene therapy or pharmacologically? c How is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR involved in bicarbonate secretion? d Does the data offer prospects for the treatment of CF?. Work from both the author's laboratory and the literature will be reviewed. Consideration of the currently available data indicates that the wild type murine gallbladder does secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and that this is absent in CF mice. Further it has been demonstrated that bicarbonate secretory activity can be restored by both gene therapy and by the use of drugs. The role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion remains equivocal. Much evidence suggests that CFTR can act as a channel for HCO(3(- ions as well as Cl(- ions, while others propose a parallel arrangement of CFTR with a Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchanger is necessary. The matter is further complicated by the regulatory role of CFTR on other transporting activities. Opportunities for possible application to man are discussed.

  13. Titanium minerals for new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O.; Ozhogina, E.; Ponaryadov, A.; Golubeva, I.

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of titanium minerals of modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island (Australia) and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan (Russia) has been presented. The physical features of titanium minerals and their modification methods were shown. Photocatalysts on the basis of the Pizhma leucoxene were developed for water purification.

  14. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  15. The effect of bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrices on human plaque pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Haskins, J C; Gaffar, A; Volpe, A R; Bánóczy, J; Gintner, Z; Dombi, C

    1997-01-01

    The acidogenic response in dental plaque after rinsing with sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice slurries was studied using three intra-oral models. In the first model, resting plaque pH was monitored in mesiobuccal plaque on upper molars and premolars in six healthy subjects after abstinence from normal oral hygiene for three days. These measurements were followed by a three-minute rinse with 10% sucrose and, following a two-minute interval, a three-minute rinse with a test dentifrice slurry. After the test dentifrice rinse, pH was monitored at regular intervals up to 60 minutes. Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of stimulated saliva were also determined. Changes in resting pH, plaque pH minima, and maximum pH drop were calculated. A clear elevation in the resting pH was observed after bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinses, and a significant increase was obtained in the pH minima. The smallest pH drop also was found after treatment with the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinse treatment (p antimony pH electrodes was used to study the effects of rinsing with increasing concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate solutions, and with a fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate. The response to these treatments was found to be rapid, dose-dependent, and was the greatest from the sodium bicarbonate. A third model used 24 subjects to assess the effects of sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice on plaque pH before and after a glucose challenge. The use of the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice resulted in significantly less measurable plaque acid than the fluoride dentifrice treatment. Collectively, these results indicate bicarbonate in dentifrice to be an effective buffering agent for stabilizing the pH and neutralizing plaque acids in dental plaque. PMID:9586535

  16. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  17. Modeling a CO2 mineralization experiment of fractured peridotite from the Semail ophiolite/ Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nadja; Zhang, Guoxiang; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Chris; Ten Grotenhuis, Saskia; Hoedeman, Gerco

    2010-05-01

    Most geologic CO2 sequestration technologies focus on sedimentary rocks, where the carbon dioxide is stored in a fluid phase. A possible alternative is to trap it as a mineral in the subsurface (in-situ) in basaltic or even (ultra)mafic rocks. Carbon dioxide in aqueous solution reacts with Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing silicate minerals, precipitates as (MgCa,Fe)CO3 (carbonate), and can thus be permanently sequestered. The cation donors are silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene which are abundant in (ultra)mafic rocks, such as peridotite. Investigations are underway to evaluate the sequestration potential of the Semail Ophiolite in Oman, utilizing the large volumes of partially serpentinized peridotite that are present. Key factors are the rate of mineralization due to dissolution of the peridotite and precipitation of carbonate, the extent of the natural and hydraulic fracture network and the accessibility of the rock to reactive fluids. To quantify the influence of dissolution rates on the overall CO2 mineralization process, small, fractured peridotite samples were exposed to supercritical CO2 and water in laboratory experiments. The samples are cored from a large rock sample in the dimension of small cylinders with 1 cm in height and diameter, with a mass of ~2g. Several experimental conditions were tested with different equipment, from large volume autoclave to small volume cold seal vessel. The 650 ml autoclave contained 400-500g of water and a sample under 10 MPa of partial CO2 pressure up to 150. The small capsules in the cold seal vessel held 1-1.5g of water and the sample under CO2 partial pressure from 15MPa to 70 MPa and temperature from 60 to 200°C. The samples remained for two weeks in the reaction vessels. In addition, bench acid bath experiments in 150 ml vials were performed open to the atmosphere at 50-80°C and pH of ~3. The main observation was that the peridotite dissolved two orders of magnitude slower in the high pressure and temperature

  18. Evaluation of chloride/bicarbonate. Exchange in the human colon in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, G R; Morawski, S. G.; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1983-01-01

    During perfusion of a plasma-like solution, colonic absorption rate of chloride was much higher than the secretion rate of bicarbonate (34 vs. 3.5 meq/h, respectively). This might suggest that anion exchange (Cl/HCO3) accounts for only a small fraction of total chloride absorption. However, if the colon absorbs as well as secretes bicarbonate, this reasoning would underestimate the magnitude of the anion exchange. To see if the colon absorbs bicarbonate, we perfused a chloride-free solution (...

  19. Proximal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption and PCO2 in chronic metabolic alkalosis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, D A; Gennari, F J

    1983-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to define the pattern of proximal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption and its relation to tubular and capillary PCO2 in rats with chronic metabolic alkalosis (CMA). CMA was induced by administering furosemide to rats ingesting a low electrolyte diet supplemented with NaHCO3 and KHCO3. Proximal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption and PCO2 were measured in CMA rats either 4-7 or 11-14 d after furosemide injection, in order to study a wide range of filtered bicarbonate loads. A...

  20. Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

  1. Diatoms modify the relationship between dissolved silicon and bicarbonate in the impounded rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between dissolved silicon (DSi and bicarbonate (HCO3–, we analysed water samples from the main Changjiang channel and its main tributaries in August 2006 and, during 2007-2009, the contrasting tributaries Wujiang (WJ – mainly dominated by carbonate weathering, and Ganjiang – mainly dominated by silicate weathering. The DSi: HCO3– ratio ranged from 0 to 0.67, which is in agreement with mixing between the weathering of carbonate or silicate. A negative correlation between DSi and HCO3– was observed and interpreted as the imprint of regional geology on water chemistry. This relationship and the DSi: HCO3– ratios illustrate the predominant role of carbonate weathering on the riverine HCO3–, even forcatchments where silicate rocks are dominant. In contrast, a cascade of dams in WJ tributary influenced the concentrations of Dsi and HCO3– and resulted in a positive correlation between DSi and HCO3–. This is because reservoirs allowed populations of diatomsto develop and diatoms stoichiometrically sequestered DSi and HCO3– causing a negative feedback regulation on the DSi: HCO3– ratio. Our study demonstrates that the relationship between DSi and HCO3–can reflect not only their geological background but also the influence of algal activity (diatom uptake within rivers.

  2. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Niu, Chang-Ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment "optimal water-high salinity" increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  3. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  4. Short-term forecasting of the chloride content in the mineral waters of the Ustroń Health Resort using SARIMA and Holt-Winters models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ustroń S.A. Health Resort (southern Poland uses iodide-bromide mineral waters taken from Middle and Upper Devonian limestones and dolomites with a mineralisation range of 110-130 g/dm3 for curative purposes. Two boreholes - U-3 and U3-A drilled in the early 1970s were exploited. The aim of this paper is to estimate changes in mineral water quality of the Ustroń Health Resort by taking into consideration chloride content in the water from the U-3 borehole. The data has included the results of monthly analyses of chlorides from 2005 to 2015 during the tests carried out by the Mining Department of the Health Resort. The triple exponential smoothing (ETS function and the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA method of modelling time series were used for the calculations. The ability to properly forecast mineral water quality can result in a good status of the exploitation borehole and a limited number of failures in the exploitation system. Because of the good management of health resorts, it is possible to acquire more satisfied customers. The main goal of the article involves the real-time forecast accuracy, obtained results show that the proposed methods are effective for such situations. Presented methods made it possible to obtain a 24-month point and interval forecast. The results of these analyses indicate that the chloride content is forecast to be in the range of 72 to 83 g/l from 2015 to 2017. While comparing the two methods of analysis, a narrower range of forecast values and, therefore, greater accuracy were obtained for the ETS function. The good performance of the ETS model highlights its utility compared with complicated physically based numerical models.

  5. Acetate and bicarbonate assimilation and metabolite formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a 13C-NMR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Singh

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolite analyses by (13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly (13C-labelled acetate ((13CH(3-COOH or CH(3-(13COOH supported that both the (13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2(aq. The observed metabolite(s upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2(aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2(aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2(aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii.

  6. CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Brodersen, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thec...

  7. Factors effecting carbonate equilibria in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is related to preliminary stie evaluations to be carried out in 1987-1992 for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. Near surface and shallow groundwaters are characterized by high concentration of calcium and bicarbonate due to dissolution of calcite. The input of carbon dioxide in the upper zone of the bedrock has a strong influence on the pH giving a pH around neutral. In deep groundwaters when the system is no longer open to the input of carbon dioxide the pH rises as the carbonate system is displaced towards the bicarbonate-carbonate site. In still deeper parts of the rock weathering of other minerals such as feldspars affects the chemistry raising the pH and resulting in saturation and precipitation of calcite. The more advanced these reactions become the higher is the pH and the lower is the carbonate content. The equilibrium concentrations of carbonate species are affected both by temperature and ionic strength of the waters, at high ionic strength especially the distribution between bicarbonate and carbonate ions is affected. The total concentration of carbonates in groundwaters is determined through complex interaction between calcite and carbonates in the water. In deep groundwaters which are closed for input of CO2 the concentration is stated to be regulated by dissolution of calcium carbonate. In deep granitic groundwaters pH is stated to be buffered to 6.5 to 10, where a high pH would correspond to a low total carbonate concentration and often also a low calcium concentration and a low pH would correspond to high carbonae and calcium concentrations

  8. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  9. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As, 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd, 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg, respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE and reasonable maximum exposure (RME parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd, 1.45 (Pb, 4.60 (Hg and 1.98 (As; while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  11. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  12. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  13. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  14. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    plagioclase weathers first while quartz remains unaltered. Transport: The weathered material would be transported by natural agents such as water, wind and glaciers. Humans to a large extent (e.g., by quarrying and mining) and animals and birds... at Chavara (Kerala) and Manavalakurichi (Tamil Nadu). The IREL started production after renovating the mineral separation plants that belonged previously to the Travancore Minerals Ltd. and was jointly owned by the central and state governments of Kerala...

  15. Measurement of energy expenditure in healthy male adults using [14C] bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of double-labelled water (3HH 18O) to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living humans is expensive and requires access to a mass spectrometer. A 48-hour infusion of [14C]-bicarbonate with the measurement of [14C]-carbon dioxide (14CO2) after urease digestion of the urine, has been shown to produce comparable results to whole body calorimetry. We have used [14C]-bicarbonate to measure TEE and determined (i) it's comparability with the Schofield equation and (ii) the reproducibility of repeated measurements within an individual. On two occasions ∼ 14 days apart, measurements of TEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), energy intake, food quotient (FQ) and physical activity were made in eight healthy men (age 50 ± 3 yrs, wt 79 ± 3 kg, BMI 26 ± 1 kg/m2, fat mass 22.7 ± 2.5 kg, lean mass 56.5 ± 2.4 kg). Samples of each subjects' urine (collected for two consecutive 24 hour periods) were assayed in triplicate. RMR and RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry. Diet and activity patterns were recorded for four days during the infusion, and were analysed to determine energy intake and activity levels. There were no significant differences in any of the variables on the two study days. Data are expressed as mean ± SE. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the 14CO2 assay (within-assay CV) was 4.1 ± 0.4% (range 1.7 - 7.5%). The variation for the subjects between study days was 5.1 ± 0.9% (range 0.9 - 9.2%). TEE measured by 14CO2 (16,200 ± 780 KJ/day; range 13,400 - 19,387 KJ/day) was greater (14.7 ± 9% (% mean absolute difference ranged from -24.6 to 0.8%)) than the Schofield estimate of TEE (13,800 ± 710 KJ/day; range 12,100-15,500 KJ/day); the group means were significantly different (95% limits of agreement, T = 3.8, P = 0.007). Energy intake was 10,700 ± 535 KJ/day (range 7,970 - 12,600 KJ/day). Fasting RQ was 0.81 ± 0.01 (range 0.78 - 0.88), FQ was 0.84 ± 0.01 (range 0.78 - 0.87), and RQ/FQ was 0.97

  16. Kingian Co-Evolution of the Water and Mineral/Rock Components for Earth and Mars: Implications for Planetary Habitability (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    Planetary habitability may fluctuate episodically against a background provided by the co-evolution of a planet's mineral/rock (geosphere) components and its water (hydrosphere) in relation to its position in a circumstellar system. The water/rock (geosphere/hydrosphere) co-evolution can be inferred from the geological histories of the terrestrial planets of the solar system, particularly from the very extensive understanding of Earth and Mars. Habitability and water/rock co-evolution have components that are tychistic (i.e., driven by chance) and anancastic (i.e., dynamically driven largely by deterministic forces). They also have a final, end-directed (i.e., teleomatic) aspect that operates in accordance with natural laws. This is a larger perspective on the idea of planetary habitability than is generally associated with an astronomical approach, and it incorporates additional insights from a geological perspective on the issue. The geological histories of Mars and Earth are punctuated with critical, short-term epochs of extreme change, which for Earth are known to be associated with major disruptions of its biosphere. These catastrophic epochs can be described as a type of non-Darwinian evolution that was envisioned by the geologist Clarence King. In an 1877 paper King proposed that accelerated evolutionary change occurs during sudden environmental disruptions. Such Kingian disruptions in mineral/rock and water evolution mark the planetary histories of Mars and Earth, including the early formation and condensation of a steam atmosphere, an impacting cataclysm at about 3.9 to 4 Ga, episodes of concentrated volcanism and tectonism, and associated rapid changes in the linked atmosphere and hydrosphere. These disruptions are closely tied to migrations of water between different planetary reservoirs, the nature of planetary accretion, the origin of a physically coupled atmosphere and ocean, the prospects for initiating plate tectonics, and punctuated greenhouse

  17. Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials

  18. Photochemical reactions of Am(V) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on Am(V) in sodium carbonate and bicarbonate solutions of pH 9.00 - 11.40 was studied by spectrophotometry. An Am(IV) + Am(VI) mixture was formed at pH 9 to 10; however, the conversion of Am(V) did not exceed 60 - 70%. The reaction rate order with respect to Am(V) was about 1. A quantum yield for the reaction on photolysis with light of λ = 337 nm was estimated at 0.003. The reaction rate and the conversion of Am(V) were decreased with increasing pH. The reaction started with the absorption of a UV quantum by a carbonate complex of Am(V). Its first step was presumably the electron transfer either from a water molecule to Am(V) in the coordination sphere of the excited carbonate complex of Am(V) or between two Am(V) ions in an excimer involving an excited and an unexcited carbonate complex of Am(V)

  19. Redox buffer capacity of sedimentary rocks around uranium deposit. Study of water-mineral-microbe system at the Tono uranium deposit, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox buffer capacity of the water-mineral-microbe system in and around the Tono uranium deposit, Japan, was studied to evaluate the long-term stability of the redox system. The uranium deposit occurs in the lower part of a Miocene sedimentary rock sequence that unconformably overlies granite. In the groundwater, profiles of redox sensitive solutes such as sulphate and sulphide ions, abundance and viability of microbes, and sulphur isotope ratios of sulphate ions suggest that microbial sulphate reduction involving organic matter and subsequent pyrite precipitation are dominant redox reactions at the depths of the uranium ore bodies. Concentrations of both the sulphate and chloride increase with increasing depth. The dissolved sulphate is surmised to have originated from dissolution of sulphate and sulphide minerals in a geologic marine formation precipitated in marine environments, in the upper part of the sedimentary rocks. Such a redox process in the water-mineral-microbe system is inferred to have continued from the time when the marine formation underwent uplift above sea-level, because sulphate-reducing bacteria can use sulphate ions dissolved in fresh water that infiltrates from the marine formation and organic matter located in the deeper sedimentary rocks. The chloride ion also has a linear relationship with groundwater residence time. from the relationship between sulphate and chloride ion concentrations, the sulphate ion dissolution rates from the marine formation are estimated at about 5.9 x 10-5 mM/yr. Calculations by using the sulphate-S contents of the rocks and the sulphate dissolution rate suggest that microbial sulphate reduction alone could maintain sufficiently reducing conditions to preserve the uranium ore for several hundred thousand years, in the case where a hydrogeological system continues to exist without much change. (author)

  20. An experimental study on the inhibitory effect of high concentration bicarbonate on the reduction of U(VI) in groundwater by functionalized indigenous microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anaerobic microcosms amended with 30 mM bicarbonate and without bicarbonate were established, respectively, and the reduction of U(VI) in the microcosms by functionalized indigenous microbial communities was investigated. Results of the chemical extraction and XANES analysis showed that the proportions of U(IV) in the microcosms amended with bicarbonate were 10 % lower than without bicarbonate at day 46. The amount of Cellulomonadaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptococcaceae and Veillonellaceae amended with bicarbonate was lower than without bicarbonate, so the reduction of U(VI) was less. The experimental results show that the high concentration bicarbonate has a significantly inhibitory effect on the reduction of U(VI). (author)

  1. Feasibility study of the determination of selenium in mineral water by ICPOES using NOVA-2 dual-flow ultrasonic nebulizer and direct hydride generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A new hydride generator has been explored for the introduction of the sample into ICPOES with radial viewing. The acidic sample and the borohydride solution are delivered by the dual-flow system of a commercial NOVA-2 ultrasonic nebulizer and mixed in the spray chamber. The analytical figures of merit for the determination of As, Sb and Se were evaluated. Results showed that the analytical performance of the new system was superior to that of conventional nebulization systems, including the susceptibility to non-spectroscopic interferences produced by transition metals. The utility of the system was demonstrated in the determination of Se in mineral water. (author)

  2. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A MONOLAYER TEMPLATE FOR MINERALIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral nucleation at a Langmuir film interface has been studied by synchrotron x-ray scattering. Diluted calcium bicarbonate solutions were used as subphases for arachidic and stearic acid monolayers, compressed in a Langmuir trough. Self-assembly of the monolayer template is observed directly, and subsequent crystal growth monitored in-situ

  3. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been observed with the aperture size of routine micro-FTIR analysis. Over the last decades several papers and books, dealing with various aspects of water in NAMs reported numerous infrared spectra. To

  4. Reconnaissance on the suitability of the available water resources for irrigation in Thakurgaon District of northwestern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-01

    Reconnaissance on the suitability of the available groundwater resources for irrigation in Thakurgaon District of northwestern Bangladesh was done by determining pH, TDS, EC, hardness, alkalinity, major cations and anions. The pH values suggest that the water is slightly acidic to strongly basic. The dominant cation and anion in the study area are Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3 -, respectively. Calcium bicarbonate, calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate and calcium carbonate are the dominant hydrochemical facies among the water samples. The groundwater system in the study area may be recharged through infiltration of rain. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the rock-dominance zone. The evolution of these waters may be controlled by precipitation and dissolution of carbonate minerals. The USSL, SAR-EC classification schemes and Wilcox plot confirm that the groundwater samples are good to excellent as irrigation water. However, the groundwater evolution in this study is mainly the result of weathering of carbonate minerals and cation exchange within the aquifer materials, confirming the shallow porous groundwater hydrochemistry characteristics.

  5. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

  6. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  7. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness. PMID:26369315

  8. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  9. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  10. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

  11. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ∼1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux. PMID:26863442

  12. Cerebroventricular calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits rat duodenal bicarbonate secretion by release of norepinephrine and vasopressin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, H. J.; Brown, M R

    1990-01-01

    Proximal duodenal bicarbonate secretion is an important factor in humans and animals protecting the mucosa against acid-peptic damage. This study examined the mechanisms responsible for the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in unrestrained rats. Cerebroventricular administration of rat CGRP significantly inhibited basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion as well as the stimulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide,...

  13. Conservation of functional domain structure in bicarbonate-regulated “soluble” adenylyl cyclases in bacteria and eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mime; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2004-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an evolutionarily conserved bicarbonate sensor. In mammals, it is responsible for bicarbonate-induced, cAMP-dependent processes in sperm required for fertilization and postulated to be involved in other bicarbonate- and carbon dioxide-dependent functions throughout the body. Among eukaryotes, sAC-like cyclases have been detected in mammals and in the fungi Dictyostelium; these enzymes display extensive similarity extending through two cyclase catalytic domain...

  14. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic study of thermal and mineralized waters from the Nevşehir (Kozakli) area, Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasvanoğlu, S.; Chandrasekharam, D.

    2011-05-01

    In the Kozakli geothermal province, thermal waters are manifested along a valley 1.5 km long and 200 m in width. Thermal waters utilised by the resort and some other hotels are mostly discharged from bore wells. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 40-50 °C in thermal springs and 45-96 °C in bores and open wells. The geochemical and isotopic signatures of the thermal water suggest mixing of thermal waters with formation waters and cold near-surface groundwaters before emerging to the surface, and hence geochemical indicators fail to indicate the near true reservoir temperatures. However, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic signatures strongly suggest a high temperature reservoir (> 220 °C) in the crystalline basement rocks. Long circulation of meteoric waters within the basement rocks is indicated by low tritium values in the thermal waters. Major involvement of Miocene Marls in modifying the chemical signatures of the thermal waters is inferred from the trace element concentrations.

  15. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  16. Mineral Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  17. Analysis Technique on Water Permeability in Concrete with Cold Joint considering Micro Pore Structure and Mineral Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold joint in concrete due to delayed concrete placing may cause a reduced shear resistance and increased water permeation. This study presents an analytical model based on the concept of REV (Representative Element Volume to assess the effect of water permeability in cold joint concrete. Here, OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement concrete samples with cold joint are prepared and WPT (Water Permeability Test is performed on the samples cured for 91 days. In order to account for the effect of GGBFS (Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag on water permeability, concrete samples with the same W/B (Water to Binder ratio and 40% replacement ratio of GGBFS are tested as well. Utilizing the previous models handling porosity and saturation, the analysis technique for equivalent water permeability with effective cold joint width is proposed. Water permeability in cold joint increases to 140.7% in control case but it decreases to 120.7% through GGBFS replacement. Simulation results agree reasonably well with experimental data gathered for sound and cold joint concrete.

  18. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  19. [Sodium bicarbonate infusion for intoxication with tricyclic antidepressives: recommended inspite of lack of scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijlandt, P J; Bosch, T M; Zijlstra, J G; Tulleken, J E; Ligtenberg, J J; van der Werf, T S

    2001-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate infusion is widely recommended in textbooks for patients who present with self-poisoning from tricyclic antidepressives. Cardiac conduction disorders could also be treated or prevented by means of such an infusion. The scientific basis for these recommendations was investigated by using Medline to search for publications about clinical studies that supported the use of sodium carbonate; 111 articles were scrutinized. Observational studies and case reports mention a rapid improvement in hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias following the administration of sodium bicarbonate. Results from animal experiments are contentious; it is not clear whether alkalinisation or the administration of extra sodium causes the effect. Randomized studies in patients have not been carried out. As the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate is low, and its potential benefit appears to be high, we recommend its use, despite the lack of scientific evidence. No recommendations concerning dosing, concentration and the length of the therapy can be provided on the basis of the literature. PMID:11561485

  20. Nutrição mineral e extração de nutrientes de planta de milho irrigada com água salina Mineral nutrition and extraction of nutrients by corn plant irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber G. de Sousa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de água salina na agricultura irrigada pode causar desequilíbrio nutricional e inibição competitiva na absorção de nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre o acúmulo, os totais extraídos e a distribuição de nutrientes em plantas de milho. O estudo foi conduzido em condições de campo em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo na estação seca, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, de setembro a dezembro de 2007, em Fortaleza, CE. As plantas de milho foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura e realizadas as seguintes avaliações: teores, extração e distribuição de elementos minerais nas diferentes partes da planta (folha, colmo, grão e sabugo. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação aos 90 dias após a semeadura, inibiu o acúmulo de potássio nas folhas e de magnésio e fósforo nos grãos. A extração dos nutrientes e sódio pelas plantas irrigadas com água de salinidade variando de 0,8 a 3,6 dS m-1 obedeceu à seguinte ordem decrescente: K > Mg > Ca > P > Na; no tratamento de maior salinidade (5,0 dS m-1 a sequência de extração foi: K > Ca > Na > P > Mg.The use of saline water in irrigated agriculture can cause nutritional imbalance and competitive inhibition in the absorption of nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salinity of irrigation water on the accumulation, the total absorption, and the distribution of mineral elements in maize plants. The study was conducted under field conditions in an Yellow Red Argisol in the dry season, in the randomized blocks design with five replicates during September to December 2007 in Fortaleza - CE. The maize plants were collected at 90 days after sowing, and the following assessments were made: content, extraction and distribution of mineral elements in the plant parts (leaf, stem, grain and elderberry. The increase of salinity of irrigation water

  1. [Bicarbonate instead of lactate buffered substitution solution for continuous hemofiltration in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbricht, C J; Huxmann-Nägeli, D; Bischoff, H

    1990-04-01

    The substitution fluids applied in continuous haemofiltration contain 40 mmol/l of lactate. This is unphysiological, since administration of large amounts of lactate lowers the phosphorylation potential and increases catabolism. With bicarbonate-buffered fluid three problems may arise: 1. Precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate; 2. pH is usually 8.4; 3. evaporation of CO2 increases pH. To solve these problems we applied a two-component system consisting of a glass bottle with 160 ml sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and a bag with 4.5 l of acidic solution. Prior to use, the bicarbonate was infused into the bag. The values of Ca++, Mg++, bicarbonate, and pH in this final substitution solution were constant during a 24 hr period after mixing. Precipitation of Ca++ and Mg++ carbonate was prevented by 3 mmol/l of lactic acid in the solution. The pH was 7.37. Evaporation of CO2 was prevented by bags made of special plastic sheeting. The solution was then applied in 7 intensive-care patients suffering from acute renal failure treated by continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration. No side effects of the solution were observed during six days of treatment. The values of Ca++, bicarbonate, pH, and pCO2 remained constant under clinical routine conditions. Hence, bicarbonate-buffered substitution solution is recommended for continuous haemofiltration. Continuous haemofiltration is now also available for patients with impaired liver function and increased lactate levels. PMID:2360710

  2. Uptake and distribution of minerals and heavy metals in commonly grown leafy vegetable species irrigated with sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Gul, Sadaf; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Kareem, Arshaad

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal uptake and accumulation behavior in dietary vegetables irrigated with sewage waters is an important issue worldwide. The main objective of this study was to examine and compare the physiological and growth responses of leafy vegetables irrigated with sewage water. A pot experiment was conducted in a wire house with three leafy vegetables, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mint (Mentha arvensis), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum), grown under ambient conditions. Plants were irrigated with different concentrations, 0, 50 (T 1), and 100 % (T 2), of sewage water. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters of plants were measured. Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the sewage water were found much higher than safer limits. The results revealed that the highest plant biomass and lowest metal contents were observed in control treatments in all studied vegetables. The biomass of all the vegetables were negatively affected when irrigated with sewage water. In T 2, coriander accumulated maximum Cd (μg g(-1) DW) in shoots (4.97) as compared to other vegetables. The maximum Pb and Cu concentrations were accumulated in mint roots (44 and 3.9, respectively) as compared to coriander and fenugreek. Zinc was accumulated in the sequence of leaves > roots > shoots under polluted water irrigation. The concentrations of potassium increased in leaves, shoots, and roots in all vegetables, while phosphorous concentrations varied with species and plant parts with increasing sewage water concentration. It was found that the leafy vegetables grown with sewage water irrigation may cause severe human health problems. PMID:27581008

  3. Residual water in hydrous minerals as a kinetic factor for omphacite destabilization into symplectite in the eclogites of Vårdalsneset (WGR, Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Céline; Duchêne, Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Symplectitic intergrowths of sodic plagioclase + diopside ± amphibole as replacement of omphacite are commonly found in eclogites. These symplectites are interpreted as the exhumation-related decompression of eclogite into the amphibolite facies. The role of aqueous fluid in symplectite development, which would act as a catalyst and favor open-system reaction, has been suggested but not yet clearly established. In the Vårdalsneset outcrop of the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), eclogites that were not amphibolitized either display a primary eclogitic dry paragenesis (garnet + omphacite + rutile ± quartz) or a paragenesis including phengite. In the last case, omphacite is partly transformed into symplectite. The two groups have been further distinguished from a combined petrological, geochemical, and thermochemical study. Group I samples have a fine-grained unaltered microstructure, with medium Al2O3 (14-16 wt.%), high Fe2O3 (13-16 wt.%) and TiO2 (1.4-2.4 wt.%). Group II samples have a coarse-grained microstructure and are characterized by the presence of symplectites and phengite. They display higher Al2O3 (17.5-23 wt.%) and lower Fe2O3 (5.5-8 wt.%) and TIO2 (0.2-0.5 wt.%) contents than Group I. The P-T estimates for samples from both Groups I and II lead to similar conditions for peak eclogite metamorphism: temperatures range from 590 to 720 °C and pressures from 15 to 25 kbar. Perple_X modeling indicates that for Group I eclogites, temperature range is similar to the temperature range of the water saturation curve, whereas for Group II eclogites, due to slightly different chemical composition, the water saturation curve is located at much higher temperatures (770-900 °C), so that OH- remains in residual phengite at peak eclogite temperature. With no residual hydrous phase in the eclogite assemblage, and although some structural water may persist in nominally anhydrous minerals, Group I eclogites were preserved without change during exhumation. In contrast

  4. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI. PMID:19680835

  5. CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide......The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by...

  6. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    In the course of our studies on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants, we have observed a striking depressing effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion on cerebral blood flow which in some cases may severely aggravate cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow before and after the treatment...... with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior to the...

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on mortality in patients with lactic acidosis: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death. METHODS: We conducted a single center analysis from May 2011 through April 2012. We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients with lactic acidosis among 207 patients with metabolic acidosis. We used SOFA and APACHE II as severity scores to estimate illness severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis models were used to identify factors that affect mortality. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients with a mean age of 66.1±11.4 years, eighty-three patients (80.6% died from sepsis (61.4%, hepatic failure, cardiogenic shock and other causes. The percentage of sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.006, catecholamine use, ventilator care and male gender were higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. The non-survival group had significantly higher initial and follow-up lactic acid levels, lower initial albumin, higher SOFA scores and APACHE II scores than the survival group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.016 was associated with higher mortality. Independent factors that affected mortality were SOFA score (Exp (B = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12-2.63, p = 0.013 and sodium bicarbonate administration (Exp (B = 6.27, 95% CI = 1.10-35.78, p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis, which has a high mortality rate, should be evaluated in patients with metabolic acidosis. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be prescribed with caution in the case of lactic acidosis because sodium bicarbonate

  8. The activation/depassivation of nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys in bicarbonate solution: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical and surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies) were used to characterize the influence of potential on the properties of the oxide film formed on the Hybrid BC-1 (a Ni–Cr–Mo) alloy in chloride solutions containing bicarbonate. In the passive region the film possesses the expected bilayer structure with a Cr(III)-dominated barrier layer containing mixed oxidation states of Mo and an outer dominantly-hydroxide layer. At more positive potentials the Cr/Mo content of the film decreases when bicarbonate is present and the alloy becomes covered by a thick (>100 nm), and only partially protective, Ni(OH)2 layer

  9. Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-03-01

    The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P loads from the upstream to the downstream sites of this river. The remarkable increases in the levels of all the investigated minerals in fish muscles from the polluted sites raise concerns about the long-term health of the river Ravi ecosystem and consequently the fish and its consumer's health. The results contradict the opinion of the local population that the riverine fish are natural, more health-promoting and precious than the pond fish. Therefore, we strongly argue for the utilization of an effect-based monitoring approach to alleviate the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on fish and the fish consumers' health. PMID:22791113

  10. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg-1 to 51 kBq kg-1 for 238U and from 16.8 kBq kg-1 to 98 kBq kg-1 for 232Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas

  11. Effectiveness of use of Nanostructure Minerals – Bentonite of Taganskiy Deposit for Waste Water Clearing in Metallurgy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbanu Muzdybayeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The currently used traditional method of waste water treatment based on the precipitation of heavy metals by iron hydroxide formed at the time of neutralization (liming / bleach(active chlorine doesn’t correspondent to the standards of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in practical meaning. In this regard, the urgent task is the use of natural materials as sorbents due to the relatively high sorption capacity, selectivity, having cation-exchange properties and the possibility of almost complete removal of heavy metal ions. Another important factor is their relatively low cost and availability (sometimes as alocal material. We believe that the use of scientific-based combinations of different ways in waste water treatment based on the success of modern chemistry allows opening newand perspective opportunities in this area.Key Words: Waste Water, Metallurgy, Bentonite, Zeolites, Groundwater

  12. [Combined effect of insolation and drinking mineral waters on hormonal and immune status in medium-height mountains.(Experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Vasin, V A; Kozhevnikov, S A; Demeshko, N I

    2001-01-01

    80 Wistar male rats were kept for 24 days in moderate altitude conditions of mountain resort Teberda. Before the experiment and after it their blood was examined with enzyme immunoassay for hydrocortisone, T3, T4, TSH, with radioimmunoassay for insulin; glucose levels, dynamics of peripheral blood count, immune status were also measured. It was found that UV radiation has a negative effect on hormonal and immune status of healthy rats in medium-high mountains (hydrocortisone levels fell by 50%, insulin rose 5-6-fold, CIC rose by 24.2%, eosinophils count rose 3-fold, T-cell immunity and lymphocyte phagocyting activity got suppressed, lymphocyte/neutrophil proportion reduced by 35%. Intake of mineral water corrected all the negative effects of insolation but hyperinsulinemia decreased insignificantly. PMID:11530405

  13. Comparison of different concentration methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus and calicivirus from bottled natural mineral waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pasquale, S.; Paniconi, M; Auricchio, B;

    2010-01-01

    , regardless of charge and pore size, had low level viral recovery. The results show that a considerable number of the virus particles passed through the pores of the membranes instead of being trapped by the electrostatic charges. Two different procedures were then compared using 1.5 L polyethylene bottles......To evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods of viral RNA from bottled water, a comparison was made of 2 positively and 2 negatively charged membranes that were used for absorbing and releasing HAV virus particles during the filtration of viral spiked bottled water. All the 4 membranes...

  14. Fit for purpose validated method for the determination of the strontium isotopic signature in mineral water samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust method allowing the routine determination of n(87Sr)/n(86Sr) with at least five significant decimal digits for large sets of mineral water samples is described. It is based on 2 consecutive chromatographic separations of Sr associated to multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements. Separations are performed using commercial pre-packed columns filled with 'Sr resin' to overcome isobaric interferences affecting the determination of strontium isotope ratios. The careful method validation scheme applied is described. It included investigations on all parameters influencing both chromatographic separations and MC-ICPMS measurements, and also the test on a synthetic sample made of an aliquot of the NIST SRM 987 certified reference material dispersed in a saline matrix to mimic complex samples. Correction for mass discrimination was done internally using the n(88Sr)/n(86Sr) ratio. For comparing mineral waters originating from different geological backgrounds or identifying counterfeits, calculations involved the well known consensus value (1/0.1194) ± 0 as reference. The typical uncertainty budget estimated for these results was 40 'ppm' relative (k = 2). It increased to 150 'ppm' (k = 2) for the establishment of stand alone results, taking into account a relative difference of about 126 'ppm' systematically observed between measured and certified values of the NIST SRM 987. In case there was suspicion of a deviation of the n(88Sr)/n(86Sr) ratio (worst case scenario) our proposal was to use the NIST SRM 987 value 8.37861 ± 0.00325 (k = 2) as reference, and assign a typical relative uncertainty budget of 300 'ppm' (k = 2). This method is thus fit for purpose and was applied to eleven French samples.

  15. The procedure for analysis of sulphur isotope ratio 34S/32S (δ34S) and determination of origin of dissolved sulphate in Thuan My mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical procedure for sulphur isotope ratio in sulphate/sulphide (δ34S) dissolved in groundwater was developed. The procedure included: 1. SO42- and S2- precipitation by BaCl2 and AgNO3, respectively; 2. sulphur isotope ratio (δ34S) analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) with on-line combustion of the sulphate/sulphide to form SO2. The δ34S in the dissolved sulfate of 33 deep (more than 30 m) wells, 20 shallow (less than 30 m) wells, in water from the Da river in the study area, the Hong river, the Hoa Binh lake, and the precipitation collected during both rainy and dry seasons in the Thuan My, Ha Noi and Lang Son regions, as well as in water waste samples were analyzed. The accuracy of the analysis was achieved by the participation in inter-comparison exercises and the precision of the δ34S value obtained was usually better than ±0.02%. The SO42- concentration in water from the deep wells is from 674 to 2,197 mg/L and the δ34S values in the constituent are in a narrow range of from +1.566 to +1.773%. These values along with chemical data gathered for other constituents presented in the water allow one to explain the source of SO42- in water from the deep wells to be from the dissolution of gypsum minerals (CaSO4.2H2O). (author)

  16. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium

  17. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. Association of erosive esophagitis with Helicobacter pylori eradication: a role of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Markowski, A R; Leszczyńska, K; Bucki, R; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M

    2009-01-01

    In some populations, Helicobacter pylori eradication is associated with development of erosive esophagitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion to the pathogenesis of erosive esophagitis developing after H. pylori eradication. Gastroscopy and saliva collection were performed at recruitment and 12 months after completion of eradication therapy. Eighty-eight patients with duodenal ulcer were recruited to the study. Erosive esophagitis was found in 13 patients (grade A, 8 patients; grade B, 4 patients; grade C, 1 patient). Among the 74 subjects who completed the study, erosive esophagitis was detected in 21 patients (grade A, 15 patients; grade B, 6 patients); they all were successfully eradicated. Bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion was not found to differ significantly between the subjects with and without erosive esophagitis both before and 1 year after H. pylori eradication. However, it was lower in H. pylori-infected (baseline) than in H. pylori-noninfected erosive esophagitis subjects (1 year after successful eradication) (bicarbonate 2.34 [1.29-3.40)]vs. 3.64 [2.70-4.58]micromol/min and glycoprotein 0.23 [0.15-0.31]vs. 0.35 [0.28-0.43] mg/min, P= 0.04 and P= 0.04, respectively). We conclude that changes in salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion related to H. pylori eradication do not promote the development of erosive esophagitis in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:19222537

  19. CO2 absorption in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions : The Danckwerts-criterion revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cents, A. H. G.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications CO2 is frequently removed from gas streams at elevated pressures by absorption and subsequent chemical reaction in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions (e.g. Benfield process). The criterion that determines whether or not this reaction can be regarded as pseudo-first order is g

  20. Biocompatibility and tolerability of a purely bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, L.; Stegmayr, B.; Malmsten, G.; Tejde, M.; Hadimeri, H.; Siegert, C.E.; Ahlmen, J.; Larsson, R.; Ingman, B.; Simonsen, O.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; Johansson, A.C.; Hylander, B.; Mayr, M.; Nilsson, P.H.; Andersson, P.O.; Los Rios, T. De

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Novel peritoneal dialysis solutions are characterized by a minimal content of glucose degradation products and a neutral pH. Many studies have shown the biocompatibility of neutral lactate-buffered solutions; however, until now, the effect of purely bicarbonate-buffered solutions has not