WorldWideScience

Sample records for bibliographic synthesis final

  1. Tomo-synthesis. Bibliographic study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomo-synthesis is a recent technique for breast imaging. This technique, qualified as 'pseudo-3D', draws the attention of health professionals. Indeed, this technique could offer a gain in sensibility and in specificity in the detection of breast cancers compared to 2D mammography, thanks to the reduction of the tissues' overlapping in particular. Although its place and its clinical indication are not still clearly defined, tomo-synthesis is already used in France. The introduction of this technique within the national breast cancer screening program, seems to be foreseen by the authorities in the coming years. IRSN, in the scope of its mission of evaluation of the dose impact of innovative techniques, is closely interested in this technique and has proceeded in 2015 to a bibliographical review of the state of the art in tomo-synthesis. This review paid specific attention to the following points: conception of the installations, dose, image quality and quality control. it has highlighted several points of attention, which incite IRSN to formulate certain recommendations to accompany the spreading of this new technique in France. Most of the clinical trials validating the use of tomo-synthesis were realized on systems of a single manufacturer. However, manufacturers' strategies of design are heterogeneous. There is no unique technique of tomo-synthesis but several, of which equivalence in terms of technical and clinical performances is not demonstrated. Due to the heterogeneity of the different models available on the French market, IRSN recommends not to extrapolate the results of clinical studies obtained on a specific system but to consolidate them for all the available systems. In many imaging departments, tomo-synthesis is already implemented in addition or in substitution of 2D mammography without any regulatory quality control and periodic technical checks. The European reference standard for quality control of these devices is not yet

  2. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO2 in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO2. For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  3. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO{sub 2} in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report; Reduction de l'effet de serre par sequestration geologique minerale in-situ de CO{sub 2} au sein de roches basiques: synthese bibliographique et revue des potentialites en France. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, J.C.; Lachassagne, P

    2004-07-01

    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO{sub 2}. For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Theoretical and bibliographic synthesis on micro-heat pipes; Synthese theorique et bibliographique sur les microcaloducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-12-31

    The technology, dimensioning and performances of heat pipes are well known since several years. Micro-heat pipes occurred more recently with the miniaturization of systems to be cooled and the increase of surface heat fluxes to be dissipated. Publications concerning this topic are not much older than the 90`s. Using these papers, a bibliographic synthesis on micro-heat pipe performances, functioning and dimensioning is presented. Experimental studies demonstrate the efficiency of such systems but also their high sensitivity with respect to the capillary limit which leads to a progressive drying of the evaporator and a reduction of its thermal conductance. Theoretical studies are based on the same equations than heat pipes. More or less complex models have been proposed in the literature and a relatively simple model is presented in this paper. These studies have permitted to show the great influence of some parameters on micro-heat pipes functioning like: the pipe geometry, the fluid-wall contact angle, the level of pipes filling, and the bonding zone of the liquid film on the wall. (J.S.) 15 refs.

  5. Bibliographical review about Na/Li geo-thermometry and lithium isotopes applied to worldwide geothermal waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is performed within the framework of the FP6 European project HITI (High Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation). This research project, co-funded by EU and the different partners, aims to provide geophysical and geochemical sensors and methods to evaluate deep geothermal wells up to supercritical conditions (T > 370 deg. C), which are more cost-effective than those of the conventional wells. A deep geothermal well is currently being drilled for this purpose into the Krafla area, Iceland, as part of the IDDP ('Iceland Deep Drilling Project') and with joint funding from Icelandic industry and science Institutes. Another deep well will be drilled in the Reykjanes peninsula, Iceland, within the framework of the same project. This study, a bibliographical review about the Na/Li geo-thermometer and lithium isotopes applied on the world geothermal waters, is the first step of the task envisaged by BRGM to use and validate the sodium-lithium (Na-Li) chemical geo-thermometer on Icelandic geothermal waters at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 deg. C. In this study, more than 120 temperature and chemical data from world geothermal and oil-fields, sedimentary basins, oceanic ridges, emerged rifts and island arcs have been collected and investigated. These additional data have allowed to confirm and refine the three existing Na/Li thermometric relationships. Moreover, a new Na/Li thermometric relationship relative to the processes of seawater or dilute seawater-basalt interaction occurring in the oceanic ridges and emerged rifts is proposed. Even if the running of Na/Li is still poorly understood, the existence of a new thermometric relationship confirms that the Na/Li ratios not only depend on the temperature but also on other parameters such as the fluid salinity and origin, or the nature of the reservoir rocks in contact with the geothermal fluids. For most of the geothermal waters in contact with

  6. Bibliographic utility networks

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup Kumar; Dutta, Bidyarthi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the functions, features, and advantages of bibliographic utility networks. Some cases have also described in order to get in-depth knowledge on their core services. The services of a bibliographic utility network are centred on online union catalogue database. Some bibliographic utility networks derived a number of services from their exhaustive union catalogue database to be used by different segments of clienteles. The services are not only contributory from participa...

  7. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  8. On bibliographic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Batagelj, Vladimir; Cerinšek, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we show that the bibliographic data can be transformed into a collection of compatible networks. Using network multiplication different interesting derived networks can be obtained. In defining them an appropriate normalization should be considered. The proposed approach can be applied also to other collections of compatible networks. We also discuss the question when the multiplication of sparse networks preserves sparseness. The proposed approaches are illustrated with analyses...

  9. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  10. Plutonium: resuspension of aerosols in nuclear installations: bibliographic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an analysis and a bibliographical synthesis of the studies on resuspension factors for plutonium. It aims at helping the engineers of safety to specify the scenarios of accidents which relate to their activities and to bring elements justified for the definition of their term-source 'installation' in the safety reports of the installations. (authors)

  11. Machine Readable Bibliographic Records: Criteria and Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregzis, Ritvars

    The centrality of bibliographic records in library automation, objectives of the bibliographic record file and elemental factors involved in bibliographic record creation are discussed. The practical work of creating bibliographic records involves: (1) data base environment, (2) technical aspects, (3) cost and (4) operational methodology. The…

  12. Mesotherapy: a bibliographical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, Fernanda Oliveira Camargo; Moraes, Aparecida Machado de; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Intradermotherapy is a medical procedure introduced by Pistor in 1958 that consists in the application of intradermal injections of diluted pharmacological substances that are given directly into the region to be treated. There are reports of the use of intradermotherapy to treat painful diseases, skin diseases and unaesthetic conditions. Medical clinics have been recently offering the treatment of intradermotherapy, using the more popular name for this practice - mesotherapy. There is only scant scientific information about this subject published in periodicals indexed on MedLine. Only a few states rigorously pursue this method. Most indexed publications about this subject deal with the complications of this technique. Unaesthetic dermatoses have been a common complaint in dermatologic clinics, and it has become necessary to have scientific evidence to give to patients. Therefore, well-researched scientific studies about this technique are necessary to offer data to medical professionals that will clearly explain to patients both the benefits and the risks of these procedures. A bibliographical review was conducted and we verified the need for new studies with adequate methods to confirm the benefits of intradermotherapy as used in dermatologic treatment. PMID:21437529

  13. The Economics of Open Bibliographic Data Provision

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the provision of bibliographic data as an extension of the open source concept. Our particular concern is the sustainability of such endeavors. We describe the RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) project, probably the largest "open source" bibliographic database. It demonstrates that open-source bibliographic data collection is sustainable.

  14. Etude de la desactivation des catalyseurs d'hydrotraitement par cokage. Synthèse bibliographique Study of the Deactivation of Hydrotreating Catalysts by Coking. Bibliographic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualda G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail effectue la synthèse de la littérature disponible en février 1987 sur le phénomène de cokage en hydrotraitement entraînant la désactivation des catalyseurs. Il propose trois angles d'étude apportant chacun un éclairage complémentaire sur le sujet : - un angle physico-chimique qui décrit les méthodes de caractérisation du coke et des catalyseurs usés utilisées par les auteurs, et les informations qu'elles fournissent; - un angle d'observation macroscopique du phénomène de désactivation par cokage, par la confrontation de modèles et de résultats expérimentaux; - un angle plus fondamental faisant état des mécanismes proposés pour la formation du coke dans les conditions d'hydrotraitement des fractions lourdes du pétrole en particulier. Il ressort de cette étude la très grande hétérogénéité des travaux, tant du point de vue des protocoles expérimentaux que des interprétations mécanistiques. Une étude rigoureuse et systématique s'impose donc dans ce domaine. Toutefois, il semble bien établi que l'on puisse faire la différence entre un coke fatal formé par dégradation thermique des hydrocarbures, et un coke dépendant des propriétés des catalyseurs mis en oeuvre. This article makes a synthesis of the literature available in February 1987 on the coking phenomenon in hydrotreating causing catalyst deactivation. It proposes three angles of study, each giving complementary light on the subject:(a a physicochemical angle describing methods of characterizing the coke and catalysts used by the authors, and the information they provide;(b a macroscopic observation angle of the deactivation phenomenon by coking, by comparing models and experimental results;(c a more fundamental angle bearing on the mechanisms proposed for coke formation under hydrotreatment conditions of heavy oil fractions in particular. This study shows the great heterogeneity of research, from the standpoint of both experimental

  15. [Zhao Kaimei, a outstanding bibliographer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaochen

    2011-05-01

    Zhao Kaimei is a famous bibliographer in Ming Dynasty, who preserved and sorted Gu Jin Za Ju, carved a new plate for Song Ban Shang Han Lun. Scholars in Ming-Qing Dynasties set a value on his contributions to preserve and inherit traditional culture of China. Qian Qianyi in Ming Dynasty drafted Zhao Kaimei's memorial tablet of gravestone, which open a window to know about Zhao Kaimei thoroughly. At the end of Qing Dynasty, Sun Yuxiu wrote Mai Wang Guan Shu Mu Ba that provided important information about the procedure of writing Zhao Kaimei's bibliography, the figures of the content, as well as the copiers. Mori Tachiyuki found that Qimei is Zhao Kaimei's first name in his old age. PMID:21781551

  16. Application of OCR in Building Bibliographic Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.D. Prasad

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Bibliographic databases tend to be very verbose and pose a problem to libraries due to the huge amount of data entry involved. In this situation, the two technologies that offer solutions are retro conversion and optical character recognition (OCR. The application of building an intelligent system for automatic identification of bibliographic elements like title, author, publisher, etc is discussed here. This paper also discusses the heuristics in identifying the elements and resolving conflicts that arise 'in situations where more than one bibliographic element satisfy the criteria specified for identifying the various elements. This work is being carried out at the DRTC with the financial assistance of NISSAT.

  17. Bibliographic reviews in Cuban medical journals.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucitere Rodríguez González

    2008-01-01

    Background: Bibliographic reviews acquire great importance in the specific context of medical publications; however, some editorial facts can affect their scientific value. Objective: To characterize the bibliographic reviews published by some Cuban medical journals. Methods: The most recent reviews (10) were analyzed by means of an exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study. Selected from 5 electronic medical journals, summing up 50 articles. The following variables were studied: artic...

  18. Bibliographic information interchange with data independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for bibliographic information processing, at the standardized interchange format ISO 2709 or ANSI Z39.2, which allows to obtain programs with data independence is developed. A format definition language and manipulation commands which enable data storage and retrieval at the logical level are specified. With this technique it is possible to implement programs which can accept data from any information system, reducing, therefore, the requirements of a common bibliographic information interchange format. (Author)

  19. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  20. Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Lin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm. Three n-paraffin waxes: n-eicosane (n-C/sub 20/), n-octacosane )n-C/sub 28/), and n-hexatriacontane (n-C/sub 36/), were studied to model the industrial wax. Solubility of synthesis gas mixtures of H/sub 2/ and CO in n-C/sub 28/ was also determined at two temperatures (200 and 300)degree)C) for each of three gas compositions (40.01, 50.01, and 66.64 mol%) of hydrogen). Measurements were extended to investigate the gas solubility in two industrial Fischer-Tropsch waxes: Mobilwax and SASOL wax. Observed solubility increases in the order: H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, at a given temperature pressure, and in the same solvent. Solubility increases with increasing pressure for all the gases. Lighter gases H/sub 2/ and CO show increased solubility with increasing temperature, while the heavier gases CO/sub 2/, ethane, and ethylene show decreased solubility with increasing temperature. The solubility of methane, the intermediate gas, changes little with temperature, and shows a shallow minimum at about 200)degrees)C or somewhat above. Henry's constant and partial molal volume of the gas solute at infinite dilution are determinedfrom the gas solubility data. A correlation is developed from the experimental data in the form on an equation of state. A computer program has been prepared to implement the correlation. 19 refs., 66 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  2. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  3. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 3: The Final Phase and Completion of the Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Ting; You, Lin; Li, Yuan-He; Yu, Hai-Xin; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Two independent synthetic approaches were evaluated for the final phase of the asymmetric total synthesis of propindilactone G (1). The key steps that led to the completion of the asymmetric total synthesis included: 1) an intermolecular oxidative heterocoupling reaction of enolsilanes to link the core structure to the side chain; 2) an intermolecular Wittig reaction for the formation of the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated ester; and 3) a regio- and stereoselective OsO4 -catalyzed dihydroxylation of an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated enone, followed by an intramolecular lactonization reaction to afford the final product. These reactions enabled the synthesis of (+)-propindilactone G in only 20 steps. As a consequence of our synthetic studies, the structure of (+)-propindilactone G has been revised. Furthermore, the direct oxidative coupling strategy for ligation of the core of propindilactone G with its side chain may find application in the syntheses of other natural products and complex molecules. PMID:26991640

  4. Ambiguity Resolution for Author Names of Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ha Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Users or researchers have been confronted with serious problems in ambiguities of author names, while a great deal of scholar information quickly accumulated in Internet. Therefore researches on ambiguity resolution for author name are indispensable. With comparison to previous work, this study attempts to address the problem using information contained in bibliographic data only. Five features, co-author (C, article title (T, journal title (J, year (Y, and number of pages (P, are used to disambiguate author names in this study. Note that feature Y and feature P are not ever used before. Both supervised learning methods (Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine and unsupervised learning method (K-means are employed to explore 28 different feature combinations. The findings show that the performance of feature journal title (J and co-author (C is very effective. Feature J plays an important role in three different approaches, and feature C is effective in SVM. In addition, feature Y and feature P obviously enhance accuracy and the average improvement rate of inclusion with feature Y is more significant than that of feature P (+2.5% in average. It is also shown that the performance of feature combination CTJ used traditionally is not superior to JYP, and the performance of feature combinations CJY, JY and J are also very effective in the three methods. Finally, it is found that the accuracy of disambiguation on larger datasets is 10% inferior to that of the smaller ones, which indicated the limitation of using bibliographic data only in this “numerous and jumbled” real world. Consequently, the effective approach to disambiguating author name has to not only fully use bibliographic data but also introduce appropriate outer resources.

  5. Diastereoselective total synthesis of (±)-schindilactone a, Part 3: The final phase and completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Xing; Xiao, Qing; Li, Yong; Sun, Tian-Wen; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Ye, Qin-Da; Meng, Fan-Ke; You, Lin; Zhao, Ming-Zhe; Xu, Ling-Min; Tang, Ye-Feng; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2012-10-01

    The final phase for the total synthesis of (±)-schindilactone A (1) is described herein. Two independent synthetic approaches were developed that featured Pd-thiourea-catalyzed cascade carbonylative annulation reactions to construct intermediate 3 and a RCM reaction to make intermediate 4. Other important steps that enabled the completion of the synthesis included: 1) A Ag-mediated ring-expansion reaction to form vinyl bromide 17 from dibromocyclopropane 30; 2) a Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction of vinyl bromide 17 with a copper enolate to synthesize ketoester 16; 3) a RCM reaction to generate oxabicyclononenol 10 from diene 11; 4) a cyclopentenone fragment in substrate 8 was constructed through a Co-thiourea-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR); 5) a Dieckmann-type condensation to successfully form the A ring of schindilactone A (1). The chemistry developed for the total synthesis of schindilactone A (1) will shed light on the synthesis of other family members of schindilactone A. PMID:22761030

  6. Microcomputer Database Management Systems for Bibliographic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Discusses criteria for evaluating microcomputer database management systems (DBMS) used for storage and retrieval of bibliographic data. Two popular types of microcomputer DBMS--file management systems and relational database management systems--are evaluated with respect to these criteria. (Author/MBR)

  7. Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems: Increasing Cognitive Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the impact of research in artificial intelligence and human computer interaction on the design of bibliographic information retrieval systems, and presents design principles of a prototype system that uses semantically based searches and a knowledge base consisting of conceptual frames. (10 references) (CLB)

  8. Testing Bibliographic Displays for Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt

    1987-01-01

    Reports the design, methodology, and results of a research project which examined the effectiveness of bibliographic displays produced by online catalogs. A means of testing displays against several hundred thousand records at a reasonable cost and using that to test several display possibilities is described. (CLB)

  9. Attitudes of College Freshmen toward Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Gordon B.; Markman, Marsha C.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on a study which evaluated student attitudes toward a new bibliographic instruction (BI) manual designed to address their individual needs and compares the results with those of previous studies on BI methods, i.e., lecture and discussion practicum versus a self-guided workbook. It is concluded that the new manual is regarded more…

  10. Online Petroleum Industry Bibliographic Databases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margaret B.

    This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…

  11. Bibliographic Relationships in MARC and Consistent with FRBR Model According to RDA Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Fardehoseiny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bibliographic relationships in the MARC and it’s consistency with the FRBR model. With establishing the necessary relations between bibliographic records, users will retrieve their necessary information faster and more easily. It is important to make a good communication in existing bibliographic records to help users to find what they need. This study’s purpose was to define the relationships between bibliographic records in the National Library's OPAC database and the study’s method was descriptive content analysis approach. In this study, the online catalog (OPAC National Library of Iran has been used to collect information. All records with the mentioned criteria listed in the final report of the IFLA bibliographic relations about the first group entities in FRBR model and RDA rules has been implemented and analyzed. According to this study, if software has been developed in which the data transferring was based on the conceptual model and the MARC’s data that already exists in the National Library's bibliographic database, these relationships will not be transferable. Withal, in this study the relationships on consistent FRBR and MARC concluded with an intelligent mind and the machine is unable to detect them. The results of this study showed that the relations which conveyed from MARC to FRBR, was about 47/70 percent of the MARC fields, in other hand by FRBR to MARC with the use of all intelligent efforts, and diagnosis of MARC relationships, only 31/38 percent of the relations can be covered through the MARC. But based on real data and usable fields in Boostan-e-Saadi with MARC pattern, records on the National Library of Iran showed that the results reduced to 16/95 percent..

  12. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  13. Toxicity of particles emitted by the traffic: follow-up and bibliographic synthesis final report; Toxicite des particules emises par la circulation automobile: suivi et synthese bibliographique rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, S.

    1999-12-01

    This study compiles the data published recently concerning the diesel and petrol motor emissions toxicity and in particular the effects of the particles phase. The aim of the work is to give a synthetical overview of the state of knowledge in this domain to allow a scientific argumentation concerning the toxicity risks assessment from these pollutants. The data concern epidemiological studies and also experimental studies in vivo and in vitro. (A.L.B.)

  14. APPLET Works life duration: predictive, performance and probabilistic approach. L2-2/4 - Bibliographic synthesis of the modelling of the interaction between the corrosion phenomenon and the steel/concrete interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having described the problems raised by corrosion and the behaviour of degraded structures, this report addresses the issue of the steel/concrete interface. It presents the main adhesion tests, describes the various phenomenological aspects of a corrosion-free interface (degradation mechanism, impacting factors) and of corrosion mechanisms (impact of corrosion). The different corrosion modelling approaches are presented (life duration conceptual models, corrosion kinetics models), and then models describing the bond phenomenon. It finally proposes a critical analysis of interface models

  15. A comparative study of descriptions and value added of bibliographic records through MARC, DC and MODS: From the viewpoints of the users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Chu Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand which bibliographic data are the core elements of the user’s queries? What users’ viewpoints about resource descriptions using different metadata standards? What kinds of value-added items are the users’ favorite when they conduct a bibliographic search? What are users’ viewpoints about bibliographic records integrated with the Digital Archival and Institutional Repository resources through metadata interoperability methods? This research adopted experiments, observation and interviews. The sample subjects are drawn from 14 students of The Graduate Institute of Library and Information Science and College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. First of all, the researcher displayed the bibliographic records using original MARC from the library. Secondly, users compared the images of OPAC from the library with the format of DC and MODS transformed through the MarcEdit software. Additionally, the researcher conducted interviews to understand users’ viewpoints about using three metadata schemas to describe the same book. Finally, the researcher asked the degree of users’ satisfaction about using bibliographic records alone and bibliographic records integrated with the Digital Archival and Institutional Repository resources. The findings suggest that libraries could provide more value-added and comprehensive services of bibliographic records and information retrieval, in order for all kinds of resources to be fully utilized, which helps to meet the users’ information needs.

  16. SIBYL: a bibliographic information retrieval program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program SIBYL was designed to make current awareness searches on INIS bibliographic data tapes. It has now been in regular use for about 2 1/2 years. More recently it was tested with AGRIS data tapes and is now being used for regular AGRIS searches as well. Its profiles consist of one or more parameters banded together, each consisting of one or more terms together. Terms may be keywords, keyword fragments, authors, subject categories, journal titles, report prefixes, etc. It is written in PL/l and so far has been used exclusively on an IBM 37-/168 computer, although it should be fairly easily portable. (author)

  17. Bibliographic index to photonuclear reaction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the bibliographic index data on photonuclear reactions and on their inverse ones, in the format similar to CINDA for neutron nuclear data. As photonuclear reactions the electron-induced reaction data are also included. As the inverse reactions considered are those induced by neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, helion and alpha particles. The index covers major journals on nuclear data published in 1995 to 1992, for all nuclides through hydrogen (H) to einsteinium (Es). The bibliographic index contains information on target nucleus, incident beam, type of reaction and quantity, energy range of incident beam, laboratory, type of work, reference citations, first author's name, and short comment. The index also contains the indication for information on cross-section data. All the index data are listed in the order of target element, target, mass and incident particle, and in the chronological order of reference data. Also a brief description is given on the data format, the abbreviations used and the journals surveyed. (author)

  18. Database Management Systems: New Homes for Migrating Bibliographic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.; Bierbaum, Esther G.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses bibliographic databases as part of visionary text systems such as hypertext and scholars' workstations. Downloading is discussed in terms of the capability to search records and to maintain unique bibliographic descriptions, and relational database management systems, file managers, and text databases are reviewed as possible hosts for…

  19. Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Modern bibliographic databases provide the basis for scientific research and its evaluation. While their content and structure differ substantially, there exist only informal notions on their reliability. Here we compare the topological consistency of citation networks extracted from six popular bibliographic databases including Web of Science, CiteSeer and arXiv.org. The networks are assessed through a rich set of local and global graph statistics. We first reveal statistically significant inconsistencies between some of the databases with respect to individual statistics. For example, the introduced field bow-tie decomposition of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography substantially differs from the rest due to the coverage of the database, while the citation information within arXiv.org is the most exhaustive. Finally, we compare the databases over multiple graph statistics using the critical difference diagram. The citation topology of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography is the least consistent with the rest, w...

  20. Bibliographic study of radiostrontium uptake capacity and processes in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a synthesis of published work on the contamination of fish by radiostrontium, covering 143 publications and reports. The authors highlight the most important findings, since past activity levels in fish allow the effects of future discharges to be estimated. Both marine and freshwater environments are analyzed. The radiostrontium activity is evaluated in fish from zones both directly and not directly affected by liquid effluent discharges. Quantitative data is cited for the concentration factors and biological half lives determined from field measurements and laboratory experiments. Physiological phenomena discussed include contamination kinetics, radiostrontium distribution in fish organisms and the extent of transfer through food chains. The effects of biological factors (age, weight, species) and environmental factors (temperature, salinity, influence of stable elements) are examined. The radiostrontium uptake potential is higher in fresh water fish than in marine fish. In both cases, however, the water itself is the principal contamination source, and food is not of major importance; only the intake path varies. In both freshwater and seawater areas not directly affected by waste discharge, the 90Sr content in fish was observed to rise until 1966, when it began to drop. Maximum values of 42000 pCi/kg live weigth were recorded in the skeletons of lacustrine fish. The mean concentration factors are 20 for marine fish and 300 for freshwater fish, while the biological half-lives are 138 days and 2 years, respectively. This bibliographic synthesis clearly demonstrates the need to determine baseline conditions prior to reactor divergence, and to make sufficient allowance for the local ecological characteristics of each site

  1. Bibliographic study of radiostrontium uptake capacity and processes in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a synthesis of published work on the contamination of fish by radiostrontium, covering 143 publications and reports. The authors highlight the most important findings, since past activity levels in fish allow the effects of future discharges to be estimated. Both marine and freshwater environments are analyzed. The radiostrontium activity is evaluated in fish from zones both directly and not directly affected by liquid effluent discharges. Quantitative data is cited for the concentration factors and biological half lives determined from field measurements and laboratory experiments. Physiological phenomena discussed include contamination kinetics, radiostrontium distribution in fish organisms and the extent of transfer through food chains. The effects of biological factors (age, weight, species) and environmental factors (temperature, salinity, influence of stable elements) are examined. The radiostrontium uptake potential is higher in fresh water fish than in marine fish. In both cases, however, the water itself is the principal contamination source, and food is not of major importance; only the intake path varies. In both freshwater and seawater areas not directly affected by waste discharge, the 90Sr content in fish was observed to rise until 1966, when it began to drop. Maximum values of 42000 pCi/kg live weight were recorded in the skeletons of lacustrine fish. The mean concentration factors are 20 for marine fish and 300 for freshwater fish, while the biological half-lives are 138 days and 2 years, respectively. This bibliographic synthesis clearly demonstrates the need to determine baseline conditions prior to reactor divergence, and to make sufficient allowance for the local ecological characteristics of each site

  2. Plutonium: resuspension of aerosols in nuclear installations: bibliographic survey; Le plutonium: mise en suspension d'aerosols dans les installations nucleaires: synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Armand, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Service Radioanalyse Chimie Environnement, 91 (France); Alloul-Marmor, L. [Societe APTUS, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents an analysis and a bibliographical synthesis of the studies on resuspension factors for plutonium. It aims at helping the engineers of safety to specify the scenarios of accidents which relate to their activities and to bring elements justified for the definition of their term-source 'installation' in the safety reports of the installations. (authors)

  3. [Medicine, philosophy and the scientific revolution. A bibliographical survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crignon, Claire; Antoine-Mahut, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the place that has been reserved for medicine in the historiography of the sciences. More precisely, it focuses on the motifs that have lead historians of science to grant only a minor role to medicine within the movement commonly designated by the notion of the "scientific revolution". Among those motifs, the persistent and late application of teleological schemas in the thinking of the biological and the difficulties in "mathematizing" anatomy are often invoked. Starting with an overview of the critical literature on the topic, this bibliographical essay shows how the situation has changed over the last decades. The opposition between, on the one hand, the physical sciences founded on a model of mechanistic explanation of nature and, on the other hand, the life sciences that remained guided by a finalist mode of thinking are today much put into question. What we find today is more open reflection on the diversity of "models" for understanding the living, and on how to integrate them into more complex schemas than those that simply oppose mechanism and teleology. The essay is finally based on discussions and debates among medical doctors and philosophers in the modern period, and insists on the importance of studying this "medico-philosophical" tradition in order to avoid reconstructing a posteriori a mythical history that trends to consecrate a single model of rationality. PMID:25707095

  4. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  5. Bibliographic Drug Information: A Guide for the Public Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Perdue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides for a research strategy, limited to print bibliographic sources, on obtaining basic and clinical information on pharmaceuticals. Selectively, 20 titles are described and discussed under four descriptive categories (Condensed General References, General Public Consumption, Adverse Reactions and lnteractions, and Comprehensive Compendiums. This bibliographic framework is presented as a potential template for reference staff when assisting library users. The additional availability of these print sources in CDROM and online format are also noted.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

    1999-01-01

    There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

  9. A bibliographic study on the windowless continuous channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographical review as addendum of the report CEA-BIB-209 (1974), for the period (end 1973 - 1st quarter 1978) of parution, is presented. The bibliographical notices (numbers 001 to 175) with French abstracts are given. An index for authors, documents and periodicals cited, and subjects is included. The subject index is presented in three parts: Parallel Plate Electron Multipliers, Channel Electron Multipliers and Microchannel-Plate Electron Multipliers. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (US), Nucl. Instrum. Methods (NL) Rev. Sci, Instrum. (US) journals, and Electrical Electronic Abstracts (US), INIS Atomindex (IAEA) reviews have been consulted

  10. Maps and related cartographic materials cataloging, classification, and bibliographic control

    CERN Document Server

    Larsgarrd L, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Make maps and other cartographic materials more easily accessible and usable!Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control is a format-focused reference manual for catalogers that should occupy a prominent place on your reference shelf.Outside of standard cartographic cataloging tools, the bibliographic treatment of all forms of cartographic materials has never been compiled into one useful source. This book separately examines the treatment of all major cartographic format types and outlines the way each should be cataloged.

  11. Recent advances in aerosol research a bibliographical review

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, C N

    1964-01-01

    Recent Advances in Aerosol Research: A Bibliographical Review presents a bibliographic review of advances in aerosol research covering the period from the beginning of 1957 to the end of 1962. Topics covered include chemical reactions, combustion, coagulation and diffusion, and adhesion of particles. References on filtration, evaporation and condensation, nucleation and growth, and laminar flow and impingement are also included. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins by citing research on acoustic, ultrasonic, and shock wave effects, along with adhesion of particles, chemical react

  12. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI

  13. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  14. Final Report on XStack: Software Synthesis for High Productivity ExaScale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar-Lezama, Armando [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab.

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the project was to develop a programming model that would significantly improve productivity in the high-performance computing domain by bringing together three components: a) Automated equivalence checking, b) Sketch-based program synthesis, and c) Autotuning. The report provides an executive summary of the research accomplished through this project. At the end of the report is appended a paper that describes in more detail the key technical accomplishments from this project, and which was published in SC 2014.

  15. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  16. How to select appropriate encoding strategies for producing LOD-Enabled Bibliographic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Subirats-Coll, Imma; Zeng, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    The webinar presents the LODE-BD Recommendations - Linked Open Data (LOD)-enabled bibliographical data- which aims at providing bibliographic data providers of open repositories with a set of recommendations that will support the selection of appropriate encoding strategies for producing meaningful Linked Open Data (LOD)-enabled bibliographical data (LODE-BD).

  17. Analysis of a Bibliographic Database Enhanced with a Library Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabenstott, Karen Markey; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a project that examined the effects of incorporating subject terms from the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) into a bibliographic database. It is concluded that the incorporation of DDC and possibly other library classifications into online catalogs can enhance subject access and provide additional subject searching strategies. (11…

  18. Integration of Heterogeneous Bibliographic Information through Data Abstractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breazeal, Juliette Ow

    This study examines the integration of heterogeneous bibliographic information resources from geographically distributed locations in an automated, unified, and controlled way using abstract data types called "classes" through the Message-Object Model defined in Smalltalk-80 software. The concept of achieving data consistency by developing classes…

  19. A BIBLIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF INTRODUCTIONS TO SOCIOLOGY BOOKS IN TURKISH

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Yücel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to produce a bibliographic evaluation of Introduction to Sociology course books, among the most important tools of sociological education. Course books that could be identified and studied have been indexed according to the surnames of their authors and each has been assessed according to content, approach, structure, style and aspects of language.

  20. Facebook: A Bibliographic Analysis of the PsycINFO Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of rapidly emerging technologies, researchers need to be cognizant of developments and applications in the area of social media as a topic of investigatory interest. To date, scholarly research on the topic of Facebook, a ubiquitous social media site, is rather extensive. This study on Facebook, using a bibliographic content…

  1. Scholarship and Society in China: A Bibliographical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, John H.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliographical review of works on Chinese scholarship and books is presented. Selected documents relating to the pursuit of scholarship, the production (including printing), distribution and conservation of books, classification and cataloging and libraries are briefly annotated. Bibliographies and general works are also mentioned. (74…

  2. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report, August 1995--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1997-06-17

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focused on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The research focused on the isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  3. Synthesis of MDIPA, an aromatic diamine curative for polyurethane adhesives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, F.N.

    1980-09-01

    The compound 4,4'-methylene bis-(2,6-diisopropylaniline), or MDIPA, has shown good thermal stability, high butt tensile strength, and excellent compatibility with salt when used as a curative for LLL's Halthane 87 prepolymer. Laboratory-scale synthesis of MDIPA by condensation of commercially-available 2,6-diisopropylaniline and formaldehyde has been accomplished, using the amine sulfate as an intermediate. Polymer Pilot Plant scale-up has been achieved; kilogram quantities at acceptable purity levels (98+ percent) have been produced.

  4. Simulation of the geochemical interactions in a natural CO2 deposit: the example of Springerville - Saint-Johns (USA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is a better understanding of the geochemical operating of natural analogues by the simulation of scenario representative of the evolution of site since the arrival of CO2 still today. This exercise concerns the Springerville site. Simulation tests with the PHREEQC code have been realized. This final report presents in the first part how the data are collected on a natural CO2, then a bibliographic synthesis on the observed impacts of the CO2 on a deposit. The fourth part is the simulation of the geochemical interactions in the natural CO2 deposit of Springerville. (A.L.B.)

  5. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis: Pushing to High Field Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator Technology Corp. (ATC) has successfully completed its Phase 1 effort to develop rf plasma torch synthesis of MgB2 superconducting powder. The overall objective is to de-velop a way to introduce homogeneous alloying of C and SiC impurities into phase-pure MgB2. Several groups have attained remarkable benefits from such alloying in raising the upper critical field Hc2 from ∼14 T to ∼30 T (bulk) and ∼50 T (thin films). But no one has succeeded in pro-ducing that benefit homogeneously, so that current transport in a practical powder-in-tube (PIT) conductor is largely the same as without the alloying. ATC has conceived the possibility of attaining such homogeneity by passing aerosol suspen-sions of reactant powders through an rf plasma torch, with each reactant transported on a stream-line that heats it to an optimum temperature for the synthesis reaction. This procedure would uniquely access non-equilibrium kinetics for the synthesis reaction, and would provide the possi-bility to separately control the temperature and stoichiometry of each reactant as it enters the mixing region where synthesis occurs. It also facilitates the introduction of seed particles (e.g. nanoscale SiC) to dramatically enhance the rate of the synthesis reaction compared to gas-phase synthesis in rf plasma reported by Canfield and others. During the Phase 1 effort ATC commissioned its 60 kW 5 MHz rf source for a manufactur-ing-scale rf plasma torch. This effort required repair of numerous elements, integration of cooling and input circuits, and tuning of the load characteristics. The effort was successful, and the source has now been tested to ∼full power. Also in the Phase 1 effort we encountered a subsidiary but very important problem: the world is running out of the only present supply of phase-pure amorphous boron. The starting boron powder must be in the amorphous phase in order for the synthesis reaction to produce phase-pure MgB2. Even small contamination with

  6. Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; Fiala, Dalibor; Bajec, Marko

    2014-09-01

    Modern bibliographic databases provide the basis for scientific research and its evaluation. While their content and structure differ substantially, there exist only informal notions on their reliability. Here we compare the topological consistency of citation networks extracted from six popular bibliographic databases including Web of Science, CiteSeer and arXiv.org. The networks are assessed through a rich set of local and global graph statistics. We first reveal statistically significant inconsistencies between some of the databases with respect to individual statistics. For example, the introduced field bow-tie decomposition of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography substantially differs from the rest due to the coverage of the database, while the citation information within arXiv.org is the most exhaustive. Finally, we compare the databases over multiple graph statistics using the critical difference diagram. The citation topology of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography is the least consistent with the rest, while, not surprisingly, Web of Science is significantly more reliable from the perspective of consistency. This work can serve either as a reference for scholars in bibliometrics and scientometrics or a scientific evaluation guideline for governments and research agencies.

  7. Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; Fiala, Dalibor; Bajec, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Modern bibliographic databases provide the basis for scientific research and its evaluation. While their content and structure differ substantially, there exist only informal notions on their reliability. Here we compare the topological consistency of citation networks extracted from six popular bibliographic databases including Web of Science, CiteSeer and arXiv.org. The networks are assessed through a rich set of local and global graph statistics. We first reveal statistically significant inconsistencies between some of the databases with respect to individual statistics. For example, the introduced field bow-tie decomposition of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography substantially differs from the rest due to the coverage of the database, while the citation information within arXiv.org is the most exhaustive. Finally, we compare the databases over multiple graph statistics using the critical difference diagram. The citation topology of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography is the least consistent with the rest, while, not surprisingly, Web of Science is significantly more reliable from the perspective of consistency. This work can serve either as a reference for scholars in bibliometrics and scientometrics or a scientific evaluation guideline for governments and research agencies. PMID:25263231

  8. Systematic Process Synthesis and Design Methods for Cost Effective Waste Minimization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on research done over the past four years under the grant with the above title. In addition, the report also includes a brief summary of work done before 1994 under grant DOE-DE-FG02-85ER13396. Finally, a complete list of publications that acknowledge support from this grant is listed at the end

  9. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  10. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  11. Transliteration and the exchange of computerised Greek language bibliographic records

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel, Evelyn

    1991-01-01

    The libraries of King's College, London and the University of Crete are currently involved in a project to exchange Greek language bibliographic records using both Greek and Latin characters. This has involved an investigation of the problems caused by transliteration; the setting up of a new data base of Greek records and a limited survey of the various character sets currently available to display both Greek and Roman characters.

  12. Bibliographic Control in Indonesia : past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmananta, Dady

    1998-01-01

    In monitoring printed materials published in Indonesia,the National Library of Indonesia cooperates with a range of government,commercial and foreign institutions specialising in certain fields of study in an informal information network,which is the foundation of the national library system.The author traces the origins of the National Library of Indonesia and its record in bibliographic control,and outlines achievements and current developments. He concludes that there is now an almost comp...

  13. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

  14. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, 3He, 4He, and lithium ions

  15. Scholarly monographs on rock music: a bibliographic essay

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article is an overview of scholarly monographs on rock music from 1980 to the present. It provides an overview to the literature for practical purposes of collections development as well as giving the reader insight into key issues and trends related to a interdisciplinary topic that attracts scholars from many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach: This bibliographic essay, focusing on works related to American culture and of a gen...

  16. Bibliographic study on the recovery tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the importance of tungsten as a metal and its availability in Algerian ores, many prospective missions have been organized in the hoggar region since the country has recovered its independence and autonomy in order to extract the metal. The tungsten ores which are found in the hoggar are essentially composed of wolframite. With a 100000 tons per year as a production rate and a content of W03 + Sn very rarely greater than 1% the hoggar occupies a honorrable place among the regions which are well know throughout the world to produce tungsten. The are valorization technique which has been developed is mainly a gravimetric in humid media. It consists of a local preconcentration giving birth to a preconcentrated sample that is afterwards transferred to and dealt with a central plant where the final product is obtained

  17. Bibliographic index to photonuclear reaction data (1955--1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, Tetsuo [Data Engineering, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Reactor Engineering

    1993-10-01

    Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC) has a plan to compile the evaluated data library for photon-induced nuclear reaction cross sections, and the work on the data evaluation is in progress at the present. In the evaluations for these data a bibliographic index for neutron nuclear data is required. As the bibliographic index to photonuclear reactions, several excellent compilations have been done at some research institutes in the world, and have contributed to various basic and applied researches on the photonuclear reactions. For example, there are the abstract sheets published by US National Bureau of Standards and the data index published regularly in Russia. On the other hand, the four-center network on nuclear data (US National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven, Russian Nuclear Data Center at Obninsk, NEA Data Bank at Paris and IAEA Nuclear Data Section at Vienna) compiles and exchanges the numerical data on photonuclear reactions as well as on neutron-induced ones, in the EXFOR format. Those numerical data are available for users. There is, however, no bibliographic index to photonuclear reactions, available for general users. Therefore, the present work to make a photonuclear reaction data index has been done urgently to contribute to the above-mentioned data evaluation. Although these data might be still incomplete and have some defects, we have decided to serve this as the first edition of our photonuclear reaction index.

  18. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  19. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  20. New displaying models of bibliographic data and resources: cataloguing/resource description and search results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Trombone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The logical model outlined in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records in 1998 has led to a theoretical reflection on the function of data and their organization into catalogues that hasn’t found stable effects in the representation of information yet. A consequence of the wide theoretical resonance of FRBR report was the review of regulatory codes and standards for electronic recording of bibliographic data. The first code that partly implements the FRBR model is the Italian one, published in 2009, the Italian cataloguing Rules: REICAT. The revision the Anglo-American cataloging rules has resulted in a new tool, based on the FRBR model and not set as a cataloging code: RDA. Resource Description and Access, released in 2010. To changing patterns of information models and contents’ media it has to add new information environment available to users, accustomed to using search engines as information retrieval tools, powerful and generalist.Today’s electronic catalogs are based on MARC formats for encoding of information, aimed at sharing and exchanging bibliographic records. However, the library data encoded in MARC exchange formats are invisible to search engines.Gradually, over the last few years, software modules devoted to cataloging have been differentiated from those for consultation, data visualization interfaces dedicated to users aimed to simplify the search mechanisms.One of the open issues relating to the new display systems concerns the selection and presentation of data. The sorting order is based on the criteria of relevance, which is based on scores that a software assigns to the record in relation to the weight or importance of the words entered in the search string.The new display systems of users ‘ searches, the discovery platforms that simultaneously query heterogeneous data bases for content and location, including also the OPACs, no longer use the languages of librarianship. The final display of search results

  1. The Effect of Bibliographic Instruction on the Demand for Reference Services

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, E. Stewart

    2003-01-01

    If the effect of bibliographic instruction is to create a more self reliant library user and information seeker, does this mean that bibliographic instruction programs lead to a decline in the demand for reference services? This research analyzes the data for 83 ARL academic libraries over a six year period. A regression equation fitted the data. Each student receiving bibliographic instruction increased the reference demand by two to seven questions.

  2. A bibliographic survey of bearings for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In development of a multi-purpose high-temperature gas cooled reactor, design of its mechanical elements is essential. Machinery must be safely operable in the high temperature (1,0000C), high pressure (40kg/cm2) helium environment for long time. A bibliographic review in this connection with technical reports, books, journals and patents, is presented, using NSA. As an element of the machinery bearings are classified into several categories, a bibliography on gas-lubricated bearings for 207 documents is given in chronical order. (auth.)

  3. Self-optimisation of the final stage in the synthesis of EGFR kinase inhibitor AZD9291 using an automated flow reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, N.; Akien, GR; Blacker, AJ; Woodward, RL; Meadows, RE; Bourne, RA

    2016-01-01

    Self-optimising flow reactors combine online analysis with evolutionary feedback algorithms to rapidly achieve optimum conditions. This technique has been applied to the final bond-forming step in the synthesis of AZD9291, an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor developed by AstraZeneca. A four parameter optimisation of a telescoped amide coupling followed by an elimination reaction was achieved using at-line high performance liquid chromatography. Optimisations were...

  4. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human-animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  5. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M.; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human–animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human–animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  6. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using bibliographic information to assess pet suitability of mammal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eKoene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health and/or human-animal interaction, resulting for example in stereotypies, disease and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship (HAR of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g. birds, reptiles and amphibians.

  7. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound. Final report, June 13, 1990--September 12, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-02

    The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

  8. A Survey of Primary Bibliographic Instruction Methods and Aids Currently Used in Selected Canadian Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Maureen Fanning

    This study examines bibliographic instruction methods and aids currently being used in selected Canadian academic libraries. The project's objectives included identifying: the current state of bibliographic instruction; programs or special services offered for foreign students; changes or developments that have taken place in bibliographic…

  9. A Comparison of Pricing Strategies for Bibliographical Databases on CDROM and Equivalent Printed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer; Butcher, David

    1994-01-01

    Considers comparative prices for bibliographic data on CD-ROM and in print. Topics addressed include differences in the nature of bibliographic data in the two media, the relative complexities of pricing structure, varying policies on network pricing, and standardization of the licensing arrangement. (KRN)

  10. RDA: analyses, considerations and activities by the Central Institute for the Union Catalogue of Italian Libraries and Bibliographic Information (ICCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Buttò

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The report aims to analyze the applicability of the Resource Description and Access (RDA within the Italian public libraries, and also in the archives and museums in order to contribute to the discussion at international level. The Central Institute for the Union Catalogue of Italian libraries (ICCU manages the online catalogue of the Italian libraries and the network of bibliographic services. ICCU has the institutional task of coordinating the cataloging and the documentation activities for the Italian libraries. On March 31 st 2014, the Institute signed the Agreement with the American Library Association,Publishing ALA, for the Italian translation rights of RDA, now available and published inRDAToolkit. The Italian translation has been carried out and realized by the Technical Working Group, made up of the main national and academic libraries, cultural Institutions and bibliographic agencies. The Group started working from the need of studying the new code in its textual detail, to better understand the principles, purposes, and applicability and finally its sustainability within the national context in relation to the area of the bibliographic control. At international level, starting from the publication of the Italian version of RDA and through the research carried out by ICCU and by the national Working Groups, the purpose is a more direct comparison with the experiences of the other European countries, also within EURIG international context, for an exchange of experiences aimed at strengthening the informational content of the data cataloging, with respect to history, cultural traditions and national identities of the different countries.

  11. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--March 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  12. Issues in student training and use of electronic bibliographic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Catterall

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to bibliographic databases, online and on CD-ROM, is advantageous for the academic community (East, 1993; Squires, 1993. Developments in communications and information technology mean that students, as well as academic staff, now have direct access to these databases (Tenopir and Ennis, 1998. This permits them to access a wider range of journal articles for research and project work than is usually available in a university library. There is an additional pay-off for business studies students since they have opportunities to develop the database search and retrieval skills they will need when they enter business and the professions (Taylor, 1996; Wisendanger, 1994. In some professions, such as law and public relations, access to specialist databases is essential to undertaking certain types of professional work (Taylor, 1996. Graduates who know where to locate information and how to access, retrieve and use information are valuable assets to employers.

  13. Using Bibliographic Knowledge for Ranking in Scientific Publication Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, Martin; Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Document ranking for scientific publications involves a variety of specialized resources (e.g. author or citation indexes) that are usually difficult to use within standard general purpose search engines that usually operate on large-scale heterogeneous document collections for which the required specialized resources are not always available for all the documents present in the collections. Integrating such resources into specialized information retrieval engines is therefore important to cope with community-specific user expectations that strongly influence the perception of relevance within the considered community. In this perspective, this paper extends the notion of ranking with various methods exploiting different types of bibliographic knowledge that represent a crucial resource for measuring the relevance of scientific publications. In our work, we experimentally evaluated the adequacy of two such ranking methods (one based on freshness, i.e. the publication date, and the other on a novel index, the ...

  14. Toward element-level interoperability in bibliographic metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Childress

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an approach and set of tools for translating bibliographic metadata from one format to another. A computational model is proposed to formalize the notion of a 'crosswalk'. The translation process separates semantics from syntax, and specifies a crosswalk as machine executable translation files which are focused on assertions of element equivalence and are closely associated with the underlying intellectual analysis of metadata translation. A data model developed by the authors called Morfrom serves as an internal generic metadata format. Translation logic is written in an XML scripting language designed by the authors called the Semantic Equivalence Expression Language (Seel. These techniques have been built into an OCLC software toolkit to manage large and diverse collections of metadata records, called the Crosswalk Web Service.

  15. Mécanismes, cinétique et catalyse de la liquéfaction du charbon par hydrogénation sous pression. Synthèse bibliographique. Première partie Mechanisms, Kinetics and Catalysis of Coal Liquefaction by Hydrogenation under Pressure. Bibliographic Synthesis. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres-Besson M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les sources d'énergie et de matières premières capables de se substituer au pétrole et au gaz naturel, le charbon figure en bonne place. Les procédés de transformation du charbon en liquides et gaz sont nombreux, parmi lesquels l'hydroliquéfaction. Cette revue est un examen bibliographique des études fondamentales relatives à l'hydroliquéfaction. Les mécanismes généraux de l'hydroliquéfaction sont passés en revue: dissolution physique du charbon, formation de radicaux libres par rupture thermique des liaisons faibles, conversion de composés modèles possédant les groupements fonctionnels présents dans le charbon et pouvant servir de point de départ pour la rupture, stabilisation de ces radicaux par l'hydrogène provenant soit des composés hydroaromatiques de l'huile de recyclage, soit du charbon lui-même. Les méthodes de séparation et de caractérisation des produits de liquéfaction sont décrites, ainsi que les nombreux modèles cinétiques proposés. La nature des matières minérales et leur rôle catalytique sont décrits. Les catalyseurs ajoutés (hétérogènes, sels fondus ou homogènes sont cités et leurs effets sont étudiés, en particulier l'action favorable des sulfures de fer et des catalyseurs à l'étain. L'effet promoteur de H2S pour la liquéfaction et les causes possibles de désactivation des catalyseurs sont cités. Among sources of energy and raw materials capable of being used in place of oil and natural gas, coal is in a good position. There are many processes for transforming coal into liquids and gas. One of them is hydroliquefaction. This article is a bibliographic review of fundamental research concerning hydroliquefaction. The general mechanisms of hydroliquefaction are reviewed, i. e. the physical dissolution of coal, the formation of free radicals by the thermal breaking of weak bonds, the conversion of model compounds containing the same functional groups as the ones present in coal

  16. Chemistry of fluoronitro compounds. IX. Synthesis of fluoronitro binder systems. Final report, August 1, 1970-March 1, 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H.M.; Simon, R.L.; Hill, M.E.

    1971-03-01

    Synthesis of bis(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)difluoroformal and synthetic studies of tris(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethoxy)-2,3-epoxypropyl orthocarbonate, 1,1,1-tris(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)-2,3-epoxypropane, orthocarbonate prepolymers, and bis(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) dichloroformal are discussed.

  17. The Cybernetics of Bibliographic Control: Toward a Theory of Document Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans H.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the concept of cataloging, analyzes its functions and operations, and holds that as a control system bibliographic organization is subject to the laws of cybernetics. The role of relevance and the limitations of some regulatory devices are examined. (FM)

  18. Automated management of C.E.A. libraries: description and format of bibliographic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data element definitions and record structure are given for various types of bibliographic entities, corresponding to the following documents: books, periodicals, conference proceedings, reports, theses, conference papers, preprints, patents

  19. Diseno y desarrollo de una base de datos bibliograficos (Design and Development of a Bibliographic Database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenella, L. E.; Velazco, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This article briefly describes the development of bibliographic retrieval systems in the Instituto de Beneficio di Minerales (IN BE MI) in Salta, Argentina, using the Mini-micro CDS/ISIS software developed by Unesco. (LRW)

  20. A Faceted Data Model for Bibliographic Integration Between MARC and FRBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC and Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR are currently the most broadly used bibliographic structures for generating bibliographic data in the library community, each has its own weaknesses in describing information resources in diverse media. If the MARC format could be implemented in a structure that reflects the multi-layered characteristics of FRBR, its use could address current problems and limitations in resource description. The purpose of this research is to propose an alternative approach that can integrate the heterogeneous bibliographic structures of MARC and FRBR through the applications of facet and facet analysis. The proposed faceted data model is expected to function as a conceptual structure that can mediate between MARC data elements and FRBR attributes in order to utilize these structures in a more reliable and comprehensive way.

  1. An experimental evaluation of the instrumented flux synthesis method for the real-time estimation of reactivity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One method of determining the flux density is flux synthesis which approximates the flux in the core by linear combinations of precomputed shape functions. In traditional flux synthesis, the unknown mixing coefficients are determined using a weighted residual method of solving the diffusion equation. In the instrumented synthesis method, the mixing coefficients are determined using count rates from neutron detectors in the core. In this way the mixing coefficients are linked to conditions in the reactor. Using the synthesized flux, kinetics parameters, notably reactivity, can be calculated in real time. An experimental evaluation has been performed in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor, MITR-II. Detector measurements have been collected using fission chambers placed at the periphery of the core. The reactor was put into a number of various conditions, both static and transient, and data were collected using a digital acquisition system for later combination with shape functions. Transients included increasing power, decreasing power, and a reactor scram. The shape functions were generated using Version 3.0 of the QUARTZ code, a quadratic nodal diffusion theory code in triangular-Z geometry. Supernodal analysis algorithms have been added to the original program, along with subroutines to guarantee diagonal dominance of the leakage matrix in the finite difference or quadratic current approximations in the coarse mesh. The agreement between coarse mesh and fine mesh in all cases is excellent, with finite difference coarse mesh solutions generally slightly better. The synthesis method has been shown to accurately reflect the changes from an initial condition by combining representative flux shapes. It can be concluded that, with proper calibration of the measurement system and inclusion of representative flux shapes, the instrumented synthesis method will properly predict the flux in the core under a number of conditions

  2. On the uncertainty of interdisciplinarity measurements due to incomplete bibliographic data

    OpenAIRE

    Calatrava Moreno, María del Carmen; Auzinger, Thomas; Werthner, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of interdisciplinarity measurements is directly related to the quality of the underlying bibliographic data. Existing indicators of interdisciplinarity are not capable of reflecting the inaccuracies introduced by incorrect and incomplete records because correct and complete bibliographic data can rarely be obtained. This is the case for the Rao–Stirling index, which cannot handle references that are not categorized into disciplinary fields. We introduce a method that addresses th...

  3. Development of a flexible tool for the automatic comparison of bibliographic records. Application to sample collections

    OpenAIRE

    Borel, Alain; Krause, Jan Brice

    2009-01-01

    Due to the multiplication of digital bibliographic catalogues (open repositories, library and bookseller catalogues), information specialists are facing the challenge of mass-processing huge amounts of metadata for various purposes. Among the many possible applications, determining the similarity between records is an important issue. Such a similarity can be interesting from a bibliographic point of view (i.e., do the records describe the same document, the answer to which can be useful for ...

  4. The World Wide Web and Libraries: From Search Interface to Bibliographic Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyche, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is rapidly being adopted by libraries and database vendors as a front end for bibliographic databases, reflecting the fact that the Web browser is becoming a universal tool. When the Web is also used for bibliographic instruction about these Web-based resources, it is possible to build tutorials incorporating actual screens from a database. The result is a realistic, highly interactive simulation of database search­ing that can provide a very detailed level of instruction.

  5. Bibliographical review on the teaching and learning of cell structure and functing

    OpenAIRE

    María Luz Rodríguez Palmero

    1997-01-01

    Bibliographic review with the aim of determing the role played by the knowledge of the cell in learning Biology. Nineteen papers have been considered under the following criteria : subject, sample, instrument, results and relevant conclusions. It also comprises eight bibliographic reviews on the subject and conclusions of Biology concepts learning. The information which has been obtained has been presented with graphics and an epistemological V which summarizes it.

  6. The real world of bibliographic data: managing and exchanging marketing data at Arsenal Pulp Press

    OpenAIRE

    Grabham, Elizabeth Anne

    2007-01-01

    This report explores how Arsenal Pulp Press participated in a bibliographic data exchange network with its online retail and data aggregation partners in Canada from May 2005 to May 2006. Looking specifically at the data requirements of Amazon.ca, BookManager, Bowker’s Books In Print, and Indigo Books & Music, this report observes the challenges faced by this midsize, independent publisher when it used a bibliographic database management system to store and distribute industry-standard ma...

  7. The bibliographical documentation in the Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The presentation of the following work serves to display the recourses which the Information Center (I.C.) - Ezeiza Sector of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Argentine Republic possesses. These recourses help the investigation and application of the regulatory subject as well as the scientific technical community, which uses the information about radiation protection and nuclear safety. Periodical publications, reports, books, standards, etc., are specified quantitatively in detail. Mainly, the automated means are emphasized in order to get to safe ways of information. Data bases in CD-ROM are also enumerated. These are now essential in order to track down the expert information on each theme. The most outstanding ones among these data bases are: INIS, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Nuclear Regulatory Library, Medline and Poltox. Some recourses for obtaining important documents are mentioned, e.g.: The British Library, HMSO and NTIS, as well as addresses of institutions, catalogues of publication on Internet, etc., which allow an easy access to the bibliography required. An evaluation of periodical publications by the Information Center is carried out, as well as information about users connected to the request of bibliographical searches and documents. (author)

  8. MULTIPROCESSOR AND DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA BASE SOFTWARE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miya, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Multiprocessors and distributed processing are undergoing increased scientific scrutiny for many reasons. It is more and more difficult to keep track of the existing research in these fields. This package consists of a large machine-readable bibliographic data base which, in addition to the usual keyword searches, can be used for producing citations, indexes, and cross-references. The data base is compiled from smaller existing multiprocessing bibliographies, and tables of contents from journals and significant conferences. There are approximately 4,000 entries covering topics such as parallel and vector processing, networks, supercomputers, fault-tolerant computers, and cellular automata. Each entry is represented by 21 fields including keywords, author, referencing book or journal title, volume and page number, and date and city of publication. The data base contains UNIX 'refer' formatted ASCII data and can be implemented on any computer running under the UNIX operating system. The data base requires approximately one megabyte of secondary storage. The documentation for this program is included with the distribution tape, although it can be purchased for the price below. This bibliography was compiled in 1985 and updated in 1988.

  9. Synthesis and biological incorporation of icons into macromolecules for NMR study. Final report, June 1, 1977--May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.M.; Horton, W.J.

    1978-05-31

    Carbon-13 enrichment synthesis and incorporation into three important biological systems have been carried out to provide materials for carbon-13 magnetic resonance studies. These systems include antibody-labeled haptens, labeled t-RNA and 5S-RNA molecules, and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-labeled substrate mixtures. The synthesis phase of the work has been completed in all three cases, and the NMR studies completed on all but the antibody-hapten system which is still in process having been absorbed into other supported projects. Publications are now in preparation for the RNA and pyridoxal work. Preliminary results on the antibody-haptens work are encouraging as signals of antibody absorbed haptens have been observed but the results are still not yet conclusive.

  10. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures: a final review of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs working to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it has been the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multi-organizational team for future incorporating of this new technology into each members respective product lines. Over the twenty-four month program many new improvements in sensors, actuators, modeling, manufacturing/integration and controls have been realized. The paper outlines the four phases of development in the program and the impact some of the key technologies will have on the smart structure development process in the future.

  11. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1995-01-15

    The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

  12. Available forest biomass for new energetic and industrial prospects. Part 1: analysis and synthesis of existing studies compiled at the international level. Part 2: volume calculations. Part 3: economic part. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by new energetic constraints and the interest of biomass, the authors report a bibliographical survey of studies concerning the evaluation of the available forest biomass. They comment the geographical and time distribution of the identified and compiled studies. They analyse their different topics. Then, they discuss the various field hypotheses, discuss and comments various resource assessment methodologies. They comment the resource the French forest can be, present a synthesis of the available resource at the regional level according to the different studies. They propose a review of some technical-economical aspects (costs, energy cost, price evolutions, improvement of the wood-energy mobilization). The second part proposes a whole set of volume calculations for different forest types (clusters or plantations of trees, copses, sawmills products), for industry and household consumption. It discusses the available volumes with respect to accessibility, additional available volumes, and possible improvements. The third part analyses, comments and discusses the wood market and wood energetic uses, and the possible supply curves for wood energetic uses by 2016

  13. Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991--December 11, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Deemer, M.; Richards-Babb, M.; Carr, T.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate sulfur-resistant catalysts for the conversion of synthesis gas having H{sub 2}/CO {le} 1 into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols, especially ethanol, by a highly selective and efficient pathway, while also promoting the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The catalysts chosen are bifunctional, base-hydrogenation, sulfur-tolerant transition metal sulfides with heavy alkali, e.g. Cs{sup +}, promoter dispersed on their surfaces. The modes of activation of H{sub 2} and CO on MoS{sub 2} and alkali-doped MoS{sub 2} were considered, and computational analyses of the thermodynamic stability of transition metal sulfides and of the electronic structure of these sulfide catalysts were carried out. In the preparation of the cesium-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts, a variety of preparation methods using CsOOCH were examined. In all cases, doping with CsOOCH led to a lost of surface area. The undoped molybdenum disulfide catalyst only produced hydrocarbons. Cs-doped MoS{sub 2} catalysts all produced linear alcohols, along with smaller amounts of hydrocarbons. With a 20 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, temperature, pressure, and flow rate dependences of the synthesis reactions were investigated in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}/CO = 1/1 synthesis gas during short term testing experiments. It was shown that with a carefully prepared 10 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, reproducible and high alcohol synthesis activity could be obtained. For example, at 295 C with H{sub 2}/CO = 1 synthesis gas at 8.3 MPa and with GHSV = 7,760 l/kg cat/hr, the total alcohol space time yield was ca 300 g/kg cat/hr (accompanied with a hydrocarbon space time yield of ca 60 g/kg cat/hr). Over a testing period of ca 130 hr, no net deactivation of the catalyst was observed. 90 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Climate and Land Use Change Effects on Ecological Resources in Three Watersheds: A Synthesis Report (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this final report is to provide a summary of climate change impacts to selected watersheds and recommendations for how to improve the process of conducting watershed assessments in the future.

  15. Prefullerenes and fullerenes. Synthesis, inclusion phenomena and derivatisation. Final report; Praefullerene und Fullerene. Synthese, Einschlussverhalten und Derivatisierun. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, J.; Harder, G.; Osterodt, J.; Siepen, A.; Zett, A.; Voegtle, F.

    1994-09-01

    L1. Synthesis and separation of isomers of crowned methanofullerenes and investigations of the complex properties: Some benzo[15]crown-5 substituted methano[60]fullerenes have been synthesized, the isomers have been separated firstly and characterised. The complex properties have also been investigated. L2. X-ray determination of cyclopropane structure in methanofullerenes: The first X-ray crystal structure of a methanofullerene with a methanonaphthalin structure succeeded with [(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)phenylmethano][60]fullerene. L3. Azobenzene-spacered bis(methanofullerenes): The coupling of two Buckministerfullerenes with functionalized groups, that can be switched optically or electronically (e.g. azobenzene), leads to new difullerenes. The interaction between two fullerenes could be used as a sound. II.1. Preparative synthesis of the concave hydrocarbons C{sub 36}H{sub 36}, C{sub 54}H{sub 48} and C{sub 60}H{sub 60} and silverion extractions: Basing on the synthesis of C{sub 36}H{sub 36}, the spherical hydrocarbons C{sub 54}H{sub 48} and C{sub 60}H{sub 60} have been synthesized. The new carbocycles are able to extract silver ions from aqueous solution, with C{sub 60}H{sub 60} showing the highest extraction efficiency. II.2. Preparative synthesis of compounds on the way to double-bond connected prefullerenes: New strategies for the synthesis of double-bond connected hydrocarbons have been made and direct precursors have been synthesized. III.1 One-step synthesis of fullerenes by pyrolysis Fullerenes were detected in the residue of the pyrolysis of some hydrocarbons. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] L1. Synthese und Isomerentrennung verkronter Methanofullerene sowie Untersuchungen der komplexchemischen Eigenschaften: Diverse Benzo[15]krone-5 substituierte Methano[60]fullerene wurden synthetisiert, die entstehenden Isomere erstmals getrennt, charakterisiert und die komplexchemischen Eigenschaften untersucht. L2. Roentgenstrukturnachweis der Cyclopropanstruktur in

  16. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharmacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCT agents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron

  17. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  18. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-10-25

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: (1) development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas, (2) optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syngas, (3) evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas, (4) development of a membrane-based pervaporation system, (5) optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation, and (6) synthesis gas fermentation in single-stage by co-culture. Progress is reported in isolation of CO utilizing anaerobic strains; investigating the product profile for the fermentation of syngas by B. methylotrophicum; and determining the effect of carbon monoxide on growth of C. acetobutylicum.

  19. Combustion synthesis and engineering nanoparticles for electronic, structural and superconductor applications. Final report, May 31, 1992--May 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangle, G.C.; Schulze, W.A.; Amarakoon, V.R.W.

    1996-05-30

    Dense, nanocrystalline ceramic articles of doped ZrO{sub 2} (for use in solid electrolytes, oxygen sensors, electrode materials, thermal barrier coatings, etc.), BaTiO{sub 3} (for capacitor applications), and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (a high-temperature superconductor with uses, e.g., in magnetic flux trapping and high-speed capacitor applications) were prepared by the new nanofabrication process that has been developed in this research program. The process consists of two steps: synthesis of ceramic nanoparticles, and fabrication of dense ceramic articles that possess nanocrystalline features. The synthesis step is capable of producing 10-nanometer-diameter crystallites of doped ZrO{sub 2}, and of being scaled up to kilogram/hour production rates. The fabrication step produced dense, ultrafine-grained articles at significantly reduced sintering temperatures and times--representing a factor of 10-100 reduction in process energy requirements. The process has thus been shown to be technically feasible, while a preliminary engineering cost analysis of a pilot plant-scale version of the process indicates that it is both a cost- and an energy-efficient method of producing nanoparticles and nanocrystalline ceramics from those nanoparticles. One U.S. patent for this process has been allowed, and an additional five (continuation-in-part) applications have been filed. Technology transfer efforts have begun, through ongoing discussions with representatives from three manufacturing concerns.

  20. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Total synthesis of avermectins part 2: enantioselective synthesis of the C10-C25 northern fragment and final steps for the construction of the 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b aglycone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total synthesis of the aglycone of 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b involves a retrosynthetic two building-blocks approach. A Stille Pd(O) catalysed cross-coupling reaction is carried out between a northern C10-C25 E-vinylstannane and a southern C1-C9 vinyl iodide. The final steps include successive removal of the carboxyl β-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl protecting group of the intermediate secoester, macrolactonization under Yonemitsu's conditions and removal of the 5-O-TBS protecting group. These last steps have been carried out with the aid of a relay study from commercial Ivermectin; a macrolactone opening reaction of the aglycone in the presence of Ti(OiPr)4 has been developed where the crucial Δ3,4 double bond as well as the configuration at C-2 where totally preserved. (authors). 46 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. AUTltORITY CONTROL REGARDING CHINESE PERSONAL NAMES:Enhancement and Linkage with the Bibliographic Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbrahamJ.Yu

    1994-01-01

    Authority control is critical for the quality of the bibliographic database. Authority control is important in guiding users from variant forms of headings to the controlled forms of headings and providing users with the related headings. With authority control, the forms of headings in the bibliographic records are consista,t and easy to access. Authority control not only increases the accuracy of searching but also makes retrieving records from the online bibliographic database easier. In the first part of the paper, the author brings out three formats for Chinese personal names in the online environment. Tire second part presents a new model for better authority control regarding Chinese presonal names. In the last part, the author emphasizes the importance of linking the online authority records with the bibliographic database. The quality of the database can be improved dramatically by providing vernacular access capability to the name authorty, records and ensuring that every personal name heading in the bibliographic records have corresponding Library of Congress name authority records。

  3. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  4. DOE SBIR Phase I Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER83067, ''A Flexible and Economical Automated Nucleophilic [18F]Fluorination synthesis System for PET Radiopharmaceuticals.'' Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase I Final Report. A prototype manual remote synthesis system based on the unit operations approach was designed, constructed, and functionally tested. This general-purpose system was validated by its configuration and initial use for the preparation of the PET radiopharmaceutical [F-18]FLT using [F-18]fluoride ion

  5. Computer and Network Relational Study for Building the National Bibliographic Information Network (NBINet in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ching Emily Yang

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Bibliographic Information Network (NBINet is a bibliographic database established on October 30, 1991 and maintained by Taiwan's National Library (National Central Library. Initially, the database included 18 member libraries (16 from national universities and 2 from the public libraries. In 1998, there are 26 member libraries and 70 non-member libraries joined the NBINet. This NBINet has been considered a comprehensive and important database for Chinese studies worldwide and offered more than 1.6 million entries of bibliography records on June 1997. This paper consists three perspectives of NBINet : (1 NBINet's problems and solutions in relation to computerization and the Internet, (2 its connection with Taiwan Academic Network (TANet and Internet, (3 and users' expectation toward NBINet. Hopefully, this kind of the experience for establishing a bibliographic database can be used as a reference for others who may want 10 build up a similier database. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Accidents and incidents in the nuclear area occurred in Latin American and Caribbean. Bibliographical compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents bibliographic information about nuclear accidents/incidents related in Latin America and the Caribbean, from January 1962 to September 2000, most of in indexed in the major bibliographic information for this subject area. The information is arranged chronologically, beginning with the year when the first even occurred. Each accident/incident includes information on the date and place of the occurrence, a description of it and an alphabetical list of the publications that cover of refer to it, with a note on availability of access to the full text mostly in cases of non conventional literature. (author)

  7. Multilingual query expansion in the Svemed+ bibliographic database : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gavel, Ylva; Andersson, Per-Olov

    2014-01-01

    SveMed+ is a bibliographic database covering Scandinavian medical journals. It is produced by the University Library of Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. The bibliographic references are indexed with terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus. The MeSH has been translated into several languages including Swedish, making it suitable as the basis for multilingual tools in the medical field. The data structure of SveMed+ closely mimics that of PubMed/MEDLINE. Users of PubMe...

  8. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what

  9. BIBLIO-DATA, the national bibliographical data bank of the Deutsche Bibliothek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part A introduces the German national bibliographical data bank BIBLIO-DATA is based on the Information-Retrieval-System STAIRS from IBM which was improved by additional programs of ZMD. The primary emphases of this article is on the discussion of the BIBLIO-DATA concept according to which the data of 'Deutsche Bibliographie' are being prepared and stored suitable for information retrieval. BIBLIO-DATA is based on national bibliographical data, the characteristics, problems and deficiencies due to this fact are mentioned very detailed. Two additional comments show the various possibilities of research with BIBLIO-DATA by means of some examples in order to show that the research work is not only faster but also much more effective. Part B proves that BIBLIO-DATA cannot automate the analysis of contents or the allocation of subject heading. At the present state of operation BIBLIO-DATA has to support the conventional-intellectual work of subject cataloguing by retrospective research especially because of the considerably facilitated access to former indexing results. Part C describes the practical work with BIBLIO-DATA concerning bibliographical research and literature compilation and comes to the conclusion that effective bibliographical work is based on an appropriate combination of data-bank retrieval and conventional research work. (orig.)

  10. Construction of a bibliographic information database and a web directory for the nuclear science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to construct the bibliographic information database and the web directory in the nuclear field. Its construction is very timely and important. Because nuclear science and technology has an considerable effect all over the other sciences and technologies due to its property of giant and complex engineering. We aimed to firmly build up a basis of efficient management of the bibliographic information database and the web directory in the nuclear field. The results of this project that we achieved in this year are as follows : first, construction of the bibliographic information database in the nuclear field(the target title: 1,500 titles ; research report: 1,000 titles, full-text report: 250 titles, full-text article: 250 titles). Second, completion of construction of the web directory in the nuclear field by using SWING (the total figure achieved : 2,613 titles). We plan that we will positively give more information to the general public interested in the nuclear field and to the experts of the field through this bibliographic information database on KAERI's home page, KAERI's electronic library and other related sites as well as participation at various seminars and meetings related to the nuclear field

  11. Bibliographic Post-Processing with the TIS Intelligent Gateway: Analytical and Communication Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hilary D.

    TIS (Technology Information System) is an intelligent gateway system capable of performing quantitative evaluation and analysis of bibliographic citations using a set of Process functions. Originally developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to analyze information retrieved from three major federal databases, DOE/RECON,…

  12. The Organization of Knowledge and Bibliographic Classification in Nineteenth-Century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Bibliographic classification is culturally bound. This research examines the classification systems created for social libraries in the first half of the nineteenth century in the United States. Social libraries are defined as institutions that have voluntary membership and are dependent on membership fees. Seventeen classified catalogs were…

  13. How Much of Cited Conference Materials Can Be Found Using Bibliographic Tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruyuki; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study which examined coverage by bibliographic tools of conference materials cited in journal articles for six fields: mathematics, physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, and mechanical engineering. It is concluded that cited conference material is difficult to find using general bibliographic…

  14. EARS: An Online Bibliographic Search and Retrieval System Based on Ordered Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R.; Drury, Colin G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides overview of Ergonomics Abstracts Retrieval System (EARS), an online bibliographic search and retrieval system in the area of human factors engineering. Other online systems are described, the design of EARS based on inverted file organization is explained, and system expansions including a thesaurus are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  15. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study...

  16. The Relationship between BIBFRAME and OCLC's Linked-Data Model of Bibliographic Description: A Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godby, Carol Jean

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a proposed alignment between BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) and a model being explored by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) with extensions proposed by the Schema Bib Extend project, a Worldwide Web Consortium sponsored (W3C-sponsored) community group tasked with enhancing Schema.org to the description of…

  17. Building a Nationwide Bibliographic Database: The Role of Local Shared Automated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Louella V.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the actual and potential impact of local shared automated library systems on the development of a comprehensive nationwide bibliographic database (NBD). Shared local automated systems are described; four local shared automated system models are compared; and the current interface between local shared automated library systems and the NBD…

  18. Radiation Chemistry Data Center: information services produced from the bibliographic data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic data base covering radiation chemistry and photochemistry and currently containing 50,000 references is used to generate current-awareness publications, literature searches and other reference aids. The content and structure of the data base are described along with procedures for storage, retrieval and reformatting of information therefrom. (author)

  19. THE INTEGRATION, STORAGE, AND RETRIEVAL OF BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA IN ENGLISH STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAWIN, LEWIS; AND OTHERS

    THE INTEGRATED BIBLIOGRAPHY PILOT STUDY EXPLORED PROBLEMS INHERENT IN CREATION OF AN INFORMATION SERVICE USING A SINGLE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL COMPILATION CONTAINING EVERY ITEM WHICH HAS EVER BEEN LISTED IN A MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ENGLISH STUDIES. PROVISION WAS MADE ALSO FOR CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF NEW ITEMS. A COMPUTER-BASED INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM…

  20. Utilizing Natural Structure of the Research Literature in Psychology as a Model for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, L. James

    1979-01-01

    Offered as an alternative to the search strategy model for bibliographic instruction, the approach to library instruction in psychology which is described involves analysis of the natural structure of the research literature. An example using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is presented. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  1. Borehole Breakout. Bibliographic Synthesis L'ovalisation des trous de forages. Synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauer P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural borehole breakout (borehole cross-section elongation due to the fracturing and spalling of well walls has been used in recent years to determine the direction of stress in the Earth's crust. Its performances and scope of application are compared to those of other methods used in boreholes. An initial selection of information obtained by different logging tools appeared necessary to prevent any contamination of measurements by phenomena independent of deformation under stress. The principal parameters governing the amplitude and frequency of the phenomenon are reviewed. The outlook for the future of the method are examined, including the recent development of research on borehole breakout by the plastic deformation of the surrounding formations. L'ovalisation naturelle des trous de forages par fracturation et écaillage des parois du puits est utilisée, depuis quelques années, pour déterminer la direction des contraintes dans la croûte. Ses performances et son champ d'application sont comparés à ceux des autres méthodes utilisées dans les forages. Une sélection initiale de l'information fournie par les différents outils diagraphiques apparaît nécessaire, pour éviter toutes contaminations des mesures par des phénomènes indépendants de la déformation sous contraintes. Les principaux paramètres contrôlant l'ampleur et la fréquence du phénomène sont passés en revue. Enfin, les perspectives concernant l'avenir de la méthode, et parmi celles-ci le développement récent de l'étude de l'ovalisation par la déformation plastique de l'encaissant, sont examinées.

  2. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides

  3. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  4. Elements of Resource Representation in Institutional Repositories: a Bibliographic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Texier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on identifying how the literature studies the existing problems in the Resource Representation (RR of Institutional Repositories (IR. RR is a process of recording in a persistent manner a set of data (metadata as a synthesis and replacement of the "real" object, to allow its identification, retrieval and dissemination. RR is defined by certain elements: resources, metadata schema, storage and cataloging. On the other hand, IRs are based on functional processes according to the material that is deposited and the ISO 14.721 standard: ingest, storage, cataloging,indexing, search engine and browsing. The results of this review show that identifying the problems found in these elements and functional processes is not a subject of study for the researchers, which leads to a vacant area in this field, and in this way to solve some of the problems present in the RI, from the point of view of functional elements and processes.

  5. Application of Bibliographic Coupling versus Cited Titles Words in Patent Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Kermani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Attribute selection is one of the steps before patent clustering. Various attributes can be used for clustering. In this study, the effect of using citation and citation title words, respectively, in form of bibliographic coupling and citation title words sharing, were measured and compared with each other, as patent attributes. This study was done in an experimental method, on a collection of 717 US Patent cited in the patents belong to 977/774 subclass of US Patent Classification. Fuzzy C-means was used for patent clustering and extended BCubed precision and extended BCubed recall were used as evaluation measure. The results showed that the clustering produced by bibliographic coupling had better performance than clustering used citation title words and existence of cluster structure were in a wider range of exhaustivity than citation title words.

  6. From ISIS to CouchDB: Databases and Data Models for Bibliographic Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ramalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades bibliographic data has been stored in non-relational databases, and thousands of libraries in developing countries still use ISIS databases to run their OPACs. Fast forward to 2010 and the NoSQL movement has shown that non-relational databases are good enough for Google, Amazon.com and Facebook. Meanwhile, several Open Source NoSQL systems have appeared. This paper discusses the data model of one class of NoSQL products, semistructured, document-oriented databases exemplified by Apache CouchDB and MongoDB, and why they are well-suited to collective cataloging applications. Also shown are the methods, tools, and scripts used to convert, from ISIS to CouchDB, bibliographic records of LILACS, a key Latin American and Caribbean health sciences index operated by the Pan-American Health Organization.

  7. Identifying FRBR Work-Level Data in MARC Bibliographic Records for Manifestations of Moving Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Bisko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The library metadata community is dealing with the challenge of implementing the conceptual model, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR. In response, the Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC created a task force to study the issues related to creating and using FRBR-based work-level records for moving images. This article presents one part of the task force's work: it looks at the feasibility of creating provisional FRBR work-level records for moving images by extracting data from existing manifestation-level bibliographic records. Using a sample of 941 MARC records, a subgroup of the task force conducted a pilot project to look at five characteristics of moving image works. Here they discuss their methodology; analysis; selected results for two elements, original date (year and director name; and conclude with some suggested changes to MARC coding and current cataloging policy.

  8. The past is a foreign country: transforming a bibliographic services team from copy cataloguers to metadata creators

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helen K. R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 LSE's Bibliographic Services team took on the responsibility of metadata creation for the Institutional Repository. This paper outlines the background to this decision and the preparation and practicalities involved in redefining our workflows. Reflections are made on the successes and learning points of managing change and updating skillsets to make a traditional Bibliographic Services team relevant to the 21st century cataloguing environment. In conclusion the paper considers how ...

  9. A bottom-up approach to assess the interdisciplinarity of journals from a multidisciplinary corpus of bibliographical records

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Ivana; Besagni, Dominique; François, Claire; Hörlesberger, Marianne; Schiebel, Edgar L

    2013-01-01

    This work is investigating the possibility of assessing the interdisciplinarity of scientific and technological journals without using any taxonomy or classification scheme as those usually adopted in bibliographical databases. For that, we start from a large corpus of bibliographic records from which we extract terms, either keywords already present or obtained by text mining techniques. With the help of a clustering method, that corpus is split into clusters defining a given number of scien...

  10. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review; Investigacion de irradiacion de frutas: revision bibliografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1991-01-15

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  11. A bibliographical review on the radiolysis of uranyl nitrate solutions in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographical study on the effects of ionizing radiation on uranyl nitrate solutions in nitric acid medium was performed, and the state of knowledge on this subject is presented. The main experimental and theoretical results on water, nitric acid and uranium solutions radiolysis are reviewed and critically evaluated. This paper provides a collection of references as an aid to the development of practical applications, and to stimulate new research on fundamental processes in these systems. (author)

  12. Bibliographic research and critical inquiry: a learning module for graduate students in health services administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M. D.; Salisbury, L

    1985-01-01

    Critical to the success of contemporary health administration practice is the ability to identify, access, synthesize, apply, and report information from a diversity of sources. To enhance the critical logic and bibliographic research skills of first-semester graduate students in health services administration, a fifteen-hour learning module was collaboratively developed and integrated into a required course on health care organization. Reference librarians and health administration faculty p...

  13. Accessing the literature: using bibliographic databases to find journal articles. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Marlborough, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Research in primary dental care, recertification, continuing professional development, lifelong learning, peer review and quality healthcare are all informed by the published literature. Dental practitioners can find out about reliable and up-to-date information available in the published literature by searching bibliographic databases. Published in two parts, this article describes the databases relevant to clinical dental practice and explains the generic skills required to search them effe...

  14. Can we track the geography of surnames based on bibliographic data?

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Noyons, Ed; Costas, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using bibliographic databases for tracking the geographic origin of surnames. Surnames are used as a proxy to determine the ethnic, genetic or geographic origin of individuals in many fields such as Genetics or Demography; however they could also be used for bibliometric purposes such as the analysis of scientific migration flows. Here we present two relevant methodologies for determining the most probable country to which a surname could be assigne...

  15. Indexing Bibliographic Database Content Using MariaDB and Sphinx Search Server

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Nugraha

    2014-01-01

    Fast retrieval of digital content has become mandatory for library and archive information systems. Many software applications have emerged to handle the indexing of digital content, from low-level ones such Apache Lucene, to more RESTful and web-services-ready ones such Apache Solr and ElasticSearch. Solr’s popularity among library software developers makes it the “de-facto” standard software for indexing digital content. For content (full-text content or bibliographic description) already s...

  16. Bibliographic data on surface processes in particle-material interactions published in Japan, 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on surface processes in particle-material interactions for fusion technology have been surveyed and collected over 24 publications which have been published during January, 1986 - December, 1987 in Japan. The bibliographic data in the form of data sheets were sent to the International Data Center in IAEA. This report presents 97 selected data sheets arranged in the order of codes of relevant phenomena. A list of literature is given. (author) 159 refs

  17. Ref2RIS: Importing Word-Processed Bibliographies into Bibliographic Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Fitchett

    2012-01-01

    Many who would benefit the most from timesaving bibliographic managers hesitate to adopt the technology due to the difficulties in importing legacy bibliographies developed over years. Existing shortcuts rely on manual reformatting or on re-searching online databases for the records - often almost as laborious as retyping the references. Ref2RIS was developed to automate the task of converting a bibliography in specific citation styles from common word processing document formats into the wid...

  18. Implementation of bibliographic research system in the Library Web Site (Intranet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an automatic system of bibliographic research for the library using the infrastructure of the net installed in the RACSO Nuclear Center is described. A private web site (Intranet) was used searching the minimum reduction of the costs derived from the use of licenses and/or commercial programs. All the development was carried out using programs of free distribution with GPL license (GNU Public License)

  19. Research in constraint-based layout, visualization, CAD, and related topics : a bibliographical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hower, Walter; Graf, Winfried H.

    1995-01-01

    The present work compiles numerous papers in the area of computer-aided design, graphics, layout configuration, and user interfaces in general. There is nearly no conference on graphics, multimedia, and user interfaces that does not include a section on constraint-based graphics; on the other hand most conferences on constraint processing favour applications in graphics. This work of bibliographical pointers may serve as a basis for a detailed and comprehensive survey of this important and ch...

  20. 關於核心書目記錄 Concerning Core Bibliographic Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-chin Chen

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available 無With the increasing urgency to make incoming materials timely available to the intolerant readers, more and more libraries in Taiwan are interested in copy cataloging and outsourcing. By reviewing the Core Bibliographic Record in the United States, the author of this article tries to emphasize the necessity tore-evaluate our cooperative cataloging systems, to study the PCC Core, and to produce more cataloging aids, for seeking more cost-effective cooperative cataloging services

  1. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  2. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  3. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  4. Lung pathology after radiotherapy. Radiation protection (Bibliographic study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The point of departure of this work is the book by Weir and Michaelson entitled 'Pulmonary Radiation Reactions', where the authors sum up present knowledge on lung reactions to ionizing radiation exposure from the anatomopathological, metabolic and chemical, functional, clinical and experimental viewpoints in turn. The aim is not to contribute anything new to lung cancerology or to specific lung radiotherapy but merely to attemps, from a survey of recent literature on the irradiated lung, to extract concrete elements liable to improve to some extent the survival conditions of patients subjected to strong lung irradiation during radiotherapy centred on the thorax. Publications over the last ten years alone are abundant and varied. Not all are mentioned since many studies and results overlap and finally some hundred of the most representative texts have been chosen. In any case the conclusion, with that of Weir and Michaelson, is that not enough radiobiological data are yet available to allow present radiotherapeutical treatments on the lung region to be improved with certainty

  5. Merging of gamma radiographic and ultrasonic inspection data: bibliographical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a number of experimental data processing notions with the aim of developing an NDT method based on merging ultrasonic and gamma radiographic data. We first review the industrial context concerned and, before moving on to specific data merging problems, we discuss the difficulties of reconstruction using only one type of data (radiographic or ultrasonic). The main part of the report begins with a brief reminder of gamma radiation and ultrasonic wave propagation principles. Certain imaging and reconstruction methods conventionally used for each type of measurement are also presented. Reconstruction problems are then directly approached in algebraic form. For the type of problem studied, the inspection data alone cannot lead to satisfactory reconstructions and we evidence the need to regulate the problem by introducing deductive information on the object to be reconstructed. The Bayes' approach provides a self-consistent means of integrating both the data information and the deductive information. It is based on probabilistic models of the variables involved, notably those of the object sought. We discuss at some length certain models of images used in gamma radiography (independent variable fields, variables having a Markov-type structure) and the Bernoulli-Gauss-type models used for ultrasonic trace deconvolution. Finally, we outline data merging paths. A formal Bayes' framework is used to present two merging approaches, after which we briefly describe our projects for the processing of already available experimental data. (author)

  6. Specifications of OCLC CJK Bibliographic Records And the Adoption of CJK Records from Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndrewH.Wang

    1994-01-01

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the largest library automation network in the world, links nearly 20,000 libraries in the Uaited States and 60 other countries and territories. Introducing a library automatian network of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean(CJK) characters in 1986, OCLC operates the largest CJK library network in the world in terms of the member of online CAK institutional asers. As of January 1, 1995, OCLC had 40 CJK users in the United States, Aastralia, Hong Kang and Taiwan. As of October 1, 1994, there were nearly 850, 000 unique CJK bibliographic records in the OCLC database. OCLC is interested in sharing the CJK bibliographic records, especially in loading CJK records created in Asia into the OCLC database. To this end, OCLC has entered into an agreement with the National Central Library, Taiwan; the National Library of China, and Waseda University, Japan, and is in negotiation to load the Japan-MARC records. Sharing of CJK bibliographic records between libraries in Asia and those in the United States is a complex task as the CJK records created in Asia and those created in the United States are not compatible. This paper explains the specifieatioas of the OCLC CJK records, and lists eight areas where the incompatibility exists. The following five areas of incompatibility are due to different cataloging practices: 1. AACR2; 2. name and subject authorities;3.romantzation; 4.subject headings; and 5.ctassification schemes. Three additional areas of incompatibility are technical in nature; 6.MARC format; 7.character set; and 8.internal code.

  7. Radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications. Final results of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-2000

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation techniques are being used for synthesis of hydrogels, functional polymers, interpenetrating systems, chemical modification of surfaces, immobilization of bioactive materials, synthesis of functional micro- and nanospheres and processing of naturally derived biomaterials. Potential medical applications of these biomaterials include implants, topical dressings, treatment devices and drug delivery systems. Biotechnological applications include diagnostic assays, separation and purification systems, immobilized enzyme and cell bioprocesses and cell culture surfaces. The main objective of the CRP on The use of Radiation Processing to Prepare Biomaterials for Application in Medicine was to co-ordinate the research carried out in the participating countries, to ensure that different research programmes complement each other and the information exchange is available to all. Furthermore, the objective was to expand the use of ionizing radiation in two major areas: synthesis of polymers and gels for medical a...

  8. Awareness about bibliographic databases among students of Ayurveda and qualified Ayurveda practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Nilkamal Singh; Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Students of Ayurveda and qualified Ayurveda practitioners were assessed for awareness about bibliographic databases. One hundred and four volunteers (age range 17-64 years; group mean±SD, 24.3 ± 7.9 years; 62 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. There were 3 groups. Group I had 60 undergraduate students of a bachelor′s level course in Ayurveda, Group II had 20 graduate students of a 1-year Panchakarma course, and Group III had 24 Ayurveda physicians who were working in a yoga ...

  9. Duplicate Detection with Efficient Language Models for Automatic Bibliographic Heterogeneous Data Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Turenne, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to detect duplicates used to merge different bibliographic record corpora with the help of lexical and social information. As we show, a trivial key is not available to delete useless documents. Merging heteregeneous document databases to get a maximum of information can be of interest. In our case we try to build a document corpus about the TOR molecule so as to extract relationships with other gene components from PubMed and WebOfScience document databases. Our appro...

  10. Regulatory and technical reports, compilation for 1979. Volume 4. Bibliographical report Jan-Dec 79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compilation lists formal regulatory and technical reports issued in 1979 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and by NRC contractors. The compilation is divided into three major sections. The first major section consists of a sequential listing of all NRC reports in report-number order. The first portion of this sequential section lists staff reports, the second portion lists NRC-sponsored conference proceedings, and the third lists contractor reports. Each report citation in the sequential section contains full bibliographic information

  11. Literature survey, bibliographic analysis and a taxonomic catalogue of subterranean fauna from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Reboleira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographic analysis of the hypogean biological studies in Portugal is made, compiling 138 publications related to the subterranean invertebrate fauna, since its begining in 1870 until November 2012.A catalogue of hypogean endemic taxa is provided, listing 27 troglobionts and 63 stygobionts, described to be obligate hypogean and endemic from mainland Portugal (Macaronesian archipelagos excluded.The first impetus on troglobiont studies was provided by the prospections of Barros Machado during 1940’s and by an expedition of Lindberg in the spring of 1961; and the major information about stygobiont species was provided by the former Instituto de Zoologia “Dr. Augusto Nobre” from Porto University.

  12. 書目資料建檔方法之探討 An Effective Method for Inputting Bibliographic Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-chu Huang

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Bib1iographic record is the hub of a 1ibrary automation system. However, its creation is both expensive and time-consuming. Sharing bib1iographic records from a network or bibliographic utility is a common approach for western languages materials. Since the automation or Chinese libraries does not yet reach a mature stage for sharing a database, an effective and accurate way for inputting bibliographic record is of crucial importance. In order to fulfill such goal, it should base on a deep understanding of the computer capabilities and the characteristics of bibliographic record. The authors describe some important techniques derived from personal experiences. Among those are the use of duplications, default functions, user-defined function keys, and a one-time entry in MARC format.

  13. Bibliographical Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. C. A. BACKER and Dr. O. POSTHUMUS, Varenflora voor Java. Overzicht deiop Java voorkomende varens en varenachtigen, hare verspreiding, oekologie en toepassingen. Uitgave van (Fern flora for Java. Conspectus of the ferns and fern allies occurring in Java, their distribution, ecology and use. Issue

  14. A Bibliographic study on the family focus in public policies attention of the chidren and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Braga Zagabria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public politics for children and adolescents in Brazil are suffering transformations, especially from the 90s on. The recognition in the centrality of the family in the politics and social programs became practically consensual and it has been generating discussions in national and international extent. With that reference, we developed and present here the results of a bibliographical research that intended to analyze, through the Brazilian bibliographical production, in psychology newspapers indexed in the Scielo data base, how the families have been approached in the elaboration and implementation of the public politics of protection to children and adolescents, from 1990 to July 2010. The research was accomplished searching from the key words "family", "children and adolescents" and "public politics". We identified and located twenty-nine articles in six different journals, twelve of them were selected after text reading. The thematic contents, found in the papers were classified according to five nuclei. Although most of the researched authors recognize the importance of the family as first socialization group, independently of their configurations, the results confirm the fragility of the public politics and social programs in Brazil with centrality in the family for the protection and assistance to children and adolescents.

  15. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey-Long Liu

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  16. INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

  17. Slavery Service Accounting Practices in Brazil: A Bibliographic and Document Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the social and economic aspects and institutional relationships that determined a unique pattern of inequality. We aim to examine the particular role of accounting as a practice used to dehumanize an entire class of people. The primary purpose of this study is not to examine slavery's profitability but rather to identify how accounting practices served slavery. A qualitative research method is applied in this study. Regarding technical procedures, this study makes use of bibliographic and documentary sources. For the purpose of this investigation, and in accordance with bibliographic and documentary research methods, we analyze scientific articles, books and documents from the Brazilian National Archive, the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute and the Brazilian National Library Foundation. In light of what was discovered through the study's development, we can consider accounting as a tool that is more active than passive and, therefore, as a tool that was used to support the slave regime. In essence, accounting was used to convert a human's qualitative attributes into a limited number of categories (age, gender, race, through which slaves were differentiated and monetized to facilitate commercial trafficking. We believe that accounting practices facilitated slave trading, conversion and exploitation, procedures that completely ignored qualitative and human dimensions of slavery. Opportunities for future studies on accounting in the slave period, as is the case of other oppressive regimes, are infinite, especially in the case of Brazil.

  18. A-state- of-the-art report on construction of a bibliographic information database for the ETDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes A State-of-the-Art Report on Construction of a Bibliographic Information Database for the ETDE(Energy Technology Data Excahange). In the energy technology, the data was selected materials, taken necessary information from it. The analyized materials was inputted according to input rule of ETDE format and verified input software (WinFIBRE). With the help of the National Energy information Consortium composed of 8 organizations, domestic information have been gathered and submitted to ETDE/OA for the exchange of bibliographic information. ETDE database is expected to help energy technology information users for their R and D and improvement of energy efficiency through ETIS system

  19. Retrieving research studies: a comparison of bibliographic and full-text versions of the New England Journal of Medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, E D; Sievert, M. C.; McKinin, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    It has been established that subject searches of medical full-text databases obtain higher recall than subject searches in a bibliographic database. In this study we attempted to determine if the same rule might apply when searching for a non-subject parameter such as study design. A simultaneous search of bibliographic and full-text records from the New England Journal of Medicine provided data on the number of items retrieved by each kind of search. Filtering strategies were created for 5 d...

  20. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report. Pre-publication. Final Draft Approved by MA Board on March 23, 2005. A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.V.; Mooney, H.A.; Cropper, A.; Capistrano, D.; Carpenter, S.R.; Chopra, K.; Dasgupta, P.; Dietz, T.; Duraiappah, A.K.; Hassan, R.; Kasperson, R.; Leemans, R.; May, R.M.; McMichael, T.; Pingali, P.; Samper, C.; Scholes, R.; Watson, R.T.; Zakri, A.H.; Shidong, Z.; Ash, N.J.; Bennett, E.; Kumar, P.; Lee, M.J.; Raudsepp-Hearne, C.; Simons, H.; Thonell, J.; Zurek, M.B.

    2005-07-01

    This report presents a synthesis and integration of the findings of the four MA (Millennium Assessment) Working Groups along with more detailed findings for selected ecosystem services concerning condition and trends and scenarios and response options. Five additional synthesis reports were prepared for ease of use by specific audiences: CBD (biodiversity), UNCCD (desertification), Ramsar Convention (wetlands), business, and the health sector. Each MA sub-global assessment will also produce additional reports to meet the needs of its own audience. The full technical assessment reports of the four MA Working Groups will be published in mid-2005 by Island Press. All printed materials of the assessment, along with core data and a glossary of terminology used in the technical reports, will be available on the Internet at www.MAweb.org. Appendix D lists the acronyms and abbreviations used in this report and includes additional information on sources for some of the Figures in this report.

  1. Conversion of low H/sub 2//CO ratio synthesis gas to hydrocarbons: Final report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1986. [Bubble-column reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A.T.; Heinemann, H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been twofold: (1) to develop a theoretical model for designing bubble-column reactors and assessing their performance and (2) to characterize the performance of a laboratory-scale bubble-column reactor. The theoretical part of the project has focused the effects of gas-liquid mass transfer; axial dispersion of gas, liquid, and catalyst; ad the interplay between the kinetics of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and the water-gas-shift reaction. The experimental portion of the project has focused the effects of reaction conditions on product distribution and, in particular, the conditions under which gas-liquid mass transfer becomes important. Any independent set of experiments was undertaken to investigate the chemistry of carbonaceous deposits formed during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. 8 refs.

  2. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report. Pre-publication. Final Draft Approved by MA Board on March 23, 2005. A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a synthesis and integration of the findings of the four MA (Millennium Assessment) Working Groups along with more detailed findings for selected ecosystem services concerning condition and trends and scenarios and response options. Five additional synthesis reports were prepared for ease of use by specific audiences: CBD (biodiversity), UNCCD (desertification), Ramsar Convention (wetlands), business, and the health sector. Each MA sub-global assessment will also produce additional reports to meet the needs of its own audience. The full technical assessment reports of the four MA Working Groups will be published in mid-2005 by Island Press. All printed materials of the assessment, along with core data and a glossary of terminology used in the technical reports, will be available on the Internet at www.MAweb.org. Appendix D lists the acronyms and abbreviations used in this report and includes additional information on sources for some of the Figures in this report

  3. Radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications. Final results of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation techniques are being used for synthesis of hydrogels, functional polymers, interpenetrating systems, chemical modification of surfaces, immobilization of bioactive materials, synthesis of functional micro- and nanospheres and processing of naturally derived biomaterials. Potential medical applications of these biomaterials include implants, topical dressings, treatment devices and drug delivery systems. Biotechnological applications include diagnostic assays, separation and purification systems, immobilized enzyme and cell bioprocesses and cell culture surfaces. The main objective of the CRP on The use of Radiation Processing to Prepare Biomaterials for Application in Medicine was to co-ordinate the research carried out in the participating countries, to ensure that different research programmes complement each other and the information exchange is available to all. Furthermore, the objective was to expand the use of ionizing radiation in two major areas: synthesis of polymers and gels for medical and biotechnological applications, and modification of surfaces to achieve a specific functionality and/or to immobilize bioactive materials. This publication contains 10 reports of participants; each of the reports has been indexed separately

  4. Head-to-Head Evaluation of the Pro-Cite and Sci-Mate Bibliographic Database Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, David S.; Foster, George A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Compares two full featured database management systems for bibliographic information in terms of programs and documentation; record creation and editing; online database citations; search procedures; access to references in external text files; sorting and printing functions; style sheets; indexes; and file operations. (four references) (CLB)

  5. Who, What, Where and When! The Bibliographical Control of the Literature of Librarianship and Information Science (LOLIS) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Radha

    1987-01-01

    Describes an investigation that assessed the effectiveness of Australian indexing and abstracting services in their bibliographic control of the literature of library and information science. Conclusions about the coverage of the literature are presented, and methods for improvement are suggested. (CLB)

  6. Bibliographic index on the stochastic processes in plasma and related problems (3501-4000 items). No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliographic index includes 5O0 papers on stochastic processes in plasma and related problems. The papers are published in 1940-1975 and devoted to the following questions: waves in dispersion medium, in periodic structure and their interaction; high-frequency heating and emissions from plasma; particle beams in plasma and plasma instabilities. The index is accompanied by subject and alphabetic indexes

  7. Bibliographic Guide to the Two World Wars: An annotated survey of English-language Reference Materials by Gwyn M. Bayliss.

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Claase

    2012-01-01

    An enormous quantity of material has been published on the First and Second World War. Dr Bayliss has compiled this bibliographic guide as an aid to researchers and has listed and critically discussed over 2 400 bibliographies and reference works to sources on this subject.

  8. Development and implementation of technical concepts for the final disposal in deep geological deposits in different host rocks (EUGENIA). Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the development and implementation of technical concepts for the final disposal in deep geological deposits in different host rocks (EUGENIA) includes the following chapters: (1) Purpose of the studies. (2) Overview on the developed concepts for final high-level radioactive waste disposal in deep rock formations and differences of the underlying safety concepts. (3) Effects of the host rock properties on the site search and exploration. (4) Site selection and site exploration. (5) Technical concepts for high-level waste final repositories (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, France, Switzerland). (6) Construction, operation, control and closure of high-level waste repositories. (7) Licensing aspects (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Germany). (8) Comparative presentation and evaluation of the internationally reached status concerning the realization of final high-level waste repositories.

  9. Survey On Speech Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Indumathi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to provide an overview of existing Text-To-Speech (TTS Techniques by highlighting its usage and advantage. First Generation Techniques includes Formant Synthesis and Articulatory Synthesis. Formant Synthesis works by using individually controllable formant filters, which can be set to produce accurate estimations of the vocal-track transfer function. Articulatory Synthesis produces speech by direct modeling of Human articulator behavior. Second Generation Techniques incorporates Concatenative synthesis and Sinusoidal synthesis. Concatenative synthesis generates speech output by concatenating the segments of recorded speech. Generally, Concatenative synthesis generates the natural sounding synthesized speech. Sinusoidal Synthesis use a harmonic model and decompose each frame into a set of harmonics of an estimated fundamental frequency. The model parameters are the amplitudes and periods of the harmonics. With these, the value of the fundamental can be changed while keeping the same basic spectral..In adding, Third Generation includes Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Unit Selection Synthesis.HMM trains the parameter module and produce high quality Speech. Finally, Unit Selection operates by selecting the best sequence of units from a large speech database which matches the specification.

  10. Indexing Bibliographic Database Content Using MariaDB and Sphinx Search Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Nugraha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast retrieval of digital content has become mandatory for library and archive information systems. Many software applications have emerged to handle the indexing of digital content, from low-level ones such Apache Lucene, to more RESTful and web-services-ready ones such Apache Solr and ElasticSearch. Solr’s popularity among library software developers makes it the “de-facto” standard software for indexing digital content. For content (full-text content or bibliographic description already stored inside a relational DBMS such as MariaDB (a fork of MySQL or PostgreSQL, Sphinx Search Server (Sphinx is a suitable alternative. This article will cover an introduction on how to use Sphinx with MariaDB databases to index database content as well as some examples of Sphinx API usage.

  11. Ref2RIS: Importing Word-Processed Bibliographies into Bibliographic Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Fitchett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many who would benefit the most from timesaving bibliographic managers hesitate to adopt the technology due to the difficulties in importing legacy bibliographies developed over years. Existing shortcuts rely on manual reformatting or on re-searching online databases for the records - often almost as laborious as retyping the references. Ref2RIS was developed to automate the task of converting a bibliography in specific citation styles from common word processing document formats into the widely used RIS format. It uses the Unix stream editor sed and the conversion options of Apple's textutil. It can be invoked as a series of simple shell commands on any Linux terminal, or more simply as a drag-and-drop Applescript application on MacOS 10.4 or higher.

  12. Bibliographical study on the high-purity germanium radiation detectors used in gamma and X spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The germanium or silicon lithium-drifted detectors, Ge(Li) or Si(Li), and high-purity germanium detectors, HP Ge (impurity concentration approximately 1010cm-3), are the most commonly used at the present time as gamma and X-ray spectrometers. The HP Ge detectors for which room temperature storage is the main characteristic can be obtained with a large volume and a thin window, and are used as the Ge(Li) in γ ray spectrometry or the Si(Li) in X-ray spectrometry. This publication reviews issues from 1974 to 1978 on the state of the art and applications of the HP Ge semiconductor detectors. 101 bibliographical notices with French summaries are presented. An index for authors, documents and periodicals, and subjects is included

  13. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 100 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  14. Authority control, bibliographic information preparation and processing at International Nuclear Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms and tools for authority control in International Nuclear Information System (INIS), a bibliographic database and abstracting system, are briefly described. Published materials for authority control are 'Authority List for Journal Titles' and 'Authority List for Corporate Entries and Report Number Prefixes.' The former holds the file of full journal title, abbreviated journal title, International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), CODEN code, publication country code, reference of changed title, etc. The latter file contains the names of research organizations, academic bodies, governmental institutions, private companies and clinical centres, in a standardized form. It also gives the standardized description of report codes, with their publication bodies. INIS secretariat maintains the authority contacting closely with national centres of member countries. The issues concerning the standardization problem as well of maintenance are discussed. (author)

  15. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals

  16. Mexsyco project: representation of power plan control-instrumentation functions. Bibliographical analysis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study covered in this paper is designed to review the current situation in terms of functional analysis, in order to find a functional analysis method for mechanical parts able to serve as a substrate for expressing operating safety constraints, time-related performance or any other tag of function description. This paper comprises three parts: The first is devoted to general notions of the formats used by the various functional analyses. It attempts to explain the three types of format: behavioural, structural and functional. It tackles the notions of trees and bottom-up and top-down approaches. It proposes examining the link between the expected functions of the systems and the hardware supporting these functions. It attempts to make a distinction between ''operators'' and ''operands'' enabling the notion of object to be linked to that of the three types of format seen above. It ends with a reminder of the distinction between semi-formal and formal. The second part analyses the current situation of functional analysis of the mechanical and control-instrumentation parts of power production plants, through a bibliographical search. The results of this second part are however disappointing. The purpose of the third part of the study is a prototype format built up from the considerations of the first two parts. This format meets our requirements better than those of the bibliographical analysis, but it could doubtless be improved: application of this format to RCV highlights its advantages, but also underlines the improvements needed. Given the deadlines of the Mexsyco project, the decision was taken to suspend development of this format for the time being and use a method currently being produced and based on use of the current functional breakdown (basic plant systems) and of a modular tree-structure representation of the control-instrumentation of a basic plant system. (author). 12 refs., 4 annexes

  17. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caschili, Simone, E-mail: s.caschili@ucl.ac.uk [UCL QASER Lab, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario [Dipartimento di Agraria, University of Sassari, viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals.

  18. LDRD final report on synthesis of shape-and size-controlled platinum and platinum alloy nanostructures on carbon with improved durability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; Garcia, Robert M.; Song, Yujiang; Moreno, Andres M.; Stanis, Ronald J.

    2008-10-01

    This project is aimed to gain added durability by supporting ripening-resistant dendritic platinum and/or platinum-based alloy nanostructures on carbon. We have developed a new synthetic approach suitable for directly supporting dendritic nanostructures on VXC-72 carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The key of the synthesis is to creating a unique supporting/confining reaction environment by incorporating carbon within lipid bilayer relying on a hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction. In order to realize size uniformity control over the supported dendritic nanostructures, a fast photocatalytic seeding method based on tin(IV) porphyrins (SnP) developed at Sandia was applied to the synthesis by using SnP-containing liposomes under tungsten light irradiation. For concept approval, one created dendritic platinum nanostructure supported on CB was fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for durability examination via potential cycling. It appears that carbon supporting is essentially beneficial to an enhanced durability according to our preliminary results.

  19. Synthesis and properties of layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) dispersion elements for 62 eV (200A) to 1. 24 keV (10A) radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The opportunities offered by engineered synthetic multilayer dispersion elements for x-rays have been recognized since the earliest days of x-ray diffraction analysis. In this paper, application of sputter deposition technology to the synthesis of Layered Synthetic Microstructure (LSMs) of sufficient quality for use as x-ray dispersion elements is discussed. It will be shown that high efficiency, controllable bandwidth dispersion elements, with d spacings varying from 15 A to 180 A, may be synthesized onto both mechanically stiff and flexible substrates. Multilayer component materials include tungsten, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and silicon layers separated by carbon layers. Experimental observations of peak reflectivity in first order, integrated reflectivity in first order, and diffraction performance at selected photon energies in the range, 100 to 15,000 eV, will be reported and compared to theory.

  20. Developments and studies on the (T)HMC processes in a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes. Synthesis and final report; Entwicklungen und Untersuchungen zu (T)HMC-Prozessen eines Endlagers fuer Waerme entwickelnde radioaktive Abfaelle. Synthese und Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Bracke, Guido; Fischer, Heidemarie; Frieling, Gerd; Hansmeier, Christina; Hotzel, Stephan; Kock, Ingo; Seher, Holger

    2014-10-15

    The report on developments and studies on the (T)HMC (thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical) processes in a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes covers the following topics: description of the projects, applied codes: TOUGH2, FLAC3D, TOUGH2 and FLAC3D, TOUHREACT/PetraSim, MARNIE, PHREEQC, geochemists workbench, SUSA; safety relevant singular processes in the transition phase, uncertainties due to process interactions, coupling of mass transport and geochemical equilibria, further developments and application of numerical simulations in the transition phase.

  1. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  2. BibServSys:Towards a Bibliographic Service System%BibServSys:面向科技文献分析的服务系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海燕; 吴斌; 杨胜琦; 毕然

    2009-01-01

    With the growing amount of bibliographies and expanding of scientific research,more in-depth research about bibliographic data is needed.The emerging of Complex Network makes a brand-new insight into the demanding.To provide a comprehensive bibliographic service,in this paper,we develop a service system,called BibServSys fBibliographic Service System).We propose a methodology tO construct a service system which makes its components and even itself reusable.The architecture of the BibServSys is elaborated with components,connectors in it.And at last we also take examples to show the comprehensive bibliographic service the system provided.Most parts of the paper are concentrated on the design and implementation of the system as well as the features of the system.

  3. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized ``modes`` of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  4. ISBD adaptation to semantic web of bibliographic data in linked data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Escolano Rodrìguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Linked data is the current paradigm. All works, projects and applications have it as main tool, because of its potentiality. In linking data, the selected information, authorized, validated, recorded and structured in their databases for long time by cultural institutions as libraries, necessarily is going to play an important role. The work carried out by IFLA ISBD Review Group has had this goal in mind, to make possible that the information in our databases will be in the cloud, that is, “enhance the portability of bibliographic data in the semantic web environment and the interoperability of the ISBD with other content standards” as said in the Purpose of Consolidated ISBD, 2010. Many voices have spoken about the obscure language for users that represent the library language. Linked data can help in making it understandable. To reach this big objective much more, work than converting information in linked data is necessary. Declarations in RDF, definitions, and translations are essential to make really multilingual understanding, not only English semantic web.

  5. Easyverifier 1.0: a software tool for revising scientific articles’ bibliographical citations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Alberto Correa Riveros

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The first academic revolution which occurred in developed countries during the late 19th century made research a university func- tion in addition to the traditional task of teaching. A second academic revolution has tried to transform the university into a tea- ching, research and socio-economic development enterprise. The scientific article has become an excellent practical means for the movement of new knowledge between the university and the socioeconomic environment. This work had two purposes. One was to present some general considerations regarding research and the scientific article. The second was to provide information about a computational tool which supports revising scientific articles’ citations; this step is usually done manually and requires some experience. The software allows two text files to be read, one containing the scientific article’s content and another one the bibliography. A report is then generated allowing the authors mentioned in the text but not indexed in the bibliography to be identified and to determine which authors have been mentioned in the bibliography but who have not been mentioned in the text of the article. The software allows researchers and journal coordinators to detect reference errors among citations in the text and the bibliographical references. The steps to develop the software were: analysis, design, implementation and use. For the analysis it was important the revision of the literature about elaboration of citations in scientific documents.

  6. Defrosting the digital library: bibliographic tools for the next generation web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Hull

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists now manage the bulk of their bibliographic information electronically, thereby organizing their publications and citation material from digital libraries. However, a library has been described as "thought in cold storage," and unfortunately many digital libraries can be cold, impersonal, isolated, and inaccessible places. In this Review, we discuss the current chilly state of digital libraries for the computational biologist, including PubMed, IEEE Xplore, the ACM digital library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Citeseer, arXiv, DBLP, and Google Scholar. We illustrate the current process of using these libraries with a typical workflow, and highlight problems with managing data and metadata using URIs. We then examine a range of new applications such as Zotero, Mendeley, Mekentosj Papers, MyNCBI, CiteULike, Connotea, and HubMed that exploit the Web to make these digital libraries more personal, sociable, integrated, and accessible places. We conclude with how these applications may begin to help achieve a digital defrost, and discuss some of the issues that will help or hinder this in terms of making libraries on the Web warmer places in the future, becoming resources that are considerably more useful to both humans and machines.

  7. Defrosting the digital library: bibliographic tools for the next generation web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Duncan; Pettifer, Steve R; Kell, Douglas B

    2008-10-01

    Many scientists now manage the bulk of their bibliographic information electronically, thereby organizing their publications and citation material from digital libraries. However, a library has been described as "thought in cold storage," and unfortunately many digital libraries can be cold, impersonal, isolated, and inaccessible places. In this Review, we discuss the current chilly state of digital libraries for the computational biologist, including PubMed, IEEE Xplore, the ACM digital library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Citeseer, arXiv, DBLP, and Google Scholar. We illustrate the current process of using these libraries with a typical workflow, and highlight problems with managing data and metadata using URIs. We then examine a range of new applications such as Zotero, Mendeley, Mekentosj Papers, MyNCBI, CiteULike, Connotea, and HubMed that exploit the Web to make these digital libraries more personal, sociable, integrated, and accessible places. We conclude with how these applications may begin to help achieve a digital defrost, and discuss some of the issues that will help or hinder this in terms of making libraries on the Web warmer places in the future, becoming resources that are considerably more useful to both humans and machines. PMID:18974831

  8. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository: salt domes; Bibliographic study of their genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report appraises, from the results of a bibliographical study, the possibility of beginning of a domal rise from the salt layer in which or above which would have been placed a repository. The physical mecanisms of salt creep are first screened, together with the factors determining their intensity and relative importance. These factors are primarily the temperature and the state of stress. Semi empirical laws are given for some mecanisms. Present knowledge about the state of the salt in the ground are then examined: we are not able to satisfactorily calculate ''in situ'' stresses, or to explain the existence of an important shear stress, that has been pointed out by most of the stress measurements. The retrospective study of the genesis of existing domes brings an insight into their correlation with sedimentary and tectonic phases. Model studies help us to interpret the distances between domes, and to explain the scale of this phenomenon. After recapitulating the various factors of some importance, we find that the probability of a dome rise from a previously static layer is low, in the time lap we are interested in (100 000 years). Such a rise would have to be triggered by important changes in the sedimentation, erosion or tectonic activity on the site

  9. Bibliographic citations pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles County, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of 166 bibliographic references pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site (WSS), St. Charles County, Missouri. The WSS is a surplus US government facility which consists of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant; two separate low-level radioactive waste storage properties, designated the ''raffinate pits'' and ''quarry'', and a number of potentially contaminated vicinity properties. The facility was used by the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 to 1966 to refine uranium. After several years the US Department of the Army acquired responsibility for the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, performed some limited radiological decontamination, and then cancelled plans to construct a chemical process. Contamination of the facility and adjacent lands resulted from operation of the refining facility and the storage, transport, and disposal of process wastes on the property, as well as subsequent decontamination activities. All identified references to published technical documents that relate to the WSS were included in this report. In some cases citations from the reference section of existing documents were included in this report with no hardcopy to substantiate the existence of the document referenced

  10. Cryptosporidium within-host genetic diversity: systematic bibliographical search and narrative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Alex; Widmer, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the within-host genetic diversity of a pathogen often has broad implications for disease management. Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites are among the most common causative agents of infectious diarrhoea. Current limitations of in vitro culture impose the use of uncultured isolates obtained directly from the hosts as operational units of Cryptosporidium genotyping. The validity of this practice is centred on the assumption of genetic homogeneity of the parasite within the host, and genetic studies often take little account of the within-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium. Yet, theory and experimental evidence contemplate genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium at the within-host scale, but this diversity is not easily identified by genotyping methods ill-suited for the resolution of DNA mixtures. We performed a systematic bibliographical search of the occurrence of within-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium parasites in epidemiological samples, between 2005 and 2015. Our results indicate that genetic diversity at the within-host scale, in the form of mixed species or intra-species diversity, has been identified in a large number (n=55) of epidemiological surveys of cryptosporidiosis in variable proportions, but has often been treated as a secondary finding and not analysed. As in malaria, there are indications that the scale of this diversity varies between geographical regions, perhaps depending on the prevailing transmission pathways. These results provide a significant knowledge base from which to draw alternative population genetic structure models, some of which are discussed in this paper. PMID:27021167

  11. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 2: A bibliographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allotey Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are strong arguments for social science and interdisciplinary research in the neglected tropical diseases. These diseases represent a rich and dynamic interplay between vector, host, and pathogen which occurs within social, physical and biological contexts. The overwhelming sense, however, is that neglected tropical diseases research is a biomedical endeavour largely excluding the social sciences. The purpose of this review is to provide a baseline for discussing the quantum and nature of the science that is being conducted, and the extent to which the social sciences are a part of that. Methods A bibliographic analysis was conducted of neglected tropical diseases related research papers published over the past 10 years in biomedical and social sciences. The analysis had textual and bibliometric facets, and focussed on chikungunya, dengue, visceral leishmaniasis, and onchocerciasis. Results There is substantial variation in the number of publications associated with each disease. The proportion of the research that is social science based appears remarkably consistent ( Conclusion There is little evidence that scientists pay any attention to the complex social, cultural, biological, and environmental dynamic involved in human pathogenesis. There is little investigator driven social science and a poor presence of interdisciplinary science. The research needs more sophisticated funders and priority setters who are not beguiled by uncritical biomedical promises.

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Bibliographic index of Grand Junction office uranium reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1978, Mesa College entered into subcontract with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to prepare a bibliographic index of the uranium raw materials reports issued by the Grand Junction Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Bendix, prime contractor to the Grand Junction Office, operates the Technical Library at the DOE facility. Since the early 1950s, approximately 2700 reports have been issued by the Grand Junction Office. These reports were the results of uranium investigations conducted by federal agencies and their subcontractors. The majority of the reports cover geology, mineralogy, and metallurgy of uranium and/or thorium. No single, complete list of these reports existed. The purpose of this subcontract was to compile a comprehensive index to these reports. The Mesa College geology faculty worked with the BFEC and DOE staffs to develop the format for the index. Undergraduate geology students from Mesa compiled a master record sheet for each report. All reports issued up to January 1, 1979 were included in the bibliography. The bibliography is in preliminary, unedited form. It is being open-filed at this time, on microfiche, to make the information available to the public on a timely basis. The bibliography is divided into a master record list arranged in alpha-numeric order by report identification number, with separate indices arranged by title, author, state and county, 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangle, key words, and exploration area

  13. Composite piping: basic materials, manufacturing methods, hydrolysis resistance. Bibliographical data and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has decided to replace traditional materials by glass reinforced plastic for the manufacture of certain PWR water piping. However, these are liable to in-service degradation through the hydrolysis of the operating conditions which can involve mechanical stresses or specific temperature and humidity conditions. These resins have been the subject of bibliographical surveys and laboratory experiments providing the following main results: the water diffusion in the selected thermoset resins (polyester, vinyl-ester, epoxy) can reach one percent in weight, according to the relative humidity and temperature; the water absorption is a reversible phenomenon, at the beginning and is followed by hydrolysis, an irreversible deterioration affecting the chemical functions of the polymeric chain. Thermally activated, the reaction limits the temperature for the use of these resins; polyester resins are made of a large number of ester bonds and are highly sensitive to hydrolysis. These resins can be classified on the basis of the alcohol and acid which they come acid. A possible hydrolytic degradation does not prevent from using these resins in humid environments. The cooling towers in Belleville, Nogent ad Chooz are equipped with water collecting channels made of polyester laminates which have behaved satisfactorily since their installation in 1982. In acid environments, even concentrated, resins have a better behavior than in a neutral medium. However, they can be liable to stress corrosion. Polyester resins ar not suitable for use in concentrated base media. Vinyl-ester resins are more appropriate for this purpose, although their resistance will be lower than in a neutral environment. When resins are used as a matrix for composites, the presence of glass fibers modifies their behavior. The physico-chemical protection of the fiber/matrix interfaces and of the surface of the glass itself through the sizing of the fibers plays key role in the durability of the composites, which

  14. A Bibliographic Study of Drug Abuse Research during last 30 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Rahimi Movaghar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the produced science has been significantly increased in the field of drug abuse, globally. The objective of this study was to assess the bibliographic aspects of the science produced in Iran on drug abuse in the last 30 years. All scientific papers published from Iran in a 30-year period (1973-2002 in national as well as international scientific journals were assessed for this study. These papers are indexed in the database for Iranian Mental Health Researches, called IranPsych. The total number of 218 papers on drug and drug abuse were found and assessed by six psychiatrists and psychologists with good inter-rater reliability. About half of these papers were published in the last two years. About half of the papers have been published in the Persian medical journals. One-third have been published in international journals. Overall, 449 authors contributed to the 218 published papers from whom 80 percent had only one paper. Half of the papers were written by only 15 authors (3.3 percent. Most of the authors were Medical Doctors and from Medical Universities. None of the researches was received financial support from pharmacologic industries. This study shows that in recent years, the increase in the publication of the researches conducted on drug abuse has been significant. Nevertheless, according to the high prevalence of drug abuse problem in Iran and improvements in the scientific, as well as executive structures, the whole scientific output is insignificant. The findings guide us to a more systematic approach toward training of researchers and promotion of resaerch in this area. Moreover, more active involvement of social scientists and publication of their research findings are recommended.

  15. Transfer into the biosphere of radionuclides released from deep storage of radioactive wastes. Bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries with civilian nuclear programs today are encountering difficulty in implementing a nuclear waste management policy that is both technically safe in the long term and accepted by the public. To meet both criteria, the solution most generally envisaged is deep storage either of untreated spent nuclear fuel or of highly radioactive wastes resulting from reprocessing. In order to predict the potential impact of such storage on man, one needs to understand the path followed by radionuclides in the geosphere, and later in the biosphere. Given the time scales involved and the critical nature of the elements concerned, it is indispensable to turn to mathematical modeling of the phenomena. This, however, does not preclude the essential need for in-depth knowledge of the phenomena and of the physico-chemical characteristics of radionuclides. This report presents what is hoped to be a complete inventory of the radionuclides contained in ''high level'' wastes (categories B AND C). The elements concerned in studies on deep storage are essentially long-life radionuclides (both actinides and certain fission and activation products). Their physico-chemical characteristics and their behavior in various ecological compartments are examined. Bibliographical data bearing on: solubility (in an oxidizing, reducing medium), distribution factors (water/rock-sediment-soil), concentration and transfer factors (in aquatic and terrestrial mediums), dose conversion factors (in the case of internal and external irradiation), principal paths of exposure for each radionuclide studied, are presented in this report. Initial results from international projects to model what happens to radionuclides in the biosphere are also presented. In general, they are optimistic as to the future, but nonetheless point to a need to improve the conceptual base of the models, to ensure that all major phenomena and processes are taken into consideration and to examine any possible amplification

  16. Investigating the Quality and Maintenance Issues of Bibliographic Records Provided by the e-Book Supply Chain: Using the Operation of the Taiwan Academic E-Book &Database Consortium as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is an important trend to expand the use of bibliographic records from the supply chain for libraries. However, what are the sources of vendors’ bibliographic records? Their quality? How do libraries deal with these bibliographic records? Are they satisfied them? This study first drawn 1,080 bibliographic records from 29 e-book products, and MarcEdit was used to check their quality and 14% were found to contain errors. Secondly, this study interviewed 12 vendors and found out that bibliographic records of western books were mostly copied from the OCLC, and there were also bibliographic records from the original vendors who commissioned outsource companies to do the cataloging process. In addition, there were those cataloged by Taiwanese manufacturers themselves. Lastly, this study sent questionnaires to Taiwan Academic E-Book & Database Consortium members to survey their satisfaction on bibliographic records provided by vendors and their recommendations thereof. This study shows that most libraries have inputted the bibliographic records of the e-books into their OPAC system and are generally satisfied with the bibliographic records provided by the vendors, though opinions vary on the accuracy of these records.

  17. Dienic synthesis in cycle row of glycerin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers about synthesis on the base of a new furan-residual execute glycerin. It show that leaving final product reaction consist of 100%. At first working up the methods of synthesis of a new glycerin derivative

  18. Construction of a bibliographic information database and development of retrieval system for research reports in nuclear science and technology (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Duk Haeng; Kim, Tae Whan; Choi, Kwang; Yoo, An Na; Keum, Jong Yong; Kim, In Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    The major goal of this project is to construct a bibliographic information database in nuclear engineering and to develop a prototype retrieval system. To give an easy access to microfiche research report, this project has accomplished the construction of microfiche research reports database and the development of retrieval system. The results of the project are as follows; 1. Microfiche research reports database was constructed by downloading from DOE Energy, NTIS, INIS. 2. The retrieval system was developed in host and web version using access point such as title, abstracts, keyword, report number. 6 tabs., 8 figs., 11 refs. (Author) .new.

  19. How to document the bibliographic references with DOI%如何规范著录带有DOI的文后参考文献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋静; 倪东鸿

    2012-01-01

    Digital object identifiers (DOIs) should be documented in the bibliographic references. Based on the new Chinese National Standard, GB/T 7714-2005 Rules for Content, Form and Structure of Bibliographic References, the authors analyze the standard documentation of bibliographic references with DOI, and provide some solutions for this issue.%文后参考文献应规范著录DOI项。依据GB/T7714--2005《文后参考文献著录规则》,对带有DOI(digital object identifier)的文后参考文献的规范著录问题进行讨论,并提出解决方法。

  20. The outbreak of SARS mirrored by bibliometric mapping: Combining bibliographic coupling with the complete link cluster method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jarneving

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a novel method of science mapping is presented which combines bibliographic coupling, as a measure of document-document similarity, with an agglomerative hierarchical cluster method. The focus in this study is on the mapping of so called ‘core documents’, a concept presented first in 1995 by Glänzel and Czerwon. The term ‘core document’ denote documents that have a central position in the research front in terms of many and strong bibliographic coupling links. The identification and mapping of core documents usually requires a large multidisciplinary research setting and in this study the 2003 volume of the Science Citation Index was applied. From this database, a sub-set of core documents reporting on the outbreak of SARS in 2002 was chosen for the demonstration of the application of this mapping method. It was demonstrated that the method, in this case, successfully identified interpretable research themes and that iterative clustering on two subsequent levels of cluster agglomeration may provide with useful and current information.

  1. Synthesis of final disposal related nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy manages the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants (NPP). When the spent nuclear fuel is removed from the reactor it is stored in the cooling pools at the NPP units for approximately five years. After the first cooling period the spent nuclear fuel is transported to the interim storage (KPA) at the NPP's to cool down in water pools at least for 20-30 years. Generic radionuclide inventory calculations have been made for the spent nuclear fuel with a cooling period of 30 years. These calculations are the basis for Posiva's operational safety, safety case and decay heat power and criticality calculations. Validating the calculated radionuclide inventories with radiochemical analyses is advisable. The most important nuclides, both radioactive and stable, from the radiation and operational safety, long-term safety, decay heat power and criticality calculations point of view are listed. Also the nuclides possible to be assessed by Studsvik are listed. The conclusion is that the nuclides proposed by Studsvik in 2011 are recommended for radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis of final disposal related nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    Posiva Oy manages the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants (NPP). When the spent nuclear fuel is removed from the reactor it is stored in the cooling pools at the NPP units for approximately five years. After the first cooling period the spent nuclear fuel is transported to the interim storage (KPA) at the NPP's to cool down in water pools at least for 20-30 years. Generic radionuclide inventory calculations have been made for the spent nuclear fuel with a cooling period of 30 years. These calculations are the basis for Posiva's operational safety, safety case and decay heat power and criticality calculations. Validating the calculated radionuclide inventories with radiochemical analyses is advisable. The most important nuclides, both radioactive and stable, from the radiation and operational safety, long-term safety, decay heat power and criticality calculations point of view are listed. Also the nuclides possible to be assessed by Studsvik are listed. The conclusion is that the nuclides proposed by Studsvik in 2011 are recommended for radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  3. The Searchbench - Combining Sentence-semantic, Full-text and Bibliographic Search in Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schäfer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to precise searching in the full content of digital libraries. The Searchbench (for search workbench is based on sentence-wise syntactic and semantic natural language processing (NLP of both born-digital and scanned publications in PDF format. The term born-digital means natively digital, i.e. prepared electronically using typesetting systems such as LaTeX, OpenOffice, and the like. In the Searchbench, queries can be formulated as (possibly underspecified statements, consisting of simple subject-predicate-object constructs such as ‘algorithm improves word alignment’. This reduces the number of false hits in large document collections when the search words happen to appear close to each other, but are not semantically related. The method also abstracts from passive voice and predicate synonyms. Moreover, negated statements can be excluded from the search results, and negated antonym predicates again count as synonyms (e.g. not include = exclude.In the Searchbench, a sentence-semantic search can be combined with search filters for classical full-text, bibliographic metadata and automatically computed domain terms. Auto-suggest fields facilitate text input. Queries can be bookmarked or emailed. Furthermore, a novel citation browser in the Searchbench allows graphical navigation in citation networks. These have been extracted automatically from metadata and paper texts. The citation browser displays short phrases from citation sentences at the edges in the citation graph and thus allows students and researchers to quickly browse publications and immerse into a new research field. By clicking on a citation edge, the original citation sentence is shown in context, and optionally also in the original PDF layout.To showcase the usefulness of our research, we have a applied it to a collection of currently approx. 25,000 open access research papers in the field of computational linguistics and language technology, the ACL

  4. A Closer Look at Eduardo M. Torner's Bibliographic Survey of Spain's Traditional Music and Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Katz, Israel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo M. Torner (1881-1955 was among the most notable pioneers who contributed to the nascent field of ethnomusicology in Spain. His early field researches in Asturias and Galicia yielded exemplary publications and his associates included such outstanding figures as Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Manuel Manrique de Lara, Jesús Bal y Gay, and Kurt Schindler. The two bibliographies contained in this article, which Torner included among the essays in his classic Temas folklóricos: Música y Poesía (Madrid, 1935, represent but a mere sampling of the 4,000 entries he is purported to have gathered concering Spain's tradidonal music and dance. Fleeing first to Valencia and then to Barcelona at the outbreak of the Civil War, he utlimately sought refuge in London, where he continued his researches until his death. During the transitional period from Valencia to England, he lost his precious collection of photographs, historical documents, and personal manuscripts, together with his massive bibliographical compilation. Here I have reordered the bibliographies from Temas folklóricos, insuring that all his entries are accurate and complete, adding personal comments to Tomer's observations, and providing four indices: 1 Abbreviations and publications surveyed; 2 Authors; 3 Geographic locales, and 4 Subject matter.

    Eduardo M. Torner (1881-1935 fue uno de los más notables pioneros que contribuyeron al surgimiento de la etnomusicología en España. Sus primeras investigaciones de campo en Asturias y Galicia produjeron publicaciones modélicas, y se relacionó por su trabajo con figuras tan eminentes como Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Manuel Manrique de Lara, Jesús Bal y Gay y Kurt Schindler. Las dos bibliografías contenidas en este artículo que Torner incluyó entre los ensayos de su trabajo clásico Temas folklóricos: Música y Poesía (Madrid, 1935, no representan sino una mera muestra de las 4.000 entradas que se cree que recogi

  5. Mesoterapia: uma revisão bibliográfica Mesotherapy: a bibliographical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira Camargo Herreros

    2011-02-01

    are reports of the use of intradermotherapy to treat painful diseases, skin diseases and unaesthetic conditions. Medical clinics have been recently offering the treatment of intradermotherapy, using the more popular name for this practice - mesotherapy. There is only scant scientific information about this subject published in periodicals indexed on MedLine. Only a few states rigorously pursue this method. Most indexed publications about this subject deal with the complications of this technique. Unaesthetic dermatoses have been a common complaint in dermatologic clinics, and it has become necessary to have scientific evidence to give to patients. Therefore, well-researched scientific studies about this technique are necessary to offer data to medical professionals that will clearly explain to patients both the benefits and the risks of these procedures. A bibliographical review was conducted and we verified the need for new studies with adequate methods to confirm the benefits of intradermotherapy as used in dermatologic treatment.

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph T. Hupp

    2008-11-17

    The premise of this project was that coordination chemistry could be used to devise new kinds of microporous materials and that these materials could exhibit nanoscale porosity and selective chemical separation capabilities. Our initial materials focus was on aggregates of discrete hollow molecules, especially molecular squares. Subsequently our focus turned largely toward permanently microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Our approach emphasized coupling predictive & explanative computational modeling to materials design, synthesis, and property characterization.

  7. Success journey of solvent synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of solvents for the front and back end of nuclear fuel cycle is a major diversification activity of Heavy Water Board. HWP, Tuticorin had taken up synthesis of oreganophosphorous solvents TOPO, TAPO, DNPPA and TIAP. The basic synthesis routes were provided by NCL, Pune and BARC. HWP,Tuticorin has carried out no. of Lab and Bench Scale campaigns for modifying the process and optimizing the parameters. This resulted in increased purity and yield, reduction in batch time, reduction in cost of production and effluent generation. Finalization of design of a 500 litre Pilot Scale Reactor is underway. This will lead to the goal of setting up of Industrial Plant. (author)

  8. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  9. Bulletin bibliographique sur la linguistique appliquee a l'informatique (Bibliographic Bulletin on Applied Linguistics and Information Science). Relai, Publication K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforge, Lorne, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography contains 150 citations of journal articles, conference and research reports, and other publications drawn from the BIBELO database concerning linguistics as applied to the field of information science or information science as applied to linguistics. The bulk of the bibliography consists of the bibliographic citations,…

  10. Definition and identification of journals as bibliographic and subject entities: Librarianship versus ISI Journal Citation Reports methods and their effect on citation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Bensman; L. Leydesdorff

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ISI Journal Citation Reports (JCR) bibliographic and subject structures through Library of Congress (LC) and American research libraries cataloging and classification methodology. The 2006 Science Citation Index JCR Behavioral Sciences subject category journals are used as an

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  13. Reinforcing the foundations of ornithological nomenclature: Filling the gaps in Sherborn's and Richmond's historical legacy of bibliographic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Due to its public popularity, ornithology has a huge corpus of scientific publication for a relatively small number of species. Although there are global checklists of currently recognised taxa, there has been only limited, mainly individual, effort to build a nomenclatural database that the science of ornithology deserves. This is especially true in relation to concise synonymies. With the arrival of ZooBank and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the time has come to develop synonymies and to add fuller bibliographic detail to databases. The preparation for both began at the start of the 20(th) century with extensive work by Sherborn and Richmond. I discuss their legacy, offer notes on significant work since then, and provide suggestions for what remains to be done. To make solid the foundations for ornithological nomenclature and taxonomy, especially for synonymies, ornithologists will need to collaborate much more and contribute to the digital infrastructure. PMID:26877655

  14. HNAB: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, D.M.

    1976-05-01

    The laboratory and pilot-plant scale synthesis of hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB) are detailed. Some of its physical, chemical, and explosive properties are presented and discussed. Among these are included polymorphic forms, thermal behavior, spectra, solubility, compatibility, toxicity, sensitivity to gap test, detonation velocity and pressure, impact sensitivity, and explosive classification. Finally, some alternate syntheses of HNAB and its intermediates are considered; some of these were successful and some were not.

  15. Using Semantic Web Technologies to Collaboratively Collect and Share User-Generated Content in Order to Enrich the Presentation of Bibliographic Records–Development of a Prototype Based on RDF, D2RQ, Jena, SPARQL and WorldCat’s FRBRization Web Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Holgersen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a prototype of a semantic web-based framework for collecting and sharing user-generated content (reviews, ratings, tags, etc. across different libraries in order to enrich the presentation of bibliographic records. The user-generated data is remodeled into RDF, utilizing established linked data ontologies. This is done in a semi-automatic manner utilizing the Jena and the D2RQ-toolkits. For the remodeling, a SPARQL-construct statement is tailored for each data source. In the data source used in our prototype, user-generated content is linked to the relevant books via their ISBN. By remodeling the data according to the FRBR model, and expanding the RDF graph with data returned by WorldCat's FRBRization web service, we are able to greatly increase the number of entry points to each book. We make the social content available through a RESTful web service with ISBN as a parameter. The web service returns a graph of all user-generated data registered to any edition of the book in question in the RDF/XML format. Libraries using our framework would thus be able to present relevant social content in association with bibliographic records, even if they hold a different version of a book than the one that was originally accessed by users. Finally, we connect our RDF graph to the linked open data cloud through the use of Talis’ openlibrary.org SPARQL endpoint.

  16. Using gamma radiation to control microorganisms and insects on paper as a preservation method of bibliographic materials in danger of deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservation of bibliographic materials involves three stages that could be named primary prevention related to the control of factors intervening in the deteriorating processes, secondary prevention associated to the early detection of deteriorating factors and finally tertiary prevention, necessary when a serious problem has been detected and the actions are destined to minimize consequences. Among the processes historically employed in the last case, radiation has been investigated with dissimilar results. This purpose of this work was to contribute to the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of gamma radiation as a tool for the treatment of fungus or insect contaminated paper. The principal objective was to examine the extent to which the physical-mechanical properties of paper are affected by irradiation when it its employed to treat papers damaged by biological contamination. To this objective, seven kinds of paper, namely permanent paper, tracing paper, light and heavy cardboard, photo quality ink jet paper and two different brands of paper for photocopying were selected and irradiated with doses in the range from 5 to 50 kGy. Applied doses cover and surpass the range needed to destroy or inactivate insects and microorganisms. Mechanical, chemical, microscopic tests and accelerated aging were performed on irradiated specimens of the chosen paper samples. In addition, some infected copies of books and magazines were irradiated and tested in the same way, after having ascertained their successful decontamination. The results obtained showed that the behavior on irradiation depends on the kind of paper. However, some general results can be stated: with the dose of 20 kGy only the tracing and the photo quality ink jet paper showed an appreciable diminution in their mechanical properties. Lower doses did not affect the samples of paper here tested. The higher dose, 50 kGy, affected all of the paper samples to different degrees, with the exception of

  17. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published in...

  18. Synthesis of (+)-Omphadiol and (+)-Pyxidatol C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Gowrisankar; Eggert, Ulrike; Kalesse, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of (+)-omphadiol and (+)-pyxidatol C was achieved through two independent strategies. For the synthesis of (+)-omphadiol, dicyclopentadienone was used as the workbench on which the three contiguous stereocenters of the cyclopentane could be introduced selectively. These include a tertiary alcohol and a selective protonation of an enolate. A ring-closing metathesis and a cyclopropanation concluded the synthesis. For the synthesis of pyxidatol C, we used the epoxide derived from (R)-linalool that was transformed to cyclopentane 23. After chain extension, another ring-closing metathesis followed by oxidation state changes and finally a cyclopropanation led to (+)-pyxidatol C. PMID:27105390

  19. Bibliographic reviews in Cuban medical journals. Las revisiones bibliográficas en revistas médicas cubanas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucitere Rodríguez González

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bibliographic reviews acquire great importance in the specific context of medical publications; however, some editorial facts can affect their scientific value. Objective: To characterize the bibliographic reviews published by some Cuban medical journals. Methods: The most recent reviews (10 were analyzed by means of an exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study. Selected from 5 electronic medical journals, summing up 50 articles. The following variables were studied: article's length, statement of objective and characteristics of bibliographic references. Results: In 20 reviews the objective was not stated, only in 23 (46% the objective was correctly declared. More than 50% of the article had between 4 and 9 screens; 16 structural variables were found with a predominance of blocks and block plus discussion. Only 20 (40% gathered between 25 and 50 references and 24 had more than 50% of their references not updated. Conclusion: There is a misapprehension regarding the review article among Cuban medical journals, which could somehow affect its pertinence and scientific rigor to the eyes of the international scientific community.

    Fundamento: Por diversas razones, las revisiones bibliográficas adquieren gran importancia en el contexto de las publicaciones médicas; sin embargo, algunos elementos de carácter editorial pueden afectar su valor científico. Objetivo: Caracterizar las revisiones bibliográficas publicadas por algunas revistas médicas cubanas. Métodos: Mediante un estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y retrospectivo, se analizaron las 10 revisiones bibliográficas más recientes, de 5 revistas médicas en formato electrónico, para un total de 50 artículos de revisión, en los cuales se analizaron las variables siguientes: extensión del artículo, estructura, declaración de

  20. Conception and realisation of an automatic bibliographic metadata update handler based on patch extraction and merging for the CERN document repository environment.

    CERN Document Server

    Vesper, Martin; Ziolek, Wojciech

    Scientific literature and its corresponding bibliographic metadata information is typically available through online digital repositories: • INSPIRE, the High Energy Physics (HEP) information system is the source of information about the whole HEP literature. • TheCERNDocumentServer(CDS) is the CERN Institutional Library containing all documents produced at CERN; • arXiv is a pre-print server hosting pre-print versions of several scientific fields. • SCOAP3 is an initiative to convert key journals in the HEP field to open access and comes with its own digital repository. Across these 4 entities, there is a big overlap in terms of content, and maintaining consistency between the corresponding bibliographic metadata is an open challenge. The proposed thesis tries to model and implement a possible solution to automate the propagation of updates in order to reduce the necessary manual data manipulation to a minimum.

  1. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Eckert; Anthony K. Cheetham (Principal Investigator)

    2011-03-11

    Hydrogen storage systems based on the readily reversible adsorption of H{sub 2} in porous materials have a number of very attractive properties with the potential to provide superior performance among candidate materials currently being investigated were it not for the fact that the interaction of H{sub 2} with the host material is too weak to permit viable operation at room temperature. Our study has delineated in quantitative detail the structural elements which we believe to be the essential ingredients for the future synthesis of porous materials, where guest-host interactions are intermediate between those found in the carbons and the metal hydrides, i.e. between physisorption and chemisorption, which will result in H{sub 2} binding energies required for room temperature operation. The ability to produce porous materials with much improved hydrogen binding energies depends critically on detailed molecular level analysis of hydrogen binding in such materials. However, characterization of H{sub 2} sorption is almost exclusively carried by thermodynamic measurements, which give average properties for all the sites occupied by H{sub 2} molecules at a particular loading. We have therefore extensively utilized the most powerful of the few molecular level experimental probes available to probe the interactions of hydrogen with porous materials, namely inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy of the hindered rotations of the hydrogen molecules adsorbed at various sites, which in turn can be interpreted in a very direct way in by computational studies. This technique can relate spectral signatures of various H{sub 2} molecules adsorbed at binding sites with different degrees of interaction. In the course of this project we have synthesized a rather large number of entirely new hybrid materials, which include structural modifications for improved interactions with adsorbed hydrogen. The results of our systematic studies on many porous materials provide detailed

  2. Development of a flexible tool for the automatic comparison of bibliographic records. Application to sample collections - Développement d'un logiciel flexible pour la comparaison de notices bibliographiques et application à différentes collections

    OpenAIRE

    Borel, Alain; Krause, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Due to the multiplication of digital bibliographic catalogues (open repositories, library and bookseller catalogues), information specialists are facing the challenge of mass-processing huge amounts of metadata for various purposes. Among the many possible applications, determining the similarity between records is an important issue. Such a similarity can be interesting from a bibliographic point of view (i.e., do the records describe the same document, the answer to which can be useful for ...

  3. Authority Control in the Context of Bibliographic Control in the Electronic Environment [English version presented at the International Conference] = L’authority control nel contesto del controllo bibliografico in ambiente elettronico [Versione italiana presentata alla Conferenza internazionale

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    There is a sense in which authority control and bibliographic control are coterminous - two sides of the same coin. At the very least, bibliographic control is literally impossible without authority control. Cataloguing cannot exist without standardized access points and authority control is the mechanism by which we achieve the necessary degree of standardization. The same name, title, or subject should always have the same denotation (in natural language or the artificial languages of class...

  4. Importance of ethology in the education of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnique at Universidad de La Salle “pedagogic reflection and bibliographic contributions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Uribe Mallarino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The following document arises from the study, reflection of the educational and professional practice of its authors, in order to socialize arguments, concepts and methodologies offered by the sciences of the behavior animal (among them the ethology, to the education of the students of farming sciences. This document also presents a bibliographical review of the main documents about ethology and animal welfare located in the library of the Universidad de La Salle.

  5. How to find bibliographic sources for scientific research and communication. A guide for the PhD course of Scientific Communication, UANL-FOD.

    OpenAIRE

    Muela-Meza, Zapopan Martín

    2012-01-01

    This is a bibliograhic guide to how find bibliographic sources for scientific research and communication made as part of my Scientific Communication I teach at the PhD Program of Sciences of the Physical Culture at the School of Sports Organization (FOD) at the Nuevo Leon Autonomous University (UANL), San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L., México: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Organización Deportiva (FOD).

  6. Importance of ethology in the education of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnique at Universidad de La Salle “pedagogic reflection and bibliographic contributions”

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Uribe Mallarino; Iván Lozano Ortega; Néstor Alberto Calderón Maldonado

    2007-01-01

    The following document arises from the study, reflection of the educational and professional practice of its authors, in order to socialize arguments, concepts and methodologies offered by the sciences of the behavior animal (among them the ethology), to the education of the students of farming sciences. This document also presents a bibliographical review of the main documents about ethology and animal welfare located in the library of the Universidad de La Salle.

  7. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-01-01

    Bianca Horrleman. 2015. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 36-38. Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang), and eastern Tibet became incre...

  8. Bibliographic work of Ivan Franjo Jukić and the end of cultural history. Bibliographies as a source for the history of books and cultural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Harni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bosnian Franciscan Ivan Franjo Jukić (1818-1857 died a hundred and fifty years ago. He was one of the most prominent figures in the 19th century cultural life of Bosnia and Herzegovina, credited with the development of a wide-ranging set of aspects of cultural life in Bosnia and Herzegovina, organised in the unpropitious conditions of the Turkish occupation. Among other things, he studied the non-religious cultural history of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, in particular, the literary work of his Franciscan predecessors who were active in pastoral work for many years on the entire Croatian cultural territory and, in some periods, outside this territory. Preaching in the tongue of the people, they contributed greatly to the standardisation of the Croatian language and to the development and use of bosanica as a specific form of the Croatian Cyrillic script. Jukić was one of the first, if not the first Croatian student of this script. The study of bosanica was an inspiration to him to collect and bibliographically describe books written in this script and, also, books written in the Latin script. Thus emerged the core of his text, Bosnian Literature, which is in fact a general bibliography of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was the first book to set as a criterion the secular and not the religious borders of Bosnia. The text was published in two installments in the first literary journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosanski prijatelj, started and edited by Jukić. The paper is to commemorate the anniversary of his death. It provides an insight into the results of the bibliographic, cultural and historic study of Jukić’s text. The bibliographic study focuses on the bibliographic structure, bibliographic descriptions and on the criteria applied in the selection of the material. The bibliographic features are analysed as part of the cultural and historic context, in the synchronic and diachronic sense of the word. The method applied in the contextualised

  9. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  10. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs. PMID:26168369

  11. Construction of a bibliographic information database for the Nuclear Science and Engineering (IX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Whan; Oh, Jeong Hun; Choi, Kwang; Keum, Jong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The major goal of this project is to construct a database in nuclear science and engineering information materials, support the R and D activities of users in this field, finally to support KRISTAL(Korea Research Information for Science and Technology Access Line)'s DB through the KREONet(Korea Research Environment Open Network), as one of the five national information networks. The contents of this project are as follows: 1) Materials selection and collection, 2) Indexing and abstract preparation, 3) Data input and transmission, and 4) document delivery service. In this seventh year, 40,000 records, as total of inputted data, are added to the existing SATURN DB. These records are covered with the articles of nuclear-related core journals, proceedings, seminars, and research reports, etc. And using the Web, this project was important for users to get their needed information itself and to receive the materials of online requested information. And then it will give the chance users not only to promote the the effectiveness of R and D activities, but also to obviate the duplicated research works. 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    -scales, and hyper-Rayleigh scattering at the microscopic level, and synchrotron radiation-based x-ray scattering and x-ray spectroscopy, cold neutron scattering, molecular dynamics simulation, and optical harmonic generation at the macroscopic level. This overall approach has some distinct advantages, compared to more traditional approaches, for example, those based on organic polymers, biopolymers or undressed cofactors. The resulting functional ensembles thereby have potential for important device applications in the areas of optical communications and photovoltaics. The approach also has an absolute requirement for a tightly coupled collaborative effort necessary to span the rigorous demands for the design, synthesis and characterization of such novel photonic and electronic biomolecular materials.

  13. The deep geothermal project along the shore of the Lake of Geneva - Synthesis report of Phase A; Projet de geothermie profonde sur la cote vaudoise. Rapport de synthese de la phase A - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallat, P. [CCMP Plus, Gland (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    Preliminary studies have shown the geothermal potential of deep aquifers in the region named 'La Cote' between the Jura mountain and the Lake of Geneva, between Geneva and Lausanne, Switzerland. The present synthesis report reviews the geological features of the region - known from previous boring - and the expected heat demand in the region. Several sites have been identified where cost-covering operation of a geothermal district heating is expected. Recommendations for the following steps of the project are given.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  15. Mitigation measures to contain the environmental impact of urban areas: a bibliographic review moving from the life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belussi, Lorenzo; Barozzi, Benedetta

    2015-12-01

    The global environmental impact of urban areas has greatly increased over the years, due to the growth of urbanisation and the associated increase in management costs. There are several measures aimed at mitigating this impact that affect in different ways the environmental, economic and societal spheres. This article has analysed a selection of different mitigation measures, related to the built environment, according to the life cycle approach, aimed at identifying the procedural features chosen by the different authors and defining a common way to deal with this issue. In particular, all the individual single steps of a Life Cycle Assessment/Life Cycle Costing of the different studies are analysed and the results of the individual measures are highlighted. The analysis has shown how the scientific literature is mainly focused on the evaluation of the impact of technological solutions related to individual buildings (cool/green roof). Less interest is shown in the solutions for urban areas, while, as far as the impact on greenhouse gas emissions is concerned, some studies are shifting the target to a global scale. Due to the accuracy whereby the calculation of the impact indicators deals with and structures the life cycle methods, opportunities to compare studies developed by different authors are quite rare and hard to find. Hence the need to find a simple, intuitive and flexible scheme to combine some of the most useful results of the bibliographical studies, in a comparative outline of different technological solutions, which can support the decision-making phase through a rough assessment. PMID:26563232

  16. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute, maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  18. The KTH synthesis of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sundberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the work with synthesizing singing that has been carried out at the Speech Music Hearing Department, KTH since 1977. The origin of the work, a hardware synthesis machine, is described and some aspects of the control program, a modified version of a text-to-speech conversion system are reviewed. Three applications are described in which the synthesis system has paved the way for investigations of specific aspects of the singing voice. One concerns the perceptual relevance of the center frequency of the singer's formant, one deals with characteristics of an ugly voice, and one regards intonation. The article is accompanied by 18 sound examples, several of which were not published before. Finally, limitations and advantages of singing synthesis are discussed.

  19. Synthesis of Tetracalcium Phosphate at Reduced Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, K; Rozīte, E

    2015-01-01

    Tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) requires the highest synthesis temperatures of all the calcium phosphates, but now a new process is available at 400 oC lower than previously, at 900 oC. Instead of ball-milling reactants for a homogeneous mix, the reactants for solid-state synthesis were assembled in an amorphous phase. Heating produced hydroxyapatite, then oxyapatite and finally TTCP. Amorphous nanoparticles were synthesized and then heated in air or in vacuo. The sequence of solid-state rea...

  20. Children's Reading Promotion Measures: The Bibliographic Single of Picture Books%少儿阅读推广手段:绘本书目单

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅

    2012-01-01

    吸引儿童阅读并爱上阅读是儿童阅读推广活动的目的。除了举办亲子阅读活动等手段外,制作和派发吸引儿童的绘本书目单也是阅读推广的有效手段。绘本书目单要符合儿童具有强烈的好奇心、喜欢颜色鲜艳的事物、愿意动手参与等特性,使其在吸引儿童的同时,能够成为家长指导儿童阅读的资料。配合亲子阅读活动派发绘本书目,能够使阅读推广活动效果更好,更加具有延续性。%Attracting children to read and love to read is the purpose of reading promotion activities for children. Except holding the parent-child reading activity, making and distributing the bibliographic single of picture books is also effective means of the reading promotion. The bibliographic single of picture books should meet children's characteristics such as having a strong sense of curiosity, liking brightly colorful things and willing hands to participate, so that it could attract children and become the parents' guidance materials of children. Distributing the bibliographic single of picture books which coordinates with parent- child reading activities could make the effect of reading promotion activities better and have more continuity.

  1. Sterol synthesis in diverse bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H Wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc, which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from 5 phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult

  2. Recent advances on virtual human synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ShiHong; WANG ZhaoQi

    2009-01-01

    Virtual human is a digital representation of the geometric and behavioral property of human beings in the virtual environment generated by computer. The research goal of virtual human synthesis is to gen-erate realistic human body models and natural human motion behavior. This paper introduces the devel-opment of the related researches on these two topics, and some progresses on example based human modeling and motion synthesis, and their applications In Chinese sign language teaching, computer-aided sports training and public safety problem studying. Finally, some hot research topics in virtual human synthesis are presented.

  3. Past and current trends in soy supplementation: a bibliographic study Tendencias pasadas y actuales en la complementación con soja: un estudio bibliográfico

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farriol; M. Jordà; G. Delgado

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to determine in what areas the therapeutic application of soy predominates in clinical trials and to assess the emerging fields of its use by means of an analysis of bibliographic resources. A search was performed in the MEDLINE database up to 31 december 2004, limited to the Title/Abstract field, and Clinical Trials as the type of publication. The abstracts from the publications selected (n=86) were reviewed and different variables were assessed. A total of 3280 subjects were inc...

  4. Tar in road system wastes - bibliographic study - quick characterization methods; Le goudron dans les dechets du reseau routier - etude bibliographique - methodes de caracterisation rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazillet, C.; Domas, J.; Pepin, G.

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of the european regulations on the wastes management, the road structure wastes present a particularly problem because of the tar content and of the toxic associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In order to chose the elimination or the valorization of these roads wastes, it is necessary to measure the tar content. After a presentation of the study objectives, a bibliographic study of the context, the challenges, the hydrocarbons, the tar characterization and the today situation of the french road network, the author presents the methods of PAH detection with a special attention on the well known methods: the PAK marker, the TSE and the toluene spot. (A.L.B.)

  5. Désulfuration : avant, pendant ou après la combustion ? Synthèse bibliographique Desulfurization: Before, During Or After Combustion? Bibliographic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les perspectives d'applications de nouvelles normes aux émissions des grandes installations de combustion, tant aux Etats-Unis qu'en Europe de l'Ouest ont suscité de nombreuses recherches. Les diverses publications qui leur sont consacrées traitent le plus souvent de la combustion de charbons et, beaucoup plus rarement, de l'adaptabilité de ces procédés à des combustibles liquides ou de techniques spécifiques. Les principaux points technico-économiques qui se dégagent sur la désulfuration des combustibles liquides sont donnés dans cet article. Enfin, au-delà des aspects techniques, on notera que la désulfuration des combustibles liquides, et plus particulièrement du fuel lourd, est liée à deux aspects plus politiques : - l'application de normes sur les émissions des installations de combustion (ou les dérogations possibles qui concernent non seulement les oxydes de soufre mais aussi les oxydes d'azote et les particules contenues dans les fumées; - l'avenir des fuels lourds tant sur le plan quantitatif (marché que qualitatif (constitution du pool fuel et spécifîcations. The prospects that new emission standards will be applied to large combustion installations, both in the United States and Western Europe, have given rise to extensive research. The different publications devoted to this research usually deal with coal combustion and more rarely with the suitability of such processes for liquid fuels or specific techniques. The leading technico-economic points involved in the desulfurization of liquid fuels are given in this article. Likewise, over and beyond the technical aspects, it can be seen that the desulfurization of liquid fuels, and more particularly of heavy fuel oil, is linked to two more politicalaspects:(a the application of standards on emissions from combustion installations (or possible derogations concerning not only sulfur oxides but also nitrogen oxides and particles contained in fumes;(b the future of heavy fuel oils from the quantitative (market as well as qualitative (composition of the fuel-oil pool and specifications standpoints.

  6. Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Romea, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Organic Synthesis is a one-semester course of the fourth year of the Chemistry Degree at the Universitat de Barcelona. This course covers the most important transformations in Organic Chemistry, including a short introduction to the Retrosynthetic Analysis. The aim is to provide a solid knowledge of the main reactions and their mechanism, which could later be improved during Master studies.

  7. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  8. Bibliographic Modelling of Transmedia

    OpenAIRE

    Vukadin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Transmedia is a set of techniques that use multiple media platforms (books, films, games, live performances, etc.) to create a single narrative. The thesis investigates how transmedia resources can be described and accessed within the conceptual framework provided by the FR family of data models and the FRBRoo ontology. Principal characteristics of transmedia compositions will be analysed in order to identify those relevant to the representation of this type of content in bi...

  9. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John; Herring, Ellen L.; Brown, Tammy L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) has developed new methods to provide an instrument study in one week's engineering time. The final product is recorded in oral presentations, models and the analyses which underlie the models.

  10. Linking: Today's Libraries, Tomorrow's Technologies. Report of the Bibliographic and Communications Network Pilot Project. Canadian Network Papers Number 7 = Le Lien entre les Bibliotheques d'Aujourd'hui et les Technologies de Demain. Rapport du Projet Pilote du Reseau de Services Bibliographiques et de Communications. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A pilot project was conducted from May 1980 to November 1983 to test the application of iNet--a decentralized, packet-switched telecommunications network--to bibliographic data interchange in Canada. The principal components of the project were participation of the Bibliographic Common Interest Group (BCIP), a group of libraries with stand-alone,…

  11. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A

  12. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  13. Health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: A bibliographic review of the literature from 1974 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri Ali

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life in patients with breast cancer is an important outcome. This paper presents an extensive overview on the topic ranging from descriptive findings to clinical trials. Methods This was a bibliographic review of the literature covering all full publications that appeared in English language biomedical journals between 1974 and 2007. The search strategy included a combination of key words 'quality of life' and 'breast cancer' or 'breast carcinoma' in titles. A total of 971 citations were identified and after exclusion of duplicates, the abstracts of 606 citations were reviewed. Of these, meetings abstracts, editorials, brief commentaries, letters, errata and dissertation abstracts and papers that appeared online and were indexed ahead of publication were also excluded. The remaining 477 papers were examined. The major findings are summarized and presented under several headings: instruments used, validation studies, measurement issues, surgical treatment, systemic therapies, quality of life as predictor of survival, psychological distress, supportive care, symptoms and sexual functioning. Results Instruments-Several valid instruments were used to measure quality of life in breast cancer patients. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and its breast cancer specific complementary measure (EORTC QLQ-BR23 and the Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy General questionnaire (FACIT-G and its breast cancer module (FACIT-B were found to be the most common and well developed instruments to measure quality of life in breast cancer patients. Surgery-different surgical procedures led to relatively similar results in terms of quality of life assessments, although mastectomy patients compared to conserving surgery patients usually reported a lower body image and sexual functioning. Systemic therapies-almost all studies indicated that breast

  14. Progress in the synthesis and reactivity studies of metallabenzenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guomei; XIA Haiping; JIA Guocheng

    2004-01-01

    Metallabenzenes are metallacyclohexatriene complexes that are derived by replacement of one of the CH groups in benzene with a transition-metal fragment. Their synthesis and aromatic properties have recently attracted considerable attention. This paper summarizes the progress in the synthesis, aromatic property, and reactivity studies of metallabenzenes. We will describe the synthesis and reactivity of typical metallabenzenes with various metals (e.g. osmium, iridium, and ruthenium, etc.), the synthesis and structure of a recent reported example of metallanaphthalene and several rare examples of novel and stable metallabenzynes. Finally, the possible future developments in this field have also been suggested.

  15. Robust Face Sketch Style Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengchuan Zhang; Xinbo Gao; Nannan Wang; Jie Li

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous image conversion is a critical issue in many computer vision tasks, among which example-based face sketch style synthesis provides a convenient way to make artistic effects for photos. However, existing face sketch style synthesis methods generate stylistic sketches depending on many photo-sketch pairs. This requirement limits the generalization ability of these methods to produce arbitrarily stylistic sketches. To handle such a drawback, we propose a robust face sketch style synthesis method, which can convert photos to arbitrarily stylistic sketches based on only one corresponding template sketch. In the proposed method, a sparse representation-based greedy search strategy is first applied to estimate an initial sketch. Then, multi-scale features and Euclidean distance are employed to select candidate image patches from the initial estimated sketch and the template sketch. In order to further refine the obtained candidate image patches, a multi-feature-based optimization model is introduced. Finally, by assembling the refined candidate image patches, the completed face sketch is obtained. To further enhance the quality of synthesized sketches, a cascaded regression strategy is adopted. Compared with the state-of-the-art face sketch synthesis methods, experimental results on several commonly used face sketch databases and celebrity photos demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26595919

  16. Analysis and synthesis of laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Shiva; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    There is much enthusiasm in the text-to-speech community for synthesis of emotional and natural speech. One idea being proposed is to include emotion dependent paralinguistic cues during synthesis to convey emotions effectively. This requires modeling and synthesis techniques of various cues for different emotions. Motivated by this, a technique to synthesize human laughter is proposed. Laughter is a complex mechanism of expression and has high variability in terms of types and usage in human-human communication. People have their own characteristic way of laughing. Laughter can be seen as a controlled/uncontrolled physiological process of a person resulting from an initial excitation in context. A parametric model based on damped simple harmonic motion to effectively capture these diversities and also maintain the individuals characteristics is developed here. Limited laughter/speech data from actual humans and synthesis ease are the constraints imposed on the accuracy of the model. Analysis techniques are also developed to determine the parameters of the model for a given individual or laughter type. Finally, the effectiveness of the model to capture the individual characteristics and naturalness compared to real human laughter has been analyzed. Through this the factors involved in individual human laughter and their importance can be better understood.

  17. FINAL SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satish Mohapatra

    2011-12-21

    Dynalene Inc has developed and patented a fuel cell coolant with the help of DOE SBIR Phase I and Phase II funding (Project DE-FG02-04ER83884). However, this coolant could only be produced in lab scale (500 ml to 2 L) due to problems in the optimization and scale-up of a nanoparticle ingredient. This project optimized the nanoparticle production process in 10 L and 100 L reactors (which translates to about 5000 gallons of coolant), optimized the filtration process for the nanoparticles, and develop a high throughput production as well as quality control method for the final coolant formulation. Scale-up of nanoparticle synthesis (using emulsion polymerization) is an extremely challenging task. Dynalene researchers, in collaboration with a university partner, identified all the parameters affecting the size, charge density and coagulation characteristics of the nanoparticles and then optimized these parameters to achieve the goals and the objectives of this project. Nanoparticle synthesis was demonstrated to be reproducible in the 10 L and 100 L scales.

  18. Evaluation of flux synthesis algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flux synthesis algorithm which is the best fit to the numerical solution of the multigroup diffusion equations, was determined. Three different types of synthesis were studied: 1) discontinuous synthesis 2) continuous synthesis 3) pseudo-continuous synthesis. A matrix and a differential formulation were developed for the first two types of synthesis. For pseudo-continuous synthesis only the matrix formulation was used. Some tests were performed and the results allowed us to establish the following order of efficiency for the algorithms: 1) continuous synthesis (matrix formulation) 2) continuous synthesis (differential formulation) 3) pseudo-continuous synthesis 4) discontinuous synthesis (matrix formulation) 5) discontinuous synthesis (differential formulation). (Author)

  19. Reinforcing the foundations of ornithological nomenclature: Filling the gaps in Sherborn’s and Richmond’s historical legacy of bibliographic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to its public popularity, ornithology has a huge corpus of scientific publication for a relatively small number of species. Although there are global checklists of currently recognised taxa, there has been only limited, mainly individual, effort to build a nomenclatural database that the science of ornithology deserves. This is especially true in relation to concise synonymies. With the arrival of ZooBank and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the time has come to develop synonymies and to add fuller bibliographic detail to databases. The preparation for both began at the start of the 20th century with extensive work by Sherborn and Richmond. I discuss their legacy, offer notes on significant work since then, and provide suggestions for what remains to be done. To make solid the foundations for ornithological nomenclature and taxonomy, especially for synonymies, ornithologists will need to collaborate much more and contribute to the digital infrastructure. PMID:26877655

  20. Recommendations for the management of old uranium mining sites in France. From Limousin sites to other sites, from short- to medium- and long-terms. Final report of the pluralist expertise group on Limousin uranium mines (GEP). Synthesis and final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report of the Pluralistic Experts Group for the Uranium mines of Limousin (GEP) brings together the main conclusions and recommendations arising from three and half years of work having mobilized, at the request and with the financial support of French authorities, more than forty experts from a varying range of disciplines and backgrounds. The mission given to GEP by the Ministers of Ecology, Industry and Health, as well as the President of the Nuclear safety Authority, was ambitious. It was not simply a matter of conducting an exhaustive and vigorous investigation of actual impacts, but also to analyse the present situation from a technical point of view starting with actual cases to clarify the options for management and monitoring, and to make recommendations on their development in order to reduce the current impacts and to foresee those in the long term according to the preparation of a long term plan. This final report attempts to develop a coherent framework of recommendations that are as operationally feasible as possible. Thus, the proposals of the GEP underline the need for an comprehensive approach, on the basis of work on the institutional perspectives, of a programme for improvement of knowledge and including a reinforcement of information and dialogue, to frame and guide the characterization of the risks and impacts, the evolution of the surveillance devices and the consolidation of the existing protection systems. These final proposals take account of a whole range of activities undertaken by Areva NC as well as the relevant local and national government organizations; and which integrate certain recommendations already produced by the GEP within the framework of its three interim reports. The GEP sets out six main areas of improvements, within which the GEP makes 15 major recommendations addressed to the public authorities, the owner and all of the stakeholders concerned. These recommendations, largely detailed in the report, aim to: - 1

  1. Synthesis and characterization of metallopeptide nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Ustahüseyin, Oya

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program of Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 116-125. Ustahüseyin, Oya Master's

  2. [A bibliographic study on Tongui-bigan with a special reference to its influence on Japan and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K R

    2000-12-01

    In this work my main focus was put on two things; first, to examine the history of publication of Tongui - bogam within the nation with particular interest in the changing aspect observed from the bibliographical terms, and second, to examine the process through which Tongui - bogam was introduced to Japan and China, and the influence the book brought the two nations. Some of the findings concerning the domestic publication of Tongui - bogam are as follows. The first printing of the book was made in 1613, under the auspice of Naeui - won, one of the government organs in the capital in charge of medical affairs. It was printed with wooden movable type carved at Hullyeon - togam, the military training bureau. As for the question of the history of the domestic publication of Tongui - bogam after the first printing in 1613, we don't have enough data yet. Although there are many different editions of Tongui - bogam extant today, with different size and different font each, I could find so far only three copies which carry the data concerning its publication, one printed in 1659 by the Kyongsang provincial government with newly engraved woodblock, one printed in 1754 again by the Kyongsang provincial government with re-engraved woodblock, and one printed in 1814 by the Cholla provincial government with newly re-engraved woodblock. Each of the three was a revised edition at the time of its publication because every time it was based on the copy corrected by Naeui - won. In addition to the above mentioned three different editions of Tongui - bogam, three are quite a few copies originally printed with wooden movable type of different font, at various time and various places. None of them has any record concerning the date and place of its publication, and none of them shows that it was based on the Naeui-won corrected version as a mother copy. Accordingly, all of them carry quite a few erratum misprinting and it seems quite certain that all of them were produced before 1659

  3. Total human exposure and indoor air quality: An automated bibliography (BLIS) with summary abstracts. Volume 2. Final report, January 1987-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bibliographical Literature Information System (BLIS) is a computer database that provides a comprehensive review of available literature on total human exposure to environmental pollution. Brief abstracts (often condensed versions of the original abstract) are included; if the original document had no abstract, one was prepared. Unpublished draft reports are listed, as well as final reports of the U.S. Government and other countries, reports by governmental research contractors, journal articles, and other publications on exposure models field data, and newly emerging research methodologies. Emphasis is placed on those field studies measuring all the concentrations to which people may be exposed, including indoors, outdoors, and in-transit

  4. Overall Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMIGO is an OECD/NEA international project on the topic of 'Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case'. The term safety case here refers to the post-closure safety case for a geological repository for long-lived radioactive waste, and is defined as a synthesis of evidence, analyses and arguments that quantify and substantiate a claim that the repository is safe. Geological or geo-scientific information includes the various types of geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and structural information that can contribute to the safety case. The safety case is generally updated periodically throughout the step-wise process of repository siting, planning, construction, operation, as well as prior to closure, and becomes more rigorous over time, as increasing amounts of geological and other data become available, until, for a well-chosen site and design, a point is reached at which the safety case is adequate for repository licensing. AMIGO is structured as a series of workshops. This document summarises the first workshop of the AMIGO series, held at Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, on 3-5 June 2003, a-nd-hosted The focus of the workshop was on 'building confidence (in analyses and arguments that support the safety case) using multiple lines of evidence', but other themes within the overall scope of AMIGO were also discussed, such as the integration of the work of geo-scientists and safety assessors. The main themes addressed by the workshop, which include the topics covered by the Working Group Sessions, can be stated as follows: the role of the geosphere in disposal concepts; the ways in which geological information is used by waste management programmes, and the way in which usage changes as a programme progresses; the synthesis of wide ranging geo-scientific information into a consistent site description or conceptual model; the development of arguments for the long-term safety of disposal systems; the use of multiple lines of

  5. Inhibition of basal and TGF beta-induced fibroblast collagen synthesis by antineoplastic agents. Implications for wound healing.

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, T.; Martens, M F; Huyben, C M; Wobbes, T.

    1993-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs, given in the perioperative period, are thought to be a hazard to wound repair. Since fibroblast collagen synthesis is crucial to healing, we examined the effects of bleomycin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil on collagen synthesis in confluent cultures of fibroblasts from human colon and skin. The drugs were added in final concentrations between 0.1 and 50 microM. Bleomycin did not affect collagen synthesis in colon fibroblasts but inhibited synthesis in skin fibroblasts. Co...

  6. IUC/OCLC Network Evaluation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westat Research, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    The operation of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC) on-line bibliographic system in Texas and New Mexico Libraries was evaluated. The economic aspects of automated cataloging and card production were compared with previous methods; the effectiveness of the system as a tool for pre-order searching was evaluated; and the impact of the system's…

  7. Circulation Improvement of Articles in Journals written by Non-English Language - Development of a Special Journal Titles Translation List of Journals written in Japanese for the International Bibliographical Database

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Mayuki (JAEA); Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Kunii, Katsuhiko (JAEA); NAKAJIMA, Hidemitsu; Itabashi, Keizo (JAEA); Koike, Akemi (TOSS); Igarashi, Ayumi; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2010-01-01

    Non-English articles are still "Grey Literature" due to language barriers even though material circulation has improved like English articles with the expansion of the Internet era. In the INIS Database, bibliographic information such as titles and abstracts etc. is written in English. This feature of the INIS Database contributes to improvement of international circulation of scientific information from the nuclear field. However, titles of journals written in non-English languages were desc...

  8. Synthesis of new radiotracers based of Ethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo study of a biochemical or physiological process requires the synthesis of specific radiotracers but also the targeting of these compounds so that they can reach their target tissue. Methodologies original synthesis associated with radioisotopes used, the quantities and chemical forms often have to be available developed. The chemistry of metal complexes booming, we were able to use the ethyl ester combined with technetium, forming a stable radiotracer. Finally, a counting of radioactivity in different rat's organs completed our study. (Author)

  9. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite powders by sol-gel techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Quinten, Andreas; Nass, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of hydroxyapatite from aqueous salt solutions has been investigated. Special emphasis was put on the influence of synthesis parameters and on the properties of the precipitates. It was found that the development of crystalline phases during sintering strongly depends on synthesis conditions and can be controlled by sintering temperature and time. Thus, pure hydroxyapatite as well as a mixture of hydroxyapatite and tri-calciumphosphate can be synthesized. Finally, the microstruct...

  10. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  11. Synthesis Organic Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyid, Herlina; Firdaus; Hariani, Nunuk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Synthesis of metil ??-(p-hidroksifenil)akrilic from ??-(p-hidroksifenil)akrilat acid and methanol using Dean Stark Trap method had been done. Synthesis of ths compound intended to form the starting material in the subsequent synthesis of amide???s compound through the formation of ester compound. This synthesis using H2SO4 catalyst and Dean Stark Trap method, some of benzena which is added to remove the water that resulting from the reaction. Synthesis of this compound be held at re...

  12. Substructural controller synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized controller design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the control design of flexible structures. The structure to be controlled is decomposed into several substructures, which are modeled by component mode synthesis methods. For each substructure, a subcontroller is designed by using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. Then, a controller synthesis scheme called Substructural Controller Synthesis (SCS) is used to assemble the subcontrollers into a system controller, which is to be used to control the whole structure.

  13. Photosynthesis energy factory: analysis, synthesis, and demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This quantitative assessment of the potential of a combined dry-land Energy Plantation, wood-fired power plant, and algae wastewater treatment system demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of recycling certain by-products and effluents from one subsystem to another. Designed to produce algae up to the limit of the amount of carbon in municipal wastewater, the algae pond provides a positive cash credit, resulting mainly from the wastewater treatment credit, which may be used to reduce the cost of the Photosynthesis Energy Factory (PEF)-generated electricity. The algae pond also produces fertilizer, which reduces the cost of the biomass produced on the Energy Plantation, and some gas. The cost of electricity was as low as 35 mills per kilowatt-hour for a typical municipally-owned PEF consisting of a 65-MWe power plant, a 144-acre algae pond, and a 33,000-acre Energy Plantation. Using only conventional or near-term technology, the most cost-effective algae pond for a PEF is the carbon-limited secondary treatment system. This system does not recycle CO/sub 2/ from the flue gas. Analysis of the Energy Plantation subsystem at 15 sites revealed that plantations of 24,000 to 36,000 acres produce biomass at the lowest cost per ton. The following sites are recommended for more detailed evaluation as potential demonstration sites: Pensacola, Florida; Jamestown, New York; Knoxville, Tennessee; Martinsville, Virginia, and Greenwood, South Carolina. A major possible extension of the PEF concept is to include the possibility for irrigation.

  14. Final synthesis of Sarnet (Phase 1) corium activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the SARNET Severe Accident Research Network of excellence, the Corium topic covers all the behaviour of corium (mixture formed by the molten materials arising from a postulated nuclear reactor severe accident) from early phase of core degradation to in or ex-vessel corium recovery with the exception of corium interaction with water, direct containment heating and fission product release. The Corium topic regroups in three work packages the critical mass of competence to improve significantly the corium behaviour knowledge. The spirit of the SARNET networking is to share the knowledge, the facilities and the simulation tools for severe accidents, so to reach a better efficiency and to rationalize the R and D effort at European level. Extensive benchmarking has been launched in most of the areas of research. These benchmarks were mainly dedicated to the recalculation of analytical experiments, integral experiments or reactor applications. Eventually, all the knowledge will be accumulated in the ASTEC severe accident simulation code through physical model improvements and extension of validation database. This report summarizes the progress that has been achieved in the frame of the networking activities for the four and half years of the FP6 project. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen and methane synthesis through radiation catalysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the potential for using reactor wastes to synthesize useful products in quasi-photochemical configuration. It was found that semiconductor oxides act as heterogenous catalysts for the formation of H2 in aqueous media under 60Co irradiation. The principle of a gamma-ray solar cell was demonstrated experimentally. Experiments with ultraviolet irradiated TiO2 and ZnO grains demonstrated that both H2 and H2O2 were formed, in contrast to the results of work by previous authors. These results were rationalized by energy band diagram representations and by applying principles of semiconductor photoelectrochemistry. The concept of gamma-ray assisted desulfurization of coal through radiological degradation and heterogenous catalysis was experimentally demonstrated. The proof-of-concept experiments in the present study provide the basis for further fundamental and applied investigations, particularly in a potentially efficient system with a fresh source and 1.5 m path length

  16. 明代书目著录之小学类韵书的变化%The Change of Rhyming Dictionary in Philology in Ming Dynasty's Bibliographic Catalogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任娟

    2011-01-01

    有明一代,韵书在书目著录中一直处于不稳定状态,时而游移于不同部类之下,时而类名发生变化,且在不同的书目中其所收书亦颇有差距。以明代书目著录中小学类韵书为研究对象,对韵书的分类、归属、收书进行较为系统的梳理和考察,从而颇为清晰的勾勒出明代小学类"韵书"的分类及变化。%In the Ming Dynasty,the rhyming dictionary,in terms of its classification in bibliographic catalogs,was always unstable.Sometimes,it fell into different categories,sometimes its class name changed,and the collected books which fall into the category of the rhyming dictionary were remarkably different in varied bibliographic catalogs.This paper aims at examining and sorting,in a systematic way,the classification,ascription and inclusion of the rhyming dictionary in philology in the Ming Dynasty's bibliographic catalog,thus outlining the classification and change of the rhyming dictionary in philology in the Ming Dynasty.

  17. Synthesis and applications of isotopically labelled compounds 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th International Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopically Labelled Compounds, 1994, concentrated on the following topics: - the synthesis, analysis and applications of organic compounds labelled with hydrogen and tritium, the production of stable radioactive isotopes such as cobalt 60, germanium 68, holmium 166, dysprosium 166 and tungsten 188; the synthesis of organic compounds labelled with short-lived isotopes such as carbon 11. The uses of isotopes in agriculture, nutrition, pharmaceutical research, pharmacology, medicine and biological pathways was discussed. The final section reviews the regulations governing the safety, handling and disposal of radioisotopes worldwide. (UK)

  18. Bibliographic checklist of the marine benthic algae of Central Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean (Excluding Hawai‘i and French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda, R.T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Polynesian algal bibliographic checklist is based on records from past references for American Samoa and Samoa (380 spp., Cook Islands (111 spp., Johnston Atoll (190 spp., Line Islands (250 spp., Niue (3 spp., Phoenix Islands (193 spp., Pitcairn Islands (23 spp., Tokelau (1 sp., Tonga (109 spp., Wake Atoll (121 spp. and Wallis and Futuna (191 spp. and consists of three sections. The first section (I. Classification provides a listing of classes, orders, and families of the 238 genera of Polynesian algae. The second section (II. Species-Reference Index provides an alphabetized listing of the 667 named algal species under the four Phyla, i.e., Cyanobacteria (68 species, Rhodophyta (373 species, Ochrophyta (59 species and Chlorophyta (167 species with the applicable reference citations for each island or atoll. Brief taxonomic or nomenclatural notes are provided, when appropriate, for selected species. The third section (III. Island-Reference Index provides a chronological listing of all published references for the respective island or atoll in each island group. The complete references for all citations in the text are provided in the Reference section.

  19. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bianca Horrleman. 2015. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 36-38. Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from geo-political, economic, and archeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level.

  20. Study of Mapping Iran Machine Readable Cataloging (Iran MARC Data Elements to Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR Entities and Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Emrani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine mapping of Iran MARC data elements to Functional Requirement for Bibliographic Records (FRBR model group one entities and attributes. FRBR group one entities are work, expression, manifestation and item and each one has special attributes. Therefore all fields and data elements of Iran MARC were examined via comparative method to the entities and attributes of the first group. In first segment a table was made and all of the data elements were mapped based on similar research conducted on MARC 21 by U.S Congress Library. Research findings showed that from the total of 1558 data elements that exist in Iran MARC, 531 data elements are manifestation, 73 data elements are Work y, 65 data elements are expression and 33 data elements are Item. Totally 702 data elements in Iran MARC(45.05% have adaption capability. Among attributes of every entity, the Form of work for Work entity, language of Expression attribute for expression, Manifestation identifier attribute for Manifestation and Item identifier for item entity have the major frequency in Iran MARC structure and totally 692 data elements (44.41% adopted this pattern.

  1. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the outer layers of Saturn's atmosphere, and the mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo, telling us: why the

  2. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification; Impacts environnemental et sanitaire des isotopes du plutonium, etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France); Bion, L.; Moulin, V.; Reiller, P.; Vercouter, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Boucher, L.; Jourdain, F.; Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Comte, A.; Flury Heard, A.; Fritsch, P.; Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  3. Pyrolytic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrolytic procedure is described that via a citrate synthesis allowed us to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, results already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcrystals. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurement show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  4. Pyrolitic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrolytic procedure that via a citrate synthesis allowed to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, result already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcystals is described. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurements show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  5. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using electrochemical oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Levitin, Ye. Ya.; Roy, I. D.; Kryskiv, O. S.; Chan, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles are promising for use in the biomedical industry for targeted drug delivery, cell separation and biochemical products, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, immunological studies, etc.Classic method for the synthesis of magnetite is the chemical condensation Elmore’s, it is simple and cheap, but it is complicated by the formation of side compounds which impair the magnetic properties of the final product. Biological and medical purposes require high purity magne...

  6. Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

    2002-04-26

    This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

  7. Final report for DESC0004031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, John [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-08-08

    In this project we aim to develop new multicomponent oxide-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction using combined theoretical and experimental approaches. We use density functional theory to compute the electronic structure and reactivity proxies of model oxide materials. From the understanding generated from these calculations, we synthesize materials and characterize their oxygen evolution activity. We use in situ spectroscopic methods to characterize oxide electrodes under reaction conditions. We also develop new data sharing strategies to facilitate the reuse of our data by others. Our work has several potential impacts of interest to DOE. First, the discovery of new oxygen evolution electrocatalysts directly affects the efficiency of many energy-related processes from hydrogen generation to air separation and electrochemical fuel synthesis. Second, we have identified new ways to promote the oxygen evolution reaction for some materials through the electrolyte. This opens new pathways to improving the efficiency of processes involving oxygen evolution. The ability to characterize electrodes under operating conditions enables new insights into the actual structure and composition of the materials, which we are finding are not the same as the as prepared materials. Finally, DOE has significant need and interest in improving the ability to share data among researchers.

  8. Synthesis of (R)-norbgugaine and its potential as quorum sensing inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Naik, D.; Bhat, C.; Tilve, S.; Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    approach for the synthesis of norbgugaine 12, wherein Cbz is a choice of protecting group instead of Boc. This facilitates the deprotection as well as double bond reduction in single operation at the final stage of synthesis and thus adding advantage...

  9. Interdisciplinaridade e saúde: estudo bibliográfico Interdisciplinaridad y salud: estudio bibliográfico Interdisciplinarity and health: bibliographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Morelato Vilela

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo bibliográfico, no qual se buscou aproximação com o tema da interdisciplinaridade. A complexidade que caracteriza o mundo atual e, particularmente, o cenário de saúde exige o desenvolvimento de programas interdisciplinares de ensino com vistas a alcançar novo tipo de pensamento e a formação do profissional de saúde comprometido com a reconstrução social. Nosso objetivo foi buscar na literatura o significado da interdisciplinaridade, seu histórico, suas relações com a Saúde Coletiva e com a educação dos profissionais de saúde.Este es un estudio bibliográfico, en el cual se ha buscado una aproximación con el tema de la interdisciplinaridad. La complejidad que caracteriza el mundo actual y, particularmente el escenario de salud, exige el desenvolvimiento de programas interdisciplinarios de enseñanza con el objetivo de alcanzar un nuevo tipo de pensamiento y la formación de un profesional de salud comprometido con la reconstrucción social. Nuestro objetivo fue buscar en la literatura el significado de la interdisciplinaridad, su histórico, sus relaciones con la salud colectiva y con la educación de los profesionales de salud.This is a bibliographic research which sought to achieve a better understanding of the interdisciplinarity theme. The complexity that characterizes the world and especially the health area nowadays has required the development of interdisciplinary teaching programs, with a view to obtaining a new kind of thinking and the formation of health professionals committed to social reconstruction. We examined literature for the meaning of interdisciplinarity, its history and relations with Collective Health and the education of health professionals.

  10. Sexualidade na adolescência: um estudo bibliográfico Sexualidad en la adolescencia: un estudio bibliográfico Sexuality in adolescence: a bibliographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Tedeschi Cano

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta é uma pesquisa bibliográfica onde se buscou construir a história da sexualidade através dos tempos e as influências culturais, sociais e religiosas nessa trajetória. Nosso objetivo foi o de buscar na literatura as raízes das dificuldades enfrentadas pelos homens de nossos dias para abordar temas relacionados à sexualidade principalmente junto aos filhos adolescentes que necessitam dessa orientação para viver uma sexualidade com segurança e também mais saudável.Esta es una investigación bibliográfica en donde se buscó construir la historia de la sexualidad a través de los tiempos y las influencias culturales, sociales y religiosas en esa trayectoria. Nuestro objetivo fue el de buscar en la literatura, las raíces de las dificultades enfrentadas por los hombres de nuestros días, para abordar temas relacionados con la sexualidad, principalmente la de los hijos adolescentes que necesitan de esa orientación, para vivir una sexualidad con seguridad y también más saludable.This is a bibliographical study that aimed at pointing out the history of sexuality as well as its cultural, social and religious influences. The goals were to find out in literature the causes of the difficulties faced by the actual men to approach themes related to sexuality mainly with their adolescent children that need this orientation in order to live a safier and healthier sexuality.

  11. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  12. Aurora final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Dross; Amedeo, Conti

    2013-12-06

    Final Technical report detailing the work done by Nuvera and its partners to fulfill the goals of the program "Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks" (a.k.a. AURORA)

  13. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  14. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  15. Cassini's Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Spilker, Linda J.

    2016-07-01

    After more than a decade exploring Saturn and its moons, the Cassini mission is in its closing act. Cassini's last year is an encore performance stuffed with science, including a final plunge into Saturn's atmosphere.

  16. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohan Jheeta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1. Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7 produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  17. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheeta, Sohan; Joshi, Prakash C.

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the "Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)" conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5-6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1). Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7) produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M) enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl- > Br- > I-. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  18. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-study Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Evaluating Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Kastner, Monika; Vuong, Vincent; Perrier, Laure; Daly, Corinne; Rabeneck, Linda; Straus, Sharon; Baxter, Nancy N

    2016-06-01

    Screening reduces the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of colorectal cancer, yet participation tends to be low. We undertook a systematic review and meta-study synthesis of qualitative studies to identify facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. We searched major bibliographic databases for records published in all languages from inception to February 2015. Included primary studies that elicited views and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening were appraised for relevance and quality. We used a two-stage synthesis to create an interpretation of colorectal cancer screening decisions grounded in primary studies; a thematic analysis to group themes and systematically compare studies and a meta-synthesis to generate an expanded theory of colorectal cancer screening participation. Ninety-four studies were included. The decision to participate in colorectal cancer screening depended on an individual's awareness of colorectal cancer screening. Awareness affected views of cancer, attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening modalities, and motivation for screening. Factors mediating awareness included public education to address misconceptions, primary care physician efforts to recommend screening, and the influence of friends and family. Specific barriers to participation in populations with lower participation rates included language barriers, logistical challenges to attending screening tests, and cultural beliefs. This study identifies key barriers, facilitators, and mediators to colorectal cancer screening participation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 907-17. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197277

  20. Synthesis of Coenzyme Q10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryachandra Rao Ravada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: CoQ10 is a key compound in ATP synthesis having wide number of health application especially for treating humans suffering from pathophysiological condition. The CoQ10 presently available in the market is solely derived from fermentation process. A commercially viable synthetic process is yet to be realized. Approach: The researchers described a new synthetic route for the preparation of CoQ10 (1. This new process utilized inexpensive isoprenol as a precursor for the synthesis of an early intermediate with a single isoprene unit. Another key step was the selective oxidation of trans methyl of isoprene unit as a prelude to the expansion of the side chain to decaprenyl group using solanesol. Results: Prenylation of 2, 3-dimethoxy-5-methylhydroquinone using isoprenol in presence of a Lewis acid, followed by selective oxidation of trans methyl group of isoprenyl side chain and subsequent allylic bromination yielded a bromide precursor (7. The p-toluenesulfination of the bromide followed by coupling with solanesyl bromide and de-p-toluenesulfination yielded dimethyl derivative of the CoQ10-quinol. Finally CAN oxidation of dimethyl quinol followed by purification yielded CoQ10 in 13% overall yield. Conclusion: The present process achieved CoQ10 starting from a relatively inexpensive precursor. Further improvement in the coupling reaction between 8 and solanesyl bromide may lead to a better and viable synthetic process.

  1. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  2. Synthesis of Pandamarilactone-1

    OpenAIRE

    Seah, Kang Yee; Macnaughton, Sarah J.; Dallimore, Jonathan W. P.; Robertson, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The first total synthesis of pandamarilactone-1, an alkaloid of Pandanus amaryllifolius, is reported. The nine-step synthesis features furan oxidation with singlet oxygen and then spiro-N,O-acetalization and elimination to generate the natural product and further Pandanus alkaloids, pandamarilactonines A–D.

  3. Total Synthesis of (-)-Cardiopetaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yoshitake; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-20

    The total synthesis of (-)-cardiopetaline, an aconitine-type natural product, has been accomplished. Our synthesis involved a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of a sulfonyloxirane that enabled, in a single step, the construction of the bicyclo[3.2.1] system in the aconitine skeleton and effective introduction of oxygen functional groups at the appropriate positions. PMID:27166640

  4. Synthesis of oligonucleotide phosphorodithioates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaton, G.; Brill, W. K D; Grandas, A.;

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of DNA containing sulfur at the two nonbonding internucleotide valencies is reported. Several different routes using either tervalent or pentavalent mononucleotide synthons are described. © 1991.......The synthesis of DNA containing sulfur at the two nonbonding internucleotide valencies is reported. Several different routes using either tervalent or pentavalent mononucleotide synthons are described. © 1991....

  5. Synthesis of Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    These notes describe an automated procedure for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. The analysis method is based on the body coordinate formulation, and the synthesis is based on applying optimization methods, used to minimize the difference between an actual and a desired behaviour...

  6. Synthesis of Isoiminosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Godskesen, Michael Anders; Lundt, Inge

    1998-01-01

    A short synthesis of isoiminosugars have been developed. Bromolactones are diastereoselectively alkylated at C-2 followed by ring closure to the corresponding lactams. Reduction of these then gives isoiminosugars......A short synthesis of isoiminosugars have been developed. Bromolactones are diastereoselectively alkylated at C-2 followed by ring closure to the corresponding lactams. Reduction of these then gives isoiminosugars...

  7. Synthesis of 5'-Aldehyde Oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartia, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of oligonucleotide ending with an aldehyde functional group at their 5'-end (5'-AON) is possible for both DNA (5'-AODN) and RNA (5'-AORN) series irrespectively of the nature of the last nucleobase. The 5'-alcohol of on-support ODN is mildly oxidized under Moffat conditions. Transient protection of the resulting aldehyde by N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives allows cleavage, deprotection, and RP-HPLC purification of the protected 5'-AON. Finally, 5'-AON is deprotected by usual acetic acid treatment. In the aggregates, 5'-AON can be now synthesized and purified as routinely as non-modified ODNs, following procedures similar to the well-known "DMT-On" strategy. PMID:26967469

  8. Combinatorial synthesis of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    2002-01-01

    Combinatorial syntheses allow production of compound libraries in an expeditious and organized manner immediately applicable for high-throughput screening. Natural products possess a pedigree to justify quality and appreciation in drug discovery and development. Currently, we are seeing a rapid...... increase in application of natural products in combinatorial chemistry and vice versa. The therapeutic areas of infectious disease and oncology still dominate but many new areas are emerging. Several complex natural products have now been synthesised by solid-phase methods and have created the foundation...... for preparation of combinatorial libraries. In other examples, natural products or intermediates have served as building blocks or scaffolds in the synthesis of complex natural products, bioactive analogues or designed hybrid molecules. Finally, structural motifs from the biologically active parent...

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Misture

    2011-10-29

    The project was centered on developing new ceramic materials to improve efficiency of solar energy capture for photovoltaic cells and for catalysts to split water to make hydrogen. The work has led to one possible breakthrough material, a nanoscale photocatalyst that can be used to assemble nanocomposite catalysts. Another important result of the work is the development of synthesis methods to create nanostructured and mesoporous oxides for use in solar energy harvesting. Specifically, we have developed two new methods potentially useful for preparing high performance electrodes for PV cells.

  10. Synthesis of zeolite membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyang; ZHANG Baoquan; Y. S. Lin; LI Yongdan

    2004-01-01

    Zeolite membranes offer great application potentials in membrane separation and/or reaction due to their excellent separation performance and catalytic ability. Up to present, various synthesis methods of zeolite membranes have been developed, including embedded method,in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, and secondary growth method etc. Compared with the in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, the secondary growth method possesses a variety of advantages such as easier operation, higher controllability in crystal orientation, microstructure and film thickness, leading to much better reproducibility. This review provides a concise summary and analysis of various synthesis methods reported in the literature. In particular, the secondary growth method was discussed in detail in terms of crystal orientation, defects and crystal grain layers. Some critical issues were also highlighted, which were conducive to the improvement in the synthesis technology of zeolite membranes.

  11. VHDL for logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  12. Synthesis of nitrogen-substituted cycloparaphenylenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Elizabeth

    Bottom-up synthesis is increasingly becoming the method of choice for assembling and studying novel nanomaterials. Whereas more traditional top-down methods may lead to mixtures of products and suffer from reproducibility issues, bottom-up approaches offer atomistic control over the material's structure. Bottom-up synthesis can also produce materials that would otherwise be unobtainable with top-down methodologies. Finite substructures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one such example. The work encompassed in this thesis details the study of two related classes of CNT substructures: the cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) and [5.7]ncyclacenes. Cycloparaphenylenes are a class of graphitic material with many unique properties that make them intriguing candidates for study in a variety of electronic applications. Chapter 1 describes the current state of CPP research, from preliminary synthesis to fundamental understanding of their properties. To optimize device performance, carbon materials are often doped with heteroatoms. Towards this end, the synthesis of a series of nitrogen-doped [8]CPPs (N-[8]CPPs) are detailed in Chapter 2. Nitrogen is incorporated into the CPP structure by way of the reductive aromatization strategy used for the all carbon CPPs, replacing 1,4-dibromobenzene with 2,5-dibromopyridine. The synthesis utilizes oxidatively masked benzenes to assemble less strained, macrocyclic precursors. Through the divergent nature of the synthesis, macrocycles containing up to three nitrogen atoms at precise locations are prepared. Macrocycles are aromatized via a single electron reduction to reveal the final N-CPP structures. Chapter 3 details the full characterization of the properties of the novel N-[8]CPPs. The differences between the N-[8]CPPs and [8]CPP are rationalized in the context of DFT studies. Finally, the study of 1N-[8]CPP and [8]CPP as novel electrode materials in supercapacitor cells is presented. Preliminary results show that the CPP electrodes are more

  13. Vegetation/Soil Synthesis Water Index Using MODIS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In consideration of the spectral character of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and the reflective spectrum of vegetation and soil, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) are deduced using one visible band (0.66μm) and two near-infrared bands (0.86μm, 1.24 μm). Vegetation canopy temperature is derived using two thermal infrared bands (8.6 μm and 11μm). Then the vegetation/soil synthesis water index (VSWI) is acquired through analyzing the coupling character of three indexes which can reflect the water condition of vegetation. Finally, the synthesis index is verified by equivalent water content of a single leaf. The matching results show that the synthesis index is directly proportional to the modeled data, which means that the vegetation water content can be reflected using the synthesis index effectively.

  14. THE APPLICATION OF ASC-ANALYSIS AND "AIDOS" INTELLIGENT SYSTEM TO SOLVE, IN GENERAL, THE PROBLEM OF IDENTIFYING THE SOURCES AND AUTHORS OF THE STANDARD, NON-STANDARD AND INCORRECT BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of identifying authors and literary sources for bibliographic descriptions in the literature in recent years become increasingly important scientific and practical value. This is, in particular, due to the policy of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation in the field of quality assessment of the results of scientific activity, which involves the use of a number of references to publications of authors and the Hirsch index. In Russia, appropriate analytical tools to evaluate the results of scientific activity, functionally similar to the well-known foreign bibliographic databases such as Scopus, Web of Science and other. Currently, the most famous Russian similar service is the Russian science citation index (RSCI: http://elibrary.ru/. However, as experience shows, references in bibliography list of publications are often made with a violation of GOST 7.1-2003 rule, and with the erroneous output, for example, incorrectly specified page numbers, name of publisher, etc., In practice, this leads to the fact that software system of bibliographic database cannot determine what is the right reference for the article and who were the authors of this article. As a result, for these authors we lost the citation, which leads to an underestimation of their Hirsch indexes and evaluation of the results of their research activities and leadership. It is clear that these negative consequences should be overcome. This article is devoted to the presentation of the ap-proach, which allows to solve the problem by apply-ing an ASC-analysis and intelligent system named "Aidos", which is a modern innovative smart technology ready for implementation

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  16. A reliable algorithm for optimal control synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, powerful design tools for linear time-invariant multivariable control systems have been developed based on direct parameter optimization. In this report, an algorithm for reliable optimal control synthesis using parameter optimization is presented. Specifically, a robust numerical algorithm is developed for the evaluation of the H(sup 2)-like cost functional and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters. The method is specifically designed to handle defective degenerate systems and is based on the well-known Pade series approximation of the matrix exponential. Numerical test problems in control synthesis for simple mechanical systems and for a flexible structure with densely packed modes illustrate positively the reliability of this method when compared to a method based on diagonalization. Several types of cost functions have been considered: a cost function for robust control consisting of a linear combination of quadratic objectives for deterministic and random disturbances, and one representing an upper bound on the quadratic objective for worst case initial conditions. Finally, a framework for multivariable control synthesis has been developed combining the concept of closed-loop transfer recovery with numerical parameter optimization. The procedure enables designers to synthesize not only observer-based controllers but also controllers of arbitrary order and structure. Numerical design solutions rely heavily on the robust algorithm due to the high order of the synthesis model and the presence of near-overlapping modes. The design approach is successfully applied to the design of a high-bandwidth control system for a rotorcraft.

  17. Past and current trends in soy supplementation: a bibliographic study Tendencias pasadas y actuales en la complementación con soja: un estudio bibliográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farriol

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine in what areas the therapeutic application of soy predominates in clinical trials and to assess the emerging fields of its use by means of an analysis of bibliographic resources. A search was performed in the MEDLINE database up to 31 december 2004, limited to the Title/Abstract field, and Clinical Trials as the type of publication. The abstracts from the publications selected (n=86 were reviewed and different variables were assessed. A total of 3280 subjects were included: 15% men and 59% women (71% postmenopausal. The studies were performed basically in healthy individuals (71%. Twenty five percent of the studies investigated plasma levels of different metabolites and 21% determined hormone or lipid profiles. After the year 2000 a new population focus was detected, with the publication of two studies in elite gymnasts and judoists, with positive results. The present observations indicate that soy supplementation in the competitive sports elite may be an emerging application.El objetivo del estudio fue determinar cuales son las áreas de aplicación terapéutica de la soja que predominan en los ensayos clínicos y valorar los campos emergentes de su uso mediante un análisis bibliográfico. Para ello se realizó una busqueda en la base de datos de MEDLINE hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2004 limitando la busqueda en los campos Título/Resumen y Ensayo clínico como tipo de publicación. Se obtuvieron todos los resumenes de las publicaciones seleccionadas (n=86 eliminando los duplicados y se valoraron estadísticamente algunas variables reseñadas en ellos. Se incluyeron un total de 3280 sujetos: 15% de hombres y 59% de mujeres de las cuales un 71% eran menopaúsicas. Un 71% de los individuos se consideraron como sanos. Un 25% de los estudios habian investigado los niveles de algunos metabolitos plasmáticos y en un 21% de ellos los perfiles de lípidos u hormonas. A partir de las publicaciones del año 2000 se detectó un

  18. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  19. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  20. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  1. Synthesis of Chiral Cyclopentenones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Svilen P; Nunes, João P M; Guerra, Krassimira; Kurteva, Vanya B; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2016-05-25

    The cyclopentenone unit is a very powerful synthon for the synthesis of a variety of bioactive target molecules. This is due to the broad diversity of chemical modifications available for the enone structural motif. In particular, chiral cyclopentenones are important precursors in the asymmetric synthesis of target chiral molecules. This Review provides an overview of reported methods for enantioselective and asymmetric syntheses of cyclopentenones, including chemical and enzymatic resolution, asymmetric synthesis via Pauson-Khand reaction, Nazarov cyclization and organocatalyzed reactions, asymmetric functionalization of the existing cyclopentenone unit, and functionalization of chiral building blocks. PMID:27101336

  2. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e+e- annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  3. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; Carter, R.; Stanford, C.J.; Weber, A.

    2003-01-01

    [MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at the European C

  4. Space Station Final Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  5. Perception of Final Lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary

    A series of phonetic production and perception experiments were designed to describe the phonological or phonetic domains of two effects in spoken English: final lengthening, generally interpreted as a mark for the edge of some linguistically-defined unit of speech production, and stress-timed shortening, generally interpreted as evidence for…

  6. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Chris [Altamont Environmental, Inc.

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  8. Bibliographic correction in Thismia (Burmanniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    B. C. Stone

    1981-01-01

    In my paper ‘Rediscovery of Thismia clavigera (Becc.) F. v. M. (Burmanniaceae)’ in Blumea 26 (1980) three combinations made by F. J. H. von Mueller in the genus Thismia were mentioned, viz. T. clandestina (Bl.) F. v. M., T. clavigera (Becc.) F. v. M., and T. episcopalis (Becc.) F. v. M. These combinations were overlooked inadvertently in the compilation of T. B. Muir (1979), ‘An index to the new taxa, new combinations, and new names published by Ferdinand J. H. Mueller’ in Muelleria 4 (2): 12...

  9. Malignant pleural effusions. Bibliographic revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with neoplastic disease. Dyspnea is the most common symptom. The diagnostic is made with X ray and pleural echography. The treatment are thoracentesis, chest tube drainage and pleurodesis. Palliative therapy should be considered, necessitating evaluation of the patient's symptoms, general health and functional status, and expected survival. (The author)

  10. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttry, Daniel A

    2012-11-06

    We adapted and refined a synthesis of gold nanoparticles of type, Au101(PPh3)21Cl5 (Au101). In our hands, this method routinely gave fairly high yields of Au101 NPs. These NPs were characterized using several techniques, including TEM, AFM/STM and various NMR measurements, including solid state methods. We also used a simpler citrate-based preparation of Au NPs. We immobilized the Au NPs on carbon and characterized their electrochemical behavior. In addition, we prepared and characterized tin oxide NPs that were capped with phosphonic acid capping ligands. Our goal in this part of the project was to expand the NMR methods available to study ligand complexation in non-metallic NP materials that may be of interest as electrochemical materials. The use of tin oxide as a host material for tin metal that could be used to alloy of Li in battery anodes was the motivation for our interest in these types of materials.

  11. Two-directional synthesis as a tool for diversity-oriented synthesis: Synthesis of alkaloid scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kieron M. G. O’Connell; Monica Díaz-Gavilán; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Spring, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Two-directional synthesis represents an ideal strategy for the rapid elaboration of simple starting materials and their subsequent transformation into complex molecular architectures. As such, it is becoming recognised as an enabling technology for diversity-oriented synthesis. Herein, we provide a thorough account of our work combining two-directional synthesis with diversity-oriented synthesis, with particular reference to the synthesis of polycyclic alkaloid scaffolds.

  12. Synthesis of Acetylhomoagmatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Duque

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The first total synthesis of acetylhomoagmatine, a natural product isolated form the methanolic extracts from the sponge Cliona celata, is performed in four steps in a very high yield.

  13. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  14. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  15. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  16. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  17. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  18. The CP molecule labyrinth: a paradigm of how endeavors in total synthesis lead to discoveries and inventions in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Baran, Phil S

    2002-08-01

    Imagine an artist carving a sculpture from a marble slab and finding gold nuggets in the process. This thought is not a far-fetched description of the work of a synthetic chemist pursuing the total synthesis of a natural product. At the end of the day, he or she will be judged by the artistry of the final work and the weight of the gold discovered in the process. However, as colorful as this description of total synthesis may be, it does not entirely capture the essence of the endeavor, for there is much more to be told, especially with regard to the contrast of frustrating failures and exhilarating moments of discovery. To fully appreciate the often Herculean nature of the task and the rewards that accompany it, one must sense the details of the enterprise behind the scenes. A more vivid description of total synthesis as a struggle against a tough opponent is perhaps appropriate to dramatize these elements of the experience. In this article we describe one such endeavor of total synthesis which, in addition to reaching the target molecule, resulted in a wealth of new synthetic strategies and technologies for chemical synthesis. The total synthesis of the CP molecules is compared to Theseus' most celebrated athlos (Greek for exploit, accomplishment): the conquest of the dreaded Minotaur, which he accomplished through brilliance, skill, and bravery having traversed the famous labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. This story from Greek mythology comes alive in modern synthetic expeditions toward natural products as exemplified by the total synthesis of the CP molecules which serve as a paradigm for modern total synthesis endeavors, where the objectives are discovery and invention in the broader sense of organic synthesis. PMID:12203464

  19. Ethics of Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Schummer

    2001-01-01

    Unlike other branches of science, the scientific products of synthetic chemistry are not only ideas but also new substances that change our material world, for the benefit or harm of living beings. This paper provides for the first time a systematical analysis of moral issues arising from chemical synthesis, based on concepts of responsibility and general morality. Topics include the questioning of moral neutrality of chemical synthesis as an end in itself, chemical weapons research, moral ob...

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  1. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  2. Homochiral metal complexes for biodegradable polymer synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Chapter One introduces the principle of alkoxide and phosphine oxide as ligands for lanthanides and electropositive metals, ligand self-recognition, stereoselective polymerisation of lactide, fixation of CO2 and finally copolymerisation of CO2 and epoxide. Chapter Two shows the synthesis of the proligands rac-HLR (a racemic phosphine oxide-alkoxide, A, where R = tBu, Ph or C6H3-Me-3,5) and explores the resolution into diastereomeric RRR- and SSS-M(LR)3 to afford C3–symmetric...

  3. Synthesis of novel fused quinazolinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Vahid; Saeedi, Mina; Kianmehr, Ebrahim; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    A four-step synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of novel fused quinazolinones, quinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolinones, and isoinodolo[2,1-a]quinazolino[1,2-c]quinazolineones. Reaction of isatoic anhydride and different amines gave various 2-aminobenzamides. Then, reaction of 2-aminobenzamides with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by the reduction of nitro group afforded 2-(2-aminophenyl)-3-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. Finally, reaction of the latter compounds with aromatic aldehydes or 2-formylbenzoic acid led to the formation of the corresponding products. PMID:27209476

  4. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders P.;

    2010-01-01

    the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for...... Predictable Java programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  5. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles via green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqaar; Balu, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    The proposed work describes the comparison of various methods of green synthesis for preparation of Gold and Silver nanoparticles. Pure extracts of Lemon (Citrus limon) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were mixed with aqueous solution of auric tetrachloride and silver nitrate. The resultant solutions were treated with four common techniques to assist in the reduction namely photo catalytic, thermal, microwave assisted reduction and solvo - thermal reduction. UV - Visible Spectroscopy results and STM images of the final solutions confirmed the formation of stable metallic nanoparticles. A preliminary account of the green synthesis work is presented here.

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of nitroxide mono- and bi- radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis and study of nitroxide mono- and bi- radicals derived from oxazolidine: - The first part is the synthesis of amines and radicals, and the I.R. U.V., E.P.R. spectroscopy study. - Conformational analysis of two biradicals has been carried out by measurement of dipolar interaction, on the E.P.R. spectra in the second part. - The final part is an application of N.M.R. study to the determination of the sign and magnitude of nuclear-electron spin-spin couplings and conformations analysis in five mono-radicals. (author)

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David B.

    2008-04-02

    This grant provided the basic funding that enabled me to carry out a detailed characterization of the proteins used by the aerobic soil bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, to degrade cellulose and to study the mechanisms used by T. fusca to regulate cellulase synthesis. This work resulted in 53 publications and led to the decision by The DOE Joint Genome Institute to sequence the T. fusca genome. T. fusca is now recognized as one of the best studied cellulolytic microorganisms and our work led to the discovery of a novel class of cellulases, processive endoglucanases, which are found in many cellulolytic bacteria including both aerobes and anaerobes. In addition, we were able to determine the mechanism by which Cel9A caused processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This research also helped to explain why many cellulolytic microorganisms produce two different exocellulases, as we showed that these enzymes have different specificities, with one attacking the reducing end of a cellulose chain and the other attacking the nonreducing end. Our work also provided additional evidence for the importance of a cellulose binding domain (carbohydrate binding module) [CBM] in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  8. Final results on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Eskut, E; Onengüt, G; Van Beuzekom, M G; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Cassol, F; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Righini, P; Simone, S; Vivolo, L; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van der Donckt, M; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Luppi, C; Ishii, Y; Kazuno, M; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Flegel, W; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Niu, E; Øverås, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R; Uiterwijk, J W E; Weinheimer, C; Wong, H; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Mailov, A A; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Brooijmans, G; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Hérin, J; Kalinin, S; Makhlioueva, I; Artamonov, A; Gorbunov, P; Khovansky, V; Shamanov, V; Tsukerman, I; Bonekämper, D; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Kotaka, Y; Kozaki, T; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Obayashi, Y; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G De Lellis G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, M; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, V; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Capone, A; De Pedis, D; Di Liberto, S; Dore, U; Ludovici, P F Loverre L; Maslennikov, A; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Santacesaria, G Rosa R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2008-01-01

    The final oscillation analysis of the complete set of data collected by CHORUS in the years 1994-1997 is presented. Reconstruction algorithms of data extracted by electronic detectors were improved and the data recorded in the emulsion target were analysed by new automated scanning systems, allowing the use of a new method for event reconstruction in emulsion. CHORUS has applied these new techniques to the sample of 1996-1997 events for which no muons were observed in the electronic detectors. Combining the new sample with the data analysed in previous papers, the overall sensitivity of the experiment to the $\

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  10. Neutron spectroscopy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The researches carried by the Columbia University Department of Applied Physics and Nuclear Engineering, and its predecessors, in contract initially with the AEC, then with ERDA, and finally with DOE, had as its initial objective the measurement of fission cross sections and energy distributions of the fission fragments, as measured by pulse heights in detectors. These investigations sought to establish relations between the energy distributions and the quantum numbers of the resonances. In addition, some related, together with some unrelated, investigations were conducted. Progress is reported on measurements on the fissile isotopes, capture cross section measurements, theoretical developments, and the NEVIS synchrocyclotron pulsed neutron source

  11. HERBE final safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

  12. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  13. Influence factor on automated synthesis yield of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) was prepared from N-BOC precursor to improve the synthesis yield, chemical purity and radiochemical purity of 18F-FLT by home-made automated synthesis module. The results showed that residual water in synthesis system and the amount of precursor could affect the synthesis yield dramatically. The more the amount of precursor, the higher the synthesis yield of N-BOC. The residual water can decrease the synthesis yield. In the presence of excess base, the precursor was consumed by elimination before substitution was completed. The precursor to base was optimal in 1 to 1. The balance of semi-preparatiove HPLC Column can affect purified the final 18F-FLT product. The chemical purity of 18F-FLT could be decreased with 8% EtOH as mobile phase in semi-preparatiove HPLC. The high chemical purity, radiochemical purity and synthesis yield could be obtained by optimized the parameter of synthesis with home-made automated synthesis module. (authors)

  14. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O. [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca{sup 2+} ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA.

  15. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca2+ ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA

  16. Evaluation Methodologies for Information Management Systems; Building Digital Tobacco Industry Document Libraries at the University of California, San Francisco Library/Center for Knowledge Management; Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); Coming to Term: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Emile L.; Schmidt, Heidi; Butter, Karen; Rider, Cynthia; Hickey, Thomas B.; O'Neill, Edward T.; Toves, Jenny; Green, Marlan; Soy, Sue; Gunn, Stan; Galloway, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss evaluation methods for information management systems under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; building digital libraries at the University of California San Francisco's Tobacco Control Archives; IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; and designing the Texas email repository model…

  17. Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Ogawa; Norio Inoue; Tutomu Shikada; Yotaro Ohno

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean and economical alternative fuel which can be produced from natural gas through synthesis gas. The properties of DME are very similar to those of LP gas. DME can be used for various fields as a fuel such as power generation, transportation, home heating and cooking,etc. It contains no sulfur or nitrogen. It is not corrosive to any metal and not harmful to human body. An innovative process of direct synthesis of DME from synthesis gas has been developed. Newly developed catalyst in a slurry phase reactor gave a high conversion and high selectivity of DME production. One and half year pilot scale plant (5 tons per day) testing, which was supported by METI, had successfully finished with about 400 tons DME production.

  18. Synthesis of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G.

    1996-12-31

    Silicon-containing polymers have been a focus of synthesis and study in Dr. Barton`s group because of their chemistry and properties which are not offered by other systems or materials. For example, the polymer -[-SiMe{sub 2}C{triple_bond}C-]{sub n}-can be easily processed to films or fibers from melt or solution, and thermally converted to a SiC-containing ceramic in high yield at high temperature. In recent years, carbosilane dendritic polymers have been of great interests in many research groups. However, no synthesis of carbosilane dendrimers with functionalties both inside and outside the dendrimer has been reported. Functionality is very important in the synthesis of preceramic polymers. This thesis will be devoted to exploring several new organosilicon polymer systems.

  19. Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (2016 Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides the U.S. EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of gaseous oxides of nitrogen. It provides a critical part of the scientific foundation for the U.S. EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the c...

  20. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  1. Stereoselective Synthesis of (+)-Boronolide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Shou-Gang; HU,Tai-Shan; WU,Yu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    @@ (+)-Boronolide (1) and its deacetylated products have attracted much attention of synthetic chemists due to their diverse biological properties as well as their structural complexities.[1] Many of these reported synthesis involved dehydrogenation of δ-lactone by using benzeneseleninic anhydride or ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) to introduce the requisite α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone in boronolide. Here, we report the synthesis of boronolide with diastereoselective propargylation of α-hydroxy aldehyde as the key step and D-gluconolactone as the starting material.

  2. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  3. Diophantine frequency synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Paul Peter

    2006-11-01

    A methodology for fine-step, fast-hopping, low-spurs phase-locked loop based frequency synthesis is presented. It uses mathematical properties of integer numbers and linear Diophantine equations to overcome the constraining relation between frequency step and phase-comparator frequency that is inherent in conventional phase-locked loop based frequency synthesis. The methodology leads to fine-step, fast-hopping, modular-structured frequency synthesizers with potentially very low spurs, especially in the vicinity of the carrier. The paper focuses on the mathematical principles of the new methodology and the related number theoretic algorithms. PMID:17091835

  4. DNA synthesis in the imaginal wing discs of the American bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Josephrajkumar; B Subrahmanyam

    2002-03-01

    The effect of two insect growth regulators of plant origin viz. plumbagin and azadirachtin and the ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone, makisterone A and a phytoecdysteroid on DNA synthesis in imaginal wing discs of day 4 final instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae was studied. DNA synthesis increased with increase in time of incubation up to 8 h and decreased later without the addition of moulting hormone. Addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone supported long term acquisition of competence for DNA synthesis in the wing discs. Both DNA synthesis and protein content were drastically reduced in plumbagin and azadirachtin-treated insects. Under in vitro conditions, plumbagin had a more pronounced inhibitory effect than azadirachtin. All the ecdysteroids tested, viz. makisterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the ecdysteroidal fraction from the silver fern Cheilanthes farinosa enhanced DNA synthesis.

  5. Synthesis of no-carrier-added alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described here is a synthesis of no-carrier-added alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan based on alkylation with 11CH3I of an anion generated by reacting the Schiff base of L-tryptophan methyl ester with di-isopropylamine. The synthesis requires approximately 30 min after the end of 11CO2 collection and gives alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan in a 20-25% radiochemical yield calculated at the end of the synthesis and without correction for radioactive decay. The specific activity of the final radiopharmaceutical, measured at the end of the synthesis, was around 2000 Ci/mmol. Data confirming the stereospecificity of the synthesis are also presented

  6. Servicio de asistencia bibliográfica y referencia virtual en bibliotecología y ciencias de la información Bibliographical aid and virtual reference services in library science and information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Santovenia Díaz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se abordan las facilidades y servicios que provee Acimed a sus contribuyentes y lectores en general, con el objetivo de reducir el tiempo y el esfuerzo que ellos deben emplear para realizar sus publicaciones en la revista, en especial, el Servicio de asistencia bibliográfica y referencia virtual en Bibliotecología y Ciencias de la Información , creado recientemente y dirigido a estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado en el área de las ciencias de la información.The facilities and services provided by Acimed to their contributors and readers in general are approached aimed at reducing the time they should spent and the effort they should make to publish their papers in this magazine, especially, the bibliographic assistance and the virtual reference service in library science and in information sciences, recently created and directed by pregraduate and postgraduate students in the information sciences area.

  7. Study on writing of abstract and description of bibliographic references of scientific papers%科技论文摘要写作与参考文献著录的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平

    2011-01-01

    The basic structure of scientific papers and the importance of abstract and key words to article search were introduced. The writing method of abstract, the selection of key words and the descriptive rules of bibliographic references were described in detail. Some key words commonly used in "Die & Mould Industry" journal were listed. This article can be a reference to the writing and modification of scientific papers.%介绍了科技论文的基本结构及摘要与关键词对论文检索的重要性,详细叙述了论文摘要的写作方法、关键词的选择与参考文献的著录规则,列举了《模具工业》期刊常用的一些关键词,可为科技论文的写作与修改提供参考.

  8. An Analysis on the Using of RDA Bibliographic Record in Western Books Cataloging%西文图书编目中RDA书目记录使用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟琼; 熊健敏

    2014-01-01

    随着国外图书馆实施RDA进程的不断加快,通过套录数据进行西文图书编目时RDA书目记录日趋增多,为此编目人员也面临着一些困惑。本文通过对RDA记录与AACR2记录进行比较分析,结合具体实例,探讨西文图书编目中RDA记录的理解与使用。%With the accelerating process of RDA in foreign libraries, the RDA bibliographic records increase when we download data for western books cataloging, which makes catalogers puzzled. Based on the comparison of RDA records and AACR2 records, combined with some examples, the understanding and using of RDA data in western books cataloging are discussed.

  9. Structural archetypes in nickel(II) hybrid vanadates. Towards a directed hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we relate the modifications of the initial synthesis parameters (pH value, stoichiometry and concentration) with the different structural archetypes obtained in the {Ni/Bpy/VO} and {Ni/Bpe/VO} systems (4,4'-bipyridine (Bpy), 1,2-di(4-pyridyl) ethylene (Bpe)). The vanadium coordination is partially controlled by the hydrothermal synthesis conditions, and the final crystal structures depend on the synergetic interaction between the metal-organic subnets and the vanadium oxide subunits.

  10. Synthesis of Heteroaromatic Compounds by Oxidative Aromatization Using an Activated Carbon/Molecular Oxygen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Hayashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of heteroaromatic compounds, such as substituted pyridines, pyrazoles, indoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-arylbenzazoles and pyrimidin-2(1H-ones are synthesized by oxidative aromatization using the activated carbon and molecular oxygen system. Mechanistic study focused on the role of activated carbon in the synthesis of 2-arylbenzazoles is also discussed. In the final section, we will disclose the efficient synthesis of substituted 9,10-anthracenes via oxidative aromatization.

  11. Synthesis and surface modification of magnetic particles for application in biotechnology and biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiya Ma; Huizhou Liu

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic particles have numerous applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this paper we reviewed the synthesis, surface modification and some applications of magnetic particles with focus on their synthesis and surface modification. Various methods have been developed for the production of magnetic particles (magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic composite particles). For future application magnetic particles must be modified to obtain stability and surface functional groups. Finally, the application of magnetic particles in magnetic separation, drug delivery,hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed.

  12. Self-sustained high-temperature reactions: initiation, propagation and synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Pacheco, M.

    2007-01-01

    Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis is an exothermic and self-sustained reaction between the constituents, which has assumed significance for the production of ceramics and ceramic-metallic materials (cermets), because it is a very rapid processing technique without the need of complex furnaces. However, one of the drawbacks of this route is the high porosity of the final product (typically 50%). This implies the need for a subsequent densificat...

  13. The Synthesis of Aspects on the Management of Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 李晓理

    2009-01-01

    <正>Principles which teachers should adhere to in second language class are based on the synthesis of linguistic,cultural and competent aspects.This paper first puts forward linguistic,cultural and competent aspects of second language teaching.Then,the principles which teachers should adhere to in second language class are introduced.Finally,the synthesis implication for second language teaching is presented.

  14. Copper-mediated arylation with arylboronic acids: Facile and modular synthesis of triarylmethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Veera Bhadra

    2016-01-01

    Summary A facile and modular synthesis of triarylmethanes was achieved in good yield via a two-step sequence in which the final step is the copper(II)-catalyzed arylation of diarylmethanols with arylboronic acids. By using this protocol a variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical triarylmethanes were synthesized. As an application of the newly developed methodology, we demonstrate a high-yielding synthesis of the triarylmethane intermediate towards an anti-breast-cancer drug candidate. PMID:27340442

  15. The effects of Hominis Placenta extract on Melanin synthesis of B16 melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Sik Seo

    2006-01-01

    Objective : This research was carried out for the development of medicine for vitiligo treatment and focused on the effect of Hominis Placenta extract on Melanin synthesis of B16 melanoma cells. Methods : Acitivity of tyrosinase playing a vital role in synthesis of Melanin and the quantity of Melanin, which is the final product in cultured B16 melanoma cells, effects of Hominis Placenta extract were measured. Results : The results indicated that Hominis Placenta extract increased both t...

  16. The economics of payment finality

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Kahn; William Roberds

    2002-01-01

    Payment finality is critical to decentralized exchange. By specifying how the transfer of one type of claim extinguishes another, the rules governing finality minimize opportunities for default along credit chains and allocate other risks. ; The authors provide a basic analysis of finality and its role in facilitating exchange. They first present a simple, historically based model of transferable debt and finality. The discussion demonstrates the desirability of transferable debt and why rule...

  17. MUNU final results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daraktchieva, Zornitza, E-mail: Zornitza.Daraktchieva@unine.ch [Institute de Physique, A.-L. Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    The MUNU detector has been designed to study {nu}{sub e}{sup Macron }e{sup -} elastic scattering at low energy. The central tracking detector is a 1 m{sup 3} Time Projection Chamber surrounded by an anti-Compton detector. In this paper the results from final analysis of the data recorded at 3-bar and 1-bar pressure are presented. At 3-bar a new upper limit on the neutrino magnetic moment {mu}{sub {nu}}<9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}(7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}){mu}{sub B} at 90 (68%) C.L. is derived. At 1-bar pressure electron tracks down to 80 keV are measured in the TPC. A {sup 137}Cs photopeak is reconstructed by measuring both the energy and direction of the Compton electrons in the TPC.

  18. FINAL/ SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Henry; Singh, Suminderpal

    2006-08-28

    The overall objective of the Chattanooga fuel cell demonstrations project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype 5-kW grid-parallel, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that co-produces hydrogen, based on Ion America’s technology. The commercial viability of the 5kW SOFC system was tested by transporting, installing and commissioning the SOFC system at the Alternative Energy Laboratory at the University of Tennessee – Chattanooga. The system also demonstrated the efficiency and the reliability of the system running on natural gas. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of DOE technology validation milestones from the Technology Validation section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. Results of the project can be found in the final technical report.

  19. Multimuon final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multimuon final states have been detected by 3 experiments in the interactions of the muon beams of CERN (280 GeV) and FNAL (210 GeV) with heavy targets. For the first time production of J/PSI (3100) by space-like photons has been observed and its dependence on ν, Q2 and t compared to Vector Dominance and photon-gluon fusion models. Also a clear signal has been seen for 3μ above QED tridents (outside J/PSI mass range) and 2μ events which are well described by charm production. An upper limit for the production of the T by high energy muons has been set

  20. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    gas jet chamber and laser beam path from the final focusing mirror. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1: Fundamental studies of cutting front mechanisms, beam propagation, nozzle design and chemical reactions in the cut kerf with special emphasize on high laser powers and thick sections...... established the basis to determine the required power densities, Rayleigh lengths, desired gas flow and nozzle shapes. A four mirror optical system (Multi-Mirror Cutting Head) for the prototype has been designed, which honours the demands for a good focusing quality and small nozzle diameter. A coaxial...... cutting nozzle which can be adjusted independently to the laser beam has been developed. The position of the focus relative the workpiece can be adjusted to cutting applications with relatively large processing windows, i.e. both mild and stainless steels, and of a broad thickness range. A build-in auto...

  1. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  2. Sanasilva final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report summarizes the activities undertaken within the Swiss forest damage programme ''Sanasilva'' between 1984 and 1991. They include annual terrestrial damage assessment (leaf and needle loss); evaluation of forest condition through infrared aerial photographs; optimization of inventory methods; the manifold activities of the Plant Health Observation and Information Service; the implementation of mobile cable cranes for logging; consultancy for technical and economic planning in forestry in mountain regions; integral planning and checks in forest enterprises; aids to silviculture in severely damaged spruce stands, such as computer programmes on planning or the dynamics of forest damage; the classification of forest gene pools; and documentation and advanced training. The aims, methods, project design, activities, and results of each sub-project are summarized, and their significance for practical forestry and research described. Publications to date are listed. (author)

  3. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  4. Impact of Anaphoric Resolution in Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzer, Jeffrey; And Others

    This project examines anaphora (the linguistic device of abbreviated subsequent reference to a concept) in information retrieval (IR) systems in order to develop procedures to recognize anaphors in text and distinguish between anaphoric and non-anaphoric uses of a given term, estimate the number of anaphors appearing in bibliographic records, and…

  5. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of some polyamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present assignment deals with the synthesis, characterization and thermal degradation of poly-tertiary butyl aziridine (PTBA) and its copolymers with PMMA. Macro monomer of MMA and TBA was synthesised, its polymerisation and degradation studies were also conducted. Chapter one describes the major synthetic modes and the degradative processes in polymers and the ways and means to retard the degradation are also discussed. Chapter two includes the details of analytical and thermo analytical techniques used in the present research. Chapter three describes the methods employed for purification of chemicals, experimental details and data for the synthesis of monomers and polymers, characterization methodologies and isolation techniques. Chapter four includes the characterization of poly-tertiary butyl aziridine (PTBA) which was synthesised through cationic ring opening polymerization. Significant feature being the production of oligomers in bulk quantity which were collected as cold ring fraction. The mechanisms were proposed for the degradation products. Bifunctional anionic polymerisation of MMA to the desired molecular weight, end capping it with carbon disulfide, and block copolymer synthesis of PMMA with 'living' PTBA is included in chapter five. Chapter six includes the details of the modification procedure adopted for PMMA to generate desirable 'sites' on the polymer. Living PTBA segment were later grafted onto those sites to yield PMMA-g-PTBA. The TG, TVA and SATVA shows that the copolymer is quite stable and the degradation products are almost evenly distributed in liquid and cold ring fraction with very little condensable volatile fraction. In the final chapter the details of synthesis of a new monomer N-methyl-N-tert.butyl-amino ethyl-methacrylate (MTBAEM) are given. The polymerisation and characterization of the MTBAEM is discussed in details. Thermal analysis through TG, TVA and SATVA was conducted, the major fraction was collected at the cold ring

  6. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which...... may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  7. Silicon-based quantum dots: synthesis, surface and composition tuning with atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Sadegh; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Maguire, Paul; Svrcek, Vladmir; Mariotti, Davide

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of silicon and silicon-based quantum dots (diameter plasmas is reviewed and the most recent developments are also reported. Atmospheric pressure plasmas are then compared with other synthesis methods that include low pressure plasmas, wet chemistry, electrochemical etching and laser-based methods. Finally, progress in the synthesis of alloyed silicon QDs is discussed where the nanoscale Si-Sn and Si-C systems are reported. The report also includes a theoretical analysis that highlights some fundamental differences offered by plasmas at atmospheric pressure and that may provide opportunities for novel materials with advantageous properties.

  8. ATP Synthesis in the Extremely Halophilic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proton-translocating ATPases are multimeric enzymes that carry out a multitude of essential functions. Their origin and evolution represent a seminal event in the early evolution of life. Amino acid sequences of the two largest subunits from archaeal ATPases (A-ATPases), vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), and FOF1-ATP syntheses (FATPases) suggest these ATPases evolved from an ancestral vacuolar-like ATP syntheses. A necessary consequence of this notion is that the A-ATPases are ATP syntheses. With the possible exception of the A-ATPase from Halobacterium salinarium. no A-ATPase has been demonstrated to synthesize ATP. The evidence for this case is dubious since ATP synthesis occurs only when conditions are distinctively unphysiological. We demonstrated that ATP synthesis in H.saccharovorum is inconsistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. In order to determine if this phenomenon was unique to H. saccharovorum, ATP synthesis was examined in various extremely halophilic bacteria with the goal of ascertaining if it resembled what occurred in a. saccharovorum, or was consistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. A-, V-, and F-type ATPases respond singularly to certain inhibitors. Therefore, the effect of these inhibitors on ATP synthesis in several extreme halophiles was determined. Inhibitors that either blocked or collapsed proton-gradients inhibited the steady state synthesis of ATP thus verifying that synthesis took place at the expense of a proton gradient. Azide, an inhibitor of F-ATPases inhibited ATP synthesis. Since the arginine-dependent synthesis of ATP, which occurs by way of substrate-level phosphorylation, was unaffected by azide, it was unlikely that azide acted as an "uncoupler." N -ethylmaleimide and nitrate, which inhibit V- and A-ATPases, either did not inhibit ATP synthesis or resulted in higher steady-state levels of ATP. These results suggest there are two types of proton-motive ATPases in the extreme halophiles (and presumably in other

  9. Asymmetric catalysis in organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, S.D.; Click, D.R.; Grumbine, S.K.; Scott, B.L.; Watkins, J.G.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the project was to prepare new catalyst systems, which would perform chemical reactions in an enantioselective manner so as to produce only one of the possible optical isomers of the product molecule. The authors have investigated the use of lanthanide metals bearing both diolate and Schiff-base ligands as catalysts for the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to secondary alcohols. The ligands were prepared from cheap, readily available starting materials, and their synthesis was performed in a ''modular'' manner such that tailoring of specific groups within the ligand could be carried out without repeating the entire synthetic procedure. In addition, they have developed a new ligand system for Group IV and lanthanide-based olefin polymerization catalysts. The ligand system is easily prepared from readily available starting materials and offers the opportunity to rapidly prepare a wide range of closely related ligands that differ only in their substitution patterns at an aromatic ring. When attached to a metal center, the ligand system has the potential to carry out polymerization reactions in a stereocontrolled manner.

  10. Distributed Priority Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Ruess

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given a set of interacting components with non-deterministic variable update and given safety requirements, the goal of priority synthesis is to restrict, by means of priorities, the set of possible interactions in such a way as to guarantee the given safety conditions for all possible runs. In distributed priority synthesis we are interested in obtaining local sets of priorities, which are deployed in terms of local component controllers sharing intended next moves between components in local neighborhoods only. These possible communication paths between local controllers are specified by means of a communication architecture. We formally define the problem of distributed priority synthesis in terms of a multi-player safety game between players for (angelically selecting the next transition of the components and an environment for (demonically updating uncontrollable variables. We analyze the complexity of the problem, and propose several optimizations including a solution-space exploration based on a diagnosis method using a nested extension of the usual attractor computation in games together with a reduction to corresponding SAT problems. When diagnosis fails, the method proposes potential candidates to guide the exploration. These optimized algorithms for solving distributed priority synthesis problems have been integrated into the VissBIP framework. An experimental validation of this implementation is performed using a range of case studies including scheduling in multicore processors and modular robotics.

  11. Synthesis of new radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain's sensibility besides to the rigorous selectivity of changes taking place on brain's barriers leads us to synthesis specifics radiotracers based on diamine ethylene and marked with technetium radioisotope to form a radiotracer able to pass these barriers and diagnose illnesses in an early stage. These radiotracers are tested by a biodistribution on a small animal to be ratified. (Author)

  12. Synthesis of acrylic prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acrylic prepolymer was synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA). Butyl acetate (BAc), benzoyl peroxide (BzO), 4-methoxyphenol (MPh) and triethylamine (TEA) were used as solvent, initiator, inhibitor and catalyst respectively. Observations of the synthesis leading to the formation of acrylic prepolymer are described. (author)

  13. Synthesis de 1-dotriacotanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prepare isotopic labeled long chain aliphatic primary alcohol's, the synthesis overall yielding and chemical purity of 1-dotriacotanol were 41% and 98%, respectively. This procedure is very useful for carbon-14 and tritium labeling at Beta position of saturated fatty alcohol's

  14. The Synthesis of Glycoglycerolipids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xia LI; Ying Xia LI; Ling Bo YU; Hua ZHANG; Shi Dong CHU; Hua Shi GUAN

    2003-01-01

    A convenient synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of the novel glycolipids: 1, 2-di-O-acyl-3-O-(2'-acylamide-2'-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerols. 10 new compounds of glycolipids with different acyl groups were obtained.

  15. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, RHH; Fraaije, MW; Laane, C; van Berkel, WJH; Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated conv

  16. Matrix Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The role of NASA in the area of composite material synthesis; evaluation techniques; prediction analysis techniques; solvent-resistant tough composite matrix; resistance to paint strippers; acceptable processing temperature and pressure for thermoplastics; and the role of computer modeling and fiber interface improvement were discussed.

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  18. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and (2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a 'single pass' harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a 'quasi-vertical' integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Mayda [Northwestern University

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  1. Project 'Windbank' - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emergency decision support system for accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere providing regional wind field information was developed. This system is based on intensive meteorological field campaigns each lasting 4 months in the regions around the Swiss nuclear power plants. The wind data from temporary and permanent stations were analysed to evaluate the typical wind field patterns occurring in these regions. A cluster analysis for these data-sets lead to 19 different wind field classes with a high separation quality. In separate studies, it was demonstrated that an on-line acquisition of meteorological data from existing permanent stations is enough to diagnose the recent wind field class in a region with a diameter of about 50 km around the nuclear power stations with a probability of about 80% to hit the correct class. Furthermore, a method was developed to use a high resolution weather prediction model to forecast the future wind field classes. An average probability of over 60% to hit the correct class for a forecast time of 48 hours was evaluated. Finally, a method for parameterization of turbulence providing input for dispersion models from standard meteorological on-line data was developed. (author)

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  3. 2006 Final Transmission Proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-06-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

  4. Acoustic Separation Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's restrictive environmental regulations encourage paper mills to close their water systems. Closed water systems increase the level of contaminants significantly. Accumulations of solid suspensions are detrimental to both the papermaking process and the final products. To remove these solids, technologies such as flotation using dissolved air (DAF), centrifuging, and screening have been developed. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are commonly used to clarify whitewater. These passive systems use high pressure to dissolve air into whitewater. When the pressure is released, air micro-bubbles form and attach themselves to fibers and particles, which then float to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed off. There is an economic incentive to explore alternatives to the DAF technology to drive down the cost of whitewater processing and minimize the use of chemicals. The installed capital cost for a DAF system is significant and a typical DAF system takes up considerable space. An alternative approach, which is the subject of this project, involves a dual method combining the advantages of chemical flocculation and in-line ultrasonic clarification to efficiently remove flocculated contaminants from a water stream

  5. Electrocatalytic hydrocracking. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1992-06-01

    This report describes an electrocatalytic method for the chemical addition of hydrogen to a model hydrocarbon compound. In the method, hydrogen formed by water electrolysis at the counter electrode of an electrochemical cell is delivered via conduction through a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. The working electrode of the cell is, at the same time, a hydrocracking catalyst and therefore promotes the reaction of the hydrogen with the hydrocarbon. This process would have clear and distinct advantages over conventional hydroprocessing technologies in that the hydrogen concentration at the catalyst surface could be controlled and maintained by the applied electromotive force. This control would allow operation of the electrocatalytic reactor at ambient pressures instead of the extremely high hydrogen partial pressures required of conventional reactors. In addition, the direct delivery of hydrogen to the catalyst surface should inhibit coke formation and thus prolong the life of the catalyst. Finally, hydrogen utilization efficiencies should be greatly improved since the hydrogen is delivered directly to the reaction site thereby eliminating hydrogen solubility loss in the effluent stream. This report details the demonstration of (a) the ability of a solid electrolyte to perform as a catalyst, (b) the conduction of hydrogen through a solid electrolyte and (c) the simultaneous exploitation of these two properties. Hence, the essential concept of electrocatalytic hydrocracking has been demonstrated. An objective of future work in this area should be to determine whether the hydrocracking or hydrogenation reactions are actually enhanced during the electrocatalytic process when compared to the conventional catalytic process.

  6. Tiger LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steich, D J; Brugger, S T; Kallman, J S; White, D A

    2000-02-01

    This final report describes our efforts on the Three-Dimensional Massively Parallel CEM Technologies LDRD project (97-ERD-009). Significant need exists for more advanced time domain computational electromagnetics modeling. Bookkeeping details and modifying inflexible software constitute a vast majority of the effort required to address such needs. The required effort escalates rapidly as problem complexity increases. For example, hybrid meshes requiring hybrid numerics on massively parallel platforms (MPPs). This project attempts to alleviate the above limitations by investigating flexible abstractions for these numerical algorithms on MPPs using object-oriented methods, providing a programming environment insulating physics from bookkeeping. The three major design iterations during the project, known as TIGER-I to TIGER-III, are discussed. Each version of TIGER is briefly discussed along with lessons learned during the development and implementation. An Application Programming Interface (API) of the object-oriented interface for Tiger-III is included in three appendices. The three appendices contain the Utilities, Entity-Attribute, and Mesh libraries developed during the project. The API libraries represent a snapshot of our latest attempt at insulated the physics from the bookkeeping.

  7. Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulin JI; Changhui YE

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent progresses in growth mechanism, synthesis, and applications of zinc oxide nanomaterials (mainly focusing on one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials). In the first part of this article, we briefly introduce the importance, the synthesis methods and growth mechanisms, the properties and applications of ZnO 1D nanomaterials. In the second part of this article, the growth mechanisms of ZnO 1D nanomaterials will be discussed in detail in the framework of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid (VS), and aqueous solution growth (ASG) approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative information will be provided to show how a controlled synthesis of ZnO 1D nanomaterials can be achieved. In the third part of this article, we present recent progresses in our group for the synthesis of ZnO 1D nanomaterials, and the results from other groups will only be mentioned briefly. Especially, experiment designing according to theories will be elaborated to demonstrate the concept of controlled synthesis. In the fourth part of this article, the properties and potential applications of ZnO 1D nanomaterials will be treated. Finally, a summary part will be presented in the fifth section. The future trend of research for ZnO 1D nanomaterials will be pointed out and key issues to be solved will be proposed.

  8. High-Yield Synthesis and Applications of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigderman, Leonid

    This work will describe research directed towards the synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles as well as their functionalization and biological applications. The thesis will begin by describing a new technique for the high-yield synthesis of gold nanorods using hydroquinone as a reducing agent. This addresses important limitations of the traditional nanorod synthesis including low yield of gold ions conversion to metallic form and inability to produce rods with longitudinal surface plasmon peak above 850 nm. The use of hydroquinone was also found to improve the synthesis of gold nanowires via the nanorod-seed mediated procedure developed in our lab. The thesis will next present the synthesis of novel starfruitshaped nanorods, mesorods, and nanowires using a modified nanorod-seed mediated procedure. The starfruit particles displayed increased activity as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates as compared to smooth structures. Next, a method for the functionalization of gold nanorods using a cationic thiol, 16-mercaptohexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), will be described. By using this thiol, we were able to demonstrate the complete removal of toxic surfactant from the nanorods and were also able to precisely quantify the grafting density of thiol molecules on the nanorod surface through a combination of several analytical techniques. Finally, this thesis will show that MTABfunctionalized nanorods are nontoxic and can be taken up in extremely high numbers into cancer cells. The thesis will conclude by describing the surprising uptake of larger mesorods and nanowires functionalized with MTAB into cells in high quantities.

  9. Preparation of silicon carbide SiC-based nanopowders by the aerosol-assisted synthesis and the DC thermal plasma synthesis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Make-up of the SiC-based nanopowders is a function of the C:Si:O ratio in precursor. • Two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis offers conditions close to equilibrium. • DC thermal plasma synthesis yields kinetically controlled SiC products. - Abstract: Nanosized SiC-based powders were prepared from selected liquid-phase organosilicon precursors by the aerosol-assisted synthesis, the DC thermal plasma synthesis, and a combination of the two methods. The two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis method provides at the end conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The single-stage thermal plasma method is characterized by short particle residence times in the reaction zone, which can lead to kinetically controlled products. The by-products and final nanopowders were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy SEM, and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy. BET specific surface areas of the products were determined by standard physical adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. The major component in all synthesis routes was found to be cubic silicon carbide β-SiC with average crystallite sizes ranging from a few to tens of nanometers. In some cases, it was accompanied by free carbon, elemental silicon or silica nanoparticles. The final mesoporous β-SiC-based nanopowders have a potential as affordable catalyst supports

  10. Preparation of silicon carbide SiC-based nanopowders by the aerosol-assisted synthesis and the DC thermal plasma synthesis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czosnek, Cezary, E-mail: czosnek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bućko, Mirosław M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Janik, Jerzy F. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Olejniczak, Zbigniew [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Bystrzejewski, Michał; Łabędź, Olga [University of Warsaw, Department of Chemistry, 1 Pasteura St., 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Huczko, Andrzej, E-mail: ahuczko@chem.uw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Department of Chemistry, 1 Pasteura St., 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Make-up of the SiC-based nanopowders is a function of the C:Si:O ratio in precursor. • Two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis offers conditions close to equilibrium. • DC thermal plasma synthesis yields kinetically controlled SiC products. - Abstract: Nanosized SiC-based powders were prepared from selected liquid-phase organosilicon precursors by the aerosol-assisted synthesis, the DC thermal plasma synthesis, and a combination of the two methods. The two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis method provides at the end conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The single-stage thermal plasma method is characterized by short particle residence times in the reaction zone, which can lead to kinetically controlled products. The by-products and final nanopowders were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy SEM, and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy. BET specific surface areas of the products were determined by standard physical adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. The major component in all synthesis routes was found to be cubic silicon carbide β-SiC with average crystallite sizes ranging from a few to tens of nanometers. In some cases, it was accompanied by free carbon, elemental silicon or silica nanoparticles. The final mesoporous β-SiC-based nanopowders have a potential as affordable catalyst supports.

  11. Ionic Liquids: A New Strategy in Pharmaceutical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Siódmiak, Tomasz; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Proszowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The industrial synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds often involves the use of organic solvents. Unfortunately, these reaction media are responsible for organic contaminations in the final product. In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs) have become the “green alternatives” of volatile organic solvents. Thus, the application of ILs instead of conventional reagents offer a new opportunity to solve problems of environmentally harmful solvents. This mini-review discusses a new application of ILs in...

  12. The synthesis and applications of nano sized ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic membranes composed of particles having sizes below 50 A were produced with oxides of TiO2, ZrO2, and SiO2. This presentation stresses the necessary physical chemical phenomena associated with the particle synthesis and the aggregation behavior of these particles as they are incorporated into the final membrane body. Uses of ceramic membranes in separations, ceramic membrane reactors, and the photocatalytic degradation of organic waste materials are briefly reviewed

  13. The solid-state synthesis of tritium labelled heterocyclic bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F. (AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Molekulyarnoj Genetiki)

    1994-04-01

    The results of a study of the solid-state catalytic hydrogenation and the synthesis of tritium labelled native heterocyclic bases are presented. The effect of different palladium catalysts and reaction conditions on yield and molar radioactivity of final compounds was investigated. For some compounds, data on the intramolecular distribution of tritium were obtained by using the isotope exchange reaction and tritium NMR. Tritium labelled purine and pyrimidine bases (25-180 Ci/mmol.) were synthesized. (Author).

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In particular, the aim of the work described here is the development of new ligands with improved separation and extraction efficiency. Separation of actinides (An) and lanthanides (Ln) is a challeng...

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrique Iglesia

    2004-09-30

    This project explores the extension of previously discovered Fe-based catalysts with unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity, and ability to convert hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams typical of those produced from coal and biomass sources. Contract negotiations were completed on December 9, 2004. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic performance previously reported. During this second reporting period, we have prepared and tested several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. These studies established modest improvements in rates and selectivities with light hydrocarbon recycle without any observed deleterious effects, opening up the opportunities for using of recycle strategies to control temperature profiles in fixed-bed Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactors without any detectable kinetic detriment. In a parallel study, we examined similar effects of recycle for cobalt-based catalysts; marked selectivity improvements were observed as a result of the removal of significant transport restrictions on these catalysts. Finally, we have re-examined some previously unanalyzed data dealing with the mechanism of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, specifically kinetic isotope effects on the rate and selectivity of chain growth reactions on Fe-based catalysts.

  16. MTX final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. [ed.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K. [and others

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  17. MTX final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdan W. Oppenheim; Rudolf Marloth

    2007-10-26

    Executive Summary The document contains Final Technical Report on the Industrial Assessment Center Program at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, covering the contract period of 9/1/2002 to 11/30/2006, under the contract DE-FC36-02GO 12073. The Report describes six required program tasks, as follows: TASK 1 is a summary of the assessments performed over the life of the award: 77 assessments were performed, 595 AR were recommended, covering a very broad range of manufacturing plants. TASK 2 is a description of the efforts to promote and increase the adoption of assessment recommendations and employ innovative methods to assist in accomplishing these goals. The LMU IAC has been very successful in accomplishing the program goals, including implemented savings of $5,141,895 in energy, $10,045,411 in productivity and $30,719 in waste, for a total of $15,218,025. This represents 44% of the recommended savings of $34,896,392. TASK 3 is a description of the efforts promoting the IAC Program and enhancing recruitment efforts for new clients and expanded geographic coverage. LMU IAC has been very successful recruiting new clients covering Southern California. Every year, the intended number of clients was recruited. TASK 4 describes the educational opportunities, training, and other related activities for IAC students. A total of 38 students graduated from the program, including 2-3 graduate students every semester, and the remainder undergraduate students, mostly from the Mechanical Engineering Department. The students received formal weekly training in energy (75%) and productivity (25). All students underwent extensive safety training. All students praised the IAC experience very highly. TASK 5 describes the coordination and integration of the Center activities with other Center and IAC Program activities, and DOE programs. LMU IAC worked closely with MIT, and SDSU IAC and SFSU IAC, and enthusiastically supported the SEN activities. TASK 6 describes other tasks

  19. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information provided in Wabash's Final Report (Dowd 2000), as well as other references and bibliographic sources

  20. Ethics of Chemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schummer

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other branches of science, the scientific products of synthetic chemistry are not only ideas but also new substances that change our material world, for the benefit or harm of living beings. This paper provides for the first time a systematical analysis of moral issues arising from chemical synthesis, based on concepts of responsibility and general morality. Topics include the questioning of moral neutrality of chemical synthesis as an end in itself, chemical weapons research, moral objections against improving material conditions of life by chemical means, and freedom of research. The paper aims at providing both a sound basis for moral judgements of chemistry in a public discourse and a framework for chemists to reflect on the moral relevance of their activity.

  1. Expanding the modern synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2010-10-01

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis formalizes the role of variation, heredity, differential reproduction and mutation in population genetics. Here we explore a mathematical structure, based on the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, that instantiates the punctuated dynamic relations of organisms with their embedding environments, including the possibility of the transfer of heritage information between different classes of organism. The approach applies a standard coevolutionary argument to genes, environment, and gene expression reconfigured as interacting information sources. In essence, we provide something of a formal roadmap for the modernization of the Modern Synthesis, making applications to both relatively rapid evolutionary punctuated equilibrium and to the conservation of ecological interactions across deep evolutionary time. PMID:20965439

  2. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  3. Synthesis of approximation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, E.H.; Michel, P.

    1977-07-01

    A method is developed for the synthesis of the error in approximations in the large of regular and irregular functions. The synthesis uses a small class of dimensionless elementary error functions which are weighted by the coefficients of the expansion of the regular part of the function. The question is answered whether a computer can determine the analytical nature of a solution by numerical methods. It is shown that continuous least-squares approximations of irregular functions can be replaced by discrete least-squares approximation and how to select the discrete points. The elementary error functions are used to show how the classical convergence criterions can be markedly improved. There are eight numerical examples included, 30 figures and 74 tables.

  4. Total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergott, Dustin J; Frank, Scott A; Roush, William R

    2004-08-17

    A convergent, highly stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A (1) is described. Key features of the synthesis include the transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic pentaene 11 and the transannular Morita-Baylis-Hillman cyclization of 12 that generates tetracycle 26. The total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A was completed by a sequence involving the highly beta-selective glycosidation reaction of 13 and glycosyl imidate 30. PMID:15173590

  5. Microwave Multicomponent Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut M Hügel

    2009-01-01

    In the manner that very important research is often performed by multidisciplinary research teams, the applications of multicomponent reactions involving the combination of multiple starting materials with different functional groups leading to the higher efficiency and environmentally friendly construction of multifunctional/complex target molecules is growing in importance. This review will explore the advances and advantages in microwave multicomponent synthesis (MMS) that have been achiev...

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heuvel, RHH; Fraaije, MW; Laane, C; van Berkel, WJH; Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; van Berkel, Willem J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated conversion of creosol proceeds via a two-step process in which the initially formed vanillyl alcohol is further oxidized to vanillin. Catalysis is limited by the formation of an abortive complex betwee...

  7. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  8. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  9. Stochastic component mode synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, Mamadou T.; Nair, Prasanth B.; Bhaskar, Atul; Keane, Andy J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic component mode synthesis method is developed for the dynamic analysis of large-scale structures with parameter uncertainties. The main idea is to represent each component displacement using a subspace spanned by a set of stochastic basis vectors in the same fashion as in stochastic reduced basis methods [1, 2]. These vectors represent however stochastic modes in contrast to the deterministic modes used in conventional substructuring methods [3]. The Craig-Bampton r...

  10. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  11. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone

    OpenAIRE

    Monica M. Ndoile; van Heerden, Fanie R

    2013-01-01

    The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established.

  12. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Ndoile

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established.

  13. Towards a new Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.; Kor, Yasemin Y.; Joseph T. Mahoney

    2006-01-01

    This paper maintains that the consistent application of subjectivism helps to reconcile contemporary entrepreneurship theory with strategic management research in general, and the resource−based view in particular. The paper synthesizes theoretical insights from Austrian economics and Penrose’s (1959) resources approach, arguing that entrepreneurship is inherently subjective and firm specific. This new synthesis describes how entrepreneurship is manifested in teams, and is driven by both hete...

  14. Combinatorial materials synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiro Takeuchi; Jochen Lauterbach; Michael J. Fasolka

    2005-01-01

    The pace at which major technological changes take place is often dictated by the rate at which new materials are discovered, and the timely arrival of new materials has always played a key role in bringing advances to our society. It is no wonder then that the so-called combinatorial or high-throughput strategy has been embraced by practitioners of materials science in virtually every field. High-throughput experimentation allows simultaneous synthesis and screening of large arrays of differ...

  15. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  16. Methods of component mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized substructure coupling, or component mode synthesis, procedure is described. Specific methods, applications, and such special topics as damping and experimental verification are surveyed.

  17. Radiochemical synthesis of etomoxir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium 2-{6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl}oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir) inhibits transport of fatty acids via the carnitine shuttle into mitochondria of muscle cells and prevents long chain fatty acids from providing energy through β-oxidation especially for muscle contraction. The objective of this synthesis is to develop a method for radioiodination of Etomoxir in order to explore its potential in diagnostic metabolic studies and molecular imaging. Thus, a method is described for the radiochemical synthesis and purification of ethyl 2-{6-(4-[131I]iodophenoxy)hexyl}oxirane-2-carboxylate (3) and 2-{6-(4-[131I]iodo-phenoxy)hexyl}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (4). For the synthesis of these new agents, ethyl 2-{6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl}oxirane-2-carboxylate (1) and 2-{6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (2) were refluxed with [131I]NaI in the presence of anhydrous acetone at a temperature of 80 oC and 90 oC for a period of 3-4 hours, respectively. The method of radiolabeling, based on the nucleophilic exchange reaction, resulted in a radiochemical yield of 43% and 67% for compounds 3 and 4, respectively. This paper reports on the labeling of etomoxir with radioiodine as 124I labeled etomoxir may be of great importance in molecular imaging.

  18. Chemistry of Ammonothermal Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia M. M. Richter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonothermal synthesis is a method for synthesis and crystal growth suitable for a large range of chemically different materials, such as nitrides (e.g., GaN, AlN, amides (e.g., LiNH2, Zn(NH22, imides (e.g., Th(NH2, ammoniates (e.g., Ga(NH33F3, [Al(NH36]I3 · NH3 and non-nitrogen compounds like hydroxides, hydrogen sulfides and polychalcogenides (e.g., NaOH, LiHS, CaS, Cs2Te5. In particular, large scale production of high quality crystals is possible, due to comparatively simple scalability of the experimental set-up. The ammonothermal method is defined as employing a heterogeneous reaction in ammonia as one homogenous fluid close to or in supercritical state. Three types of milieus may be applied during ammonothermal synthesis: ammonobasic, ammononeutral or ammonoacidic, evoked by the used starting materials and mineralizers, strongly influencing the obtained products. There is little known about the dissolution and materials transport processes or the deposition mechanisms during ammonothermal crystal growth. However, the initial results indicate the possible nature of different intermediate species present in the respective milieus.

  19. Integrated methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a plant for methanol manufacture from gasified coal, particularly using nuclear power. In order to reduce the cost of the hydrogen circuits, the methanol synthesis is integrated in the coal gasification plant. The coal used is gasified with hydration by means of hydrogen and the crude gas emerging, after cooling and separating the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, is mixed with the synthetic gas leaving the methane cracking furnace. This mixture is taken to the methanol synthesis and more than 90% is converted into methanol in one pass. The gas mixture remaning after condensation and separation of methanol is decomposed into three fractions in low temperature gas decomposition with a high proportion of unconverted carbon monoxide. The flow of methane is taken to the cracking furnace with steam, the flow of hydrogen is taken to the hydrating coal gasifier, and the flow of carbon monoxide is taken to the methanol synthesis. The heat required for cracking the methane can either be provided by a nuclear reactor or by the coke left after hydrating gasification. (orig./RB)

  20. Final Performance Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houldin, Joseph [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboor, Veronica [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    about assessing a company’s technical assets, broadening our view of the business to go beyond what they make or what NAICS code they have…to better understand their capacity, capability, and expertise, and to learn more about THEIR customers. Knowing more about the markets they serve can often provide insight into their level of technical knowledge and sophistication. Finally, in the spirit of realizing the intent of the Accelerator we strove to align and integrate the work and activities supported by the five funding agencies to leverage each effort. To that end, we include in the Integrated Work Plan a graphic that illustrates that integration. What follows is our summary report of the project, aggregated from prior reports.

  1. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin

  2. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  3. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  4. Analysis Report on Current Situation of Exercise Therapy Research Recorded in Literatures from CNKI Bibliographic Database%CNKI文献数据库关于运动疗法研究现状的调研分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏杰

    2008-01-01

    目的 本文根据CNKI数据库1994年1月至2007年12月的相关文献,对运动疗法的研究、应用现状进行了调研和分析.方法 以"运动疗法"作为主题词,查找有关运动疗法的文献,有记录的文章25691篇.为增强检索文献的相关性,限定检索范围为"题名检索",查得"运动疗法"的文章1102篇.结果 文献阐述了运动疗法的历史、研究现状,且对CNKI文献数据库中前14年的文献量和所涉及的前10种疾病的文献数量进行了调研,运动疗法应用于糖尿病的文献量居首位.结论 分析调研结果,运动疗法对生活习惯病有辅助治疗作用.%Objective According to the relevant literatures recorded in the CNKI bibliographic database from January 1994 to December 2007,research and application situation of exercise therapy have been investigated and analyzed.Methods Searched for"exercise therapy"in the MeSH and found 25,691 articles.In order to enhance the relevance of the literature search.limited"exercise therapy"being searched by"title search"and got 1102 articles.Results This article introduced the history and researching situation of exercise therapy,and made an investigation on the number of articles in the CNKI bibliographic database of previous 14 years and the number of articles on the top 10 diseases treated with exercise therapy.We found the largest amount of articles on exercise therapy was dealt with diabetic disease.Conclusion Exercise therapy can help to treat diseases caused by bad living habits.

  5. Advances in the synthesis of functionalised pyrrolotetrathiafulvalenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. O’Driscoll

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electron-donor and unique redox properties of the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, 1 moiety have led to diverse applications in many areas of chemistry. Monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalenes (MPTTFs, 4 and bispyrrolotetrathiafulvalenes (BPTTFs, 5 are useful structural motifs and have found widespread use in fields such as supramolecular chemistry and molecular electronics. Protocols enabling the synthesis of functionalised MPTTFs and BPTTFs are therefore of broad interest. Herein, we present the synthesis of a range of functionalised MPTTF and BPTTF species. Firstly, the large-scale preparation of the precursor species N-tosyl-(1,3-dithiolo[4,5-c]pyrrole-2-one (6 is described, as well as the synthesis of the analogue N-tosyl-4,6-dimethyl-(1,3-dithiolo[4,5-c]pyrrole-2-one (7. Thereafter, we show how 6 and 7 can be used to prepare BPTTFs using homocoupling reactions and functionalised MPTTFs using cross-coupling reactions with a variety of 1,3-dithiole-2-thiones (19. Subsequently, the incorporation of more complex functionality is discussed. We show how the 2-cyanoethyl protecting group can be used to afford MPTTFs functionalised with thioethers, exemplified by a series of ethylene glycol derivatives. Additionally, the merits of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU as an alternative to the most common deprotecting agent, CsOH·H2O are discussed. Finally, we show how a copper-mediated Ullman-type reaction can be applied to the N-arylation of MPTTFs and BPTTFs using a variety of aryl halides.

  6. Advances in the synthesis of functionalised pyrrolotetrathiafulvalenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Driscoll, Luke J; Andersen, Sissel S; Solano, Marta V; Bendixen, Dan; Jensen, Morten; Duedal, Troels; Lycoops, Jess; van der Pol, Cornelia; Sørensen, Rebecca E; Larsen, Karina R; Myntman, Kenneth; Henriksen, Christian; Hansen, Stinne W

    2015-01-01

    Summary The electron-donor and unique redox properties of the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, 1) moiety have led to diverse applications in many areas of chemistry. Monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalenes (MPTTFs, 4) and bispyrrolotetrathiafulvalenes (BPTTFs, 5) are useful structural motifs and have found widespread use in fields such as supramolecular chemistry and molecular electronics. Protocols enabling the synthesis of functionalised MPTTFs and BPTTFs are therefore of broad interest. Herein, we present the synthesis of a range of functionalised MPTTF and BPTTF species. Firstly, the large-scale preparation of the precursor species N-tosyl-(1,3)-dithiolo[4,5-c]pyrrole-2-one (6) is described, as well as the synthesis of the analogue N-tosyl-4,6-dimethyl-(1,3)-dithiolo[4,5-c]pyrrole-2-one (7). Thereafter, we show how 6 and 7 can be used to prepare BPTTFs using homocoupling reactions and functionalised MPTTFs using cross-coupling reactions with a variety of 1,3-dithiole-2-thiones (19). Subsequently, the incorporation of more complex functionality is discussed. We show how the 2-cyanoethyl protecting group can be used to afford MPTTFs functionalised with thioethers, exemplified by a series of ethylene glycol derivatives. Additionally, the merits of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an alternative to the most common deprotecting agent, CsOH·H2O are discussed. Finally, we show how a copper-mediated Ullman-type reaction can be applied to the N-arylation of MPTTFs and BPTTFs using a variety of aryl halides. PMID:26199667

  7. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  8. Digital Sound Synthesis Algorithms: a Tutorial Introduction and Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Robert

    The objectives of the dissertation are to provide both a compendium of sound-synthesis methods with detailed descriptions and sound examples, as well as a comparison of the relative merits of each method based on ease of use, observed sound quality, execution time, and data storage requirements. The methods are classified under the general headings of wavetable-lookup synthesis, additive synthesis, subtractive synthesis, nonlinear methods, and physical modelling. The nonlinear methods comprise a large group that ranges from the well-known frequency-modulation synthesis to waveshaping. The final category explores computer modelling of real musical instruments and includes numerical and analytical solutions to the classical wave equation of motion, along with some of the more sophisticated time -domain models that are possible through the prudent combination of simpler synthesis techniques. The dissertation is intended to be understandable by a musician who is mathematically literate but who does not necessarily have a background in digital signal processing. With this limitation in mind, a brief and somewhat intuitive description of digital sampling theory is provided in the introduction. Other topics such as filter theory are discussed as the need arises. By employing each of the synthesis methods to produce the same type of sound, interesting comparisons can be made. For example, a struck string sound, such as that typical of a piano, can be produced by algorithms in each of the synthesis classifications. Many sounds, however, are peculiar to a single algorithm and must be examined independently. Psychoacoustic studies were conducted as an aid in the comparison of the sound quality of several implementations of the synthesis algorithms. Other psychoacoustic experiments were conducted to supplement the established notions of which timbral issues are important in the re -synthesis of the sounds of acoustic musical instruments.

  9. Enzymatic Synthesis of Biobased Polyesters and Polyamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, “green” is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving a green status has become a universal aim. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (for example, the “Plastic Soup” as a public stereotype. To achieve green polymers, three elements should be entailed: (1 green raw materials, catalysts and solvents; (2 eco-friendly synthesis processes; and (3 sustainable polymers with a low carbon footprint, for example, (biodegradable polymers or polymers which can be recycled or disposed with a gentle environmental impact. By utilizing biobased monomers in enzymatic polymerizations, many advantageous green aspects can be fulfilled. For example, biobased monomers and enzyme catalysts are renewable materials that are derived from biomass feedstocks; enzymatic polymerizations are clean and energy saving processes; and no toxic residuals contaminate the final products. Therefore, synthesis of renewable polymers via enzymatic polymerizations of biobased monomers provides an opportunity for achieving green polymers and a future sustainable polymer industry, which will eventually play an essential role for realizing and maintaining a biobased and sustainable society.

  10. Synthesis of phenobarbital 14C - 5 (1964)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenobarbital (Luminal), well known as a hypnotic agent, plays also an important role in the medical treatment of epilepsy. With the object of studying the metabolism of this medicament in the living system, the synthesis of phenobarbital marked in position 2 of the pyrimidinic ring has been effected. It has been necessary, in order to carry out to research into the metabolism of this product, to have a phenobarbital marked in position 5 of the pyrimidinic ring. This synthesis, making it possible to introduce C-14 into position 5 of the pyrimidinic ring, consists of seven stages starting from C-14 carboxyl benzoic acid having a specific activity of 25 mc/mM. The melting point of the final product is 172 - 173 deg. C and its specific activity is 11.15 mc/mM. The overall radioactive yield of the pure product, with respect to the original benzoic acid (10 mM) is of the order of 3 per cent. The purity of the product has been controlled by paper chromatography; it is of the order of 99 per cent. (author)

  11. Total Synthesis of Propolisbenzofuran B†

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Brian T.; Avetta, Christopher T.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2014-01-01

    The first total synthesis of propolisbenzofuran B, a bioactive natural product isolated from honeybee propolis resin, is reported. The convergent synthesis makes use of a silicon-tether controlled oxidative ketone–ketone cross-coupling and a novel benzofuran-generating cascade reaction to deliver the core structure of the natural product from readily prepared precursors.

  12. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is a scheme for the synthesis of L-arginine-1-13C utilizing methods developed for the synthesis of L-ornithine-1-13C from L-ornithine-2-13C and then converting ornithine into arginine with the enzyme acylase

  13. Chemical synthesis on SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Taveras, Kennedy; Thastrup, Ole;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a highly effective surface modification of SU-8 microparticles, the attachment of appropriate linkers for solid-supported synthesis, and the successful chemical modification of these particles via controlled multi-step organic synthesis leading to molecules attached in an...

  14. Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Anal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF MYCOPHENOLIC ACID (MPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to novel tools for improving MPA production. In particular, the present invention relates tofungal enzymes that are specific for MPA synthesis.......The present invention relates to novel tools for improving MPA production. In particular, the present invention relates tofungal enzymes that are specific for MPA synthesis....

  16. Scenario/Class Diagram Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhune, Aniket; Mahajan, Reenal; Singhal, Mudita

    2003-01-01

    The scenario-synthesis problem in requirements analysis is explored in this report.The approach suggested by Khriss et al.is adapted for the domain of Digital Libraries. The results of the synthesis along with the entire transformation process are elaborated in this report.

  17. Memory-based logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis of logic functions using memories. It is useful to design field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) that contain both small-scale memories, called look-up tables (LUTs), and medium-scale memories, called embedded memories. This is a valuable reference for both FPGA system designers and CAD tool developers, concerned with logic synthesis for FPGAs.

  18. Synthesis of Boron-Containing Primary Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsuan Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, boron-containing primary amines were synthesized for use as building blocks in the study of peptoids. In the first step, Gabriel synthesis conditions were modified to enable the construction of seven different aminomethylphenyl boronate esters in good to excellent yields. These compounds were further utilized to build peptoid analogs via an Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR under microwave irradiation. The prepared Ugi-4CR boronate esters were then successfully converted to the corresponding boronic acids. Finally, the peptoid structures were successfully modified by cross-coupling to aryl/heteroaryl chlorides via a palladium-mediated Suzuki coupling reaction to yield the corresponding derivatives in moderate to good yields.

  19. Total synthesis of diterpenoid steenkrotin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Saiyong; Xuan, Jun; Gao, Beiling; Zhu, An; Ding, Hanfeng

    2015-06-01

    A concise and diastereoselective total synthesis of the diterpenoid (±)-steenkrotin A is described for the first time. The strategy mainly features three key ring formations: 1) a rhodium-catalyzed O-H bond insertion followed by an intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction to build up the tetrahydrofuran subunit; 2) sequential SmI2 -mediated Ueno-Stork and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to construct the [5,7] spirobicyclic skeleton; and 3) an intramolecular aldol condensation/vinylogous retro-aldol/aldol sequence to form the final six-membered ring with inversion of the relative configuration at the C7 position. PMID:25891977

  20. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.;

    2015-01-01

    these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic...... research based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...... and world regions most commonly studied are presented. Significant challenges to successful synthesis research in LCS are also identified, including issues of interpretability and comparability across case-studies and the limits of and biases in the geographic coverage of case studies. Nevertheless...

  1. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A; Synthese de derives de l'acide tetronique et de l'acide pulvinique. Synthese totale de la norbadione A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinger, A

    2008-11-15

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A.

  2. Realization of texture synthesis algorithm based on mixed programming via COM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rizhao; Pu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Dan; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the respective characteristics of VS2005 and MATLAB and their performances and introduces several methods of mixed programming. Then, the paper discusses the advantages and great applications of texture synthesis from sample (TSFS) and Image Quilting algorithm which is a typical algorithm of TSFS. Further, the paper realizes the Image Quilting algorithm by using mixed programming between VS2005 and MATLAB2007a via COM. We can perceive that mixed programming via COM that is used in developing texture synthesis program can not only speeds up its efficiency and reliability, but also strengthen the convenience of operation and visualization. Finally, the paper summarizes the relationship between texture synthesis parameters and synthesis effects from the experiment.

  3. Silicon-based quantum dots: synthesis, surface and composition tuning with atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of silicon and silicon-based quantum dots (diameter < 5 nm) is discussed. Specifically the synthesis of Si-based quantum dots (QDs) by atmospheric pressure plasmas is reviewed and the most recent developments are also reported. Atmospheric pressure plasmas are then compared with other synthesis methods that include low pressure plasmas, wet chemistry, electrochemical etching and laser-based methods. Finally, progress in the synthesis of alloyed silicon QDs is discussed where the nanoscale Si–Sn and Si–C systems are reported. The report also includes a theoretical analysis that highlights some fundamental differences offered by plasmas at atmospheric pressure and that may provide opportunities for novel materials with advantageous properties. (review article)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of fluorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (18 F) D-glucose, 2-deoxy fluorine (18 FDG) is a radio pharmaceutic that is used in nuclear medicine it is utilized mainly in the glucose metabolism. It allows recently to observe the tumors accumulation and growing. The obtention of this radio pharmaceutic can realize by a nucleophilic or electrophilic process through the use of different fluorinated agents obtained as intermediates for introducing the 18 F radionuclide in a final step of synthesis. The first methods already has been studied in the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The second one which is based this work and it was realized through the reaction of acetyl hypo fluorite (CH3COOF) with tri acetyl glucal (TAG) in turn they require the obtention of several fluorated compounds that they serve as intermediates for their obtention so that objective of this work was to find the adequate technique for the obtention of anhydride hydrofluoric acid (HF), KF.2 HF and elemental fluorine so as the design and construction of the systems and equipment used for carry out each one of the reactions. Moreover it was designed the system that will be used for the obtention of acetyl hypo fluoride and the synthesis of composite tetraacetilide 3,4,6 tri-D-glucopyranosil fluoride (TAG-F) for that finally by hydrolysis it was obtained the 2-deoxy fluoride-D-glucose (TAG) in inactive. In this system were realized several preliminary tests. The results are showed in the content of this work also the techniques for compounds characterization were given. (Author)

  5. Radiochemical synthesis of etomoxir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Hafiz G. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Yunus, M. [University of the Punjab, New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Feinendegen, Ludwig E., E-mail: feinendegen@gmx.ne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Wannental 45, 88131 Lindau (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium 2-{l_brace}6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir) inhibits transport of fatty acids via the carnitine shuttle into mitochondria of muscle cells and prevents long chain fatty acids from providing energy through {beta}-oxidation especially for muscle contraction. The objective of this synthesis is to develop a method for radioiodination of Etomoxir in order to explore its potential in diagnostic metabolic studies and molecular imaging. Thus, a method is described for the radiochemical synthesis and purification of ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (3) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodo-phenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (4). For the synthesis of these new agents, ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (1) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (2) were refluxed with [{sup 131}I]NaI in the presence of anhydrous acetone at a temperature of 80 {sup o}C and 90 {sup o}C for a period of 3-4 hours, respectively. The method of radiolabeling, based on the nucleophilic exchange reaction, resulted in a radiochemical yield of 43% and 67% for compounds 3 and 4, respectively. This paper reports on the labeling of etomoxir with radioiodine as {sup 124}I labeled etomoxir may be of great importance in molecular imaging.

  6. Synthesis of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Md. Sajibul Alam; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Islam, Md. Maksudul; Bipasha, Ferdaushi Alam; Hossain, Sayed Shafayat

    2016-02-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional material of sp2 hybridization carbon atoms, has fascinated much attention in recent years owing to its extraordinary electronic, optical, magnetic, thermal, and mechanical properties as well as large specific surface area. For the tremendous application of graphene in nano-electronics, it is essential to fabricate high-quality graphene in large production. There are different methods of generating graphene. This review summarizes the exfoliation of graphene by mechanical, chemical and thermal reduction and chemical vapor deposition and mentions their advantages and disadvantages. This article also indicates recent advances in controllable synthesis of graphene, illuminates the problems, and prospects the future development in this field.

  7. Synthesis of deuterated clenbuterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Ole [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Solid State Physics Dept.; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Science and Technology Dept.

    1996-11-01

    The synthesis of D{sub 9}-clenbuterol (I) and D{sub 3}-clenbuterol (II) is described. D{sub 9}-clenbuterol (I) was prepared from 4-amino-{alpha}-bromo-3, 5-dichloroacetophenone by reaction with D{sub 9}-tert-butylamine followed by reduction of the keto group with NaBH{sub 4}. D{sub 3}-clenbuterol (II) was prepared from 4-amino-{alpha}-tert-butylamino-3, 5-dichloroacetophenone by an exchange reaction of the {alpha}-hydrogens with deuterium followed by reduction of the keto group with NaBD{sub 4}. The eventual products were characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR. (author).

  8. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity

  9. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  10. Plasma synthesis of nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollath, Dieter, E-mail: dieter.vollath@nanoconsulting.d [NanoConsulting (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    There is a huge variety of plasma processes for synthesis of nanoparticulate powders. They may be grouped with respect to operating temperature, which is the essential parameter with respect to the properties of the products. In view of industrial production, the highest degree of maturity is found in high temperature processes working under ambient pressure. For products, where well-defined properties are demanded, low temperature microwave plasma processes are best suited. Additionally, these processes allow coating of the produced particles, even with organic phases. Other processes where plasmas are involved, such as laser or flame processes coupled with electric fields have, to some extent, a high potential for development.

  11. Synthesis of deuterated clenbuterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of D9-clenbuterol (I) and D3-clenbuterol (II) is described. D9-clenbuterol (I) was prepared from 4-amino-α-bromo-3, 5-dichloroacetophenone by reaction with D9-tert-butylamine followed by reduction of the keto group with NaBH4. D3-clenbuterol (II) was prepared from 4-amino-α-tert-butylamino-3, 5-dichloroacetophenone by an exchange reaction of the α-hydrogens with deuterium followed by reduction of the keto group with NaBD4. The eventual products were characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR. (author)

  12. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotić, M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have wide applications in electronics, physics, material design, being also utilized as sensors, catalysts, and more and more in biomedicine. Microemulsions are an exceptionally suitable medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their thermodynamical stability, great solubility of both polar and nonpolar components, as well as their ability to control the size, dispersity and shape of the particles. This review presents microemulsion techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. It takes place in water-in-oil microemulsions by mixing one microemulsion with a cationic precursor, and the other with a precipitating or reducing agent, or by direct addition of reducing agents or gas (O2, NH3 ili CO2 into microemul sion (Fig. 1. Metal nanoparticles are used as catalysts, sensors, ferrofluids etc. They are produced by reducing the metal cation with a suitable reducing agent. In a similar way, one can prepare nanoparticles of alloys from the metal salts, provided that the metals are mutually soluble. The microemulsion technique is also suitable for depositing nanoparticles onto various surfaces. Highly active catalysts made from nanoparticles of Pt, Pd, Rh and other noble metals may be obtained in this way. Metal oxides and hydroxides may be prepared by hydrolysis or precipitation in the water core of microemulsion. Precipitation can be initiated by adding the base or precipitating agent into the microemulsion with water solution of metal ions. Similarly, nanoparticles may be prepared of sulphides, halogenides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphates and other insoluble metal salts. To prevent oxidation of nanoparticles, especially Fe, the particles are coated with inert metals, oxides, various polymers etc. Coating may provide additional functionality; e.g. coating with gold allows subsequent functionalization with organic compounds containing sulphur, due to the strong Au–S bond. Polymer coatings decrease

  13. Synthesis of expressed viewpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of viewpoints were voiced at the workshop either in oral presentations or in the ensuing discussions. These viewpoints have been collected and organized in six broad areas presented and discussed in this synthesis: necessary diversity of regulatory processes and regulation, assuring long-term radiological protection, tools to demonstrate repository performance, ethical concerns burdens versus responsibility and duties versus capacity, making the long-term disposal objectives clear and transparent, foreseeing and explaining the decision-making process. (A.L.B.)

  14. Enantioselective total synthesis of a novel polyketide natural product(+)-integrasone, an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Roy, Subhrangsu

    2005-01-01

    Enantioselective total synthesis of the recently isolated, novel polyketide natural product (+)-integrasone has been accomplished from the readily available Diels-Alder adduct of cyclopentadiene and p-benzoquinone. An enzymatically desymmetrized epoxyquinone building block has been elaborated through a series of regio-, chemo- and stereocontrolled steps to the final bicyclic framework of the natural product.

  15. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  16. Application of Olefin Cross-Metathesis to the Synthesis of Biologically Active Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Prunet, Joëlle

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the use of olefin cross-metathesis in the synthesis of biologically active natural products is presented. The diverse examples are organized according to the outcome of the olefin constructed by the cross-metathesis reaction: this olefin can be either present in the final product, reduced, engaged in other transformations, or involved in tandem processes.

  17. A Multistep Synthesis Featuring Classic Carbonyl Chemistry for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, David B.; Abbe, Tyler G.; Goess, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 5-isopropyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione is carried out from three commodity chemicals. The sequence involves an aldol condensation, Dieckmann-type annulation, ester hydrolysis, and decarboxylation. No purification is required until after the final step, at which point gravity column chromatography provides the desired product in…

  18. Some Blind Points in Descriptive Rules for Bibliographic References of Academic Journals%学术期刊参考文献著录规范研究盲点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽萍

    2009-01-01

    以为标准,对现行学术期刊在参考文献著录方面被研究者和使用者所忽视的问题进行了分析:第一,社会科学期刊不如自然科学期刊著录的规范程度高;第二,规范不明致使著录混乱不一;第三,电子文献著录规范过于笼统且自相矛盾.%Based on GB/T7714-2005 Descriptive Rules for Content, Form and Structure of Bibliographic References, this paper analyzes some problems neglected by the researchers and users in regard to reference description for the current academic journals: firstly, natural science journals have higher standards than social science journals in descriptive rules; secondly, indefinite standards lead to confusion in description; thirdly, descriptive rules for electric references are made in a rough and self-contradictory way.

  19. REESTRUTURAÇÃO PRODUTIVA NO BRASIL: UM BALANÇO CRÍTICO INTRODUTÓRIO DA PRODUÇÃO BIBLIOGRÁFICA PRODUCTIVE RESTRUCTURING IN BRAZIL: AN INTRODUCTORY CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Tumolo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfica acerca da reestruturação produtiva no Brasil, abrangendo as mais diversas áreas do conhecimento correlatas -- sociologia do trabalho, economia do trabalho, economia política, administração de empresas, educação e trabalho, engenharia. Com esta base, procura apreender, apesar de todos os limites, como vem se conformando tal fenômeno neste país e aponta que, no contexto do novo padrão de acumulação de capital, sua principal característica é a intensificação da exploração sobre a força de trabalho. Ao mesmo tempo, empreende uma análise crítica da referida bibliografia, buscando indicar seus limites explicativos.Encompassing various fields of knowledge - sociology of labor, economy of labor, political economy, company administration, education and work and engineering -, this text presents the findings of a bibliographic research on the productive restructuring in Brazil. It then seeks to apprehend, despite all the limits, how such a phenomenon took place in the country and points out that, in the context of the new order of capital accumulation, its main characteristic is the intensification of the labor force exploitation. At the same time, it proposes a critical review of the concerned bibliography, pointing out the limits of its accounts.

  20. Um "distinto bibliógrafo e bibliófilo": Capistrano de Abreu editor de documentos históricos A "distinct bibliographer and bibliophile": Capistrano de Abreu, publisher of historical documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Afonso Cristovão dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as práticas do historiador brasileiro João Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927 em seu trabalho como editor de documentos históricos. Seu esforço em estabelecer o autor de um texto, traçar-lhe a biografia, contextualizar e apresentar o texto ao leitor, fornecer indicações bibliográficas sobre os assuntos tratados nos escritos, entre outros pontos, permitem não apenas entrever sua prática específica como editor, mas, de forma geral, a do historiador Capistrano de Abreu diante de um documento histórico.This article examines the practices of the Brazilian historian João Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927 in his work as a publisher of historical documents. His efforts in establishing the author of a text, outline his biography, contextualize and present the text to the reader, give bibliographical indications about topics approached in the texts, among other things, allow us to foresee not only his specific practice as a publisher, but in general terms, the one from the historian Capistrano de Abreu facing a historical document.