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Sample records for biaxial texture development

  1. Development and evolution of biaxial texture of rolled nickel tapes by ion beam bombardment for high Tc coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.S.; Wu, K.; Shi, K.; Liu, Q.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    High quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films on metallic substrates with high critical current densities well over 10 6 A/cm 2 can be prepared by the rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) method. Nickel or its alloys have been used as biaxially textured substrates formed through a specific rolling and high temperature annealing procedures. In this paper, we report a newly developed process for developing biaxial texture in rolled Ni tape by argon ion beam bombardment. It is named the ion-beam structure modification (ISM) process. In the ISM processed Ni foils, X-ray diffraction ω scans showed the full width-half maximum (FWHM) value of the (2 0 0) peak was 5.7 deg. . And the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSP) analysis based on scanning electron microscopy showed good {1 0 0} cubic orientation and the mean grain size was determined as about 25 μm. The texture evolution of rolled Ni foils during ISM process is reported also. For ISM process, local temperature elevation and distribution arises from the ion bombardment, coupled with anisotropic incident ion penetration and propagation as a result of channeling effects in the metal lattice, are expected to play the major roles in the development of grain reorientation in the Ni foil. Due to the simplicity and efficiency of the ISM process, the technique shows a great promise for application in the industrial scale production of long-lengths of superconductor tapes

  2. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  6. The fabrication and high temperature stability of biaxially textured Ni tape by ion beam structure modification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Wang, S.S.; Meng, J.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    For the conventional rolling assisted biaxially textured metallic substrate (RABiTS) process, a large degree of cold rolling deformation and a subsequent high temperature annealing procedure are required to obtain adequately biaxially textured Ni tape. Recently, we have reported a newly developed process, named as ion beam structure modification (ISM), for fabricating biaxially textured Ni tape by use of low energy argon ion beam bombardment. In this paper, the biaxial texture of ISM processed Ni tape and its thermal stability at high temperatures are investigated. Results show that Ni tape processed under optimum ISM conditions, the (2 0 0) rocking curve FWHM is less than 5.7 deg. , and the (1 1 1) phi-scan FWHM is less than 7.5 deg. . High temperature annealing does not impair the biaxial-texture already developed in ISM processed Ni foils, although ISMs should not be regarded as a complete equilibrium process

  7. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  8. Development of advanced NI alloy substrates with high percentage of cube texture for biaxially oriented YBCO coated tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HongLi Suo; Yue Zhao; MangMang Gao; Min Liu; YongHua Zhu; PeiKuo Gao; JianHong Wang; Lin Ma; RuiFen Fan; Yuan Ji; MeiLing Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of mechanical and magnetic properties of textured NiW alloy tapes is considered as a main challenge for RABiTS substrates in coated conductors. The present paper summaries the successful development of several textured NiW substrate tapes with high W contents as well as advanced NiW composite substrates with high strength and reduced magnetization in our previous works. The fabrication process of these tapes and their characterizations are presented in detail. The results on the texture quality and mechanical properties as well as on the magnetic behaviour of these tapes are promising in view of the future application in coated conductor and constitute an alternative to the well known Ni5W alloy substrates. (au)

  9. Development of biaxially textured buffer layers on rolled-Ni substrates for high current YBa2Cu3O7-y coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranthaman, M.; Goyal, A.; Norton, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development of 3 buffer layer architectures with good biaxial textures on rolled-Ni substrates using vacuum processing techniques. The techniques include pulsed laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, dc and rf magnetron sputtering. The first buffer layer architecture consists of an epitaxial laminate of Ag/Pd(Pt)/Ni. The second buffer layer consists of an epitaxial laminate of CeO 2 /Pd/Ni. The third alternative buffer layer architecture consists of an epitaxial laminate of YSZ/CeO 2 /Ni. The cube (100) texture in the Ni was produced by cold rolling followed by recrystallization. Crystallographic orientations of the Pd, Ag, CeO 2 , and YSZ films grown were all (100). We recently demonstrated a critical- current density of 0.73x10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and zero field on 1.4 μm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) film. This film was deposited by pulsed laser ablation on a YBCO/YSZ/CeO 2 /Ni substrate

  10. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit

    2013-04-23

    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than 15.degree. in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  11. Creep modeling of textured zircaloy under biaxial stressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.L.; Murty, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Anisotropic biaxial creep behavior of textured Zircaloy tubing was modeled using a crystal-plastic uniform strain-rate upper-bound and a uniform stress lower-bound approach. Power-law steady-state creep is considered to occur on each crystallite glide system by fixing the slip rate to be proportional to the resolved shear stress raised to a power. Prismatic, basal, and pyramidal slip modes were considered. The crystallographic texture is characterized using the orientation distribution function determined from a set of three pole-figures. This method is contrasted with a Von-Mises-Hill phenomenological model in comparison with experimental data obtained at 673 deg K. The resulting creep-dissipative loci show the importance of the basal slip mode on creep in heavily cold-worked cladding, whereas prismatic slip is more important for the recrystallized materials. (author)

  12. Intradomain Textures in Block Copolymers: Multizone Alignment and Biaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ishan; Seo, Youngmi; Hall, Lisa M.; Grason, Gregory M.

    2017-06-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) melt assembly has been studied for decades, focusing largely on self-organized spatial patterns of periodically ordered segment density. Here, we demonstrate that underlying the well-known composition profiles (i.e., ordered lamella, cylinders, spheres, and networks) are generic and heterogeneous patterns of segment orientation that couple strongly to morphology, even in the absence of specific factors that promote intra or interchain segment alignment. We employ both self-consistent field theory and coarse-grained simulation methods to measure polar and nematic order parameters of segments in a freely jointed chain model of diblock melts. We show that BCP morphologies have a multizone texture, with segments predominantly aligned normal and parallel to interdomain interfaces in the respective brush and interfacial regions of the microdomain. Further, morphologies with anisotropically curved interfaces (i.e., cylinders and networks) exhibit biaxial order that is aligned to the principal curvature axes of the interface.

  13. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  14. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Norton, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: dnort@mse.ufl.edu; Selvamanickam, Venkat [IGC-SuperPower, LLC, 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature.

  15. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2006-01-01

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature

  16. Electrically conducting oxide buffer layers on biaxially textured nickel alloy tapes by reel-to-reel MOCVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadel, O; Samoilenkov, S V; Muydinov, R Yu; Schmidt, J; Keune, H; Wahl, G; Gorbenko, O Yu; Korsakov, I E; Melnikov, O V; Kaul, A R

    2006-01-01

    Reel-to-reel MOCVD process for continuous growth of electrically conducting buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni5W tapes has been developed. The new buffer layer architechture is presented: 200 nm (La, Ba) 2 CuO 4 /40 nm (La, Ba)MnO 3 /Ni5W. Constituting layers with high structural quality have been grown on moving tapes (in plane FWHM ≤ 6 0 and out of plane FWHM ≤ 3 0 )

  17. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  18. MOD approach for the growth of epitaxial CeO2 buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M S; Paranthaman, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Aytug, T; Kang, S; Lee, D F; Goyal, A; Payzant, E A; Salama, K

    2003-01-01

    We have grown epitaxial CeO 2 buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates for YBCO coated conductors using a newly developed metal organic decomposition (MOD) approach. Precursor solution of 0.25 M concentration was spin coated on short samples of Ni-3 at%W (Ni-W) substrates and heat-treated at 1100 C in a gas mixture of Ar-4%H 2 for 15 min. Detailed x-ray studies indicate that CeO 2 films have good out-of-plane and in-plane textures with full-width-half-maximum values of 5.8 deg. and 7.5 deg., respectively. High temperature in situ XRD studies show that the nucleation of CeO 2 films starts at 600 C and the growth completes within 5 min when heated at 1100 C. SEM and AFM investigations of CeO 2 films reveal a fairly dense microstructure without cracks and porosity. Highly textured YSZ barrier layers and CeO 2 cap layers were deposited on MOD CeO 2 -buffered Ni-W substrates using rf-magnetron sputtering. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow YBCO films on these substrates. A critical current, J c , of about 1.5 MA cm -2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO (PLD)/CeO 2 (sputtered)/YSZ (sputtered)/CeO 2 (spin-coated)/Ni-W

  19. Fabrication of High Current YBa2Cu3O7-y Coated Conductors Using Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Feenstra, R.; Kroeger, D.M.; Lee, D.F.; List, F.A.; Martin, P.M.; Norton, D.P.; Paranthaman, M.; Park, C.; Royal, A.; Specht, E.D.; Verebelyi, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    High critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (referred to as YBCO) coated conductors were fabricated with a layer sequence of YBCO/YSZ/CeO 2 /Ni. The cube (100) texture in the starting Ni substrates was obtained by cold rolling followed by recrystallization. A thin CeO 2 (Cerium Oxide) layer with a thickness of 100-200 was grown epitaxially on the biaxially textured-Ni substrates using an e-beam evaporation technique. This was followed by the growth of a thick ( 2 film had a dense microstructure. The microstructure of the e-beam YSZ film was porous whereas the sputtered YSZ film was dense. The YBCO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on both e-beam and sputtered YSZ layers. A transport critical current density of 1 x l0 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K was obtained for 0.8 m thick YBCO Rims on both YSZ surfaces in zero field. To demonstrate the quality and compatibility of the e-beam CeO 2 layers; YBCO films were also grown on CeO 2 -buffered YSZ (100) single crystal substrates using e-beam co-evaporated Y-BaF 2 -Cu precursors followed by a post-annealing process. A transport critical current density of over 1 x lO 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K was obtained on a 0.3 m thick YBCO film in zero field

  20. Effect of grain shape and texture on equi-biaxial creep of stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, K.L.; Tanikella, B.V.; Earthman, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are extensively used in various types of fission reactors both light and heavy water types for different applications, examples being thin-walled tubing to clad radioactive fuel, grids, channels in boiling water reactors (BWRs) as well as pressure and calandria tubes in pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). Biaxial creep behaviors of stress relieved and recrystallized thin-walled tubing of Zircaloy-4 are considered under equal hoop and axial stresses by internal pressurization superimposed with axial load. Both hoop and axial strains were monitored and the ratio of the strain rates along the hoop to axial directions is considered to represent the degree of anisotropy. The slightly stronger hoop direction of the recrystallized material became weaker compared to the axial direction following cold work and a stress-relief anneal. Crystallographic texture was considered in terms of x-ray pole figures from which the crystallite orientation distribution functions (CODF) were derived. A crystal plasticity model based on slip on representative systems was combined with the CODF to predict the creep anisotropy. It was found that the textural differences between the recrystallized and stress-relieved material is believed to invoke anisotropic grain boundary sliding leading to stress enhancement in the hoop direction. This stress enhancement is shown to account for the observed differences in creep behavior between the present equiaxed and columnar grain structures

  1. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 on biaxially textured (001) Ni: An approach to high critical current density superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.P.; Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    In-plane aligned, c-axis oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films with superconducting critical current densities, J c , as high as 700,000 amperes per square centimeter at 77 kelvin have been grown on thermo-mechanically, rolled-textured (001) Ni tapes using pulsed-laser deposition. Epitaxial growth of oxide buffer layers directly on biaxially textured Ni, formed by recrystallization of cold-rolled pure Ni, enables the growth of 1.5 micrometer-thick YBCO films with superconducting properties that are comparable to those observed for epitaxial films on single crystal oxide substrates. This result represents a viable approach for producing long-length superconducting tapes for high current, high field applications at 77 kelvin

  2. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  3. Biaxial Stress Tests of Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Cho, M.S.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Containment concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) were tested under biaxial stress and presented basic physical properties and biaxial failure envelops for the concrete specimens. Failure behaviors of concrete under biaxial stress were assessed with stress-strain responses and failure modes. Here provided real test data to develop nonlinear finite element concrete models. (author). 15 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Deformation texture and microtexture development in zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanitha, C.; Kiran Kumar, M.; Samajdar, I.; Vishvanathan, N.N.; Dey, G.K.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, two starting materials used were as-cast Zircaloy-2 with random texture and the finished tube with relatively stronger starting texture. Specimens of the alloys were hot rolled to various strains at different temperature. The texture measurement was carried out and was represented in the form of Orientation Distribution Function which showed a sluggish texture development on high temperature deformation. In the case of as cast alloy with increase in strain at a constant deformation temperature, development in the texture was significant. Upon increasing the working temperature, rate of the overall texture development has been found to reduce. This could be due to reduced slip-twin activities, recovery or due to recrystallization. Microstructural and relative hardening studies were carried out for understanding the mechanisms of deformation texture developments at warm and hot working stages. In the case of finished tube having initially strong texture exhibited slower development in texture on warm and hot rolling. (author)

  5. Development of partial safety factors for the design of partially prestressed rectangular sections in biaxial flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Aritra; Bhattacharya, Baidurya; Agrawal, Gunjan; Mondal, Apurba

    2011-01-01

    Partial safety factors (PSFs) used in reliability-based design are intended to account for uncertainties in load, material and mathematical modeling while ensuring that the target reliability is satisfied for the relevant class of structural components in the given load combination and limit state. This paper describes the methodology in detail for developing a set of optimal reliability-based PSFs for the design of rectangular partially prestressed concrete sections subjected to biaxial flexure. The mechanical formulation of the flexural limit state is based on the principle behind prestressed concrete design recommended by IS 1343 and SP16 and failure is defined as tensile cracking of concrete extending beyond the depth of cover. The applied moments are combined according to Wood's criteria. The optimization of the PSFs is based on reliability indices obtained from first order reliability analysis of the structural components; Monte Carlo simulations are performed in each run to determine the capacity statistics and dependence between capacity and applied loads (effected through the axial loads influencing moment capacity corresponding to cracking). Numerical examples involving flexural design of partially prestressed concrete shell elements in nuclear power plant containments under accidental pressure load combination are provided. (author)

  6. Numerical development of a new correlation between biaxial fracture strain and material fracture toughness for small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pradeep [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Dutta, B.K., E-mail: bijon.dutta@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Chattopadhyay, J. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The miniaturized specimens are used to determine mechanical properties of the materials, such as yield stress, ultimate stress, fracture toughness etc. Use of such specimens is essential whenever limited quantity of material is available for testing, such as aged/irradiated materials. The miniaturized small punch test (SPT) is a technique which is widely used to determine change in mechanical properties of the materials. Various empirical correlations are proposed in the literature to determine the value of fracture toughness (J{sub IC}) using this technique. bi-axial fracture strain is determined using SPT tests. This parameter is then used to determine J{sub IC} using available empirical correlations. The correlations between J{sub IC} and biaxial fracture strain quoted in the literature are based on experimental data acquired for large number of materials. There are number of such correlations available in the literature, which are generally not in agreement with each other. In the present work, an attempt has been made to determine the correlation between biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and crack initiation toughness (J{sub i}) numerically. About one hundred materials are digitally generated by varying yield stress, ultimate stress, hardening coefficient and Gurson parameters. Such set of each material is then used to analyze a SPT specimen and a standard TPB specimen. Analysis of SPT specimen generated biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and analysis of TPB specimen generated value of J{sub i}. A graph is then plotted between these two parameters for all the digitally generated materials. The best fit straight line determines the correlation. It has been also observed that it is possible to have variation in J{sub i} for the same value of biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) within a limit. Such variation in the value of J{sub i} has been also ascertained using the graph. Experimental SPT data acquired earlier for three materials were then used to get J

  7. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  8. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  9. Development of a hysteresis model for R/C columns subjected to bi-axial lateral loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Sekhar Chandra; Chowdhury, Rajib; Roy, Raghupati; Reddy, G. Rami

    2003-01-01

    Recent investigations on dynamic response of reinforced concrete (R/C) structures have confirmed that the R/C structural members undergo much more inelastic deformation in each of the two mutually perpendicular directions under bi-directional seismic loading, than that observed only under unidirectional ground motion. To predict the seismic response of R/C structure with fair accuracy demands, a faithful model that can incorporate the effect of biaxial bending interaction in column. This model should not have high computational demand but should adequately reflect the stiffness degrading and strength deterioration characteristics of R/C structural members. Present study is an effort to develop such a bi-directional hysteresis model accounting the effect of interaction between lateral loadings in two orthogonal directions. The development of the present model is based on the yield surface approach and it can incorporate both strength and stiffness degradation characteristics, which is unavoidable in R/C structures during cyclic loading. The performance of the proposed model/ is demonstrated through the prediction of available experimental results of a reinforced concrete column, subjected to biaxial loading. (author)

  10. The effect of substrate texture and oxidation temperature on oxide texture development in zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, A., E-mail: alistair.garner@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester, M17HS (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [Materials Performance Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester, M17HS (United Kingdom); Partezana, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1332 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States); Preuss, M. [Materials Performance Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester, M17HS (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    During corrosion of zirconium alloys a highly textured oxide is formed, the degree of this preferred orientation has previously been shown to be an important factor in determining the corrosion behaviour of these alloys. Two distinct experiments were designed in order to investigate the origin of this oxide texture development on two commercial alloys. Firstly, sheet samples of Zircaloy-4 were oxidised between 500 and 800 °C in air. The resulting monoclinic oxide texture strength was observed to decrease with increasing oxidation temperature. In a second experiment, orthogonal faces of Low Tin ZIRLO{sub ™} were oxidised in 360 °C water, providing different substrate textures but identical microstructures. The substrate texture was observed to have a negligible effect on the corrosion performance whilst the major orientation of both oxide phases was found to be independent of substrate orientation. It is concluded that the main driving force for oxide texture development in single-phase zirconium alloys is the compressive stress caused by the Zr−ZrO{sub 2} transformation. - Highlights: • Substrate orientation does not significantly affect oxide texture development. • Corrosion performance is independent of substrate texture. • Monoclinic oxide texture strength decreases with increasing oxidation temperature. • The main driving force for texture development is the oxidation-induced stress.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of initial texture on the development of deformation texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe a computer procedure which allows them to introduce experimental initial textures as starting conditions for texture simulation (instead of a theoretical random texture). They apply the procedure on two batches of copper with weak initial textures and on fine-grained and coarse......-grained aluminium with moderately strong initial textures. In copper the initial texture turns out to be too weak to have any significant effect. In aluminium the initial texture has a very significant effect on the simulated textures-similar to the effect it has on the experimental textures. However......, there are differences between the simulated and the experimental aluminium textures that can only be explained as a grain-size effect. Possible future applications of the procedure are discussed...

  12. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  13. Biaxial testing for fabrics and foils optimizing devices and procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Beccarelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a well-structured, critical review of current design practice for tensioned membrane structures, including a detailed analysis of the experimental data required and critical issues relating to the lack of a set of design codes and testing procedures. The technical requirements for biaxial testing equipment are analyzed in detail, and aspects that need to be considered when developing biaxial testing procedures are emphasized. The analysis is supported by the results of a round-robin exercise comparing biaxial testing machines that involved four of the main research laboratories in the field. The biaxial testing devices and procedures presently used in Europe are extensively discussed, and information is provided on the design and implementation of a biaxial testing rig for architectural fabrics at Politecnico di Milano, which represents a benchmark in the field. The significance of the most recent developments in biaxial testing is also explored.

  14. Texture development during tensile deformation in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Tensile tests were made on commercial A1050 pure Al, A5182 Al-4.4% Mg alloy and A2017 Al-4% Cu alloy by varying the test temperature and the strain rate. Textures developed at various stages of the tensile deformation were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that, during the tensile test of the 1050 pure Al with the strain rate of 3 x 10{sup -4}S{sup -1} at 20 C, tensile axis readily rotated toward left angle 111 right angle stable end orientation. However, such rotation occurred only at the latest stage of the tensile deformation near the ultimate tensile stress, where stress strain curve was almost flattened and work hardening was almost saturated. It was strongly suggested that, since fine and complex dislocation cell structures were developed in such a work-hardened state, smooth and long range dislocation glide such as assumed in the classical Taylor theory would not be possible. To explain the observed texture development, cooperative movement of the dislocations in the cell walls might be necessary. In fact, addition of Mg and Cu, which suppressed strongly the development of well defined cell structures due to P-L effect or dynamic strain ageing, significantly retarded the rotation of tensile axes toward left angle 111 right angle. Interesting enough, textures developed in all these materials investigated were not affected by the strain rate and the temperature of the tensile test. (orig.)

  15. Studies of deformation-induced texture development in sheet materials using diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovic, S.W.; Vaudin, M.D.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.H.; Saylor, D.M.; Rodbell, K.P

    2004-01-01

    Crystallographic texture measurements were made on a series of rolled aluminum sheet specimens deformed in equi-biaxial tension up to a strain level of 0.11. The measurement techniques used were neutron diffraction with a 4-circle goniometer, electron backscatter diffraction, conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and XRD using an area detector. Results indicated a complex texture orientation distribution function which altered in response to the applied plastic deformation. Increased deformation caused the {1 1 0} planes, to align parallel to the plane of the sheet. The different techniques produced results that were very consistent with each other. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed, with particular consideration of the time taken for each method, the range of orientation space accessible, the density of data that can be obtained, and the statistical significance of each data set with respect to rolled sheet product

  16. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, M; Asim, T; Sushil, M; Shanta, C

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path. (paper)

  17. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, M.; Shanta, C.; Asim, T.; Sushil, M.

    2015-04-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path.

  18. Ion-beam texturing of uniaxially textured Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    The formation of biaxial texture in uniaxially textured Ni thin films via Ar-ion irradiation is reported. The ion-beam irradiation was not simultaneous with deposition. Instead, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux, which differs from conventional ion-beam-assisted deposition. The uniaxial texture is established via a nonion beam process, with the in-plane texture imposed on the uniaxial film via ion beam bombardment. Within this sequential ion beam texturing method, grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth

  19. Texture development of HTS powder-in-tube conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1998-10-01

    An overview of the fabrication and electromagnetic properties of high-temperature conductors processed by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique with reference to texture development and critical anisotropy data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the physicochemical and electromagnetic parameters of the multifilamentary and single-filament conductors with superconducting cores of Bi-2223, Tl-1223 and Y-123 superconducting phases. The influence of the multifilamentary and single-filament structures on texture development is discussed. Also, the importance of the local disturbances of the grain alignment and microdefects for the current distribution across and in the plane of the whole conductor is analysed. A comparative study of the critical current anisotropy with field direction in low magnetic fields of Tl-1223 and Bi-2223 conductors manufactured by the PIT technique is presented. For Tl-1223 PIT conductors the anisotropy coefficient shows a very pronounced minimum, followed by a monotonic reduction of anisotropy with the increase of the magnetic field. This is explained in terms of poor grain alignment with weak intergranular superconducting coupling which cause 3D current percolation and also by the demagnetizing effect of the grains and the ceramic core in the PIT Tl-1223 tapes. (author)

  20. Biaxial behavior of plain concrete of nuclear containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Keun E-mail: sklee0806@bcline.com; Song, Young-Chul; Han, Sang-Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To provide biaxial failure behavior characteristics of concrete of a standard Korean nuclear containment building, the concrete specimens with the dimensions of 200 mmx200 mmx60 mm were tested under different biaxial load combinations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial load combinations covering the three regions of compression-compression, compression-tension, nd tension-tension. To avoid a confining effect due to friction in the boundary surface between the concrete specimen and the loading platen, the loading platens with Teflon pads were used. The principal deformations in the specimens were recorded, and the failure modes along with each stress ratio were examined. Based on the strength data, the biaxial ultimate strength envelopes were developed and the biaxial stress-strain responses in three different biaxial loading regions were plotted. The test results indicated hat the concrete strength under equal biaxial compression, f{sub 1}=f{sub 2}, is higher by about 17% on the average than that under the uniaxial compression and the concrete strength under biaxial tension is almost independent of the stress ratio and is similar to that under the uniaxial tension.

  1. Biaxial behavior of plain concrete of nuclear containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Keun; Song, Young-Chul; Han, Sang-Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To provide biaxial failure behavior characteristics of concrete of a standard Korean nuclear containment building, the concrete specimens with the dimensions of 200 mmx200 mmx60 mm were tested under different biaxial load combinations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial load combinations covering the three regions of compression-compression, compression-tension, nd tension-tension. To avoid a confining effect due to friction in the boundary surface between the concrete specimen and the loading platen, the loading platens with Teflon pads were used. The principal deformations in the specimens were recorded, and the failure modes along with each stress ratio were examined. Based on the strength data, the biaxial ultimate strength envelopes were developed and the biaxial stress-strain responses in three different biaxial loading regions were plotted. The test results indicated hat the concrete strength under equal biaxial compression, f 1 =f 2 , is higher by about 17% on the average than that under the uniaxial compression and the concrete strength under biaxial tension is almost independent of the stress ratio and is similar to that under the uniaxial tension

  2. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  3. Texture development in gluten-free breads: Effect of different enzymes and extruded flour

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Mario M.; Marcos, Pablo; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica One of the main problems with gluten-free breads is their texture and their rapid staling. In this work the influence of different enzymes (one protease, one lipase and two amylases) and of extruded rice flour on rice-bread texture and texture development was studied. For this purpose, the development of firmness, cohesiveness, resilience, springiness and chewiness was modelled and the parameters that define the initial values and the development of these characterist...

  4. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc. is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  5. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-08-01

    Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  6. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    OpenAIRE

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Why Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM

  7. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Li Peng; Mazumder, J

    2003-01-01

    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates.

  8. Artificial intelligence systems based on texture descriptors for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl; Lumini, Alessandra

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze and compare several feature extraction methods for peptide classification that are based on the calculation of texture descriptors starting from a matrix representation of the peptide. This texture-based representation of the peptide is then used to train a support vector machine classifier. In our experiments, the best results are obtained using local binary patterns variants and the discrete cosine transform with selected coefficients. These results are better than those previously reported that employed texture descriptors for peptide representation. In addition, we perform experiments that combine standard approaches based on amino acid sequence. The experimental section reports several tests performed on a vaccine dataset for the prediction of peptides that bind human leukocyte antigens and on a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Experimental results confirm the usefulness of our novel descriptors. The matlab implementation of our approaches is available at http://bias.csr.unibo.it/nanni/TexturePeptide.zip.

  9. Development of an in-plane biaxial test for forming limit curve (FLC) characterization of metallic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidane, I; Guines, D; Léotoing, L; Ragneau, E

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to propose a new experimental device able to give for a single specimen a good prediction of rheological parameters and formability under static and dynamic conditions (for intermediate strain rates). In this paper, we focus on the characterization of sheet metal forming. The proposed device is a servo-hydraulic testing machine provided with four independent dynamic actuators allowing biaxial tensile tests on cruciform specimens. The formability is evaluated thanks to the classical forming limit diagram (FLD), and one of the difficulties of this study was the design of a dedicated specimen for which the necking phenomenon appears in its central zone. If necking is located in the central zone of the specimen, then the speed ratio between the two axes controls the strain path in this zone and a whole forming limit curve can be covered. Such a specimen is proposed through a numerical and experimental validation procedure. A rigorous procedure for the detection of numerical and experimental forming strains is also presented. Finally, an experimental forming limit curve is determined and validated for an aluminium alloy dedicated to the sheet forming processes (AA5086)

  10. Biaxial vent extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemoto, A.; Maki, Y.; Oda, N.

    1981-01-01

    A biaxial vent extruder is described for processing of slurry-like waste fluids or radioactive waste fluids which have a hopper cylinger, a solidifying substance port and a solidified substance port. A plurality of vent cylinders each having a vent port are provided with a plunger type scraper. An extruding cylinder having a single opening for a main screw is connected to the assembled vent cylinders. The main screw extends to the upstream end of the extruding cylinder and a sub-screw extends to the extruding cylinder. The screws each having a full flight engaging the other and a set of rings are mounted on the screws near the respective vent port inlets. The screws are rotated in different directions and inwardly with respect to the vent ports. Rotors may be mounted on the screws to break down solid particles

  11. Cold rolling texture development of α/γ duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdut, N.; Foct, J.; Gottstein, G.

    1996-01-01

    The cold rolling texture development of two α/γ duplex stainless steels (DSS) with similar volume fractions of both phases but with totally different microstructures were investigated. Due to the limited number of available pole figures using X-rays, for the calculation of the ODFs both a direct method and a recent iterative series expansion method were used. The results were checked by neutron diffraction measurements. The austenitic phases of both DSS behave similarly to single phase materials with a low stacking fault energy which develop a brass-type rolling texture. In contrast, the texture development of the ferritic phases strongly differs from those of single phase ferrites. Instead of a fibre type texture the α-phase in both DSS exhibits a peak dominated texture regardless of whether it is the matrix phase or not. These differences, as well as the sharpness of both phases, are explained by the presence of the second phase. (orig.)

  12. Texture and microstructure development during hot deformation of ME20 magnesium alloy: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Al-Samman, T.; Mu, S.; Gottstein, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Second phase precipitates in ME20 hindered activation of tensile twinning at 300 deg. C. → New off-basal sheet texture during c-axis compression at low Z conditions. → Ce amplifies the role of pyramidal -slip over prismatic slip at 0.3T m . → Prismatic slip becomes equally important to deformation at 0.6T m . → Accurate texture predictions using a cluster-type Taylor model with grain interaction. - Abstract: The influence of deformation conditions and starting texture on the microstructure and texture evolution during hot deformation of a commercial rare earth (RE)-containing magnesium alloy sheet ME20 was investigated and compared with a conventional Mg sheet alloy AZ31. For all the investigated conditions, the two alloys revealed obvious distinctions in the flow behavior and the development of texture and microstructure, which was primarily attributed to the different chemistry of the two alloys. The presence of precipitates in the fine microstructure of the ME20 sheet considerably increased the recrystallization temperature and suppressed tensile twinning. This gave rise to an uncommon Mg texture development during deformation. Texture simulation using an advanced cluster-type Taylor approach with consideration of grain interaction was employed to correlate the unique texture development in the ME20 alloy with the activation scenarios of different deformation modes.

  13. Biaxial mechanical tests in zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintzer, S.R.; Bordoni, R.A.A.; Falcone, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The texture of the zircaloy-4 tubes used as cladding in nuclear fuel elements determines anisotropy of the mechanical properties. As a consequence, the uniaxial tests to determine the mechanical behaviour of the tubes are incomplete. Furthermore, the cladding in use is subject to creep with a state of biaxial tensions. For this reason it is also important to determine the biaxial mechanical properties. The creep tests were performed by internal pressure for a state of axial to circumferential tensions of 0.5. Among the experimental procedures are described: preparation of the test specimens, pressurizing equipment, and the implementation of a device that permits a permanent register of the deformation. For the non-irradiated Atucha type zircaloy-4 sheaths, experimental curves of circumferential deformation versus time were obtained, in tests at constant pressure and for different values of temperature and pressure. An empirical function was determined to adjust the experimental values for the speed of the circumferential deformation in terms of the initial tension applied, temperature and deformation, and the change of the corresponding parameters in accordance to the range of the tensions. Also the activation energy for creep was determined. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. Microstructure and texture development of 7075 alloy during homogenisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Ghosh, Manojit

    2018-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy during homogenisation was studied by optical microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction in detailed. It has been found that primary cast structure consisted of primary α (Al), lamellar eutectic structure η Mg(Zn, Cu, Al)2 and a small amount of θ (Al2Cu) phase. A transformation of primary eutectic phase from η Mg(Zn, Cu, Al)2 to S (Al2CuMg) was observed after 6 h of homogenisation treatment. The volume fraction of dendrite network structure and intermetallic phase was decreased with increase in holding time and finally disappeared after 96 h of homogenisation, which is consistent with the results of homogenisation kinetic analysis. Crystallographic texture of this alloy after casting and 96 h of homogenisation was also studied. It was found that casting process led the development of strong Goss, Brass, P and CuT components, while after homogenisation Cube, S and Copper components became predominant. Mechanical tests revealed higher hardness, yield strength and tensile strength for cast materials compared to homogenised alloys due to the presence of coarse micro-segregation of MgZn2 phase. The significant improvement of ductility was observed after 96-h homogenisation, which was attributed to dissolution of second phase particles and grain coarsening. Fracture surfaces of the cast samples indicated the presence of shrinkage porosity and consequently failure occurred in the interdendritic regions or grain boundaries with brittle mode, while homogenised alloys failed under ductile mode as evident by the presence of fine dimple surfaces.

  15. Ion-beam bombardment induced texture in nickel substrates for coated high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S S; Wu, K; Zhou, Y; Godfrey, A; Meng, J; Liu, M L; Liu, Q; Liu, W; Han, Z

    2003-01-01

    Biaxially textured metal substrates are often used for making YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x coated conductors with high critical current density. Generally, specific rolling and high-temperature annealing procedures are required to obtain the biaxial texture for metal substrates. Here, we report on a new method for developing strongly biaxially textured grain structure in rolled nickel tape by argon ion-beam bombardment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scans have shown that a (200) diffraction peak intensity of the Ni foil processed by ion-beam structure modification (ISM) is two orders of magnitude greater than that of cold-rolled foil, while the (111) and (220) intensities are very weak. In the ISM processed Ni foils, from the rocking curve, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value of the (200) peak has been found to be less than 5.9 deg., whilst the in-plane FWHM obtained from a pole figure analysis is just 8 deg. We discuss the possible mechanisms leading to the texture changes during ISM. (rapid communication)

  16. Biaxial stretching of film principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Demeuse, M T

    2011-01-01

    Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for bi...

  17. Development of BATAN’s texture diffractometer (current status)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyanto, T. H., E-mail: thardi@batan.go.id; Bharoto,; Mugirahardjo, H.; Muslih, R.; Ramadhani, A.; Sairun [Center for Nuclear Industrial Material Technology (PTBIN) National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Texture Diffractometer, called DN2, is one of neutron diffractometers in BATAN which is dedicated for texture measurement using neutron diffraction method. To obtain better performance of the DN2, a flight tube goniometer have been installed between the monochromator and sample position. By adjusting the flight tube goniometer, defocusing effect at direct beam and background effect could be reduced significantly. Some experiments have been carried out to characterize DN2 performance. The flight tube goniometer alignment and neutron wavelength calibration were characterized using silicon standard sample Si640d. Data refinement of diffraction pattern was analyzed using MAUD software and it is obtained reliability factor with background, R{sub wpb}, reduced significantly, from 42.53 % to 19.36 % after setting of flight tube goniometer. Reliability factor without background (R{sub wp}) was reduced from 27.41% to 21.36%. Calibrated of neutron wavelengh, λ = 1,2799 Angstrom is obtained.

  18. Development of Textured Buffer Layer on Metal Tapes for Oxide Superconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    2002-01-01

    .... UES, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, has developed a multilayer architecture based on in-plane textured MgO film by inclined substrate deposition technique oristatic and moving Hastelloy substrates...

  19. Development of cube textured Ni-5 at.%W alloy substrates for coated conductor application using a melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Suo Hongli; Liu Min; Liu Danmin; Zhang Yingxiao; Zhou Meiling

    2006-01-01

    Biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been prepared by cold rolling, followed by three different annealing routes. In this paper, the processes of melting Ni and W metals, flat rolling, various annealing methods are described in detail. The Ni-5 at.%W tapes annealed under either high vacuum or flowing Ar (7% H 2 ) gas were characterized by X-ray pole figures, ODF, EBSD as well as AFM analysis. The texture analysis indicated that as fabricated tapes have a sharp cube texture formed after annealing at a wide temperature range of 800-1100 o C. The high quality of cube orientation on tapes was obtained after a two-step annealing (TSA), where the percentage of the cube texture component was as high as 93.5% within a misorientation angle smaller than 8 o from EBSD analysis. Furthermore, it was also observed that the number of twin boundaries in this tape decreased with respect to that of tapes annealed both in vacuum and one-step gas annealing. From AFM on 1 μm 2 areas, it was concluded that the roughness (RMS) on the tape surface reached 0.98 nm

  20. Texture development in Al-Mg alloys during high temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitou, T.; Inagaki, H.

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the effect of Mg content on annealing textures developed in Al-Mg alloys during high temperature annealing, Al-Mg alloys containing up to 9 wt.% Mg in supersaturated solid solution were cold rolled 95% and isothermally annealed at 450 C. Their textures were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that, in the recrystallization textures observed at complete recrystallization, addition of more than 1 wt.% Mg was sufficient to suppress the development of {100} left angle 001 right angle. With increasing Mg content, {100} left angle 001 right angle decreased remarkably, whereas {100} left angle 013 right angle and {103} left angle 321 right angle increased. Thus, {100} left angle 013 right angle and {103} left angle 321 right angle were found to be the main orientations of the recrystallization textures of Al-Mg alloys annealed at high temperatures. {100} left angle 013 right angle developed most remarkably at 4 wt.% Mg, while {103} left angle 321 right angle showed the maximum development at 7 wt.% Mg. During subsequent grain growth at 450 C, remarkable texture changes were observed only in the alloys containing Mg in the range between 2 and 4 wt.%. In these alloys, {100} left angle 013 right angle developed at the expense of {100} left angle 001 right angle at earlier stages of grain growth, whereas {103} left angle 321 right angle increased independently of these two orientations at later stages of grain growth. Reflecting these texture changes, grain growth occurred in these alloys discontinuously. Such a discontinuous grain growth with large texture changes is expected, if strong textures are already present before grain growth, and if recrystallized grains having similar orientations are distributed by forming large clusters before grain growth. (orig.)

  1. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling of magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Burkhardt, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Research was done on the biaxial stress problem accomplished in the first half of the second year. All of the work done was preparatory to magnetic measurements. Issues addressed were: construction of a model for extracting changes in the magnetic properties of a specimen from the readings of an indirect sensor; initial development of a model for how biaxial stress alters the intrinsic magnetic properties of thespecimen; use of finite element stress analysis modeling to determine a detailed shape for the cruciform biaxial stress specimen; and construction of the biaxial stress loading apparatus

  2. TEXTURAL FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  3. Microstructural and Texture Development in Two Austenitic Steels with High-Manganese Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Basudev; Ray, Ranjit Kumar; Leffers, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Two austenitic steels, Fe-21.3Mn-3.44Si-3.74Al-0.5C and Fe-29.8Mn-2.96Si-2.73Al-0.52C, were subjected to cold rolling with 30 to 80 pct reduction with an increment of 10 pct and subsequently the development of their microstructures and textures were studied. The overall texture after 80 pct cold ...

  4. Microstructure and texture development during high-strain torsion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeden, B.

    2006-07-01

    In this study polycrystalline NiAl has been subjected to torsion deformation. The deformation, microstructure and texture development subject to the shear strain are studied by different techniques (Electron Back-Scatter and High Energy Synchrotron Radiation). Beside the development of microstructure and texture with shear strain, the effect of an initial texture as well as the deformation temperature on the development of texture and microstructure constitute an important part of this study. Therefore, samples with three different initial textures were deformed in the temperature range T=700 K-1300 K. The shear stress-shear strain curves are characterized by a peak at low strains, which is followed by softening and a steady state at high strains. Grain refinement takes place for all samples and the average grain size decreases with temperature. For temperatures T>1000 K, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurs, by which new grains form by nucleation and subsequent growth. The texture is characterized by two components, {l_brace}100{r_brace}<100> (cube,C) and {l_brace}110{r_brace}<100> (Goss,G). Torsional creep of NiAl is characterized by a stress exponent, which depends on temperature and an activation energy, which is stress dependent. The Swift effect, due to which samples change their axial dimension during torsion without applied axial stress, is observed for NiAl. (orig.)

  5. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    }=0.61 (MF and MG features, p<0.01) and were partially independent of BMD. The correlations were dependent on the choice of the ROI and the texture measure. The best predictive multiregression model for failure load R{sub adj}{sup 2}=0.86 (p<0.001) included a set of recently developed texture methods (MF and SIM) but excluded bone mineral density and commonly used texture measures. Conclusions: The results suggest that texture information contained in trabecular bone structure visualized on radiographs may predict whether an implant anchorage can be used and may determine the local bone quality from preoperative radiographs.

  6. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    and MG features, p adj 2 =0.86 (p<0.001) included a set of recently developed texture methods (MF and SIM) but excluded bone mineral density and commonly used texture measures. Conclusions: The results suggest that texture information contained in trabecular bone structure visualized on radiographs may predict whether an implant anchorage can be used and may determine the local bone quality from preoperative radiographs.

  7. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sfakianakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields, and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review.

  8. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakianakis, Panagiotis; Tzia, Constatnina

    2014-01-01

    Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields), and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review. PMID:28234312

  9. Microstructure evolution and texture development in a friction stir-processed AISI D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Vieira, M. T.; Jafarian, H. R.

    2014-02-01

    Crystallographic texture developments during friction stir processing (FSP) of AISI D2 tool were studied with respect to grain sizes in different tool rotation rates. Comparison of the grain sizes in various rotation rates confirmed that grain refinement occurred progressively in higher rotation rates by severe plastic deformation. It was found that the predominant mechanism during FSP should be dynamic recovery (DRV) happened concurrently with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) caused by particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN). The developed shear texture relates to the ideal shear textures of D1 and D2 in bcc metals. The prevalence of highly dense arrangement of close-packed planes of bcc and the lowest Taylor factor showed the lowest compressive residual stress which is responsible for better mechanical properties compared with the grain-precipitate refinement.

  10. Biaxiality of chiral liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longa, L.; Trebin, H.R.; Fink, W.

    1993-10-01

    Using extended deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion in terms of the anisotropic part of the dielectric tensor field Q αβ (χ) a connection between the phase biaxiality and the stability of various chiral liquid crystalline phases is studied. In particular the cholesteric phase, the cubic Blue Phases and the phases characterized by an icosahedral space group symmetry are analysed in detail. Also a general question concerning the applicability of the mean-field approximation in describing the chiral phases is addressed. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of the parameters a new class of phenomena, not present in the original deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau model, has been found. These include: a) re-entrant phase transitions between the cholesteric and the cubic blue phases and b) the existence of distinct phases of the same symmetry but of different biaxialities. The phase biaxiality serves here as an extra scalar order parameter. Furthermore, it has been shown that due to the presence of the competing bulk terms in the free energy, the stable phases may acquire a large degree of biaxiality, also in liquid crystalline materials composed of effectively uniaxial molecules. A study of icosahedral space group symmetries gives a partial answer to the question as to whether an icosahedral quasicrystalline liquid could be stabilized in liquid crystals. Although, in general, the stability of icosahedral structures could be enhanced by the extra terms in the free energy no absolutely stable icosahedral phase has been found. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Development of microstructure and texture in strip casting grain oriented silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Yun-Bo, E-mail: yunbo_xu@126.com; Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Fang, Feng; Lu, Xiang; Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Grain oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling processes. The development of microstructure and texture was investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the microstructure and texture evolutions of strip casting grain oriented silicon steel are significantly distinct from those in the conventional processing route. The as-cast strip is composed of coarse solidification grains and characterized by pronounced 〈001〉//ND texture together with very weak Goss texture. The initial coarse microstructure enhances {111} shear bands formation during the first cold rolling and then leads to the homogeneously distributed Goss grains through the thickness of intermediate annealed sheet. After the secondary cold rolling and primary annealing, strong γ fiber texture with a peak at {111}〈112〉 dominates the primary recrystallization texture, which is beneficial to the abnormal growth of Goss grain during the subsequent high temperature annealing. Therefore, the secondary recrystallization of Goss orientation evolves completely after the high temperature annealing and the grain oriented silicon steel with a good magnetic properties (B{sub 8}=1.94 T, P{sub 1.7/50}=1.3 W/kg) can be prepared. - Highlights: • Grain oriented silicon steel was developed by a novel ultra-short process. • Many evenly distributed Goss “seeds” were originated from cold rolled shear bands. • More MnS inhibitors were obtained due to the rapid cooling of strip casing. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  12. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase (α + β) brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S.; Suwas, Satyam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase (α + β) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both α (fcc) and β (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the α phase during subsequent deformation.

  13. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@met.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both {alpha} (fcc) and {beta} (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the {alpha} phase during subsequent deformation.

  14. Texture development and anisotropic behaviour of a TI-44.2NI4.9CU (AT.%) shape memory alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, L.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between texture development and anisotropy of shape memory properties. A commercial Ti-45Ni-5Cu (at.%) shape memory alloy was selected. Textures were developed by controlling rolling parameters, such as rolling temperature, intermediate

  15. Control of texture in Ag and Ag-alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladstone, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of a biaxially textured silver tape as a substrate for high temperature superconductor (HTS) phases is one possible route towards the fabrication of high-J c superconducting tape. Using a cold-rolling and annealing process we have reproducibly fabricated {110} textured silver which is stable up to 900 deg. C. We have found that there are two critical process requirements for the formation of this texture; a low oxygen content in the material prior to deformation, and a cold-rolling thickness reduction of less than 97%. To overcome the problems associated with the poor mechanical strength of pure silver, texture development in Ag-Mg and Ag-Hf alloys with improved mechanical properties has been studied. Heat treatments in a reducing atmosphere allow the {110} annealing texture to be obtained in Ag-0.1 wt%Mg. The recrystallization behaviour of a Ag-Pd alloy with an increased stacking fault energy was also investigated and a partial cube texture was obtained in this material. Using orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis we have shown that minor variations in the deformation texture of both pure silver and Ag-based alloys can lead to significant differences in the recrystallization textures obtained. (author)

  16. Methodology for dynamic biaxial tension testing of pregnant uterine tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah; Mcnally, Craig; Calloway, Britt; Duma, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Placental abruption accounts for 50% to 70% of fetal losses in motor vehicle crashes. Since automobile crashes are the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States, research of this injury mechanism is important. Before research can adequately evaluate current and future restraint designs, a detailed model of the pregnant uterine tissues is necessary. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for testing the pregnant uterus in biaxial tension at a rate normally seen in a motor vehicle crash. Since the majority of previous biaxial work has established methods for quasi-static testing, this paper combines previous research and new methods to develop a custom designed system to strain the tissue at a dynamic rate. Load cells and optical markers are used for calculating stress strain curves of the perpendicular loading axes. Results for this methodology show images of a tissue specimen loaded and a finite verification of the optical strain measurement. The biaxial test system dynamically pulls the tissue to failure with synchronous motion of four tissue grips that are rigidly coupled to the tissue specimen. The test device models in situ loading conditions of the pregnant uterus and overcomes previous limitations of biaxial testing. A non-contact method of measuring strains combined with data reduction to resolve the stresses in two directions provides the information necessary to develop a three dimensional constitutive model of the material. Moreover, future research can apply this method to other soft tissues with similar in situ loading conditions.

  17. CT texture features of liver parenchyma for predicting development of metastatic disease and overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott J; Zea, Ryan; Kim, David H; Lubner, Meghan G; Deming, Dustin A; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2018-04-01

    To determine if identifiable hepatic textural features are present at abdominal CT in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) prior to the development of CT-detectable hepatic metastases. Four filtration-histogram texture features (standard deviation, skewness, entropy and kurtosis) were extracted from the liver parenchyma on portal venous phase CT images at staging and post-treatment surveillance. Surveillance scans corresponded to the last scan prior to the development of CT-detectable CRC liver metastases in 29 patients (median time interval, 6 months), and these were compared with interval-matched surveillance scans in 60 CRC patients who did not develop liver metastases. Predictive models of liver metastasis-free survival and overall survival were built using regularised Cox proportional hazards regression. Texture features did not significantly differ between cases and controls. For Cox models using all features as predictors, all coefficients were shrunk to zero, suggesting no association between any CT texture features and outcomes. Prognostic indices derived from entropy features at surveillance CT incorrectly classified patients into risk groups for future liver metastases (p < 0.001). On surveillance CT scans immediately prior to the development of CRC liver metastases, we found no evidence suggesting that changes in identifiable hepatic texture features were predictive of their development. • No correlation between liver texture features and metastasis-free survival was observed. • Liver texture features incorrectly classified patients into risk groups for liver metastases. • Standardised texture analysis workflows need to be developed to improve research reproducibility.

  18. Unraveling Recrystallization Mechanisms Governing Texture Development from Rare Earth Element Additions to Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandoust, Aidin

    The origin of texture components associated with rare-earth (RE) element additions in wrought magnesium (Mg) alloys is a long-standing problem in magnesium technology. The objective of this research is to identify the mechanisms accountable for rare-earth texture during dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Towards this end, we designed binary Mg-Cerium and Mg-Gadolinium alloys along with complex alloy compositions containing zinc, yttrium and Mischmetal. Binary alloys along with pure Mg were designed to individually investigate their effects on texture evolutions, while complex compositions are designed to develop randomized texture, and be used in automotive and aerospace applications. We selected indirect extrusion to thermo-mechanically process our materials. Different extrusion ratios and speeds were designed to produce partially and fully recrystallized microstructures, allowing us to analyze DRX from its early stages to completion. X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to conduct microstructure and texture analyses. Our analyses revealed that rare-earth elements in zinc-containing magnesium alloys promote discontinuous dynamic recrystallization at the grain boundaries. During nucleation, the effect of rare earth elements on orientation selection was explained by the concomitant actions of multiple Taylor axes in the same grain. Isotropic grain growth was observed due to rare earth elements segregating to grain boundaries, which lead to texture randomization. The nucleation in binary Mg-RE alloys took place by continuous formation of necklace structures. Stochastic relaxation of basal and non-basal dislocations into low-angle grain boundaries produced chains of embryos with nearly random orientations. Schmid factor analysis showed a lower net activation of dislocations in RE textured grains compared to ones on the other side of the stereographic triangle. Lower dislocation densities within

  19. Biaxial fatigue of metals the present understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Schijve, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Problems of fatigue under multiaxial fatigue loads have been addressed in a very large number of research publications. The present publication is primarily a survey of biaxial fatigue under constant amplitude loading on metal specimens. It starts with the physical understanding of the fatigue phenomenon under biaxial fatigue loads. Various types of proportional and non-proportional biaxial fatigue loads and biaxial stress distributions in a material are specified. Attention is paid to the fatigue limit, crack nucleation, initial micro crack growth and subsequent macro-crack in different modes of crack growth. The interference between the upper and lower surfaces of a fatigue crack is discussed. Possibilities for predictions of biaxial fatigue properties are analysed with reference to the similarity concept. The significance of the present understanding for structural design problems is considered. The book is completed with a summary of major observations.

  20. Plastic deformation and fracture behavior of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tubes under biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Hideo; Ooyama, Masatosi

    1975-01-01

    Various combinations of biaxial stress were applied on five batches of recrystallized zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tubes with different textures; elongation in both axial and circumferential directions of the specimen was measured continuously up to 5% plastic deformation. The anisotropic theory of plasticity proposed by Hill was applied to the resulting data, and anisotropy constants were obtained through the two media of plastic strain loci and plastic strain ratios. Comparison of the results obtained with the two methods proved that the plastic strain loci provide data that are more effective in predicting quantitatively the plastic deformation behavior of the zircaloy-2 tubes. The anisotropy constants change their value with progress of plastic deformation, and judicious application of the effective stress and effective strain obtained on anisotropic materials will permit the relationship between stress and strain under various biaxialities of stresses to be approximated by the work hardening law. The test specimens used in the plastic deformation experiments were then stressed to fracture under the same combination of biaxial stress as in the proceeding experiments, and the deformation in the fractured part was measured. The result proved that the tilt angle of the c-axis which serves as the index of texture is related to fracture ductility under biaxial stress. Based on this relationship, it was concluded that material with a tilt angle ranging from 10 0 to 15 0 is the most suitable for fuel cladding tubes, from the viewpoint of fracture ductility, at least in the case of unirradiated material. (auth.)

  1. Neutron beam applications; development of texture measuring technique using 1-dimensional PSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, No Jin; Lee, Moon Kyu; Joung, Tae Won; Lee, In Sung [Kumoh National University of Technology, Kumi (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The new developed materials have often a low crystal symmetry or/and multi-phase state. Because the diffraction patterns of those materials are very complex and some peaks are overlapped, the measured pole figures with a conventional detector (0-dimensional detector) are not sufficient to use for the texture analysis. And also the widely broaden diffraction patterns caused by sever deformation, can only measured with lots of measuring errors using 0-dimensional detector. In this study the 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional position sensitive detector(PSD) is used such pattern to analyse. With PSD the more accurate pole figures can be measured, and the texture analysis, the estimation of the properties are determined more precisely. The measurement using PSD needs special technique for the analysis of the measured pattern. In this study the measuring and analysing technique is developed and compared with the conventional detector. 11 refs., 92 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  2. Microstructure evolution and texture development in thermomechanically processed Mg-Li-Al based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Govind [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (India); Shekhar, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermomechanical processing of novel LAT 971 and LATZ 9531 Mg-Al-Li based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural deviation from the equilibrium phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disparity in texture of these alloys after hot-rolling (recrystallization and grain growth). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of alloying and phase distribution in affecting the texture/interplaner spacing. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of alloying and thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and texture evolution on the two Mg-Li-Al based alloys, namely Mg-9 wt% Li-7 wt% Al-1 wt% Sn (LAT971) and Mg-9 wt% Li-5 wt% Al-3 wt% Sn-1 wt% Zn (LATZ9531) has been elicited. Novel Mg-Li-Al based alloys were cast (induction melting under protective atmosphere) followed by hot rolling at {approx}573 K with a cumulative reduction of five. A contrary dual phase dendritic microstructure rich in {alpha}-Mg, instead of {beta}-Li phase predicted by equilibrium phase diagram of Mg-Li binary alloy was observed. Preferential presence of Mg-Li-Sn primary precipitates (size 4-10 {mu}m) within {alpha}-Mg phase and Mg-Li-Al secondary precipitates (<3 {mu}m) interspersed in {beta}-Li indicated their degree of dissolution during hot-rolling and homogenization in the dual phase matrix. Presence of Al, Sn and Zn alloying elements in the Mg-Li based alloy has resulted an unusual dual-phase microstructure, change in the lattice parameter, and intriguing texture evolution after hot-rolling of cast LAT 971 and LATZ9531 alloy. Strong texture was absent in the as-cast samples whereas texture development after hot-rolling revealed an increased activity of the non-basal (101{sup Macron }0) slip planes. The quantification of the grain average misorientation (less than 2 Degree-Sign ) using electron backscattered diffraction confirmed the presence of strain free grains in majority of the grains (fraction >0.75) after hot-rolling of Mg

  3. Numerical analysis oriented biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion of plain concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.

    1975-01-01

    A biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion is proposed, which is applicable to structural analysis methods. The formulation of material behavior of plain concrete in biaxial stress-state was developed. A nonlinear elastic, anisotropic stress-strain relation was derived with two moduli of elasticity, E 1 , E 2 and Poisson's ratios, ν 1 , ν 2 , which depend on the prevailing biaxial stress state. The stress-strain relation is valid in the whole biaxial stress field, that means with a smooth transition between the domains of tension/tension, tension/compression and compression/compression. The stress-dependent moduli E 1 , E 2 and the Poisson's ratios ν 1 , ν 2 are approximated by polynomials, trigonometrical and exponential functions. A failure criterion was defined by approximating the test results of the biaxial ultimate concrete strength with a 7th degree polynomial, which is also valid in the whole biaxial stress domain. The definition of the state of failure is given as a function of stresses as well as strains. Initial parameters of the formulation of the biaxial material behavior are the uniaxial cylindrical strength of concrete and the initial values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. A simple expansion of this formulation makes it applicable not only to normal but also to light-weight concrete. Comparison of numerically calculated stress-strain curves up to the ultimate biaxial stresses which indicate the failure criteria with those obtained from tests show a very good agreement. It is shown, that the biaxial stress-strain relation can be extended for use in cases of triaxial tension/tension/compression stress state. Numerical examples of analysis of concrete slabs show the importance of incorporation of a realistic material behavior for better safety estimations

  4. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  5. Stabilisation problem in biaxial platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindner Tymoteusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes investigation of rolling ball stabilization problem on a biaxial platform. The aim of the control system proposed here is to stabilize ball moving on a plane in equilibrium point. The authors proposed a control algorithm based on cascade PID and they compared it with another control method. The article shows the results of the accuracy of ball stabilization and influence of applied filter on the signal waveform. The application used to detect the ball position measured by digital camera has been written using a cross platform .Net wrapper to the OpenCV image processing library - EmguCV. The authors used the bipolar stepper motor with dedicated electronic controller. The data between the computer and the designed controller are sent with use of the RS232 standard. The control stand is based on ATmega series microcontroller.

  6. Stabilisation problem in biaxial platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Tymoteusz; Rybarczyk, Dominik; Wyrwał, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The article describes investigation of rolling ball stabilization problem on a biaxial platform. The aim of the control system proposed here is to stabilize ball moving on a plane in equilibrium point. The authors proposed a control algorithm based on cascade PID and they compared it with another control method. The article shows the results of the accuracy of ball stabilization and influence of applied filter on the signal waveform. The application used to detect the ball position measured by digital camera has been written using a cross platform .Net wrapper to the OpenCV image processing library - EmguCV. The authors used the bipolar stepper motor with dedicated electronic controller. The data between the computer and the designed controller are sent with use of the RS232 standard. The control stand is based on ATmega series microcontroller.

  7. Effect of rolling reduction on the development of rolling and recrystallization textures in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, S; Inagaki, H [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Mg content on the development of the rolling textures in Al pure Al, Al-3% Mg alloy and Al-5% Mg alloy were cold rolled by varying rolling reductions up to 97%. Their rolling textures were investigated by the orientation distribution function analysis. The extent of work hardening introduced by cold rolling was estimated by the hardness measurements. It was found that, at all rolling reductions, the main orientations of the rolling textures depended strongly on the Mg content. In pure Al, {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle was always the main orientation, whereas {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle was most strong in the Al-3%Mg alloy. In the Al-5% Mg alloy, the development of both {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strongly suppressed, whereas {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle developed remarkably. In pure Al, most of the texture development occurred at the later half of work hardening, i.e. at rolling reductions above 70%. With increasing Mg content, rolling texture tended to develop already at lower rolling reductions. Dynamic recovery, which occurred at very high rolling reductions, suppressed the development of the rolling textures. All these results strongly suggested that the formation of dislocation cell structures and shear banding are origins of the formation of these rolling textures. On annealing these specimens at 450 C for 30 min, recrystallization textures developed only in specimens having strong rolling textures, i. e. in the specimens cold rolled more than 70%. {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle developed only in pure Al and in the Al-3% Mg ally, in which {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strong in the rolling textures. Recrystallization textures of the Al-5% Mg alloy was wather random. Its main orientation, {l

  8. Failure criterion for graphene in biaxial loading—a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, Hessam; Hatami, Kianoosh

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out in order to develop a failure criterion for infinite/bulk graphene in biaxial tension. Stresses along the principal edge configurations of graphene (i.e. armchair and zigzag directions) are normalized to the corresponding uniaxial ultimate strength values. The combinations of normalized stresses resulting in the failure of graphene are used to define failure envelopes (limiting stress ratio surfaces). Results indicate that a bilinear failure envelope can be used to represent the tensile strength of graphene in biaxial loading at different temperatures with reasonable accuracy. A circular failure envelope is also introduced for practical applications. Both failure envelopes define temperature-independent upper limits for the feasible combinations of normalized stresses for a graphene sheet in biaxial loading. Predicted failure modes of graphene under biaxial loading are also shown and discussed. (paper)

  9. Fracture assessment of shallow-flaw cruciform beams tested under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate with the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states. (orig.)

  10. Development of Goss texture in Al–0.3%Cu annealed after heavy rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuai, L. F.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture during annealing has been studied in the center layer of 95% cold rolled Al–0.3%Cu with a large initial grain size. The cold-rolled condition is characterized by a strong Brass texture component and a deformed microstructure comprising lamellar stru...... grain size of Goss-oriented grains and strengthening of the Goss texture. As a result, new low angle boundaries are formed between Goss-oriented grains in this strongly textured material....

  11. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, David K.; He, Qing

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  12. Frescoed Vaults: Accuracy Controlled Simplified Methodology for Planar Development of Three-Dimensional Textured Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.

  13. Biaxial loading effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W. Jr.; Pennell, W.E.

    1995-03-01

    The preliminary phases of a program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for assessing crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been completed by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Objectives were to investigate effect of biaxial loading on fracture toughness, quantify this effect through existing stress-based, dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations, or propose and verify alternate correlations. A cruciform beam specimen with 2-D, shallow, through-thickness flaw and a special loading fixture was designed and fabricated. Tests were performed using biaxial loading ratios of 0:1 (uniaxial), 0.6:1, and 1:1 (equi-biaxial). Critical fracture-toughness values were calculated for each test. Biaxial loading of 0.6:1 resulted in a reduction in the lower bound fracture toughness of ∼12% as compared to that from the uniaxial tests. The biaxial loading of 1:1 yielded two subsets of toughness values; one agreed well with the uniaxial data, while one was reduced by ∼43% when compared to the uniaxial data. Results were evaluated using J-Q theory and Dodds-Anderson (D-A) micromechanical scaling model. The D-A model predicted no biaxial effect, while the J-Q method gave inconclusive results. When applied to the 1:1 biaxial data, these constraint methodologies failed to predict the observed reduction in fracture toughness obtained in one experiment. A strain-based constraint methodology that considers the relationship between applied biaxial load, the plastic zone width in the crack plane, and fracture toughness was formulated and applied successfully to the data. Evaluation of this dual-parameter strain-based model led to the conclusion that it has the capability of representing fracture behavior of RPV steels in the transition region, including the effects of out-of-plane loading on fracture toughness. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 150

  14. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  15. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, T.; Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  16. Development of a surface topography instrument for automotive textured steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shenghuai; Chen, Yurong; Xie, Tiebang

    2010-08-01

    The surface topography of automotive steel plate is decisive to its stamping, painting and image clarity performances. For measuring this kind of surface topography, an instrument has been developed based on the principle of vertical scanning white light microscopy interference principle. The microscopy interference system of this instrument is designed based on the structure of Linnik interference microscopy. The 1D worktable of Z direction is designed and introduced in details. The work principle of this instrument is analyzed. In measuring process, the interference microscopy is derived as a whole and the measured surface is scanned in vertical direction. The measurement accuracy and validity is verified by templates. Surface topography of textured steel plate is also measured by this instrument.

  17. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on texture development in lead zirconate titanate thin films processed from metalorganic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Jarrod L.; Liedl, Gerald L.; Slamovich, Elliott B.

    1999-01-01

    Metalorganic liquid precursors were used to examine the effects of processing atmosphere on texture development in oriented Pb(Zr 0.60 Ti 0.40 )O 3 thin films. After removal of organic ligands via pyrolysis, the films were heated at 25 degree sign C/min in a 5% H 2 /Ar atmosphere until a switching temperature, after which the atmosphere was switched to pure oxygen. The films were heated to a maximum temperature of 650 degree sign C with switching temperatures ranging from 450 to 600 degree sign C. The degree of (111) orientation in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films increased with increasing switching temperature, resulting in highly textured (111) PZT films. These results suggest that atmosphere control plays a significant role in texture development during rapid thermal processing. (c) 1999 Materials Research Society

  18. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous biaxially anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Urbach, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Firm evidence of the biaxial nematic phase in liquid crystals, not induced by a magnetic or electric field, has been established only recently. The discovery of these biaxially anisotropic liquid crystals has opened up new areas of both fundamental and applied research. The advances in biaxial

  19. Textural development and hydrogen adsorption of carbon materials from PET waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Palacios, J.M.; Pis, J.J

    2004-10-06

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) has become one of the major post-consumer plastic wastes. PET products present a problem of considerable concern due to the huge amount of solid waste produced. The disposal of this waste, together with its low bio- and photo-degradability represents a serious challenge for industrial countries all over the world. Pyrolysis could provide an alternative and economically viable route for processing PET waste due to the potential uses of different by-products: energy from the pyrolysis gases (58% yield in this work), recovery of terephthalic acid and other subproducts (20%), and a solid residue (22%), which has shown a high textural development after activation. The pyrolysis of PET waste was performed in a quartz reactor (i.d. 35 mm) under an inert atmosphere. Further activation was carried out at a temperature of 925 deg. C, with a flow rate of 10 ml min{sup -1} of CO{sub 2}. A series of carbon materials with different burn-off degrees was obtained. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. Changes in the morphological and structural properties of chars were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The carbons obtained were isotropic and highly microporous materials with apparent BET surface areas of up to 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The suitability of the samples for hydrogen storage was studied by performing H{sub 2} adsorption measurements in the 0-1 bar pressure range. Adsorption-desorption experiments showed that reversible physisorption takes place in all the samples. The hydrogen adsorption capacities of the activated PET waste compare favourably well with those attained with high-value carbon materials.

  20. Textural development and hydrogen adsorption of carbon materials from PET waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Palacios, J.M.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) has become one of the major post-consumer plastic wastes. PET products present a problem of considerable concern due to the huge amount of solid waste produced. The disposal of this waste, together with its low bio- and photo-degradability represents a serious challenge for industrial countries all over the world. Pyrolysis could provide an alternative and economically viable route for processing PET waste due to the potential uses of different by-products: energy from the pyrolysis gases (58% yield in this work), recovery of terephthalic acid and other subproducts (20%), and a solid residue (22%), which has shown a high textural development after activation. The pyrolysis of PET waste was performed in a quartz reactor (i.d. 35 mm) under an inert atmosphere. Further activation was carried out at a temperature of 925 deg. C, with a flow rate of 10 ml min -1 of CO 2 . A series of carbon materials with different burn-off degrees was obtained. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. Changes in the morphological and structural properties of chars were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The carbons obtained were isotropic and highly microporous materials with apparent BET surface areas of up to 2500 m 2 g -1 . The suitability of the samples for hydrogen storage was studied by performing H 2 adsorption measurements in the 0-1 bar pressure range. Adsorption-desorption experiments showed that reversible physisorption takes place in all the samples. The hydrogen adsorption capacities of the activated PET waste compare favourably well with those attained with high-value carbon materials

  1. Failure analysis based on microvoid growth for sheet metal during uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassi, Fethi; Mistou, Sebastien; Zghal, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cruciform specimen designed and biaxial tensile test carried out. ► Stereo Correlation Image technique is used for 3D full-filed measurements. ► SEM fractography analysis is used to explain the fracture mechanism. ► Constitutive modeling of the necking phenomenon was developed using GTN model. - Abstract: The aim of the presented investigations is to perform an analysis of fracture and instability during simple and complex load testing by addressing the influence of ductile damage evolution in necking processes. In this context, an improved experimental methodology was developed and successfully used to evaluate localization of deformation during uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests. The biaxial tensile tests are carried out using cruciform specimen loaded using a biaxial testing machine. In this experimental investigation, Stereo-Image Correlation technique has is used to produce the heterogeneous deformations map within the specimen surface. Scanning electron microscope is used to evaluate the fracture mechanism and the micro-voids growth. A finite element model of uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests are developed, where a ductile damage model Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) is used to describe material deformation involving damage evolution. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results show the accuracy of the finite element model to predict the instability phenomenon. The advanced measurement techniques contribute to understand better the ductile fracture mechanism

  2. Computer Texture Mapping for Laser Texturing of Injection Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser texturing is a relatively new multiprocess technique that has been used for machining 3D curved surfaces; it is more flexible and efficient to create decorative texture on 3D curved surfaces of injection molds so as to improve the surface quality and achieve cosmetic surface of molded plastic parts. In this paper, a novel method of laser texturing 3D curved surface based on 3-axis galvanometer scanning unit has been presented to prevent the texturing of injection mold surface from much distortion which is often caused by traditional texturing processes. The novel method has been based on the computer texture mapping technology which has been developed and presented. The developed texture mapping algorithm includes surface triangulation, notations, distortion measurement, control, and numerical method. An interface of computer texture mapping has been built to implement the algorithm of texture mapping approach to controlled distortion rate of 3D texture math model from 2D original texture applied to curvature surface. Through a case study of laser texturing of a high curvature surface of injection mold of a mice top case, it shows that the novel method of laser texturing meets the quality standard of laser texturing of injection mold.

  3. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...

  4. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads

    2008-01-01

    of the piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity...

  5. Effect of surface texture and structure on the development of stable fluvial armors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide

    2018-04-01

    Stable fluvial armors are found in river systems under conditions of partial sediment transport and limited sediment supply, a common occurrence in nature. Stable armoring is also readily recreated in experimental flumes. Initially, this bed stabilizing phenomenon was examined for different flow discharges and solely related to surface coarsening and bedload transport reduction. The models developed suggest a specific armor composition (i.e., texture) dependent on the parent bed material and formative discharge. Following developments in topographic remote sensing, recent research suggests that armor structure is an important control on bed stability and roughness. In this paper, replicated flume runs during which digital elevation models (DEMs) were collected from both exposed and flooded gravel beds are used to interpret armoring manifestations and to assess their replicability. A range of methodologies was used for the analysis, providing information on (i) surface grain size and orientation, (ii) bed-elevation distributions, (iii) the spatial coherence of the elevations at the grain-scale, (iv) surface slope and aspect, (v) grain imbrication and (vi) the spatial variability in DEM properties. The bed-surface topography was found to be more responsive than bed-material size to changes in flow strength. Our experimental results also provide convincing evidence that gravel-beds' response to water-work during parallel degradation is unique (i.e., replicable) given the formative parameters. Based on this finding, relationships between the armors' properties and formative parameters are proposed, and are supported by adding extensive data from previous research.

  6. Lightweight, Low-CTE Tubes Made From Biaxially Oriented LCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leslie; Federico, Frank; Formato, Richard; Larouco, John; Slager, William

    2004-01-01

    Tubes made from biaxially oriented liquid-crystal polymers (LCPs) have been developed for use as penetrations on cryogenic tanks. ( Penetrations in this context denotes feed lines, vent lines, and sensor tubes, all of which contribute to the undesired conduction of heat into the tanks.) In comparison with corresponding prior cryogenic-tank penetrations made from stainless steels and nickel alloys, the LCP penetrations offer advantages of less weight and less thermal conduction. An additional major advantage of LCP components is that one can tailor their coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs). The estimated cost of continuous production of LCP tubes of typical sizes is about $1.27/ft ($4.17/m) [based on 1998 prices]. LCP tubes that are compatible with liquid oxygen and that feature tailored biaxial molecular orientation and quasi-isotropic properties (including quasi-isotropic CTE) have been fabricated by a combination of proprietary and patented techniques that involve the use of counterrotating dies (CRDs). Tailoring of the angle of molecular orientation is what makes it possible to tailor the CTE over a wide range to match the CTEs of adjacent penetrations of other tank components; this, in turn, makes it possible to minimize differential-thermal expansion stresses that arise during thermal cycling. The fabrication of biaxially oriented LCP tubes by use of CRDs is not new in itself. The novelty of the present development lies in tailoring the orientations and thus the CTEs and other mechanical properties of the LCPs for the intended cryogenic applications and in modifications of the CRDs for this purpose. The LCP tubes and the 304-stainless-steel tubes that the LCP tubes were intended to supplant were tested with respect to burst strength, permeability, thermal conductivity, and CTE.

  7. Phonon deformation potentials of hexagonal GaN studied by biaxial stress modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yong Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a biaxial stress modulation method, combining the microfabrication technique, finite element analysis and a weighted averaging process, was developed to study piezospectroscopic behavior of hexagonal GaN films, epitaxially grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on c-sapphire and Si (111 substrates. Adjusting the size of patterned islands, various biaxial stress states could be obtained at the island centers, leading to abundant stress-Raman shift data. With the proposed stress modulation method, the Raman biaxial stress coefficients of E2H and A1 (LO phonons of GaN were determined to be 3.43 cm-1/GPa and 2.34 cm-1/GPa, respectively.

  8. Field-Induced Rheology in Uniaxial and Biaxial Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTIN, JAMES E.

    1999-01-01

    Steady and oscillatory shear 3-D simulations of electro- and magnetorheology in uniaxial and biaxial fields are presented, and compared to the predictions of the chain model. These large scale simulations are three dimensional, and include the effect of Brownian motion. In the absence of thermal fluctuations, the expected shear thinning viscosity is observed in steady shear, and a striped phase is seen to rapidly form in a uniaxial field, with a shear slip zone in each sheet. However, as the influence of Brownian motion increases, the fluid stress decreases, especially at lower Mason numbers, and the striped phase eventually disappears, even when the fluid stress is still high. In a biaxial field, an opposite trend is seen, where Brownian motion decreases the stress most significantly at higher Mason numbers. to account for the uniaxial steady shear data they propose a microscopic chain model of the role played by thermal fluctuations on the rheology of ER and MR fluids that delineates the regimes where an applied field can impact the fluid viscosity, and gives an analytical prediction for the thermal effect. In oscillatory shear, a striped phase again appears in uniaxial field, at strain amplitudes greater than(approx) 0.15, and the presence of a shear slip zone creates strong stress nonlinearities at low strain amplitudes. In a biaxial field, a shear slip zone is not created, and so the stress nonlinearities develop only at expected strain amplitudes. The nonlinear dynamics of these systems is shown to be in good agreement with the Kinetic Chain Model

  9. Fracture assessment of HSST Plate 14 shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimens tested under biaxial loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.

  10. Microstructure development and texture evolution of aluminum multi-port extrusion tube during the porthole die extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.H. [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, D., E-mail: tangding@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Fang, W.L.; Li, D.Y.; Peng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Aluminum multi-port extrusion tube is processed by the porthole die extrusion and the internal tube walls are welded through the solid state metallurgical bonding. In order to observe the development of grains and their orientations under severe plastic deformation and solid state welding, the extrusion butt together with the die is quenched immediately after extrusion to preserve the grain structure in the processing. The forming histories of selected material points are obtained by analyzing the optical microscopy graph. The evolution of the microstructure along the forming path is characterized by electro backscattered diffraction. It is found that geometrical dynamic recrystallization happens in the process. Grains are elongated, scattered at the transition zone and shear intensive zone, and then pinched off when they are pushed out from the die orifice. The shear-type orientations are predominant at the surface layer on the longitudinal section of the tube web and have penetrated into the intermediate layer. The rolling-type orientations are formed at the central layer. Texture gradient through the thickness of the tube web is observed. And cube orientated grains are found at the seam weld region. - Highlights: •Microstructure of extrusion butt is preserved after the micro scale porthole die extrusion. •Grain morphology history along forming path is investigated. •Texture evolutions on three material flows are present. •Texture gradient exists on the longitudinal section of the internal wall of profile. •Rolling-type and cube textures are found at the solid state welding region.

  11. Evaluation of constraint methodologies applied to a shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimen tested under biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect

  12. Preliminary assessment of the effects of biaxial loading on reactor pressure vessel structural-integrity-assessment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Merkle, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness were studied to determine potential impact on structural integrity assessment of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transient loading and pressure-temperature (PT) loading produced by reactor heatup and cooldown transients. Biaxial shallow-flaw fracture-toughness tests results were also used to determine the parameter controlling fracture in the transition temperature range, and to develop a related dual-parameter fracture-toughness correlation. Shallow-flaw and biaxial loading effects were found to reduce the conditional probability of crack initiation by a factor of nine when the shallow-flaw fracture-toughness K Jc data set, with biaxial-loading effects adjustments, was substituted in place of ASME Code K Ic data set in PTS analyses. Biaxial loading was found to reduce the shallow-flaw fracture toughness of RPV steel such that the lower-bound curve was located between ASME K Ic and K IR curves. This is relevant to future development of P-T curve analysis procedures. Fracture in shallow-flaw biaxial samples tested in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture-toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture

  13. A Cellular Automaton / Finite Element model for predicting grain texture development in galvanized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, G.; Avettand-Fènoël, M.-N.; Iosta, A.; Foct, J.

    2011-01-01

    Hot-dipping galvanizing process is a widely used and efficient way to protect steel from corrosion. We propose to master the microstructure of zinc grains by investigating the relevant process parameters. In order to improve the texture of this coating, we model grain nucleation and growth processes and simulate the zinc solid phase development. A coupling scheme model has been applied with this aim. This model improves a previous two-dimensional model of the solidification process. It couples a cellular automaton (CA) approach and a finite element (FE) method. CA grid and FE mesh are superimposed on the same domain. The grain development is simulated at the micro-scale based on the CA grid. A nucleation law is defined using a Gaussian probability and a random set of nucleating cells. A crystallographic orientation is defined for each one with a choice of Euler's angle (Ψ,θ,φ). A small growing shape is then associated to each cell in the mushy domain and a dendrite tip kinetics is defined using the model of Kurz [2]. The six directions of basal plane and the two perpendicular directions develop in each mushy cell. During each time step, cell temperature and solid fraction are then determined at micro-scale using the enthalpy conservation relation and variations are reassigned at macro-scale. This coupling scheme model enables to simulate the three-dimensional growing kinetics of the zinc grain in a two-dimensional approach. Grain structure evolutions for various cooling times have been simulated. Final grain structure has been compared to EBSD measurements. We show that the preferentially growth of dendrite arms in the basal plane of zinc grains is correctly predicted. The described coupling scheme model could be applied for simulated other product or manufacturing processes. It constitutes an approach gathering both micro and macro scale models.

  14. Biaxial Stretch Improves Elastic Fiber Maturation, Collagen Arrangement, and Mechanical Properties in Engineered Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela H; Balestrini, Jenna L; Udelsman, Brooks V; Zhou, Kevin C; Zhao, Liping; Ferruzzi, Jacopo; Starcher, Barry C; Levene, Michael J; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEVs) are typically produced using the pulsatile, uniaxial circumferential stretch to mechanically condition and strengthen the arterial grafts. Despite improvements in the mechanical integrity of TEVs after uniaxial conditioning, these tissues fail to achieve critical properties of native arteries such as matrix content, collagen fiber orientation, and mechanical strength. As a result, uniaxially loaded TEVs can result in mechanical failure, thrombus, or stenosis on implantation. In planar tissue equivalents such as artificial skin, biaxial loading has been shown to improve matrix production and mechanical properties. To date however, multiaxial loading has not been examined as a means to improve mechanical and biochemical properties of TEVs during culture. Therefore, we developed a novel bioreactor that utilizes both circumferential and axial stretch that more closely simulates loading conditions in native arteries, and we examined the suture strength, matrix production, fiber orientation, and cell proliferation. After 3 months of biaxial loading, TEVs developed a formation of mature elastic fibers that consisted of elastin cores and microfibril sheaths. Furthermore, the distinctive features of collagen undulation and crimp in the biaxial TEVs were absent in both uniaxial and static TEVs. Relative to the uniaxially loaded TEVs, tissues that underwent biaxial loading remodeled and realigned collagen fibers toward a more physiologic, native-like organization. The biaxial TEVs also showed increased mechanical strength (suture retention load of 303 ± 14.53 g, with a wall thickness of 0.76 ± 0.028 mm) and increased compliance. The increase in compliance was due to combinatorial effects of mature elastic fibers, undulated collagen fibers, and collagen matrix orientation. In conclusion, biaxial stretching is a potential means to regenerate TEVs with improved matrix production, collagen organization, and mechanical

  15. Biaxial crystal-based optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    We suggest an optical tweezer setup based on an optically biaxial crystal. To control movements of opaque particles, we use shifts. The results of experimental studies are reported which are concerned with this laser tweezer setup. We demonstrate a movement of microparticles of toner using...... a singular-optical trap, rotation of particles due to orbital angular momentum of the field, and converging or diverging of two different traps when changing transmission plane of polariser at the input of our polarisation interferometer....

  16. Implantable biaxial piezoresistive accelerometer for sensorimotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiang; Tan, Wei; Sok Kim, Eun; Singh, Jasspreet; Loeb, Gerald E

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test results of a novel biaxial piezoresistive accelerometer and its incorporation into a miniature neuromuscular stimulator called a BION. Because of its highly symmetric twin mass structure, the X and Z axis acceleration can be measured at the same time and the cross axis sensitivity can be minimized by proper piezoresistor design. The X and Z axis sensitivities of the biaxial accelerometer are 0.10 mV/g/V and 1.40 mV/g/V, respectively, which are further increased to 0.65 mV/g/V and 2.40 mV/g/V, respectively, with extra silicon mass added to the proof mass. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3.3% among X, Y and Z-axis. An orientation tracking method for human segments by measuring every joint angle is also discussed in this paper. Joint angles can be obtained by processing the outputs of a pair of biaxial accelerometers (placed very close to the joint axis on the adjacent limb links), without having to integrate acceleration or velocity signals, thereby avoiding errors due to offsets and drift.

  17. Activity of pyramidal I and II slip in Mg alloys as revealed by texture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Miroslav; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Knezevic, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Due to the geometry of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) lattice, there are two types of pyramidal slip modes: { 10 1 bar 1 } 〈 11 2 bar 3 bar 〉 or type I and { 1 bar 1 bar 22 } 〈 11 2 bar 3 〉 or type II in HCP crystalline materials. Here we use crystal plasticity to examine the importance of crystallographic slip by pyramidal type I and type II on texture evolution. The study is applied to an Mg-4%Li alloy. An elastic-plastic polycrystal model is employed to elucidate the reorientation tendencies of these two slip modes in rolling of a textured polycrystal. Comparisons with experimental texture measurements indicate that both pyramidal I and II type slip were active during rolling deformation, with pyramidal I being the dominant mode. A single-slip-mode analysis is used to identify the orientations that prefer pyramidal I vs. II type slip when acting alone in a crystal. The analysis applies not only to Mg-4%Li, but identifies the key texture components in HCP crystals that would help distinguish the activity of pyramidal I from pyramidal II slip in rolling deformation.

  18. Development of Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture in a Double-Sided Friction Stir Welded Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, S.; Wynne, B. P.; Baker, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture has been investigated in double-sided friction stir welded microalloyed steel, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure analyses show that the center of stirred zone reached a temperature between Ac1 and Ac3 during FSW, resulting in a dual-phase austenitic/ ferritic microstructure. The temperatures in the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the overlapped area between the first and second weld pass did not exceed the Ac1. The shear generated by the rotation probe occurs in austenitic/ferritic phase field where the austenite portion of the microstructure is transformed to a bainitic ferrite, on cooling. Analysis of crystallographic textures with regard to shear flow lines generated by the probe tool shows the dominance of simple shear components across the whole weld. The austenite texture at Ac1 - Ac3 is dominated by the B { {1bar{1}2} }D2 { {11bar{2}} }< 111rangle simple shear texture components. The formation of ultrafine equiaxed ferrite with submicron grain size has been observed in the overlapped area between the first and second weld pass. This is due to continuous dynamic strain-induced recrystallization as a result of simultaneous severe shear deformation and drastic undercooling.

  19. Development of cube textured Ni-W alloy substrates used for coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suo, Hongli; Ma, Lin; Gao, Mangmang

    2014-01-01

    It is considered as a challenge for RABiTS route to get cube textured Ni-W alloy substrates with high mechanical and magnetic properties for coated conductors. The works of our group in recent years are summarized about different Ni-W substrates with high W content and composite tapes made by RABiTS...

  20. Effective X-ray elastic constant measurement for in situ stress measurement of biaxially strained AA5754-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadicola, Mark A.; Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of stresses by X-ray diffraction requires accurate X-ray elastic constants. Calibration experiments are one method to determine these for a specific material in a specific condition. In this paper, uniaxial tension experiments are used to investigate the variation of these constants after uniaxial and equal-biaxial plastic deformation for an aluminum alloy (AA5754-O) of interest to the automotive industry. These data are critical for accurate measurement of the biaxial mechanical properties of the material using a recent experimental method combining specialized sheet metal forming equipment with portable X-ray diffraction equipment. The measured effective X-ray elastic constants show some minor variation with increased plastic deformation, and this behavior was found to be consistent for both uniaxially and equal-biaxially strained samples. The use of two average values for effective X-ray elastic constants, one in the rolling direction and one transverse to the rolling direction of the sheet material, is shown to be of sufficient accuracy for the combined tests of interest. Comparison of uniaxial data measured using X-ray diffraction and standard methods show good agreement, and biaxial stress–strain results show good repeatability. Additionally, the calibration data show some non-linear behavior, which is analyzed in regards to crystallographic texture and intergranular stress effects. The non-linear behavior is found to be the result of intergranular stresses based on comparison with additional measurements using other X-ray diffraction equipment and neutron diffraction.

  1. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  2. Biaxial loading effects on the growth of cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.W.; Miller, K.J.; Walker, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth under different biaxial stress states is considered for both small scale yielding and high bulk stress conditions. Analytical and elastic finite element results are compared favourably alongside experimental results on a AISI 316 stainless steel at both room and elevated temperatures. Differences in crack growth rates are compared against different crack tip cyclic plastic zone sizes for various degrees of mixed mode loading, thereby overcoming the limitations of the Paris Law and LEFM. The usefulness of the approach is indicated for studies in the behaviour of materials subjected to thermal shock. Where steep temperature gradients are introduced due to rapid thermal transients, high strains are produced which propagate fatigue cracks under cyclic conditions. Since stress gradients are generally associated with thermal shock situations, the cracks grow through a plastically deformed region near the surface into an elastic region. A unified approach to fatigue behaviour, encompassing both linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, will enable analysis of thermal shock situations. The approach to crack propagation developed here shows that cyclic growth rates are a function of a severe strain zone size in which local stresses exceed the tensile strength, i.e. monotonic instability. The effects of stress biaxiality and mixed mode loading are included in the analysis, which may be extended to general yielding situations. (orig.)

  3. Texture Development and Material Flow Behavior During Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding of AlMgSc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junjun; Lage, Sara B. M.; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Bolfarini, Claudemiro; dos Santos, Jorge F.

    2018-01-01

    The microstructural evolution during refill friction stir spot welding of an AlMgSc alloy was studied. The primary texture that developed in all regions, with the exception of the weld center, was determined to be 〈110〉 fibers and interpreted as a simple shear texture with the 〈110〉 direction aligned with the shear direction. The material flow is mainly driven by two components: the simple shear acting on the horizontal plane causing an inward-directed spiral flow and the extrusion acting on the vertical plane causing an upward-directed or downward-directed flow. Under such a complex material flow, the weld center, which is subjected to minimal local strain, is the least recrystallized. In addition to the geometric effects of strain and grain subdivision, thermally activated high-angle grain boundary migration, particularly continuous dynamic recrystallization, drives the formation of refined grains in the stirred zone.

  4. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  5. Buffer layers grown by replicating the texture of an original template tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sunme; Yoo, Jaeun; Park, Chan; Youm, Dojun

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fabrication method of the buffer layers, whose biaxial textures are replicated from an original template tape. The purpose of this method is economical texturing process for coated conductors. At first we prepared a biaxially textured metal tape (TM-tape). Then a sacrifice layer (SA), a buffer layer (BU) and a thick metallic layer (SM) were sequentially deposited on the TM-tape. SA-layer and BU-layer were deposited epitaxially to copy the texture of the TM-tape. SA-layer was dissoluble in water. SM-layer with the textured BU-layer was separated and could be used for a supporting tape for the further growth of a superconducting layer. In this way, it is possible to reuse the original textured TM-tape many times. In this paper, we report the results of our experiments, in which we used a biaxially Ni tape, BaO film, STO film, and a thick Ag film for TM-tape, SA-layer, BU-layer, and SM-layer, respectively. The Ag/STO layers were successfully separated form the Ni tape by dissolving the BaO layer in water. The texture quality of the STO layer was well secured after the separation

  6. Development of crystal texture in R-lean RFeCoNbB (R = Nd, Pr) alloy during melt spinning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Yanguo; Zhang, Xiangyi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the texture development during the melt spinning processes of R-lean alloys. ► A strong (0 0 l) texture parallel to the ribbon plane for (Nd,Pr) 2 Fe 14 B is obtained. ► The texture for R 2 Fe 14 B crystals can develop by a seeding effect of α-Fe texture. ► The anisotropic nanocomposite magnet yields M r = 0.78M s and large (BH) max = 25.2 MGOe. - Abstract: The formation of crystal texture of R 2 Fe 14 B nanocrystals in R–Fe–B (R = rare earth) alloys with low R content ( 2 Fe 14 B nanocrystals during the melt spinning processes of Nd 3.6 Pr 5.4 Fe 80 Co 3 NbB 7 by effectively employing the seeding effect of α-Fe nanocrystal texture. The (Nd,Pr) 2 Fe 14 B nanocrystals produced from the R-lean alloy at a wheel speed of 18 m/s show a strong (0 0 l) texture parallel to the ribbon plane, which yields a high remanence M r = 0.78M s and a large energy product (BH) max = 25.2 MGOe for the α-Fe/(Nd,Pr) 2 Fe 14 B nanocomposite ribbons. The present study provides a promising approach to prepare anisotropic nanocomposite magnets from R-lean alloys.

  7. Effect of hot band grain size on development of textures and magnetic properties in 2.0% Si non-oriented electrical steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, M.Y., E-mail: myhuh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.J.; Park, J.T.; Kim, J.S. [Electrical Steel Sheet Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Goedong-dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Science Division, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Engler, O. [Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH, Research and Development Bonn, P.O. Box 2468, D-53014 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The effect of hot band grain size on the development of crystallographic texture and magnetic properties in non-oriented electrical steel sheet was studied. After cold rolling the samples with different initial grain sizes displayed different microstructures and micro-textures but nearly identical macro-textures. The homogeneous recrystallized microstructure and micro-texture in the sample having small grains caused normal continuous grain growth. The quite irregular microstructure and micro-texture in the recrystallized sample with large initial grain size provided a preferential growth of grains in 〈001〉//ND and 〈113〉//ND which were beneficial for developing superior magnetic properties. - Highlights: • We produced hot bands of electrical steel with different grain size but same texture. • Hot band grain size strongly affected cold rolling and subsequent annealing textures. • Homogeneous recrystallized microstructure caused normal continuous grain growth. • Irregular recrystallized microstructure led to selective growth of <001>//ND grains. • Hot band with large grains was beneficial for superior magnetic properties.

  8. Effect of texture on grain boundary misorientation distributions in polycrystalline high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Mason, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Computer simulations were performed to determine the most probable grain boundary misorientation distribution (GBMD) in model polycrystalline superconductors. GBMDs in polycrystalline superconductors can be expected to dictate the macroscopic transport critical current density, J c . Calculations were performed by simulating model polycrystals and then determining the GBMD. Such distributions were calculated for random materials having cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic crystal symmetry. In addition, since most high temperature superconductors are tetragonal or pseudotetragonal, the effect of macroscopic uniaxial and biaxial grain orientation texture on the GBMD was determined for tetragonal materials. It is found that macroscopic texture drastically alters the grain boundary misorientation distribution. The fraction of low angle boundaries increases significantly with uniaxial and biaxial texture. The results of this study are important in correlating the macroscopic transport J c with the measured grain orientation texture as determined by x-ray diffraction copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Experimental and analytical comparison of constraint effects due to biaxial loading and shallow-flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiss, T.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes for quantifying crack-tip constraint through applications to experimental data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Shallow-crack effects and far-field tensile out-of-plane biaxial loading have been identified as constraint issues that influence both fracture toughness and the extent of the toughness scatter band. Results from applications indicate that the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Crack-tip constraint analyses of the shallow-crack cruciform specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Crack-tip constraint analyses of the shallow-crack cruciform specimen subjected to uniaxial or biaxial loading conditions are shown to represent a significant challenge for these methodologies. Unresolved issued identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications

  10. Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Mukoyama, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current (I c ) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kA rms was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

  11. Effects of incorporation of whey protein concentrate on physicochemical, texture, and microbial evaluation of developed cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Hamid Wani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey Protein concentrate (WPC was incorporated into cookies at different levels (0, 2, 4, and 6%. Cookies were analyzed for physicochemical, color, textural, microbial, and sensory attributes. Physicochemical analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookies shows maximum protein content (13.22%, moisture content (11.33%, fat content (23.08%, and ash content (2.02% as compared to control. However, control sample shows significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 value for crude fiber and carbohydrate content. Maximum thickness (9.63 mm, diameter (44.06 mm, and weight (9.10 g were found for control and these decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with increase in WPC supplementation level in cookies. Cookie supplemented with 4% WPC showed maximum overall acceptability (4.76. Texture analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookie shows maximum cutting force (55.3 N. Lightness (L* value of cookies decreased from 67.32 to 57.94. Where as a* and b* value increased from 0.37 to 3.57 and 25.35 to 27.54, respectively. The total plate count of cookie samples was under acceptable limits.

  12. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films on rolled-textured metals for high temperature superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Prouteau, C.

    1998-04-01

    The epitaxial growth of high temperature superconducting (HTS) films on rolled-textured metal represents a viable approach for long-length superconducting tapes. Epitaxial, 0.5 microm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films with critical current densities, J c , greater than 1 MA/cm 2 have been realized on rolled-textured (001) Ni tapes with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CeO 2 oxide buffer layers. This paper describes the synthesis using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of epitaxial oxide buffer layers on biaxially-textured metal that comprise the so-called rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTs trademark). The properties of the buffer and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films on rolled-textured Ni are discussed, with emphasis given to the crystallographic and microstructural properties that determine the superconducting properties of these multilayer structures

  13. Bi axially textured YBCO coated tape prepared using dynamic magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoud, Jean-Yves; Quinton, William

    1999-01-01

    A new magnetic grain alignment technique has been applied to produce bi axially aligned YBCO coated tapes. A bi axially aligned dispersion of orthorhombic Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15 (Y-247) powder was settled on un textured silver substrates. The Y-247 tapes were then melt processed to achieve high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (Y-123) tapes with CuO as a secondary phase. The biaxial alignment is preserved after the densification process and a clear enhancement of J c relative to identically prepared un textured or uniaxially textured samples is obtained. Critical current densities of up to 5000 A cm -2 at 77 K in self-field and 1500 A cm -2 in 0.5 T magnetic field at 65 K were obtained in films from 20 to 40 μm thick. Problems were experienced in achieving fully densified thick films while retaining biaxial texture. The initial grain size distribution was found to have a major influence on the final microstructure. Provided significant improvements in J c can be obtained this method offers an alternative to coated tape processes based on epitaxial growth which has the advantage that it does not require textured substrates. The biaxial alignment technique described here intrinsically acts on the bulk material rather than at surfaces. This offers the possibility of texturing without thickness limitations. (author)

  14. Development of a computational program for treatment of texture data by the X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galego, Eguiberto

    2004-01-01

    In this work it has been developed a computational program for treatment of texture data by the X-ray diffraction technique using pole figures. It has been applied the resolution method by spherical harmonical series expansion for cubic and hexagonal microscopic symmetry and orthorhombic macroscopic symmetry. For yielding the microscopic symmetries it has been necessary the implementation of algorithmic for calculation the spherical harmonic of specific surface. The generation of Legendre Polynomial, based on the experimental data in relation to a and β step angles, is execution in real time. In the introduction of data, the graphical representation of pole figure is drawn in stereo graphic projection, being possible to the analyst three dimensional (3D) visualization. An internal routine verify validity of the Miller indexes, being possible to analyst the correction. The program exhibit the possible corrections applied to experimental data: defocusing, background and orientation of lamination direction (β angle). The correction of the defocusing and background is the executed automatically based on the optic used in the X-ray equipment (Schulz geometric). It has been implemented a routine of graphic manipulation of the contour iso lines for generation of the orientation distribution function (ODF), with easy manipulation of the number of lines and colors. In the ODF graphic, with the action of the mouse cursor on any section, it is visualized the values of Euler angles (φ 1 , Φ, φ 2 ) and of the respective f(g) intensity. Concomitantly, there is 3D graphic visualization of the crystal position in relation to the rolling direction. There is the possibility of graphic visualization in 3D of any section of the ODF. It is also possible the graphic visualization of the texture fiber. This program was named Texture Analysis Program (TAP). (author)

  15. Serpentinization of mantle-derived peridotites at mid-ocean ridges: Mesh texture development in the context of tectonic exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouméjon, Stéphane; Cannat, Mathilde

    2014-06-01

    At slow spreading ridges, axial detachment faults exhume mantle-derived peridotites and hydrothermal alteration causes serpentinization in a domain extending more than 1 km next to the fault. At the microscopic scale, serpentinization progresses from a microfracture network toward the center of olivine relicts and forms a mesh texture. We present a petrographic study (SEM, EBSD, and Raman) of the serpentine mesh texture in a set of 278 abyssal serpentinized peridotites from the Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. We show that serpentinization initiated along two intersecting sets of microfractures that have consistent orientations at the sample scale, and in at least one studied location, at the 100 m scale. We propose that these microfractures formed in fresh peridotites due to combined thermal and tectonic stresses and subsequently served as channels for serpentinizing fluids. Additional reaction-induced cracks developed for serpentinization extents <20%. The resulting microfracture network has a typical spacing of ˜60 µm but most serpentinization occurs next to a subset of these microfractures that define mesh cells 100-400 µm in size. Apparent mesh rim thickness is on average 33 ± 19 µm corresponding to serpentinization extents of 70-80%. Published laboratory experiments suggest that mesh rims formation could be completed in a few years (i.e., quasi instantaneous at the plate tectonic timescale). The depth and extent of the serpentinization domain in the detachment fault's footwall are probably variable in time and space and as a result we expect that the serpentine mesh texture at slow spreading ridges forms at variable rates with a spatially heterogeneous distribution.

  16. Study of the effect of an equi-biaxial loading on the fatigue lifetime of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradai, Soumaya

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment is essential in the design of structures. Under-estimated predictions may result in unnecessary in service inspections. Conversely, over-estimated predictions may have serious consequences on the integrity of structures.In some nuclear power plant components, the fatigue loading may be equi-biaxial because of thermal fatigue. So the potential impact of multiaxial loading on the fatigue life of components is a major concern. Meanwhile, few experimental data are available on austenitic stainless steels. It is essential to improve the fatigue assessment methodologies to take into account the potential equi-biaxial fatigue damage. Hence this requires obtaining experimental data on the considered material with a strain tensor in equi-biaxial tension. The aim of this study is to present the experimental and numerical results obtained with a device 'FABIME2' developed in the LISN in collaboration with EDF and AREVA. The association of the experimental results, obtained on the new experimental fatigue device FABIME2, with the numerical analyses obtained by FEM simulation with Cast3M code, has enabled to define the aggravating effect of the equi-biaxial fatigue loading. However, this effect is covered by the Design fatigue curve defined from the nuclear industry. For the crack propagation, a first simplified approach enables to study the kinetic behavior of crack propagation in equi-biaxial fatigue. (author) [fr

  17. High temperature growth kinetics and texture of surface-oxidised NiO for coated superconductor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursumovic, A; Tomov, R; Huehne, R; Glowacki, B A; Everts, J E; Tuissi, A; Villa, E; Holzapfel, B

    2003-03-15

    Thick NiO films were grown in air, on biaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni and as-rolled Ni tapes, at temperatures from 1050 to 1350 deg. C. Ni diffusion through the NiO film mainly contributes to the growth since is much faster than oxygen diffusion and occurs by a vacancy diffusion mechanism in the lattice at high temperatures. Parabolic growth kinetics were found for both NiO film thickness and grain growth, and compared with the literature data. Competitive growth of (1 1 1) and (0 0 1) oriented grains establishes the final NiO orientation at temperatures below 1250 deg. C, while at higher temperatures leakage diffusion at/towards grain boundaries, grain coarsening and (1 1 0) oriented grains disrupt the (1 0 0) texture. Hence, development of epitaxy of NiO on textured Ni tapes was found to be largely due to growth kinetics depending on both, time and temperature. We report here a systematic study of the microstructure and kinetics of formation of textured NiO substrate for application as a buffer layer in coated conductor technology.

  18. Fabrication of the cube textured NiO buffer layer by line-focused infrared heating for coated conductor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jun-Ki; Kim, Won-Jeong; Tak, Jinsung; Kim, Cheol Jin

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of NiO on the bi-axially textured Ni-3 at.%W (Ni-3W) substrate as seed layer for coated conductor were studied. The bi-axially textured NiO was formed on the Ni-3W tapes using a line-focused infrared heater by oxidizing the surface of the substrate at 800-950 deg. C for 15-120 s in oxygen atmosphere. The thickness of the NiO layer could be controlled by changing heat-treatment, which was estimated as approximately 200-500 nm in the cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the NiO/Ni template. This thickness is enough to block the diffusion of the Ni in the substrate to the superconducting layer. The samples showed strong texture development of NiO layer. The sample oxidized at 900 deg. C with the tape transferring speed of 30 mm/h exhibited ω-scan full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for Ni-3W(2 0 0) and NiO(2 0 0) were 3.97 deg., and 3.67 deg., and φ-scan FWHM values for Ni-3W(1 1 1) and NiO(1 1 1) were 9.58 deg., and 8.79 deg., respectively. Also, the (1 1 1) pole-figure of the NiO buffer layer showed the good symmetry of the four peaks, securing the epitaxial growth of the buffer layers on the NiO layer. Also NiO layer exhibited root-mean-square roughness value of 39 nm by AFM (10 x 10 μm) investigation

  19. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  20. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  1. Texture development in Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} MMCs produced by anodizing and ARB processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaati, Roohollah, E-mail: r.jamaatikenari@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseini, Majid [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The Rotated Cube was the major texture component for most specimens. {yields} The intensity of texture components was weak except the Rotated Cube component. {yields} The texture intensity of composite with low alumina particles was not weak. {yields} Alumina particles and also size and quantity of them are very effective on texture. - Abstract: Anodizing and accumulative roll bonding (ARB) processes were used as a new technique for manufacturing aluminum/alumina composites including various Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} quantities. Textural evolution during ARB process of composites was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effective parameters in texture evolution were the number of cycles (3, 5, 7 and 8 cycles) and alumina quantity (0.48, 1.13, 2.40 and 3.55 vol.%). The texture evolution demonstrated that the Rotated Cube was a major texture component for all specimens except for the produced composite containing 0.48 vol.% alumina after eight cycles. For subsequent composites, the dominant components were Copper and Dillamore. Also, for almost all specimens (except for the composite with 0.48 vol.% alumina), the intensity of the texture components (except for Rotated Cube) was very weak. All these results are related to the presence of the second phase particles and also size and quantity of them.

  2. Behaviour of biaxially restrained concretes under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienel, K.-Ch.; Rostasy, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Under asymmetric biaxial loading the major restraining stresses of concrete made with expanded shale or quarzite aggregates change between both loading axis. Differences between uniaxial and biaxial restraint vanish, if the restraint is normalized with respect to the ultimate strength at ambient temperature of the same stress ratio K. The type of aggregate and the mix proportions do affect the restraining stresses irrespective of the initial stress ratio K 0 . (author)

  3. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  4. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  5. Biaxial seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete columns =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hugo Filipe Pinheiro

    A analise dos efeitos dos sismos mostra que a investigacao em engenharia sismica deve dar especial atencao a avaliacao da vulnerabilidade das construcoes existentes, frequentemente desprovidas de adequada resistencia sismica tal como acontece em edificios de betao armado (BA) de muitas cidades em paises do sul da Europa, entre os quais Portugal. Sendo os pilares elementos estruturais fundamentais na resistencia sismica dos edificios, deve ser dada especial atencao a sua resposta sob acoes ciclicas. Acresce que o sismo e um tipo de acao cujos efeitos nos edificios exige a consideracao de duas componentes horizontais, o que tem exigencias mais severas nos pilares comparativamente a acao unidirecional. Assim, esta tese centra-se na avaliacao da resposta estrutural de pilares de betao armado sujeitos a acoes ciclicas horizontais biaxiais, em tres linhas principais. Em primeiro lugar desenvolveu-se uma campanha de ensaios para o estudo do comportamento ciclico uniaxial e biaxial de pilares de betao armado com esforco axial constante. Para tal foram construidas quatro series de pilares retangulares de betao armado (24 no total) com diferentes caracteristicas geometricas e quantidades de armadura longitudinal, tendo os pilares sido ensaiados para diferentes historias de carga. Os resultados experimentais obtidos sao analisados e discutidos dando particular atencao a evolucao do dano, a degradacao de rigidez e resistencia com o aumento das exigencias de deformacao, a energia dissipada, ao amortecimento viscoso equivalente; por fim e proposto um indice de dano para pilares solicitados biaxialmente. De seguida foram aplicadas diferentes estrategias de modelacao nao-linear para a representacao do comportamento biaxial dos pilares ensaiados, considerando nao-linearidade distribuida ao longo dos elementos ou concentrada nas extremidades dos mesmos. Os resultados obtidos com as varias estrategias de modelacao demonstraram representar adequadamente a resposta em termos das curvas

  6. Texture collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, T.; Sornborger, A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    We study single-texture collapse using a leapfrog discretization method on a 30x30x30 spatial lattice. We investigate the influence of boundary conditions, physical size of the lattice, type of space-time background (flat, i.e., nonexpanding, vs radiation-dominated and matter-dominated universes), and spatial distribution of the initial texture configuration on collapse time and critical winding. For a spherically symmetric initial configuration of size equal to the horizon size on a lattice containing 12 (30) horizon volumes, the critical winding is found to be 0.621±0.001 (0.602±0.003) (flat case), 0.624±0.002 (0.604±0.005) (radiation era), 0.628±0.002 (0.612±0.003) (matter era). The larger the physical size of the lattice (in units of the horizon size), the smaller is the critical winding, and in the limit of an infinite lattice, we argue that the critical winding approaches 0.5. For radially asymmetric cases, contraction of one axis ( /Ipancake case) slightly reduces collapse time and critical winding, and contraction of two axes (d/Icigar case) reduces collapse time and critical winding significantly

  7. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  8. Development of postcompressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagbani, Turki; Nazzal, Sami

    2018-02-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0 to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single-bite (knife) and a two-bite tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single-bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two-bite test where CUR loading was found to have a nonlinear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum-like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. There is a growing interest in utilizing medicated chewing gums for drug delivery, especially those made using directly compressible gum bases, such as Health in gum. Directly compressing a gum base with high amounts of solid drug powder, however, poses a challenge as it may result in compressed compacts with hybrid properties between a chewing gum and a hard tablet. Currently, official Pharmacopeias do not specify a testing procedure for the estimation of the mechanical and textural properties of

  9. Study on the formation of cubic texture in Ni-7 at.% W alloy substrates by powder metallurgy routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, HongLi; Zhu, YongHua

    2009-01-01

    One of the main challenges for coated conductor applications is to produce sharp cubic textured alloy substrates with high strength and low magnetism. In this work, the cubic textured Ni–7 at.% W substrates were prepared from different powder metallurgy ingots by rolling-assisted biaxially textured...... substrate processing. The fabrication processes of cubic texture in the Ni–7 at.% W tapes by two powder metallurgy routes are described in detail. Through the optimized process, full width at half maximum values of 6.7° and 5.0° were obtained, as estimated by X-ray (1 1 1) phi scan and (2 0 0) rocking curve...

  10. Effects of repeated biaxial loads on the creep properties of cardinal ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Dwomoh, Adwoa; De Vita, Raffaella

    2017-10-01

    the two axial loading directions. These findings indicated that the increase in strain over time by the end of the 3rd creep test were comparable along these directions. The greatest mean normalized strain (or, equivalently, the largest increase in strain over time) was measured at the end of the 1st creep test (t=1200s), regardless of the equi-biaxial load magnitude or loading direction. Mean normalized strains during the 2nd and 3rd creep tests (t = 100, 600, and 1200s), along each loading direction, were not statistically different. Isochronal data collected at 1N, 2N, or 3N equi-biaxial loads indicated that the CL may be a nonlinear viscoelastic material. Overall, this experimental study offers new knowledge of the mechanical properties of the CL that can guide the development of better treatment methods such as surgical reconstruction for pelvic organ prolapse and radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Our basic aim with the present review is to address the classical problem of the “fcc rolling texture transition” – the fact that fcc materials may, depending on material parameters and rolling conditions, develop two different types of rolling textures, the copper-type texture and the brass...... the subject and sketch our approach for dealing with it. We then recapitulate the decisive progress made during the nineteen sixties in the empirical description of the fcc rolling texture transition and in lining up a number of possible explanations. Then follows a section about experimental investigations...... of the brass-type texture after the nineteen sixties covering texture measurements and microstructural investigations. The main observations are: (1) The brass-type texture deviates from the copper-type texture from an early stage of texture development. (2) Deformation twinning has a decisive effect...

  12. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  13. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  14. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang

    2014-12-04

    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis quality can be affected adversely if the texture elements in an example display spatially varied patterns, such as perspective distortion, the composition of different sub-textures, and variations in global color pattern as a result of complex illumination. This issue is common in natural textures and is a fundamental challenge for previously developed methods. Thus, we address it from a feature point of view and propose a feature-aware approach to synthesize natural textures. The synthesis process is guided by a feature map that represents the visual characteristics of the input texture. Moreover, we present a novel adaptive initialization algorithm that can effectively avoid the repeat and verbatim copying artifacts. Our approach improves texture synthesis in many images that cannot be handled effectively with traditional technologies.

  15. Meso-Scale Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of 3D Braided Composites Subjected to Biaxial Tension Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Curiel-Sosa, Jose L.; Bui, Tinh Quoc

    2018-04-01

    In many engineering applications, 3D braided composites are designed for primary loading-bearing structures, and they are frequently subjected to multi-axial loading conditions during service. In this paper, a unit-cell based finite element model is developed for assessment of mechanical behavior of 3D braided composites under different biaxial tension loadings. To predict the damage initiation and evolution of braiding yarns and matrix in the unit-cell, we thus propose an anisotropic damage model based on Murakami damage theory in conjunction with Hashin failure criteria and maximum stress criteria. To attain exact stress ratio, force loading mode of periodic boundary conditions which never been attempted before is first executed to the unit-cell model to apply the biaxial tension loadings. The biaxial mechanical behaviors, such as the stress distribution, tensile modulus and tensile strength are analyzed and discussed. The damage development of 3D braided composites under typical biaxial tension loadings is simulated and the damage mechanisms are revealed in the simulation process. The present study generally provides a new reference to the meso-scale finite element analysis (FEA) of multi-axial mechanical behavior of other textile composites.

  16. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3-4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0-7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world.

  17. Biaxial failure criteria and stress-strain response for concrete of containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Woo, S. K.; Song, Y. C.; Kweon, Y. K.; Cho, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    Biaxial failure criteria and stress-strain response for plain concrete of containment structure on nuclear power plants are studied under uniaxial and biaxial stress(compression-compression, compression-tension, and tension-tension combined stress). The concrete specimens of a square plate type are used for uniaxial and biaxial loading. The experimental data indicate that the strength of concrete under biaxial compression, f 2 /f 1 =-1/-1, is 17 percent larger than under uniaxial compression and the poisson's ratio of concrete is 0.1745. On the base of the results, a biaxial failure envelope for plain concrete that the uniaxial strength is 5660 psi are provided, and the biaxial failure behaviors for three biaxial loading areas are plotted respectively. And, various analytical equations having the reliability are proposed for representations of the biaxial failure criteria and stress-strain response curves of concrete

  18. Texture development study during the primary recrystallization of ferritic steels by using X ray and electron backscattering diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    X ray and electron backscattering diffraction, in distinct levels, were applied to evaluate microstructural changes in two low carbon ferritic steels (2 per cent Si and ABNT 1006), observing the texture development in cold lamination step (skin-pass) and in the subsequent annealing at 760 deg C. In these two steels, results showed that after the skin-pass and annealing in the conditions of the present work, the observed phenomenon is the primary recrystallization. By applying skin-pass dislocations were introduced mostly in low Taylor factor grains as they are prone to be more deformed. Nucleation and grain growth were observed in high density dislocation cell regions. Silicon presence delayed the recovery favoring the sub-boundaries increase. It was not observed the abnormal grain growth, even in the presence of Gross grains. CSL boundaries did not guarantee the grains growth. Growing nuclei gave rise to grains with distinct orientations, showing that the grain growth was not dependent on the previous presence of grains with the developed orientation. This fact demonstrates that the abnormal grain growth is not necessarily related to the Gross grains. (author)

  19. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, S; Van Roij, R; Dijkstra, M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)

  20. Failure of composite plates under static biaxial planar loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waas, Anthony M.; Khamseh, Amir R.

    1992-01-01

    The project involved detailed investigations into the failure mechanisms in composite plates as a function of hole size (holes centrally located in the plates) under static loading. There were two phases to the project, the first dealing with uniaxial loads along the fiber direction, and the second dealing with coplanar biaxial loading. Results for the uniaxial tests have been reported and published previously, thus this report will place emphasis on the second phase of the project, namely the biaxial tests. The composite plates used in the biaxial loading experiments, as well as the uniaxial, were composed of a single ply unidirectional graphite/epoxy prepreg sandwiched between two layers of transparent thermoplastic. This setup enabled us to examine the failure initiation and propagation modes nondestructively, during the test. Currently, similar tests and analysis of results are in progress for graphite/epoxy cruciform shaped flat laminates. The results obtained from these tests will be available at a later time.

  1. Biaxial deformation behaviour of poly-ether-ether-ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Josh; Menary, Gary; Martin, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The biaxial tensile properties of thin poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) films are presented. Investigation into the biaxial mechanical behaviour of PEEK films will provide a preliminary insight into the anticipated stress/strain response, and potential suitability, to the possible fabrication of thin walled parts through stretch blow moulding and thermoforming processes - with the multi-axial state of strain imposed onto the heated thermoplastic sheet representative of the expected strain history experienced during these material forming processes. Following identification of the prospective forming temperature window, the biaxial mechanical behaviour of the material is characterized under differing modes of deformation, at a nominal strain rate of 1 s-1. The temperature dependence is outlined within - with an appreciable increase in flow behaviour correlated with specimen temperature exceeding its glass transition temperature (Tg).

  2. Modeling of biaxial gimbal-less MEMS scanning mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wantoch, Thomas; Gu-Stoppel, Shanshan; Senger, Frank; Mallas, Christian; Hofmann, Ulrich; Meurer, Thomas; Benecke, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    One- and two-dimensional MEMS scanning mirrors for resonant or quasi-stationary beam deflection are primarily known as tiny micromirror devices with aperture sizes up to a few Millimeters and usually address low power applications in high volume markets, e.g. laser beam scanning pico-projectors or gesture recognition systems. In contrast, recently reported vacuum packaged MEMS scanners feature mirror diameters up to 20 mm and integrated high-reflectivity dielectric coatings. These mirrors enable MEMS based scanning for applications that require large apertures due to optical constraints like 3D sensing or microscopy as well as for high power laser applications like laser phosphor displays, automotive lighting and displays, 3D printing and general laser material processing. This work presents modelling, control design and experimental characterization of gimbal-less MEMS mirrors with large aperture size. As an example a resonant biaxial Quadpod scanner with 7 mm mirror diameter and four integrated PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuators is analyzed. The finite element method (FEM) model developed and computed in COMSOL Multiphysics is used for calculating the eigenmodes of the mirror as well as for extracting a high order (n system inputs and scanner displacement as system output. By applying model order reduction techniques using MATLABR a compact state space system approximation of order n = 6 is computed. Based on this reduced order model feedforward control inputs for different, properly chosen scanner displacement trajectories are derived and tested using the original FEM model as well as the micromirror.

  3. GERMINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRACHIARIA SEEDLING IN TEXTURES OF SOIL AND SOWING DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Castaldo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture expansion at Brazil is turning to lower clay index soils and consequently, less organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. To overcome those deficiencies, an intense organic matter addition in these soils may be a solution, and this solution is positive when using a crop-livestock integration with corn-pasture dual crop planted on winter. However, to establish this dual-crop system, there is a need to study the behavior of seeds and seedlings of Brachiaria ruziziensis sown in greater depths than normally recommended. Thus, this work aimed to determine the best depth of sowing B. ruziziensis in sandy and loamy soils of Umuarama region, studying the germination and early development of seedlings. The work was held in pots of 12 cm diameter x 12 cm deep, filled with 2 types of soil, a sandy and clay ones with 30 B. ruziziensis seeds sown each pot in five sowing depths: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm. After 16 days, the number of emerged seedlings was evaluated to set up the germination rate of each treatment, after that, the plants where leveled to 4 each pot, those were cultivated for another 45 days to evaluate the fresh and dried masses of plants and roots, the height of the plants and average length of roots. The sowing depth with higher percentage of germination estimated was 2.65 cm to sandy and 3.02 cm to clay soil. At seedlings development, there was a standard, with better development seedling at lower sowing depths on clay soil and better developments at higher sowing depths in sandy soil.

  4. Facile approach in the development of icephobic hierarchically textured coatings as corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail: gmomen@uqac.ca; Farzaneh, M.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic coating is developed via a simple environmental-friendly method. • This coating can be used on the surface of various metals such as copper, magnesium. • The superhydrophobic aluminum surface showed the excellent corrosion resistance. • The fabricated surface revealed a drastically reduction of ice adhesion strength. • Such surfaces can advantageously be used in cold climate regions. - Abstract: An anti-corrosion superhydrophobic film with water contact angle greater than 160° on aluminum alloy 6061 substrate was fabricated simply through the spin-coating method applied to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles doped in silicone rubber solution. The as-obtained sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle/surface energy measurement. The corrosion behaviour of such coating in the NaCl solutions was investigated using the potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the developed superhydrophobic surface is improved greatly due to the composite wetting states or interfaces with numerous air pockets between its surface and the NaCl solution. This superhydrophobic coating could serve as an effective barrier against aggressive medium. Ice adhesion strength of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coating was also evaluated by measuring its ice adhesion force which was found to have reduced by 4.8 times compared to that of aluminum substrate as reference test.

  5. Microstructure, texture and colour development during crust formation on whole muscle chicken fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S

    2013-01-01

    1. The development of crust during a 22-min period was evaluated in an oven, and in previously cooked-in-bag products (no crust) placed in an oven for 10 min. The oven-roasted products started to develop a thin (2-4 μm) crust layer after 4 min. At that point, the colour of the fillets turned white but no browning was observed. As roasting time increased, crust thickness and shear force increased, the product turned brown and eventually black at certain spots. 2. Light microscopy revealed the shrinking of muscle fibres close to the surface, as they also lost water. At a certain point, tears between the different layers started to appear. The inner muscle fibres also progressively shrank and the spaces between them increased. Microscopy of cook-in-bag products revealed no crust formation during heating. Upon moving to the oven, crust started to form but was much faster compared with the other products. 3. Cook-in-the-bag samples showed a higher rate of cook loss during the first 12 min (to internal 70°C) compared with oven heating. This could have been due to the fast heating rate in water and/or no crust formation. 4. White colour was fully formed on water-cooked fillets within 2 min (L* = 83), while it was gradually forming on oven-roasted samples (max L* of 79 after 12 min). 5. Shear force measurements showed an increase in both treatments up to 18 min, with a decrease thereafter (when dry crust started to crack).

  6. Texture development and strain hysteresis in a NiTi shape-memory alloy during thermal cycling under load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, B.; Majumdar, B.S.; Dutta, I.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal cycling experiments were conducted on a NiTi shape-memory alloy at different constant applied stresses below the yield strength of the martensite. The mechanical strain response manifested as strain hysteresis loops, whose range was proportional to the applied stress. In situ neutron diffraction experiments show that the strain hysteresis occurs as a result of the establishment of a stress-dependent crystallographic texture of the martensite during the first cool-down from austenite, and thereafter repeated during thermal cycling under the same load. This texture is found to depend on the stress during the thermal cycling experiments. A strain-pole map is derived and shown to explain the observed texture during thermal cycling. The strain-pole methodology is shown to work with similar martensitic transformations in other material systems.

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Texture Development in a Cu-8.5%AT. AL Material Subjected to Hydrostatic Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowska D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate microstructure and texture evolution of two single crystals and polycrystal of Cu-8.5%at.Al material. All of mentioned samples were deformed by HE to achieve true strain ε = 1.17. For microstructure analyzes observations by transmission electron microscope (STEM were done. Crystalline size for samples after SPD were determine using XRD method. The global texture measurements were done using Bruker D8 Discover diffractometer equipped in Cr radiation. Microstructure investigations revealed nanocrystalline structure in single crystals with initial orientations and and polycrystalline Cu-8.5%at.Al material after SPD. The global texture measurements have shown the stability of initial orientation of Cu-8.5%at.Al single crystal after HE, whereas the same SPD process strongly brakes up the orientation Cu-8.5%at. Al single crystal.

  8. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture......" and the "brass-type texture." The type of texture developed is determined by the stacking fault energy of the material, the rolling temperature and the strain rate of the rolling process. Recent texture simulations by the present authors provide the basis for a renewed discussion of the whole field of fcc......} slip without or with deformation twinning, but we also consider slip on other slip planes and slip by partial dislocations. We consistently make quantitative comparison of the simulation results and the experimental textures by means of a scalar correlation factor. We find that the development...

  9. SU-E-J-251: Incorporation of Pre-Therapy 18F-FDG Uptake with CT Texture Features in a Predictive Model for Radiation Pneumonitis Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, G; Cunliffe, A; Armato, S; Al-Hallaq, H; Castillo, R; Pham, N; Guerrero, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of standardized uptake value (SUV) statistical variables to CT lung texture features can improve a predictive model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) development in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: Anonymized data from 96 esophageal cancer patients (18 RP-positive cases of Grade ≥ 2) were retrospectively collected including pre-therapy PET/CT scans, pre-/posttherapy diagnostic CT scans and RP status. Twenty texture features (firstorder, fractal, Laws’ filter and gray-level co-occurrence matrix) were calculated from diagnostic CT scans and compared in anatomically matched regions of the lung. The mean, maximum, standard deviation, and 50th–95th percentiles of the SUV values for all lung voxels in the corresponding PET scans were acquired. For each texture feature, a logistic regression-based classifier consisting of (1) the average change in that texture feature value between the pre- and post-therapy CT scans and (2) the pre-therapy SUV standard deviation (SUV SD ) was created. The RP-classification performance of each logistic regression model was compared to the performance of its texture feature alone by computing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). T-tests were performed to determine whether the mean AUC across texture features changed significantly when SUV SD was added to the classifier. Results: The AUC for single-texturefeature classifiers ranged from 0.58–0.81 in high-dose (≥ 30 Gy) regions of the lungs and from 0.53–0.71 in low-dose (< 10 Gy) regions. Adding SUVSD in a logistic regression model using a 50/50 data partition for training and testing significantly increased the mean AUC by 0.08, 0.06 and 0.04 in the low-, medium- and high-dose regions, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of SUVSD from a pre-therapy PET scan to a single CT-based texture feature improves RP-classification performance on average. These findings demonstrate the potential for more

  10. SU-E-J-251: Incorporation of Pre-Therapy 18F-FDG Uptake with CT Texture Features in a Predictive Model for Radiation Pneumonitis Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, G; Cunliffe, A; Armato, S; Al-Hallaq, H [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Castillo, R [Univ Texas Medical Branch of Galveston, Pearland, TX (United States); Pham, N [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Guerrero, T [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of standardized uptake value (SUV) statistical variables to CT lung texture features can improve a predictive model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) development in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: Anonymized data from 96 esophageal cancer patients (18 RP-positive cases of Grade ≥ 2) were retrospectively collected including pre-therapy PET/CT scans, pre-/posttherapy diagnostic CT scans and RP status. Twenty texture features (firstorder, fractal, Laws’ filter and gray-level co-occurrence matrix) were calculated from diagnostic CT scans and compared in anatomically matched regions of the lung. The mean, maximum, standard deviation, and 50th–95th percentiles of the SUV values for all lung voxels in the corresponding PET scans were acquired. For each texture feature, a logistic regression-based classifier consisting of (1) the average change in that texture feature value between the pre- and post-therapy CT scans and (2) the pre-therapy SUV standard deviation (SUV{sub SD}) was created. The RP-classification performance of each logistic regression model was compared to the performance of its texture feature alone by computing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). T-tests were performed to determine whether the mean AUC across texture features changed significantly when SUV{sub SD} was added to the classifier. Results: The AUC for single-texturefeature classifiers ranged from 0.58–0.81 in high-dose (≥ 30 Gy) regions of the lungs and from 0.53–0.71 in low-dose (< 10 Gy) regions. Adding SUVSD in a logistic regression model using a 50/50 data partition for training and testing significantly increased the mean AUC by 0.08, 0.06 and 0.04 in the low-, medium- and high-dose regions, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of SUVSD from a pre-therapy PET scan to a single CT-based texture feature improves RP-classification performance on average. These findings demonstrate the potential for

  11. Structural and electrical characteristics of highly textured oxidation-free Ru thin films by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.-Y.; Wang Yu; Chan, H.-L-W.; Choy, C.-L.; No, K.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Textured Ru thin films (∼120 nm) were deposited on Si and rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering technique with a two-step process. The biaxially textured pure Ni substrates with a thickness of 80 μm were fabricated by rolling followed by recrystallization. The alignments and the crystallinity of Ru films were analyzed by pole figures, as well as X-ray diffraction (θ - 2θ) analysis. The highly (0 0 2) oriented Ru films were fabricated on Si substrates, and four-fold symmetric Ru films on Ni(2 0 0) substrates. The resistivities of pure metallic Ru films were 20-80 μΩ cm for Ru on Si and 16-40 μΩ cm on Ni, respectively, which is sufficiently low to be used as a buffer layer in superconductor tapes or electrode materials in capacitor dielectrics

  12. Characterization Of Biaxial Strain Of Poly(L-Lactide) Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in its L-form has promising mechanical properties. Being a semi-crystalline polymer, it can be subjected to strain-induced crystallization at temperatures above Tg and can thereby become oriented. Following a simultaneous (SIM) biaxial strain process or a sequential (SEQ...

  13. Anomalously temperature-independent birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechin, Sergei G; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Pryalkin, Vladimir I

    2000-01-01

    Temperature-independent birefringence in a biaxial crystal was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for the first time. The width of the plot against temperature (the range corresponding to the temperature independence of the birefringence) at a fundamental radiation wavelength of 632.8 nm in a KTP crystal 5.9 mm long was more than 160 0 C. (letters to the editor)

  14. Biaxial charts for rectangular reinforced columns in accordance with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linearity arising from the non-linear stress-strain relationships and the cracking of the cross-section. · As a result, the systematic production of biaxial design charts necessitates the application of numerical methods that are based on iterations.

  15. Biaxial potential of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznacheev, Anatoly; Pozhidaev, Evgeny; Rudyak, Vladimir; Emelyanenko, Alexander V.; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2018-04-01

    A biaxial surface potential Φs of smectic-C* surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals (SSFLCs) is introduced in this paper to explain the experimentally observed electric-field dependence of polarization P˜cell(E ) , in particular the shape of the static hysteresis loops. Our potential consists of three independent parts. The first nonpolar part Φn describes the deviation of the prime director n (which is the most probable orientation of the long molecular axes) from the easy alignment axis R , which is located in the boundary surface plane. It is introduced in the same manner as the uniaxial Rapini potential. The second part Φp of the potential is a polar term associated with the presence of the polar axis in a FLC. The third part Φm relates to the inherent FLC biaxiality, which has not been taken into consideration previously. The Φm part takes into account the deviations of the secondary director m (which is the most probable orientation of the short molecular axes) from the normal to the boundary surface. The overall surface potential Φs, which is a sum of Φn,Φp , and Φm, allows one to model the conditions when either one, two, or three minima of the SSFLC cell free energy are realized depending on the biaxiality extent. A monodomain or polydomain structure, as well as the bistability or monostability of SSFLC cells, depends on the number of free-energy minima, as confirmed experimentally. In this paper, we analyze the biaxiality impact on the FLC alignment. We also answer the question of whether the bistable or monostable structure can be formed in an SSFLC cell. Our approach is essentially based on a consideration of the biaxial surface potential, while the uniaxial surface potential cannot adequately describe the experimental observations in the FLC.

  16. Development and validation of a prognostic model incorporating texture analysis derived from standardised segmentation of PET in patients with oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Kieran G. [Cardiff University, Division of Cancer and Genetics, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hills, Robert K. [Cardiff University, Haematology Clinical Trials Unit, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Berthon, Beatrice; Marshall, Christopher [Wales Research and Diagnostic PET Imaging Centre, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Parkinson, Craig; Spezi, Emiliano [Cardiff University, School of Engineering, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Lewis, Wyn G. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Upper GI Surgery, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Crosby, Tom D.L. [Department of Oncology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Roberts, Stuart Ashley [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Clinical Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    This retrospective cohort study developed a prognostic model incorporating PET texture analysis in patients with oesophageal cancer (OC). Internal validation of the model was performed. Consecutive OC patients (n = 403) were chronologically separated into development (n = 302, September 2010-September 2014, median age = 67.0, males = 227, adenocarcinomas = 237) and validation cohorts (n = 101, September 2014-July 2015, median age = 69.0, males = 78, adenocarcinomas = 79). Texture metrics were obtained using a machine-learning algorithm for automatic PET segmentation. A Cox regression model including age, radiological stage, treatment and 16 texture metrics was developed. Patients were stratified into quartiles according to a prognostic score derived from the model. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Six variables were significantly and independently associated with OS: age [HR =1.02 (95% CI 1.01-1.04), p < 0.001], radiological stage [1.49 (1.20-1.84), p < 0.001], treatment [0.34 (0.24-0.47), p < 0.001], log(TLG) [5.74 (1.44-22.83), p = 0.013], log(Histogram Energy) [0.27 (0.10-0.74), p = 0.011] and Histogram Kurtosis [1.22 (1.04-1.44), p = 0.017]. The prognostic score demonstrated significant differences in OS between quartiles in both the development (X{sup 2} 143.14, df 3, p < 0.001) and validation cohorts (X{sup 2} 20.621, df 3, p < 0.001). This prognostic model can risk stratify patients and demonstrates the additional benefit of PET texture analysis in OC staging. (orig.)

  17. Some distinguishing characteristics of contour and texture phenomena in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of generalized contour/texture discrimination techniques is a central element necessary for machine vision recognition and interpretation of arbitrary images. Here, the visual perception of texture, selected studies of texture analysis in machine vision, and diverse small samples of contour and texture are all used to provide insights into the fundamental characteristics of contour and texture. From these, an experimental discrimination scheme is developed and tested on a battery of natural images. The visual perception of texture defined fine texture as a subclass which is interpreted as shading and is distinct from coarse figural similarity textures. Also, perception defined the smallest scale for contour/texture discrimination as eight to nine visual acuity units. Three contour/texture discrimination parameters were found to be moderately successful for this scale discrimination: (1) lightness change in a blurred version of the image, (2) change in lightness change in the original image, and (3) percent change in edge counts relative to local maximum.

  18. Ion beam texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture was created by sputter-etching a surface while simultaneously sputter-depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion-beam source was used to perform the texturing process on samples as large as 3-cm diameter. Textured surfaces have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, stainless steel, Au, and Ag. A number of texturing parameters are studied including the variation of texture with ion-beam powder, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  19. Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pebble beds of ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future fusion power plants. A thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds is mandatory for understanding the behaviour of pebble beds, and thus the overall blanket, under fusion environment conditions. The mechanical behaviour of pebble beds is typically explored with uni-axial, bi-axial and tri-axial compression experiments. The latter two types of experiment are particularly revealing since they contain explicitly, beyond a compression behaviour of the bed, information on the conditions for pebble flow, i.e. macroscopic relocation, in the pebble bed. (orig.)

  20. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Crack-tip constraint is an issue that significantly impacts fracture mechanics technologies employed in safety assessment procedures for commercially licensed nuclear RPVs. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of two stressed-based methodologies for quantifying crack-tip constraint (i.e., J-Q theory and a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes) through applications to experimental and fractographic data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Results from applications indicate that both the J-Q methodology and the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Fractographic data taken from the fracture surfaces of the SENB and cruciform specimens are used to assess the relevance of stress-based fracture characterizations to conditions at cleavage initiation sites. Unresolved issues identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 142

  1. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  2. Transformations in destination texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    This article takes heterogeographical approaches to understand Bollywood-induced destination transformations in Switzerland. Positioned within the theoretical field of mediatized mobility, the study contextualizes Bollywood-induced tourism in Europe the concept of texture. Textural analysis (base...

  3. Hot working mechanisms and texture development in Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmendra, C.; Rao, K.P.; Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U.

    2012-01-01

    Hot deformation mechanisms in Mg-3Sn-2Ca (TX32) alloy containing 0.4% Al are evaluated in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 300–500 °C and 0.0003–10 s −1 using processing map and kinetic analysis. The evolution of microstructure and texture during high temperature compression of the alloy has been studied using an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The processing map for hot working revealed two domains of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurring in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1) 300–360 °C and 0.0003–0.001 s −1 and (2) 400–500 °C and 0.005–0.7 s −1 , which are the two safe hot workability windows for this alloy. A regime of flow instability occurs at higher strain rates and lower temperatures where adiabatic shear banding and flow localization are the microstructural manifestations. The onset of DRX during compression at lower temperatures and strain rates (Domain 1) resulted in a fine, partially recrystallized and necklaced grain microstructure along with a texture where the basal poles are spread along 30° from the compression direction. Specimens deformed at temperatures higher than 450 °C (Domain 2) resulted in a fully recrystallized microstructure and an almost random crystallographic texture, which was attributed to the significant occurrence of pyramidal slip and associated cross-slip. -- Highlights: ► Processing map revealed two DRX domains for hot working of Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy. ► The alloy exhibited flow instability at lower temperatures and higher strain rates. ► Activation energy values for deformation are high due to the back stress. ► Basal poles spread around 30° to the compression axis for Domain 1 peak condition. ► Texture got randomized at high temperature and strain rate conditions in Domain 2.

  4. Evaluation of anisotropic effective stress-strain criteria for the biaxial yield and flow of 2024 aluminum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, M.G.; Hecker, S.S.; Bourcier, R.

    1983-01-01

    2024 aluminum tubes, heat treated to a T6 and T8 temper, were tested in combinations of tension-internal pressure and tension-torsion loading. Yield loci and flow behavior were determined for both modes of loading and compared to theoretical predictions. Both tempers of 2024 aluminum exhibited crystallographic textures and anisotropic yield and flow. Hill's quadratic yield criterion and the associated flow rule under-estimate balanced biaxial yield and flow, which is consistent with hydraulic bulge data on other face-centered cubic metals. Hill's nonquadratic criterion, which adds one additional parameter, and Bassani's criterion, which adds two parameters, predict the anisotropic yield behavior much more accurately. Predictions of the complete flow behavior, including strain paths, with these anisotropic criteria could be improved markedly by including provisions for planar anisotropy

  5. Self-field ac losses in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tape conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Y.; Hosaka, M.; Sadakata, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kohno, O.; Takeda, K.

    1997-01-01

    Self-field ac losses were measured by the conventional ac four-probe method in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tapes using polycrystalline Hastelloy tapes with textured yttria-stabilized-zirconia buffer layers. The ac losses increased in proportion to the fourth power of transport current in the high J c sample, and agreed well with Norris close-quote equation for thin strip conductors. However, the low J c sample had rather higher losses than Norris close-quote prediction, suggesting excessive magnetic flux penetration caused by percolated current paths. The results confirmed Norris close-quote prediction of the low ac losses for thin strip conductors, and indicated the importance of removing percolated structures of current paths to avoid higher ac losses than the theoretical predictions based on uniform conductors. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Limit load assessment of centre cracked plates under biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fitness-for-service of equipment and components containing defects is generally assessed using procedures such as BS 7910, API 579 and R6. There is currently little detailed advice in these procedures on the effects of biaxial and triaxial loading on fracture. This poster shows some theoretical bounding solutions of the plastic limit load for centre cracked plates under a variety of biaxial loading ratios and compares the estimates with those found by numerical methods using finite element (FE) analysis using Abacus CAE modelling software. The limit load of a structure is the maximum load that it can carry before plastic collapse occurs; this is often when the plastic zone has become large enough to spread from the crack tip to a remote boundary. For an elastic-perfectly plastic material, the irreversible deformation will continue at stresses no higher than the yield stress. The model for these limit load solutions is a bi-axially loaded plate of width 2W and height 2H, a centre crack of width 2a, acted on by remotely applied uniform stresses σ 2 perpendicular to the crack and Bσ 2 parallel to the crack, where B is the biaxial loading ratio, it means the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular stress. A quarter plate of an elastic-perfectly plastic material has been modelled. The results show that an exact solution has been found for negative and low positive values of B. For B > 1, the lower bound solution is conservative for all values of a/W and B

  7. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  8. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures....... In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model...

  9. TEXTURAL DESCRIPTORS FOR MULTIPHASIC ORE PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez-Barnuevo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of mineral processing circuits by means of particle liberation analysis through quantitative image analysis has become a routine technique within the last decades. Usually, liberation indices are computed as weight proportions, which is not informative enough when complex texture ores are treated by flotation. In these cases, liberation has to be computed as phase surface exposed to reactants, and textural relationships between minerals have to be characterized to determine the possibility of increasing exposure. In this paper, some indices to achieve a complete texture characterization have been developed in terms of 2D phase contact and mineral surfaces exposure. Indices suggested by other authors are also compared. The response of this set of parameters against textural changes has been explored on simple synthetic textures ranging from single to multiple inclusions and single to multiple veins and their ability to discriminate between different textural features is analyzed over real mineral particles with known internal structure.

  10. Active control of residual tool marks for freeform optics functionalization by novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Zhang, Shaojian

    2015-09-01

    The inherent residual tool marks (RTM) with particular patterns highly affect optical functions of the generated freeform optics in fast tool servo or slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning. In the present study, a novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting (BSFC) method is developed for flexible control of the RTM to be a functional micro/nanotexture in freeform optics generation, which is generally hard to achieve in FTS/STS diamond turning. In the BSFC system, biaxial servo motions along the z-axis and side-feeding directions are mainly adopted for primary surface generation and RTM control, respectively. Active control of the RTM from the two aspects, namely, undesired effect elimination or effective functionalization, are experimentally demonstrated by fabricating a typical F-theta freeform surface with scattering homogenization and two functional microstructures with imposition of secondary phase gratings integrating both reflective and diffractive functions.

  11. Hot working mechanisms and texture development in Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmendra, C. [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Rao, K.P., E-mail: mekprao@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Prasad, Y.V.R.K. [Processingmaps.com (formerly at City University of Hong Kong) (Hong Kong); Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Magnesium Innovation Centre, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, Geesthact 21502 (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Hot deformation mechanisms in Mg-3Sn-2Ca (TX32) alloy containing 0.4% Al are evaluated in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 300-500 Degree-Sign C and 0.0003-10 s{sup -1} using processing map and kinetic analysis. The evolution of microstructure and texture during high temperature compression of the alloy has been studied using an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The processing map for hot working revealed two domains of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurring in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1) 300-360 Degree-Sign C and 0.0003-0.001 s{sup -1} and (2) 400-500 Degree-Sign C and 0.005-0.7 s{sup -1}, which are the two safe hot workability windows for this alloy. A regime of flow instability occurs at higher strain rates and lower temperatures where adiabatic shear banding and flow localization are the microstructural manifestations. The onset of DRX during compression at lower temperatures and strain rates (Domain 1) resulted in a fine, partially recrystallized and necklaced grain microstructure along with a texture where the basal poles are spread along 30 Degree-Sign from the compression direction. Specimens deformed at temperatures higher than 450 Degree-Sign C (Domain 2) resulted in a fully recrystallized microstructure and an almost random crystallographic texture, which was attributed to the significant occurrence of pyramidal slip and associated cross-slip. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing map revealed two DRX domains for hot working of Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy exhibited flow instability at lower temperatures and higher strain rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energy values for deformation are high due to the back stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basal poles spread around 30 Degree-Sign to the compression axis for Domain 1 peak condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture got randomized at high temperature and strain rate conditions in

  12. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  13. Analysis and experimental validation of through-thickness cracked large-scale biaxial fracture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, C.S.; Goldthorpe, M.R.; Andrews, R.M.; Garwood, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1984 TWI has been involved in an extensive series of tests investigating the effects of biaxial loading on the fracture behaviour of A533B steel. Testing conditions have ranged from the lower to upper shelf regions of the transition curve and covered a range of biaxiality ratios. In an attempt to elucidate the trends underlying the experimental results, finite element-based mechanistic models were used to analyse the effects of biaxial loading. For ductile fracture, a modified Gunson model was used and important effects on tearing behaviour were found for through thickness cracked wide plates, as observed in upper shelf tests. For cleavage fracture, both simple T-stress methods and the Anderson-Dodds and Beremin models were used. Whilst the effect of biaxiality on surface cracked plates was small, a marked effect of biaxial loading was found for the through-thickness crack. To further validate the numerical predictions for cleavage fracture, TWI have performed an additional series of lower shelf through thickness cracked biaxial wide plate fracture tests. These tests were performed using various biaxiality loading conditions varying from simple uniaxial loading, through equibiaxial loading, to a biaxiality ratio equivalent to a circumferential crack in a pressure vessel. These tests confirmed the predictions that there is a significant effect of biaxial loading on cleavage fracture of through thickness cracked plate. (orig.)

  14. Development of microstructure and texture in Fe–26Mn–3Si–3Al alloy during cold-rolling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Ratuszek, Wiktoria; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Zielińska-Lipiec, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report evolution of microstructure and texture in the Fe–26Mn–3Si–3Al alloy during cold-rolling and annealing. • Mechanical twinning and martensitic transformation (γ → ε and γ → ε → α′) had occurred during cold-rolling. • The crystallographic relations between austenite γ and martensite ε have been ascertained. • During annealing the reverse martensite to austenite transformation occurred. - Abstract: Fe–26 wt.% Mn–3 wt.% Si–3 wt.% Al alloy was cast, forged, hot-rolled at temperatures between 1200 °C and 900 °C and cold-rolled with 5–66% reductions in thickness. The specimens which were cold-rolled 57% were annealed in the temperature range 500–750 °C. Microstructure and texture of this alloy, which has a low stacking fault energy, were evaluated after cold-rolling and after subsequent annealing, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that mechanical twinning and martensitic transformations (γ → ε and γ → ε → α′) took place during cold-rolling. The crystallographic Burgers relations {0 0 0 1}ε || {1 1 1}γ and 〈1 1 2 0〉ε || 〈1 1 0〉γ between martensite (ε) and austenite (γ), were found in the cold-rolled material. During annealing the reverse martensite to austenite transformation occurred

  15. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  16. Dilatometry study of textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofrenovic, R.; Lazarevic, Dj.

    1965-01-01

    Presence of textures in the metal uranium fuel is harmful because of anisotropy properties of uranium during thermal treatment, and especially during irradiation. Anisotropic radiation swelling of uranium can cause deformation of fuel element due to existence of textures. The objective of this work was studying of the influence of phase transformations on textures in uranium which has undergone plastic deformation due to rotational casting. Dilatometry method was adopted for testing the textures. This report describes the device for dilatometry testing and the measured preliminary results are shown

  17. Texture memory and strain-texture mapping in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, B.; Majumdar, B. S.; Dutta, I.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on the near-reversible strain hysteresis during thermal cycling of a polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy at a constant stress that is below the yield strength of the martensite. In situ neutron diffraction experiments are used to demonstrate that the strain hysteresis occurs due to a texture memory effect, where the martensite develops a texture when it is cooled under load from the austenite phase and is thereafter ''remembered.'' Further, the authors quantitatively relate the texture to the strain by developing a calculated strain-texture map or pole figure for the martensite phase, and indicate its applicability in other martensitic transformations

  18. Bi-axial Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    included early dedicated portable signal averaging equipment, Nomad, CT4 and F18 fatigue test control systems and some field trials. Currently he is...and repairs to acoustically- fatigued structures. ____________________ ________________________________________________ UNCLASSIFIED...Physicists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology investigated various piezoceramic materials [20], developing lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ) in around 1952

  19. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  20. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  1. Light propagation in a magneto-optical hyperbolic biaxial crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Evgeniy V.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.

    2017-12-01

    The light propagation through a magneto-optical hyperbolic biaxial crystal is investigated. Magnetization of the structure results in splitting and reconnection of an isofrequency near the self-intersection point and thus it leads to the disappearance of conical refraction in a crystal. In its turn the isofrequency splitting leads to band gap opening and makes it possible to steer the beam. These effects allow to control the light propagation by means of an external magnetostatic field. The Poynting's vector distribution in the crystal is calculated by means of a Fourier transform in order to demonstrate the aforementioned effects.

  2. Effects of various surface treatments on the biaxial flexural properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerthesh Jain

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Air particle abrasion with CoJet Sand, LTD, and CTs had no negative impact on biaxial flexural strength indeed it increased the biaxial flexural strength. Hence, these surface treatments can be done in routine clinical practice to improve the performance of ceramic restorations.

  3. Modelization of ratcheting in biaxial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guionnet, C.

    1989-08-01

    A new unified viscoplastic constitutive equation has been developed in order to interpret ratcheting experiments on mechanical structures of fast reactors. The model is based essentially on a generalized Armstrong Frederick equation for the kinematic variable; the coefficients of the dynamic recovery term in this equation is a function of both instantaneous and accumulated inelastic strain which is allowed to vary in an appropriate manner in order to reproduce the experimental ratcheting rate. The validity of the model is verified by comparing predictions with experimental results for austenitic stainless steel (17-12 SPH) tubular specimens subjected to cyclic torsional loading under constant tensile stress at 600 0 C [fr

  4. Strain mapping near a triple junction in strained Ni-based alloy using EBSD and biaxial nanogauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Lacroute, Y.; Markey, L.; Salazar, M.; Vignal, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Surface strains measured using nanogauge were compared to the texture obtained by EBSD. > Statistics of the principal strain discern the grains according to the Schmid factor. > Strain hotspots were localized near a triple junction of alloy 600 under tensile loading. > Asymetrical profile of the GB strains is a criterion for surface cracking initiation. - Abstract: A key element for analyzing the crack initiation in strained polycrystalline alloys is the local quantification of the surface strain distribution according to the grain texture. Using electron backscattered diffraction, the local microstructure was determined to both localize a triple junction and deduce the local Schmid factors. Kernel average misorientation (KAM) was also used to map the areas of defect concentration. The maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain were quantified using the biaxial nanogauge. Distortions of the array of nanodots used as spot markers were analyzed near the triple junction. The crystallographic orientation and the surface strain were then investigated both statistically for each grain and locally at the grain boundaries. The superimposition of microstructure and strain maps allows the high strain gradient (reaching 3-fold the applied strain) to be localized at preferential grain boundaries near the triple junction. The Schmid factors and the KAM were compared to the maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain respectively. The polycrystalline deformation was attributable first to the rotation of some grains, followed by the elongation of all grains along their preferential activated slip systems.

  5. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  6. Textured perovskite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Most research of texturization of solar cells has been devoted to Si based cells. For perovskites, it was assumed that texturization would not have much of an impact because of the relatively low refractive indexes lead to relatively low reflection as compared to the Si based cells. However, our

  7. Acoustic emission under biaxial stresses in unflawed 21-6-9 and 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstad, M.A.; Leon, E.M.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing has been carried out with uniaxial and biaxial (2:1 stress ratio) stressing of smooth samples of 21-6-9 and 304 stainless steel (SS). Uniaxial testing was done with simple tensile and compression samples as well as with the special biaxial specimens. Biaxial tensile stressing was accomplished with a specially designed specimen, which had been used previously to characterize AE in 7075 aluminum under biaxial stressing. Results were obtained for air-melt and for vacuum-melt samples of 21-6-9 SS. The air-melt samples contain considerably more inclusion particles than the vacuum-melt samples. For the 304 SS, as received material was examined. To allow AE correlations with microstructure, extensive characterization of the 21-6-9 microstructure was carried out. Significant differences in AE occur in biaxially stressed specimens as compared to uniaxially stressed samples. 15 figures, 3 tables

  8. Texture development due to preferential grain growth of Ho--Ba--Cu--O in 1.6-T magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, A.; McCallum, R.W.; Arrasmith, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that the application of even a relatively weak magnetic field of 1.6-T during sintering of HoBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (hereafter HoBCO) results in a significant degree of grain alignment. The orientation of grains is found to be controlled by the direction and magnitude of a magnetic field. The degree of alignment was monitored by x-ray diffraction measurements on the flat surface of the samples and by metallography. It has been observed that the degree of alignment grows as the magnitude of the field increases between 0 and 1.6 T for a fixed temperature and processing time. The degree of alignment also increases when the processing temperature changes from 930 degree C to 965 degree C for a fixed field and time. It has also been observed that for both a fixed field and processing temperature, the alignment grows when the processing time increases between 16 and 72 hours. Metallography measurements on the flat and cross-sectional parts of the samples showed that the texture propagates into the bulk of the samples. In the presence of a sufficient amount of the liquid phase, the enhancement of the grain growth in the direction favorable to the magnetic field produces rather large single-crystals (0.3 to 0.5 mm linear size) within the sample

  9. Biaxial fatigue crack propagation behavior of perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Shi, Shouwen; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xu; Chen, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes have long been used as the typical electrolyte for polymer-electrolyte fuel cells, which not only transport proton and water but also serve as barriers to prevent reactants mixing. However, too often the structural integrity of perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes is impaired by membrane thinning or cracks/pinholes formation induced by mechanical and chemical degradations. Despite the increasing number of studies that report crack formation, such as crack size and shape, the underlying mechanism and driving forces have not been well explored. In this paper, the fatigue crack propagation behaviors of Nafion membranes subjected to biaxial loading conditions have been investigated. In particular, the fatigue crack growth rates of flat cracks in responses to different loading conditions are compared, and the impact of transverse stress on fatigue crack growth rate is clarified. In addition, the crack paths for slant cracks under both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions are discussed, which are similar in geometry to those found after accelerated stress testing of fuel cells. The directions of initial crack propagation are calculated theoretically and compared with experimental observations, which are in good agreement. The findings reported here lays the foundation for understanding of mechanical failure of membranes.

  10. Biaxial experimental and analytical characterization of a dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Alexander; Doumit, Marc; Shaheen, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) have emerged as a strong contender for use in low-cost efficient actuators in multiple applications especially related to biomimetic and mobile-assistive devices. Dielectric elastomers (DE), a subcategory of these smart materials, have been of particular interest due to their large achievable deformation and favourable mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. Previous work has been completed to understand the behaviour of these materials; however, their properties require further investigation to properly integrate them into real-world applications. In this study, a biaxial tensile experimental evaluation of 3M™ VHB 4905 and VHB 4910 is presented with the purpose of illustrating the elastomers' transversely isotropic mechanical behaviours. These tests were applied to both tapes for equibiaxial stretch rates ranging between 0.025 and 0.300 s-1. Subsequently, a dynamic planar biaxial visco-hyperelastic constitutive relationship was derived from a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and the general Hooke's law for transversely isotropic materials. The model was then fitted to the experimental data to obtain three general material parameters for either tapes. The model's ability to predict tensile stress response and internal energy dissipation, with respect to experimental data, is evaluated with good agreement. The model's ability to predict variations in mechanical behaviour due to changes in kinematic variables is then illustrated for different conditions.

  11. Texture analysis applied to second harmonic generation image data for disease classification and development of a multi-view second harmonic generation imaging platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lianggong

    Many diseases, e.g. ovarian cancer, breast cancer and pulmonary fibrosis, are commonly associated with drastic alterations in surrounding connective tissue, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are associated with the vast majority of cellular processes in disease progression and carcinogenesis: cell differentiation, proliferation, biosynthetic ability, polarity, and motility. We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for imaging the ECM because it is a non-invasive, non-linear laser scanning technique with high sensitivity and specificity for visualizing fibrillar collagen. In this thesis, we are interested in developing imaging techniques to understand how the ECM, especially the collagen architecture, is remodeled in diseases. To quantitate remodeling, we implement a 3D texture analysis to delineate the collagen fibrillar morphology observed in SHG microscopy images of human normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. In the learning stage, a dictionary of "textons"---frequently occurring texture features that are identified by measuring the image response to a filter bank of various shapes, sizes, and orientations---is created. By calculating a representative model based on the texton distribution for each tissue type using a training set of respective mages, we then perform classification between normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues classification based on the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (true positives versus false positives). The local analysis algorithm is a more general method to probe rapidly changing fibrillar morphologies than global analyses such as FFT. It is also more versatile than other texture approaches as the filter bank can be highly tailored to specific applications (e.g., different disease states) by creating customized libraries based on common image features. Further, we describe the development of a multi-view 3D SHG imaging platform. Unlike fluorescence microscopy, SHG excites

  12. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongsingthong, Aswin; Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Konagai, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass

  13. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongsingthong, Aswin, E-mail: aswin.hongsingthong@nectec.or.th [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Konagai, Makoto [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, NE-15, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-06-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass.

  14. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Fishel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to endow robots with humanlike abilities to characterize and identify objects, they must be provided with tactile sensors and intelligent algorithms to select, control and interpret data from useful exploratory movements. Humans make informed decisions on the sequence of exploratory movements that would yield the most information for the task, depending on what the object may be and prior knowledge of what to expect from possible exploratory movements. This study is focused on texture discrimination, a subset of a much larger group of exploratory movements and percepts that humans use to discriminate, characterize, and identify objects. Using a testbed equipped with a biologically inspired tactile sensor (the BioTac® we produced sliding movements similar to those that humans make when exploring textures. Measurement of tactile vibrations and reaction forces when exploring textures were used to extract measures of textural properties inspired from psychophysical literature (traction, roughness, and fineness. Different combinations of normal force and velocity were identified to be useful for each of these three properties. A total of 117 textures were explored with these three movements to create a database of prior experience to use for identifying these same textures in future encounters. When exploring a texture, the discrimination algorithm adaptively selects the optimal movement to make and property to measure based on previous experience to differentiate the texture from a set of plausible candidates, a process we call Bayesian exploration. Performance of 99.6% in correctly discriminating pairs of similar textures was found to exceed human capabilities. Absolute classification from the entire set of 117 textures generally required a small number of well-chosen exploratory movements (median=5 and yielded a 95.4% success rate. The method of Bayesian exploration developed and tested in this paper may generalize well to other

  15. Effects of biaxial oscillatory shear stress on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amlan; Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Sharp, M Keith; Berson, R Eric

    2012-03-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) on anchored cells affects their responses, including cell proliferation and morphology. In this study, the effects of the directionality of pulsatile WSS on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology were investigated for cells grown in a Petri dish orbiting on a shaker platform. Time and location dependent WSS was determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). At low orbital speed (50 rpm), WSS was shown to be uniform (0-1 dyne/cm(2)) across the bottom of the dish, while at higher orbital speed (100 and 150 rpm), WSS remained fairly uniform near the center and fluctuated significantly (0-9 dyne/cm(2)) near the side walls of the dish. Since WSS on the bottom of the dish is two-dimensional, a new directional oscillatory shear index (DOSI) was developed to quantify the directionality of oscillating shear. DOSI approached zero for biaxial oscillatory shear of equal magnitudes near the center and approached one for uniaxial pulsatile shear near the wall, where large tangential WSS dominated a much smaller radial component. Near the center (low DOSI), more, smaller and less elongated cells grew, whereas larger cells with greater elongation were observed in the more uniaxial oscillatory shear (high DOSI) near the periphery of the dish. Further, cells aligned with the direction of the largest component of shear but were randomly oriented in low magnitude biaxial shear. Statistical analyses of the individual and interacting effects of multiple factors (DOSI, shear magnitudes and orbital speeds) showed that DOSI significantly affected all the responses, indicating that directionality is an important determinant of cellular responses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Textures in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Bizarre textures cover the surface of eastern Utopia Planitia where there is a high probability that ground ice has played a role in the formation of this unusual landscape.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Texture-contrast profile development across the prairie-forest ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA, and its relation to soil aggregation and clay dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmerchak, C. S.; Mason, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Along the prairie-forest ecotone, Alfisols with distinct clay-enriched B horizons are found under forest, established only within the past 4 ka, including outlying patches of prairie groves surrounded by prairie. Grassland soils only 5-10 km away from the vegetation boundary show much weaker texture-contrast. In order for clay to be dispersed it must first be released from aggregates upper horizons, which occurs when exposed top soil undergoes wetting and mechanical stress. The relationship between physiochemical soil characteristics and soil aggregation/clay dispersion is of particular interest in explaining texture-contrast development under forest. Soil samples were collected along a transect in northern Minnesota on gentle slopes in similar glacial sediment. Aggregate stability experiments show Mollisol A and B horizons have the most stable aggregates, while Alfisol E horizons have the weakest aggregates and disintegrate rapidly. This demonstrates the strong influence of OM and exchange chemistry on aggregation. Analysis of other physiochemical soil characteristics such as base saturation and pH follow a gradual decreasing eastward trend across the study sites, and do not abruptly change at the prairie-forest boundary like soil morphology does. Linear models show the strongest relationship between rapid aggregate disintegration and ECEC, although they only explain 47-50% of the variance. Higher surface charge enhances aggregation by allowing for greater potential of cation bridging between OM and clay particles. ECEC also represents multiple soil characteristics such as OC, clay, mineralogy, and carbonate presence, suggesting the relationship between aggregation stability and soil characteristics is not simple. Given the parent material consists of calcareous glacial sediment, abundant Ca2+ and Mg2+ from carbonates weathering also contributes to enhanced aggregation in upper horizons. Differences in the rates of bioturbation, most likely also contribute

  18. Anisotropic yield surfaces in bi-axial cyclic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, R.J.; Harvey, S.J.; Breckell, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of the behaviour of yield surfaces and work-hardening surfaces occurring in biaxial cyclic plasticity have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work consisted of subjecting thin-walled tubular steel specimens to cyclic plastic torsion in the presence of sustained axial loads of various magnitudes. The experimental results show that considerable anisotropy is induced when the cyclic shear strains are dominant. Although the true shapes of yield and work-hardening surfaces can be very complex, a mathematical model is presented which includes both anisotropy and Bauschinger effects. The model is able to qualitatively predict the deformation patterns during a cycle of applied plastic shear strain for a range of sustained axial stresses and also indicate the material response to changes in axial stress. (orig.)

  19. Elastic stability of biaxially loaded longitudinally stiffened composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.; Tripp, L. L.

    1973-01-01

    A linear analysis method is presented for the elastic stability of structures of uniform cross section, that may be idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strips, flat and curved, and beams. Each plate-strip and beam covers the entire length of the structure and is simply supported on the edges normal to the longitudinal axis. Arbitrary boundary conditions may be specified on any external longitudinal side of plate-strips. The structure or selected plate-strips may be loaded in any desired combination of inplane biaxial loads. The analysis simultaneously considers all modes of instability and is applicable for the buckling of laminated composite structures. Some numerical results are presented to indicate possible applications.

  20. High temperature strength of Hastelloy XR under biaxial stress states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yasushi; Hada, Kazuhiko; Koikegami, Hajime; Ohno, Nobutada.

    1991-01-01

    Biaxial(tension/torsion) creep and creep-fatigue tests were conducted on Hastelloy XR at 950degC in air. Hastelloy XR is a nickel base solution-annealed heat resistant alloy. Thin-walled tubular test specimens were employed. As results of the creep tests, the von Mises' flow rule was revealed to be applicable very well. Under the torsion load, sufficient growth of voids was necessary to initiate the fracture and this resulted in longer life time compared with that under the tension load. Only a few number of small voids could be observed and very long life times were attained under the compression load. The creep-fatigue tests revealed that superposition of constant torsion load on a cyclic axial load reduced the cycles to failure significantly and the amount of reduction was consistent with the prediction by the linear life fraction rule. (author)

  1. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    slenderness and edge displacement ratio are included in the investigations presented. Capacity interaction curves are established in the bi-axial stress domain. It turns out that for certain stress ratios the imperfections dominating the ultimate capacity are not affine to the lowest classical buckling mode...... for biaxial stress. It is of great interest that short wave imperfections of a lower magnitude compared to conventionally used imperfections are seen to lower the capacity of the bi-axially loaded plates. The topic is of major concern in the flange plates of long span bridges with multi box girder...

  2. Mastering the biaxial stress state in nanometric thin films on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurie, D., E-mail: faurie@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM-CNRS, UPR3407, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy Cedex (France); Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, D. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint-Aubin, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Biaxial stress state of thin films deposited on flexible substrate can be mastered thanks to a new biaxial device. This tensile machine allows applying in-plane loads F{sub x} and F{sub y} in the two principal directions x and y of a cruciform-shaped polymer substrate. The transmission of the deformation at film/substrate interface allows controlling the stress and strain field in the thin films. We show in this paper a few illustrations dealing with strain measurements in polycrystalline thin films deposited on flexible substrate. The potentialities of the biaxial device located at Soleil synchrotron are also discussed.

  3. Methods of making textured catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  4. Development of the DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Source and the Application to the Etching and Texturing of the Silicon Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hun

    2011-02-01

    Plasma used in dry etching, thin film deposition and surface treatment for display or semiconductor industries are operating at low pressures in general. However, low pressure processing is very costly due to the use of vacuum equipment and vacuum components. Subsequent wet processing is environmentally undesirable due to the use of a large amount of chemicals. Also, the usage of vacuum processing increases fabrication cost and decreases productivity. If stable atmospheric plasmas can be used, not only the decrease in processing costs but also the increase in productivity could be obtained. New DC arc plasmatron with a hot rod cathode and cold nozzle anode was developed and its V-A (Volt-Ampere) characteristics were investigated. Outlook of the measured V-A characteristics cleared the question of the stability of arc burning in the new DC arc plasmatron. The plasmatron that has a stable operations with distributed anode spot could possibly be applied to plasma chemical processing. And measured value of the erosion rate for copper anode is m Cu 3.6x10 -10 g/C which is better than corresponding data for thermo-ionic emission cathodes made of tungsten mw ∼10 -9 g/C. These facts mean that plasmatron durability reaches ∼10 3 h. The low anode erosion rate is related to the large surface of arc-anode contact due to distributed anode arc spot, which reduces the current density. Unique characteristics of the new plasma source concerning its durability and plasma purity at rather low temperatures make it an interesting tool for technical applications, such as etching/deposition and chemical reaction. To apply a plasma processing, the T-type plasmatron was modified to A-type. The A-type plasmatron was used to activate the CF 4 and SF 6 gases in etching experiments at atmospheric and low pressure. To reduce the recombination rate of the activated gas particles inside a plasmatron and let them preserve their activated state outside, the whole device was installed outside of

  5. DYNAMIC STRAIN MAPPING AND REAL-TIME DAMAGE STATE ESTIMATION UNDER BIAXIAL RANDOM FATIGUE LOADING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DYNAMIC STRAIN MAPPING AND REAL-TIME DAMAGE STATE ESTIMATION UNDER BIAXIAL RANDOM FATIGUE LOADING SUBHASISH MOHANTY*, ADITI CHATTOPADHYAY, JOHN N. RAJADAS, AND CLYDE...

  6. Single-source mechanical loading system produces biaxial stresses in cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J. F.; Stafford, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Single-source mechanical loading system proportions axial-to-hoop tension loads applied to cylindrical specimens. The system consists of hydraulic, pneumatic, and lever arrangements which produce biaxial loading ratios.

  7. Local behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to in situ biaxial loading in SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, C., E-mail: celia.caer@gmail.com; Pesci, R.

    2017-04-06

    The microstructural response of a coarse grained AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to biaxial tensile loading was investigated using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The specimen geometry was designed to allow for biaxial stress state and incipient crack in the center of the active part under biaxial tensile loading. This complex loading was performed step by step by a micromachine fitting into a SEM chamber. At each loading step FSD pictures and EBSD measurements were carried out to study the microstructural evolution of the alloy, namely grain rotations and misorientations, stress-induced martensite formation and crack propagation. According to their initial orientation, grains are found to behave differently under loading. Approximately 60% of grains are shown to reorient to the [110] Z orientation under biaxial tensile loading, whereas the 40% left undergo high plastic deformation. EBSD and XRD measurements respectively performed under loading and on the post mortem specimen highlighted the formation of about 4% of martensite.

  8. Evaluation of micro fatigue crack growth under equi-biaxial stress by membranous pressure fatigue test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Satoshi; Abe, Shigeki; Nakamura, Takao; Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    For preventing nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, NPPs are required to ensure system safety in long term safe operation under aging degradation. Now, fatigue accumulation is one of major ageing phenomena and are evaluated to ensure safety by design fatigue curve that are based on the results of uniaxial fatigue tests. On the other hand, thermal stress that occurs in piping of actual components is not uniaxial but equi-biaxial. For accurate evaluation, it is required to conform real circumstance. In this study, membranous pressure fatigue test was conducted to simulated equi-biaxial stress. Crack initiation and crack growth were examined by replica investigation. Calculation result of equivalent stress intensity factor shows crack growth under equi-biaxial stress is faster than under uniaxial stress. It is concluded that equi-biaxial fatigue behavior should be considered in the evaluation of fatigue crack initiation and crack growth. (author)

  9. Fatigue Test Design: Scenarios for Biaxial Fatigue Testing of a 60-Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Current practice in commercial certification of wind turbine blades is to perform separate flap and lead-lag fatigue tests. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching and evaluating biaxial fatigue testing techniques and demonstrating various options, typically on smaller-scale test articles at the National Wind Technology Center. This report evaluates some of these biaxial fatigue options in the context of application to a multimegawatt blade certification test program at the Wind Technology Testing Center in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

  10. Texture, deformation twinning and hardening in a newly developed Mg-Dy-Al-Zn-Zr alloy processed with high pressure torsion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocich, R.; Kunčická, L.; Král, Petr; Lowe, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, JAN (2016), s. 1092-1099 ISSN 0264-1275 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium * High pressure torsion * Texture * Deformation twinning * Hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 4.364, year: 2016

  11. Investigation of the Leak Response of a Carbon-Fiber Laminate Loaded in Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of pressurized structures have been reluctant to use composite materials because of concerns over leakage. Biaxial stress states are expected to be the worst-case loading condition for allowing leakage to occur through microcracks. To investigate the leakage behavior under in-plane biaxial loading, a cruciform composite specimen was designed that would have a relatively large test section with a uniform 1:1 biaxial loading ratio. A 7.6-cm-square test section was desired for future investigations of the leakage response as a result of impact damage. Many iterations of the cruciform specimen were evaluated using finite element analysis to reduce stress concentrations and maximize the size of the uniform biaxial strain field. The final design allowed the specimen to go to relatively high biaxial strain levels without incurring damage away from the test section. The specimen was designed and manufactured using carbon/epoxy fabric with a four-ply-thick, quasi-isotropic, central test section. Initial validation and testing were performed on a specimen without impact damage. The specimen was tested to maximum biaxial strains of approximately 4500micro epsilon without apparent damage. A leak measurement system containing a pressurized cavity was clamped to the test section and used to measure the flow rate through the specimen. The leakage behavior of the specimen was investigated for pressure differences up to 172 kPa

  12. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  13. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  14. Extraction of Homogeneous Fine-Grained Texture Segments in Visual Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golcev, A.; Gritsenko, V.; Húsek, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2017), s. 447-477 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : texture feature * texture window * homogeneous fine-grained texture segment * extraction of texture segment * texture segmentation * ”float” coding method Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  15. Chameleons: Reptilian Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an art project inspired by a drawing of a chameleon the author saw in an art-supply catalog. Chameleons prove to be a good subject to highlight shape, color and texture with eigth-graders. In this project, middle- and high-school students draw a chameleon, learn how to use shapes to add to their chameleon drawing, learn how…

  16. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  17. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.

    2017-01-01

    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  18. A self-consistent anisotropic approach for the simulation of plastic deformation and texture development of polycrystals: Application to zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebensohn, R.A.; Tome, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present in this work a visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) anisotropic approach for modeling the plastic deformation of polycrystals, together with a thorough discussion of the assumptions involved and the range of application of such approach. They use the VPSC model for predicting texture development during rolling and axisymmetric deformation of zirconium alloys, and to calculate the yield locus and the Lankford coefficient of rolled Zircaloy sheet. They compare the results with experimental data and find that they are in good agreement with the available experimental evidence. They also compare the VPSC prediction with the ones of a Full Constraints approach and observe that they differ both quantitatively and qualitatively: according with the predictions of the VPSC scheme, deformation is accommodated mostly by the soft systems, the twinning activity is much lower, and fewer systems are active, in average, per grain. These results are a consequence of having accounted for the grain interaction with its surroundings, which is a crucial aspect when modeling plastically anisotropic materials

  19. Monitoring Poisson's ratio of glass fiber reinforced composites as damage index using biaxial Fiber Bragg Grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Çağatay; Yilmaz, Cagatay; Akalın, Çağdaş; Akalin, Cagdas; Kocaman, Esat Selim; Suleman, A.; Yıldız, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Damage accumulation in Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites is monitored based on Poisson's ratio measurements for three different fiber stacking sequences subjected to both quasi-static and quasi-static cyclic tensile loadings. The sensor systems utilized include a dual-extensometer, a biaxial strain gage and a novel embedded-biaxial Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. These sensors are used concurrently to measure biaxial strain whereby the evolution of Poisson's ratio as a functi...

  20. Shear flow simulations of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Sten

    1997-08-01

    We have calculated the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal phase of a variant of the Gay-Berne fluid [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] by performing molecular dynamics simulations. The equations of motion have been augmented by a director constraint torque that fixes the orientation of the directors. This makes it possible to fix them at different angles relative to the stream lines in shear flow simulations. In equilibrium simulations the constraints generate a new ensemble. One finds that the Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities become linear combinations of time correlation function integrals in this ensemble whereas they are complicated rational functions in the conventional canonical ensemble. We have evaluated these Green-Kubo relations for all the shear viscosities and all the twist viscosities. We have also calculated the alignment angles, which are functions of the viscosity coefficients. We find that there are three real alignment angles but a linear stability analysis shows that only one of them corresponds to a stable director orientation. The Green-Kubo results have been cross checked by nonequilibrium shear flow simulations. The results from the different methods agree very well. Finally, we have evaluated the Miesowicz viscosities [D. Baalss, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 45, 7 (1990)]. They vary by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The viscosity is consequently highly orientation dependent.

  1. Research on self-calibration biaxial autocollimator based on ZYNQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Liu, Bingguo; Liu, Guodong; Zhong, Yao; Lu, Binghui

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are mainly based on computers or the electronic devices that can be connected to the internet, and its precision, measurement range and resolution are all defective, and external displays are needed to display images in real time. What's more, there is no real-time calibration for autocollimator in the market. In this paper, we propose a biaxial autocollimator based on the ZYNQ embedded platform to solve the above problems. Firstly, the traditional optical system is improved and a light path is added for real-time calibration. Then, in order to improve measurement speed, the embedded platform based on ZYNQ that combines Linux operating system with autocollimator is designed. In this part, image acquisition, image processing, image display and the man-machine interaction interface based on Qt are achieved. Finally, the system realizes two-dimensional small angle measurement. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can improve the angle measurement accuracy. The standard deviation of the close distance (1.5m) is 0.15" in horizontal direction of image and 0.24"in vertical direction, the repeatability of measurement of the long distance (10m) is improved by 0.12 in horizontal direction of image and 0.3 in vertical direction.

  2. Adaptive fuzzy trajectory control for biaxial motion stage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Mao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion control is an essential part of industrial machinery and manufacturing systems. In this article, the adaptive fuzzy controller is proposed for precision trajectory tracking control in biaxial X-Y motion stage system. The theoretical analyses of direct fuzzy control which is insensitive to parameter uncertainties and external load disturbances are derived to demonstrate the feasibility to track the reference trajectories. The Lyapunov stability theorem has been used to testify the asymptotic stability of the whole system, and all the signals are bounded in the closed-loop system. The intelligent position controller combines the merits of the adaptive fuzzy control with robust characteristics and learning ability for periodic command tracking of a servo drive mechanism. The simulation and experimental results on square, triangle, star, and circle reference contours are presented to show that the proposed controller indeed accomplishes the better tracking performances with regard to model uncertainties. It is observed that the convergence of parameters and tracking errors can be faster and smaller compared with the conventional adaptive fuzzy control in terms of average tracking error and tracking error standard deviation.

  3. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  4. Experimental studies of yield phenomena in biaxially loaded metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Realistic materials properties input represents one of the major limitations in computer stress analysis in the plastic range. Lack of data on the response of many structural materials to multiaxial loading requires modeling plastic behavior. Such models can at best predict the response of a limited class of materials for a limited range of loading. A summary of biaxial plasticity experiments on metals is presented to provide a testing ground for such models and to serve as a reference guide for materials that may be of practical interest. Most of the work has been done on materials assumed to exhibit time-and-pressure-independent plastic flow. Special attention is focused on initial and subsequent yield conditions and stress-strain relations. Some specific examples of material behavior that does not fall within the assumptions of classical plasticity theories are discussed. These include time-dependence as evidenced in creep, cyclic loading and strain-rate effects, pressure dependence, large strain behavior, microstructural changes and failure laws. 15 figures, 277 references

  5. Development of all chemical solution derived Ce0.9La0.1O2−y/Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layer stack for coated conductors: influence of the post-annealing process on surface crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y; Li, X-F; He, D; Andersen, N H; Grivel, J-C; Khoryushin, A; Hansen, J B

    2012-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of a biaxially textured Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Ce 0.9 La 0.1 O 2−y (CLO, cap)/Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO, barrier) buffer layer stack by the metal–organic deposition route are reported. YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−d (YBCO) superconductor films were deposited by the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique to assess the efficiency of such a novel buffer layer stack. Biaxial texture quality and morphology of the buffer layers and the YBCO superconductor films were fully characterized. The surface crystallinity of the buffer layers is studied by the electron backscatter diffraction technique. It is revealed that post-annealing GZO films in 2% H 2 in Ar is an effective way to improve the surface crystallinity. As a result, a highly textured CLO film can grow directly on the GZO film at a lower crystallization temperature. The critical current density of a YBCO PLD film is higher than 1 MA cm −2 (77 K, in self-field), demonstrating that the novel CLO/GZO stack is very promising for further development of low cost buffer layer architectures for coated conductors.

  6. Stress-strain relationship and XRD line broadening in [0001] textured hexagonal polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi

    2011-01-01

    Stress analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for hexagonal polycrystalline materials in the Laue classes 6/mmm and 6/m has been studied on the basis of the crystal symmetry of the constituent crystallites which was proposed by R. Yokoyama and J. Harada ['Re-evaluation of formulae for X-ray stress analysis in polycrystalline specimens with fibre texture', Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol.42, pp.185-191 (2009)]. The relationship between the stress and strain observable by XRD in a hexagonal polycrystalline material with [0001] fibre texture was formulated in terms of the elastic compliance defined for its single crystal. As a result, it was shown that the average strains obtained in the crystallites for both symmetries of 6/mmm and 6/m are different from each other under the triaxial or biaxial stress field. Then, it turned out that the line width of XRD changes depending on the measurement direction. (author)

  7. Perceptual asymmetry in texture perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D; Julesz, B

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental property of human visual perception is our ability to distinguish between textures. A concerted effort has been made to account for texture segregation in terms of linear spatial filter models and their nonlinear extensions. However, for certain texture pairs the ease of discrimination changes when the role of figure and ground are reversed. This asymmetry poses a problem for both linear and nonlinear models. We have isolated a property of texture perception that can account for...

  8. Measurement and modelling of textures in flow formed Cr-Mo-V steel tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoulas, D. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Clean Energy/Nuclear Services, Amec Foster Wheeler, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6GN (United Kingdom); Quinta da Fonseca, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tuffs, M. [Rolls-Royce plc, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-08

    Flow formed components undergo a complex deformation mode under biaxial strain, which is expected to have significant impact on the crystallographic texture evolution. X-ray diffraction measurements and calculations of orientation distribution functions (ODFs) were employed to analyse flow formed tubes produced with different parameters such as preform hardness, feed rate, roller contact angle, and wall thickness reduction. Texture variations were observed both throughout the wall thickness and along the tube length. A crystal plasticity finite-element model was used to decipher the texture formation relative to the imposed axial and hoop strains. The shear strain on the axial-hoop plane was found to be responsible for the deviation from cold rolling textures and the formation of a fibre along Φ = 0° in the φ{sub 2} = 45° ODF section. Finally, annealing treatments at 700 °C were carried out to monitor texture changes due to potential recrystallisation effects during the forming process, upon which strengthening of the {113}<1–10> orientation was noted.

  9. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  10. Biaxial mechanics and inter-lamellar shearing of stem-cell seeded electrospun angle-ply laminates for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tristan P; Nakasone, Ryan H; Szczesny, Spencer E; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disk plays a critical role in vertebral load transmission that is heavily dependent on the microscale structure and composition of the tissue. With degeneration, both structure and composition are compromised, resulting in a loss of AF mechanical function. Numerous tissue engineering strategies have addressed the issue of AF degeneration, but few have focused on recapitulation of AF microstructure and function. One approach that allows for generation of engineered AF with appropriate (+/-)30° lamellar microstructure is the use of aligned electrospun scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and assembled into angle-ply laminates (APL). Previous work indicates that opposing lamellar orientation is necessary for development of near native uniaxial tensile properties. However, most native AF tensile loads are applied biaxially, as the disk is subjected to multi-axial loads and is constrained by its attachments to the vertebral bodies. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biaxial mechanical response of engineered AF bilayers, and to determine the importance of opposing lamellar structure under this loading regime. Opposing bilayers, which replicate native AF structure, showed a significantly higher modulus in both testing directions compared to parallel bilayers, and reached ∼60% of native AF biaxial properties. Associated with this increase in biaxial properties, significantly less shear, and significantly higher stretch in the fiber direction, was observed. These results provide additional insight into native tissue structure-function relationships, as well as new benchmarks for engineering functional AF tissue constructs. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism: Design, Build and Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Noemy; Ferris, Mark; Phillips, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism (BSADM) presented in this paper is a demonstration of SSTL's unique space manufacturing approach that enables performing rapid development cycles for cost-effective products that meet ever-challenging mission requirements: The BSADM is designed to orient a solar array wing towards the sun, using its first rotation axis to track the sun, and its second rotation axis to compensate for the satellite orbit and attitude changes needed for a successful payload operation. The tight development schedule, with manufacture of 7 Flight Models within 1.5 year after kick-off, is offset by the risk-reduction of using qualified key component-families from other proven SSTL mechanisms. This allowed focusing the BSADM design activities on the mechanism features that are unique to the BSADM, and having an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) built 8 months after kick-off. The EQM is currently undergoing a full environmental qualification test campaign. This paper presents the BSADM design approach that enabled meeting such a challenging schedule, its design particularities, and the ongoing verification activities.

  12. Textural behavior of gels formed by rice starch and whey protein isolate: Concentration and crosshead velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Novaes Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fabricated food gels involving the use of hydrocolloids are gaining polpularity as confectionery/convenience foods. Starch is commonly combined with a hydrocolloid (protein our polyssacharides, particularly in the food industry, since native starches generally do not have ideal properties for the preparation of food products. Therefore the texture studies of starch-protein mixtures could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products, being thus acritical attribute that needs to be carefully adjusted to the consumer liking. This work investigated the texture and rheological properties of mixed gels of different concentrations of rice starch (15%, 17.5%, and 20% and whey protein isolate (0%, 3%, and 6% with different crosshead velocities (0.05, 5.0, and 10.0 mm/s using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The samples were submitted to uniaxial compression tests with 80% deformation in order to determinate the following rheological parameters: Young’s modulus, fracture stress, fracture deformation, recoverable energy, and apparent biaxial elongational viscosity. Gels with a higher rice starch concentration that were submitted to higher test velocities were more rigid and resistant, while the whey protein isolate concentration had little influence on these properties. The gels showed a higher recoverable energy when the crosshead velocity was higher, and the apparent biaxial elongational viscosity was also influenced by this factor. Therefore, mixed gels exhibit different properties depending on the rice starch concentration and crosshead velocity.

  13. On the possible importance of mechanical twinning for the development of the brass-type rolling texture and final comment on the above remarks by T. Leffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben

    1970-01-01

    The author presents his final comments on the discussion between himself and Heye and Wasserman (see abstrs. A11834 and A11835 of 1970) which arose from the latter authors' paper on mechanical twinning (see abstr. A19815 of 1969). The validity of the twinning theory for the brass-type rolling...... texture is questioned for two reasons: There is no convincing crystallographic model explaining how the formation of the brass-type texture by combined twinning and slip should work in theory, and there are experimental results indicating that it should not work in practice...

  14. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Yukio

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 20 0 C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma 2 /sigma 1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  15. Control of biaxial strain in single-layer molybdenite using local thermal expansion of the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechinger, Gerd; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Buscema, Michele; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steele, Gary A.; Kuc, Agnieszka; Heine, Thomas; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Single-layer MoS2 is a direct-gap semiconductor whose electronic band structure strongly depends on the strain applied to its crystal lattice. While uniaxial strain can be easily applied in a controlled way, e.g., by bending of a flexible substrate with the atomically thin MoS2 layer on top, experimental realization of biaxial strain is more challenging. Here, we exploit the large mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of MoS2 and a silicone-based substrate to apply a controllable biaxial tensile strain by heating the substrate with a focused laser. The effect of this biaxial strain is directly observable in optical spectroscopy as a redshift of the MoS2 photoluminescence. We also demonstrate the potential of this method to engineer more complex strain patterns by employing highly absorptive features on the substrate to achieve non-uniform heat profiles. By comparison of the observed redshift to strain-dependent band structure calculations, we estimate the biaxial strain applied by the silicone-based substrate to be up to 0.2%, corresponding to a band gap modulation of 105 meV per percentage of biaxial tensile strain.

  16. Shape recovery characteristics of biaxially prestrained Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Naoi, H.; Yasuda, H.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy has already been used practically for steel pipe joints. In most of the applications including the steel pipe joints, it is possible to estimate the reduction of diameter from the experimental data of the shape recovery after uniaxial stretching of the alloy materials. However, studies on shape recovery effects after biaxial stretching are important for the extensive applications of the alloy. In this study, we investigated the shape recovery strain after uniaxial and biaxial stretching and the microstructures of the alloy in order to see the effects of uniaxial and biaxial prestrain on the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Amounts of shape recovery strain in the biaxially prestrained specimens are smaller than those in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that reverse transformations of stress-induced martensitic ε-phase are prevented by slip bands formed at the same time in the biaxially prestrained specimens, but not in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. The technological data and interpretations presented in this study should be useful in forming design guidelines for promoting the extensive applications of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

  17. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  18. Tuning magnetism by biaxial strain in native ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengxiao; Wang, Yuanxu; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Guangbiao; Wang, Chao; Yang, Gui

    2015-07-07

    Magnetic ZnO, one of the most important diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), has attracted great scientific interest because of its possible technological applications in optomagnetic devices. Magnetism in this material is usually delicately tuned by the doping level, dislocations, and local structures. The rational control of magnetism in ZnO is a highly attractive approach for practical applications. Here, the tuning effect of biaxial strain on the d(0) magnetism of native imperfect ZnO is demonstrated through first-principles calculations. Our calculation results show that strain conditions have little effect on the defect formation energy of Zn and O vacancies in ZnO, but they do affect the magnetism significantly. For a cation vacancy, increasing the compressive strain will obviously decrease its magnetic moment, while tensile strain cannot change the moment, which remains constant at 2 μB. For a singly charged anion vacancy, however, the dependence of the magnetic moment on strain is opposite to that of the Zn vacancy. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic state is always present, irrespective of the strain type, for ZnO with two zinc vacancies, 2VZns. A large tensile strain is favorable for improving the Curie temperature and realizing room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO-based native semiconductors. For ZnO with two singly charged oxygen vacancies, 2Vs, no ferromagnetic ordering can be observed. Our work points the way to the rational design of materials beyond ZnO with novel non-intrinsic functionality by simply tuning the strain in a thin film form.

  19. Development of in-situ control diagnostics for application of epitaxial superconductor and buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Winkleman; T.V. Giel; Jason Cunningham

    1999-07-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents in excess of 1 x 10{sup 6} amp/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential fabrication of these coated conductors as wire. Numerous approaches and manufacturing schemes for producing coated conductor wire are currently being developed. Recently, under the US DOE's sponsorship, the University of Tennessee Space Institute performed an extensive evaluation of leading coated conductor processing options. In general, it is their feeling that the science and chemistry that are being developed in the coated conductor wire program now need proper engineering evaluation to define the most viable options for a commercial fabrication process. All fabrication processes will need process control measurements. This report provides a specific review of the needs and available technologies for process control for many of the coated conductor processing options. This report also addresses generic process monitoring areas in which additional research and development is needed. The concentration is on the two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates that have been identified as viable candidates. These are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's ion-beam assisted deposition, called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's rolling assisted, bi-axially textured substrate option called RABiTS{trademark}.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF IN-SITU CONTROL DIAGNOSTICS FOR APPLICATION OF EPITAXIAL SUPERCONDUCTOR AND BUFFER LAYERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Winkleman; T.V. Giel, Jr.; J. Cunningham

    1999-06-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents in excess of 1x10{sup 6}amp/cm{sup 2} at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential fabrication of these coated conductors as wire. Numerous approaches and manufacturing schemes for producing coated conductor wire are currently being developed. Recently, under the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sponsorship, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) performed an extensive evaluation of leading coated conductor processing options. In general, it is our feeling that the science and chemistry that are being developed in the coated conductor wire program now need proper engineering evaluation to define the most viable options for a commercial fabrication process. All fabrication processes will need process control measurements. This report provides a specific review of the needs and available technologies for process control for many of the coated conductor processing options. This report also addresses generic process monitoring areas in which additional research and development is needed. The concentration is on the two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates that have been identified as viable candidates. These are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) ion-beam assisted deposition, called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) rolling assisted, bi-axially textured substrate option called RABiTS{trademark}.

  1. Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdeo, David S; Nam, Donguk; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2015-06-29

    Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial tensile strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in circular structures patterned within germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into a circular region. Biaxial tensile strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained germanium. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different germanium structures to be independently customized in a single mask process.

  2. STRAIN-CONTROLLED BIAXIAL TENSION OF NATURAL RUBBER: NEW EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    KAUST Repository

    Pancheri, Francesco Q.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new experimental method and provide data showing the response of 40A natural rubber in uniaxial, pure shear, and biaxial tension. Real-time biaxial strain control allows for independent and automatic variation of the velocity of extension and retraction of each actuator to maintain the preselected deformation rate within the gage area of the specimen. Wealso focus on the Valanis-Landel hypothesis that is used to verify and validate the consistency of the data.Weuse a threeterm Ogden model to derive stress-stretch relations to validate the experimental data. The material model parameters are determined using the primary loading path in uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. Excellent agreement is found when the model is used to predict the response in biaxial tension for different maximum in-plane stretches. The application of the Valanis-Landel hypothesis also results in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  3. A proposal of parameter to predict biaxial fatigue life for CF8M cast stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joong Cheul; Kwon, Jae Do

    2005-01-01

    Biaxial low cycle fatigue test was carried out to predict fatigue life under combined axial-torsional loading condition which is that of in-phase and out-of-phase for CF8M cast stainless steels. Fatemi Socie(FS) parameter which is based on critical plane approach is not only one of methods but also the best method that can predict fatigue life under biaxial loading condition. But the result showed that, biaxial fatigue life prediction by using FS parameter with several different parameters for the CF8M cast stainless steels is not conservative but best results. So in this present research, we proposed new fatigue life prediction parameter considering effective shear stress instead of FS parameter which considers the maximum normal stress acting on maximum shear strain and its effectiveness was verified

  4. Behavior of annealed type 316 stainless steel under monotonic and cyclic biaxial loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.; Robinson, D.N.; Pugh, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper addresses the elastic-plastic behavior of type 316 stainless steel, one of the major structural alloys used in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor components. The study was part of a continuing program to develop a structural design technology applicable to advanced reactor systems. Here, behaviour of solution annealed material was examined through biaxial stress experiments conducted at room temperature under radial loadings (√3tau=sigma) in tension-torsion stress space. The effects of both stress limited monotonic loading and strain limited cyclic loading were determined on the size, shape and position of yield loci corresponding to small offset strain (10 microstrain) definition of yield. In the present work, the aim was to determine the extent to which the constitutive laws previously recommended for type 304 stainless steel are applicable to type 316 stainless steel. It was concluded that for the conditions investigated, the inelastic behavior of the two materials are qualitatively similar. Specifically, the von Mises yield criterion provides a reasonable approximation of initial yield behavior and the subsequent hardening behavior, at least under small offset definitions of yield, is to the first order kinematic in nature. (Auth.)

  5. Monitoring Local Changes in Granite Rock Under Biaxial Test: A Spatiotemporal Imaging Application With Diffuse Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fan; Ren, Yaqiong; Zhou, Yongsheng; Larose, Eric; Baillet, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse acoustic or seismic waves are highly sensitive to detect changes of mechanical properties in heterogeneous geological materials. In particular, thanks to acoustoelasticity, we can quantify stress changes by tracking acoustic or seismic relative velocity changes in the material at test. In this paper, we report on a small-scale laboratory application of an innovative time-lapse tomography technique named Locadiff to image spatiotemporal mechanical changes on a granite sample under biaxial loading, using diffuse waves at ultrasonic frequencies (300 kHz to 900 kHz). We demonstrate the ability of the method to image reversible stress evolution and deformation process, together with the development of reversible and irreversible localized microdamage in the specimen at an early stage. Using full-field infrared thermography, we visualize stress-induced temperature changes and validate stress images obtained from diffuse ultrasound. We demonstrate that the inversion with a good resolution can be achieved with only a limited number of receivers distributed around a single source, all located at the free surface of the specimen. This small-scale experiment is a proof of concept for frictional earthquake-like failure (e.g., stick-slip) research at laboratory scale as well as large-scale seismic applications, potentially including active fault monitoring.

  6. Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pebble beds of Tritium breeding ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future nuclear fusion power plants. For the thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds, bed compression experiments are the standard tools. New bi-axial compression experiments on 20 and 30 mm high pebble beds show pebble flow effects much more pronounced than in previous 10 mm beds. Owing to the greater bed height, conditions are reached where the bed fails in cross direction and unhindered flow of the pebbles occurs. The paper presents measurements for the orthosilicate and metatitanate breeder materials that are envisaged to be used in a solid breeder blanket. The data are compared with calculations made with a Drucker-Prager soil model within the finite-element code ABAQUS, calibrated with data from other experiments. It is investigated empirically whether internal bed friction angles can be determined from pebble beds of the considered heights, which would simplify, and broaden the data base for, the calibration of the Drucker-Prager pebble bed models

  7. Discrete Element Simulations and Experiments on the Deformation of Cohesive Powders in a Bi-Axial Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Kumar, Nishant; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We compare element test experiments and simulations on the deformation of frictional, cohesive particles in a bi-axial box. We show that computer simulations with the Discrete Element Method qualitatively reproduce a uniaxial compression element test in the true bi-axial tester. We highlight the

  8. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  9. [Visual Texture Agnosia in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2015-06-01

    Visual object recognition requires the processing of both geometric and surface properties. Patients with occipital lesions may have visual agnosia, which is impairment in the recognition and identification of visually presented objects primarily through their geometric features. An analogous condition involving the failure to recognize an object by its texture may exist, which can be called visual texture agnosia. Here we present two cases with visual texture agnosia. Case 1 had left homonymous hemianopia and right upper quadrantanopia, along with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and texture agnosia, because of damage to his left ventromedial occipitotemporal cortex and right lateral occipito-temporo-parietal cortex due to multiple cerebral embolisms. Although he showed difficulty matching and naming textures of real materials, he could readily name visually presented objects by their contours. Case 2 had right lower quadrantanopia, along with impairment in stereopsis and recognition of texture in 2D images, because of subcortical hemorrhage in the left occipitotemporal region. He failed to recognize shapes based on texture information, whereas shape recognition based on contours was well preserved. Our findings, along with those of three reported cases with texture agnosia, indicate that there are separate channels for processing texture, color, and geometric features, and that the regions around the left collateral sulcus are crucial for texture processing.

  10. Dry texturing of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor substrate and a metal contact layer. The time-energy profile includes ramping up to a first energy level and holding for a period of time to create the desired pit size and density and then rapidly increasing the energy to a second level in which the entire interface area is melted and alloyed quickly. After holding the second energy level for a sufficient time to develop the thin alloy layer over the entire interface area, the energy is ramped down to allow epitaxial crystal growth in the alloy layer. The result is a textured backside an optically reflective, low resistivity alloy interface between the semiconductor substrate and the metal electrical contact layer.

  11. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate......, allowing the epitaxial growth of the superconducting layer. State-of-the-art coated conductor hetero structures are mainly based on CeO2 based buffer stacks that consist of a sequence of several different buffer layers. Buffer layers deposited by continuous chemical deposition techniques, which...... is expected to be very advantageous in reel-to-reel applications. The thickness of these SrTiO3 monolayers was large enough to stop the nickel and copper diffusion from the Cu/Ni substrate. Hence, the developed high quality buffer layers are expected to be acting as efficient diffusion barriers and also...

  12. M-HinTS: Mimicking Humans in Texture Sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Kok, Thijs; Daly, Scott J.; Schouten, Theo E.

    2006-01-01

    Various texture analysis algorithms have been developed the last decades. However, no computational model has arisen that mimics human texture perception adequately. In 2000, Payne, Hepplewhite, and Stoneham and in 2005, Van Rikxoort, Van den Broek, and Schouten achieved mappings between humans and

  13. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K...

  14. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, or nonfat dried milk were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion

  15. Texture classification using autoregressive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.; Lee, M.

    1984-01-01

    A general theory of image texture models is proposed and its applicability to the problem of scene segmentation using texture classification is discussed. An algorithm, based on half-plane autoregressive filtering, which optimally utilizes second order statistics to discriminate between texture classes represented by arbitrary wide sense stationary random fields is described. Empirical results of applying this algorithm to natural and sysnthesized scenes are presented and future research is outlined.

  16. Development of a Multi-Scale Methodology for Prediction of the Microscopic Anisotropic Stress-Strain Response of Textured Metals under Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-21

    will be denoted by v ⊗ u. Superscript T indicates the transpose operation (AT )ij = Aji for any second-order tensor A while symbol ‘tr‘ denotes the...indicated in red . which was subsequently marked on the plate as shown in Figure 2. Note that the plate exhibits fiber texture resulting from the...specimen deformed to 10% strain reveals that many grains have twinned (twins appear red in Figure 9). The twin volume fraction was estimated to be 17

  17. Heat treatment effect on the texture and mechanical properties of the VT14 alloy cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsofen, S.Ya.; Khorev, A.I.; Babarehko, A.A.; Krasnozhon, A.I.; Kadobnova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties and the texture of cylinders made of VT14 alloy in the conditions after quenching from the temperature of 880 deg C, followed by ageing for 16 hours at the temperature of about 480 deg C, or after 20 minutes annealing at the temperature of 750 deg C, were stu--died, while taking into account the influence of intermediate preheats up to 800-1000 deg C prior to carrying into effect those kinds of heat treatment. It is shown that the texture of cylinders after heat treatment without the intermediate preheats prior to quenching is characterized by an increased density of poles in the axial and tangential directions. It is the preheating up to 1000 deg C prior to quenching that shifts the texture maxima in the axial direction and causes the appearance of component (0001). Under the effect of the intermediate preheating up to 1000 deg C, the biaxial and monoaxial strength of the cylinders decreases, whereas their tendency to brittle failure increases. The mechanical strength of all the thermally hardened cylinders, independently of the intermediate treatment, is in the tangential direction higher than in the axial direction. The proportions of the structure and texture factors have been assessed in the variation of the structural strength of the cylinders during the course of their heat treatment

  18. Gravitational effects of global textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzold, D.

    1990-03-01

    A solution for the dynamics of global textures is obtained. Their gravitational field during the collapse and the subsequent evolution is found to be given solely by a space-time dependent ''deficit solid angle.'' The frequency shift of photons traversing this gravitational field is calculated. The space-time dependent texture metric locally contracts the volume of three-space and thereby induces overdensities in homogeneous matter distributions. There are no gravitational forces unless matter has a nonzero angular momentum with respect to the texture origin which would be the case for moving textures

  19. LOCAL TEXTURE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  20. Accessible switching of electronic defect type in SrTi O3 via biaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yen-Ting; Youssef, Mostafa; Sun, Lixin; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Yildiz, Bilge

    2018-05-01

    Elastic strain is used widely to alter the mobility of free electronic carriers in semiconductors, but a predictive relationship between elastic lattice strain and the extent of charge localization of electronic defects is still underdeveloped. Here we considered SrTi O3 , a prototypical perovskite as a model functional oxide for thin film electronic devices and nonvolatile memories. We assessed the effects of biaxial strain on the stability of electronic defects at finite temperature by combining density functional theory (DFT) and quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) calculations. We constructed a predominance diagram for free electrons and small electron polarons in this material, as a function of biaxial strain and temperature. We found that biaxial tensile strain in SrTi O3 can stabilize the small polaron, leading to a thermally activated and slower electronic transport, consistent with prior experimental observations on SrTi O3 and distinct from our prior theoretical assessment of the response of SrTi O3 to hydrostatic stress. These findings also resolved apparent conflicts between prior atomistic simulations and conductivity experiments for biaxially strained SrTi O3 thin films. Our computational approach can be extended to other functional oxides, and for the case of SrTi O3 our findings provide concrete guidance for conditions under which strain engineering can shift the electronic defect type and concentration to modulate electronic transport in thin films.

  1. Research on Design and Simulation of Biaxial Tensile-Bending Complex Mechanical Performance Test Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a micro-mechanic performance test of biaxial tensile-bending-combined loading and solve the problem of incompatibility of test apparatus and observation apparatus, novel biaxial-combined tensile-bending micro-mechanical performance test apparatus was designed. The working principle and major functions of key constituent parts of test apparatus, including the servo drive unit, clamping unit and test system, were introduced. Based on the finite element method, biaxial tensile and tension-bending-combined mechanical performances of the test-piece were studied as guidance to learn the distribution of elastic deformation and plastic deformation of all sites of the test-piece and to better plan test regions. Finally, this test apparatus was used to conduct a biaxial tensile test under different pre-bending loading and a tensile test at different rates; the image of the fracture of the test-piece was acquired by a scanning electron microscope and analyzed. It was indicated that as the pre-bending force rises, the elastic deformation phase would gradually shorten and the slope of the elastic deformation phase curve would slightly rise so that a yield limit would appear ahead of time. Bending speed could exert a positive and beneficial influence on tensile strength but weaken fracture elongation. If bending speed is appropriately raised, more ideal anti-tensile strength could be obtained, but fracture elongation would decline.

  2. Crack under biaxial loading: Two-parameter description and prediction of crack growth direction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, APR (2014), s. 44-49 ISSN 0213-3725 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AT012 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete * T-stress * cracks growth prediction * numerical calculation * biaxial loading Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies

  4. 2D nonlocal versus 3D bifurcation studies for biaxially loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benallal, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to analyse how a two-dimensional second gradient plasticity model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional bifurcation behaviour for a biaxially loaded flat plate. While it is found that the simple model used here is able to capture them qualitatively for the ...

  5. Studies of biaxial mechanical properties and nonlinear finite element modeling of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xituan; Yen, Michael R T; Gaber, M Waleed

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct mechanical property studies of skin from two individual but potentially connected aspects. One is to determine the mechanical properties of the skin experimentally by biaxial tests, and the other is to use the finite element method to model the skin properties. Dynamic biaxial tests were performed on 16 pieces of abdominal skin specimen from rats. Typical biaxial stress-strain responses show that skin possesses anisotropy, nonlinearity and hysteresis. To describe the stress-strain relationship in forms of strain energy function, the material constants of each specimen were obtained and the results show a high correlation between theory and experiments. Based on the experimental results, a finite element model of skin was built to model the skin's special properties including anisotropy and nonlinearity. This model was based on Arruda and Boyce's eight-chain model and Bischoff et al.'s finite element model of skin. The simulation results show that the isotropic, nonlinear eight-chain model could predict the skin's anisotropic and nonlinear responses to biaxial loading by the presence of an anisotropic prestress state.

  6. Mechanical properties of biaxially strained poly(L-lactide) tubes: Strain rate and temperature dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2017-01-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a bioabsorbable polymer with high stiffness and strength compared to the other commercially available bioabsorbable polymers. The properties of PLLA can be improved by straining, causing deformation-mediated molecular orientation. PLLA tubes were biaxially strained above...

  7. Dark texture in artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2012-01-01

    This presentation highlights issues relating to the digital capture printing of 2D and 3D artefacts and accurate colour reproduction of 3D objects. There are a range of opportunities and technologies for the scanning and printing of two-dimensional and threedimensional artefacts [1]. A successful approach of Polynomial Texture Mapping (PTM) technique, to create a Reflectance Transformation Image (RTI) [2-4] is being used for the conservation and heritage of artworks as these methods are non invasive or non destructive of fragile artefacts. This approach captures surface detail of twodimensional artworks using a multidimensional approach that by using a hemispherical dome comprising 64 lamps to create an entire surface topography. The benefits of this approach are to provide a highly detailed visualization of the surface of materials and objects.

  8. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely

  9. Human versus artificial texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petiet, Peter J.; van Erp, J.; Drullman, R.; van den Broek, Egon; Beintema, J.; van Wijngaarden, S.

    2006-01-01

    The performances of current texture analysis algorithms are still poor, especially when applied to a large, diffuse texture domain. Most of these purely computationally driven techniques are created to function within a highly restricted domain. When applied as computer vision techniques, frequently

  10. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammed Abdullah Al-Makramani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995 were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001. There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05. Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  11. Redesigning axial-axial (biaxial) cruciform specimens for very high cycle fatigue ultrasonic testing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão, Diogo; Wren, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The necessity to increase performances in terms of lifetime and security in mechanical components or structures is the motivation for intense research in fatigue. Applications range from aeronautics to medical devices. With the development of new materials, there is no longer a fatigue limit in the classical sense, where it was accepted that the fatigue limit is the stress level such that there is no fracture up to 1E7 cycles. The recent development of ultrasonic testing machines where frequencies can go as high as 20 kHz or over enabled tests to be extended to ranges larger than 1E9 in just a few days. This area of studies is now known as Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF). On the other hand, most of the existing test equipment in the market for both classical and VHCF are uniaxial test machines. However, critical components used in Engineering applications are usually subjected to complex multi-axial loading conditions. In this paper, it is presented the methodology to redesigning existing cruciform test specimens that can be used to create an in-plane biaxial state of stress when used in 'uniaxial' VHCF ultrasonic testing machines (in this case, the term 'uniaxial' is used not because of the state of stress created at the centre of the specimen, but because of the direction at which the load is applied). The methodology is explained in such a way that it can be expanded to other existing designs, namely cruciform designs, that are not yet used in VHCF. Also, although the approach is presented in simple and logical terms, it may not be that obvious for those who have a more focused approach on fatigue rather than on modal analysis. It is expected that by contributing to bridging the gap between the sciences of modal analysis and fatigue, this research will help and encourage others exploiting new capabilities in VHCF.

  12. Perceptual asymmetry in texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D; Julesz, B

    1992-07-15

    A fundamental property of human visual perception is our ability to distinguish between textures. A concerted effort has been made to account for texture segregation in terms of linear spatial filter models and their nonlinear extensions. However, for certain texture pairs the ease of discrimination changes when the role of figure and ground are reversed. This asymmetry poses a problem for both linear and nonlinear models. We have isolated a property of texture perception that can account for this asymmetry in discrimination: subjective closure. This property, which is also responsible for visual illusions, appears to be explainable by early visual processes alone. Our results force a reexamination of the process of human texture segregation and of some recent models that were introduced to explain it.

  13. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Xin-liang; Geng, Xin-hua; Zhang, De-kun; Wei, Chang-chun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. ► The directly deposited HGZO thin films present rough crater-type surface morphology. ► Typical HGZO thin film exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm 2 /V s and a relative low sheet resistance of ∼7.0 Ω. ► These HGZO thin films have high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region (∼380–1100 nm). ► A gradient H 2 growth method for fabricating HGZO thin films has been proposed in magnetron sputtering process. - Abstract: The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region (λ = 380–1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of ∼2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm 2 /V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of ∼7.0 Ω. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H 2 growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. “Crater-like” surface feature size and optical transmittance

  14. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.

  15. Micro-Texture Synthesis by Phase Randomization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galerne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with texture synthesis by example, the process of generating new texture images from a given sample. The Random Phase Noise algorithm presented here synthesizes a texture from an original image by simply randomizing its Fourier phase. It is able to reproduce textures which are characterized by their Fourier modulus, namely the random phase textures (or micro-textures.

  16. Second order statistical analysis of US image texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, F.; Novario, R.

    1999-01-01

    The study reports the sonographic image texture of the neonatal heart in different stages of development by calculating numerical parameters extracted from the gray scale co-occurrence matrix. To show pixel values differences and enhance texture structure, images were equalized and then the gray level range was reduced to 16 to allow sufficiently high occupancy frequency of the co-occurrence matrix. Differences are so little significant that they may be due to different factors affecting image texture and the variability introduced by manual ROI positioning; therefore no definitive conclusions can be drawn as to considering this kind of analysis capable of discriminating different stages of myocardial development [it

  17. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield(®) CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab(®) Combo scanner. Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae.

  18. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  19. Effects of monoclinic symmetry on the properties of biaxial liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkov, Nikita V.; Nagaraj, Mamatha; Jones, J. Cliff

    2018-04-01

    Tilted smectic liquid crystal phases such as the smectic-C phase seen in calamitic liquid crystals are usually treated using the assumption of biaxial orthorhombic symmetry. However, the smectic-C phase has monoclinic symmetry, thereby allowing disassociation of the principal optic and dielectric axes based on symmetry and invariance principles. This is demonstrated here by comparing optical and dielectric measurements for two materials with highly first-order direct transitions from nematic to smectic-C phases. The results show a high difference between the orientations of the principal axes sets, which is interpreted as the existence of two distinct cone angles for optical and dielectric frequencies. Both materials exhibit an increasing degree of monoclinic behavior with decreasing temperature. Due to fast switching speeds, ferroelectric smectic-C* materials are important for fast modulators and LCoS devices, where the dielectric biaxiality influences device operation.

  20. Mechanical properties of stanene under uniaxial and biaxial loading: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojumder, Satyajit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Amin, Abdullah Al [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case western Reverse University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Islam, Md Mahbubul, E-mail: mmi122@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Stanene, a graphene like two dimensional honeycomb structure of tin has attractive features in electronics application. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using modified embedded atom method potential to investigate mechanical properties of stanene. We studied the effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of α-stanene for both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Our study suggests that with the increasing temperature, both the fracture strength and strain of the stanene decrease. Uniaxial loading in zigzag direction shows higher fracture strength and strain compared to the armchair direction, while no noticeable variation in the mechanical properties is observed for biaxial loading. We also found at a higher loading rate, material exhibits higher fracture strength and strain. These results will aid further investigation of stanene as a potential nano-electronics substitute.

  1. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundell, Per; Yin, Yihao [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2017-01-11

    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in https://arxiv.org/abs/1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by a sum of generalized Petrov type-D tensors that are Kerr-like or 2-brane-like in the asymptotic AdS{sub 4} region, and the twistor space connection is smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  2. Effect of texturing on polarization switching dynamics in ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Genenko, Yuri A.; Koruza, Jurij; Schultheiß, Jan; von Seggern, Heinz; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Murata, Tatsuro; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Highly (100),(001)-oriented (Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3 (BCT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by the reactive templated grain growth method using a mixture of plate-like CaTiO3 and BaTiO3 particles. Piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with a high degree of texture were found to be considerably enhanced compared with the BCT ceramics with a low degree of texture. With increasing the Lotgering factor from 26% up to 94%, the piezoelectric properties develop towards the properties of a single crystal. The dynamics of polarization switching was studied over a broad time domain of 8 orders of magnitude and was found to strongly depend on the degree of orientation of the ceramics. Samples with a high degree of texture exhibited 2-3 orders of magnitude faster polarization switching, as compared with the ones with a low degree of texture. This was rationalized by means of the Inhomogeneous Field Mechanism model as a result of the narrower statistical distribution of the local electric field values in textured media, which promotes a more coherent switching process. The extracted microscopic parameters of switching revealed a decrease of the critical nucleus energy in systems with a high degree of texture providing more favorable switching conditions related to the enhanced ferroelectric properties of the textured material.

  3. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan

    2014-09-01

    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  4. Chaos synchronization in bi-axial magnets modeled by Bloch equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Nguenang, J.P.; Kofane, T.C.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we show that the bi-axial magnetic material modelled by Bloch equation admits chaotic solutions for a certain set of numerical values assigned to the system of parameters and initial conditions. Using the unidirectional linear and nonlinear feedback schemes, we demonstrate that two such systems can be synchronized together. The chaotic synchronization is discussed in the context of complete synchronization which means that the difference of the states of two relevant systems converge to zero. (author)

  5. Ab initio study of Co and Ni under uniaxial and biaxial loading and in epitaxial overlayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelený, Martin; Legut, Dominik; Šob, Mojmír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 22 (2008), 224105/1-224105/11 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/05/H008; GA AV ČR IAA1041302; GA MŠk OC 147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ab initio calculations * epitaxial overlayers * uniaxial and biaxial loading Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  6. Food Texture Preferences in Infants Versus Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brenda; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared food texture preferences during infancy and toddlerhood. Found that infants displayed more negative expressions and head and body movements in response to complex textures than to simple textures. Toddlers displayed more positive head and body movements and more eagerness in response to complex than to simple textures. Experience with…

  7. Investigation of in-plane biaxial low cycle fatigued austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. I. Mechanical testing on the planar biaxial load machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.; Balagurov, A.M.; Kuznetsov, A.N.; Schreiber, J.; Bomas, H.; Stoeberl, Ch.; Rathjen, P.; Vorster, W.J.J.; Korsunsky, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    During fatigue loading of structural materials such as stainless steel, changes in the microstructure which affect the mechanical and physical properties occur. Experimental simulation of the loading conditions that induce the changes can be performed by mechanical loading, usually in the form of uniaxial tension-compression cycling. However, real machines and structures are subjected to more complex multiaxial stresses. Fatigue and fracture under multiaxial stresses are one of the most important current topics aimed at ensuring improved reliability of industrial components. The first step towards better understanding of this problem is to subject the materials to biaxial loading. The material examined was low austenitic stainless steel AISI 321 H. A set of the four samples of cruciform geometry was subjected to the biaxial tension-compression fatigue cycling with the frequency of 0.5 Hz at the applied load of 10-17 kN. The samples are intended for the neutron diffraction measurements of the residual stresses and the mechanical characterizations on a dedicated stress-diffractometer

  8. Effect of metal chloride solutions on coloration and biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Kwangmin; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Fisher, John G.; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    The effect of three kinds of transition metal dopants on the color and biaxial flexural strength of zirconia ceramics for dental applications was evaluated. Presintered zirconia discs were colored through immersion in aqueous chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions and then sintered at 1450 °C. The color of the doped specimens was measured using a digital spectrophotometer. For biaxial flexural strength measurements, specimens infiltrated with 0.3 wt% of each aqueous chloride solution were used. Uncolored discs were used as a control. Zirconia specimens infiltrated with chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions were dark brown, light yellow and dark yellow, respectively. CIE L*, a*, and b* values of all the chromium-doped specimens and the specimens infiltrated with 0.1 wt% molybdenum chloride solution were in the range of values for natural teeth. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three kinds of metal chloride groups were similar to the uncolored group. These results suggest that chromium and molybdenum dopants can be used as colorants to fabricate tooth colored zirconia ceramic restorations.

  9. A novel constrained H2 optimization algorithm for mechatronics design in flexure-linked biaxial gantry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Chen, Si-Lu; Kamaldin, Nazir; Teo, Chek Sing; Tay, Arthur; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2017-11-01

    The biaxial gantry is widely used in many industrial processes that require high precision Cartesian motion. The conventional rigid-link version suffers from breaking down of joints if any de-synchronization between the two carriages occurs. To prevent above potential risk, a flexure-linked biaxial gantry is designed to allow a small rotation angle of the cross-arm. Nevertheless, the chattering of control signals and inappropriate design of the flexure joint will possibly induce resonant modes of the end-effector. Thus, in this work, the design requirements in terms of tracking accuracy, biaxial synchronization, and resonant mode suppression are achieved by integrated optimization of the stiffness of flexures and PID controller parameters for a class of point-to-point reference trajectories with same dynamics but different steps. From here, an H 2 optimization problem with defined constraints is formulated, and an efficient iterative solver is proposed by hybridizing direct computation of constrained projection gradient and line search of optimal step. Comparative experimental results obtained on the testbed are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biaxial testing for nuclear grade graphite by ball on three balls assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Yusof Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear grade (high-purity) graphite for fuel element and moderator material in Advanced Gas Cooling Reactors (AGR) displays large scatter in strength and a non-linear stress-strain response from the damage accumulation. These responses can be characterized as quasi-brittle behaviour. Current assessments of fracture in core graphite components are based on the linear elastic approximation and thus represent a major assumption. The quasi-brittle behaviour gives challenge to assess the real nuclear graphite component. The selected test method would help to bridge the gap between microscale to macro-scale in real reactor component. The small scale tests presented here can contribute some statistical data to manifests the failure in real component. The evaluation and choice of different solution design of biaxial test will be discussed in this paper. The ball on-three ball test method was used for assessment test follows by numerous of analytical method. The results shown that biaxial strength of the EY9 grade graphite depends on the method used for evaluation. Some of the analytical methods use to calculate biaxial strength were found not to be valid and therefore should not be used to assess the mechanical properties of nuclear graphite. (author)

  11. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials’ life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman–Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures

  12. A study of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic heart valves using a novel biaxial stretch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2017-11-01

    In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls. Strain fields in static cusps were more uniform than those in stretched cusps, which indicated degradation of the ECM fibers. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly elevated in the static control as compared to fresh or stretched cusps, but no difference was observed in collagen content among the groups. The strain profile of freshly isolated fibrosa vs. ventricularis and left, right, and noncoronary cusps were also determined by Digital Image Correlation technique. Distinct strain patterns were observed under stretch on fibrosa and ventricularis sides and among the three cusps. This work highlights the critical role of the anisotropic ECM structure for proper functions of native aortic valves and the beneficial effects of biaxial stretch for maintenance of the native ECM structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uniaxial and biaxial tensioning effects on thin membrane materials. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, W. F.; Goslee, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Thin laminated membranes are being considered for various surface applications on future large space structural systems. Some of the thin membranes would be stretched across or between structural members with the requirement that the membrane be maintained within specified limits of smoothness which would be dictated by the particular applications such as antenna reflector requirements. The multiaxial tensile force required to maintain the smoothness in the membrane needs to be determined for use in the structure design. Therefore, several types of thicknesses of thin membrane materials have been subjected to varied levels of uniaxial and biaxial tensile loads. During the biaxial tests, deviations of the material surface smoothness were measured by a noncontacting capacitance probe. Basic materials consisted of composites of vacuum deposited aluminum on Mylar and Kapton ranging in thickness from 0.00025 in (0.000635 cm) to 0.002 in (0.00508 cm). Some of the material was reinforced with Kevlar and Nomex scrim. The uniaxial tests determined the material elongation and tensile forces up to ultimate conditions. Biaxial tests indicated that a relatively smooth material surface could be achieved with tensile force of approximately 1 to 15 Newtons per centimeter, depending upon the material thickness and/or reinforcement.

  14. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Does overshoot in leaf development of ponderosa pine in wet years leads to bark beetle outbreaks on fine-textured soils in drier years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Peterman

    2014-12-01

    attributed to the fact that an equivalent amount of stored water in the rooting zone (100 mm is extracted less efficiently from fine-textured soils than from coarse-textured ones.

  16. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cătălina Bogdan,1 Mirela L Moldovan,1 Ioana Manuela Man,2 Maria Crișan,2 1Department of Dermopharmacy and Cosmetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hațieganu”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Purpose: Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Patients and methods: Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield® CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab® Combo scanner. Results: Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. Conclusion: A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the

  17. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  18. New tools to investigate textures of pyroclastic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarocchi, Damiano [Instituto de GeologIa / Fac. IngenierIa UASLP, Dr. M. Nava No 5, Zona Universitaria 78240, San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Borselli, Lorenzo [Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); MacIas, Jose Luis [Departamento de VulcanologIa, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-10-01

    A pyroclastic flow deposit keeps a fingerprint of the physical processes that occurred in the flow during transport and settling. Part of this information is recorded in the texture of the deposit offering an instantaneous view of the flow prior to freezing. In this work we introduce some texture's analysis techniques, based on image analysis, that we have developed or tuned during the last years.

  19. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  1. Through-process modelling of texture and anisotropy in AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbach, M.; Neumann, L.; Goerdeler, M.; Aretz, H.; Gottstein, G.; Kopp, R.

    2006-07-01

    A through-process texture and anisotropy prediction for AA5182 sheet production from hot rolling through cold rolling and annealing is reported. Thermo-mechanical process data predicted by the finite element method (FEM) package T-Pack based on the software LARSTRAN were fed into a combination of physics based microstructure models for deformation texture (GIA), work hardening (3IVM), nucleation texture (ReNuc), and recrystallization texture (StaRT). The final simulated sheet texture was fed into a FEM simulation of cup drawing employing a new concept of interactively updated texture based yield locus predictions. The modelling results of texture development and anisotropy were compared to experimental data. The applicability to other alloys and processes is discussed.

  2. Texture and superelastic behavior of cold-rolled TiNbTaZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiang; Lu Weijie; Qin Jining; Zhang Fan; Zhang Di

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the deformation texture and strain-induced α'' martensite texture of TiNbTaZr alloy during cold rolling. The alloy is rolled by 20% and 90% reductions without changing rolling direction. Textures of cold-rolled specimens are investigated by X-ray diffraction measurements. Besides {2 2 1} β β twinning texture, {1 0 0} β β texture is developed in the specimen with 20% reduction. In the 90% cold-rolled specimen, {1 0 0} β β texture appears along rolling direction and strain-induced α'' martensite texture tends to [0 1 0] and [0 0 1] directions along rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD), respectively. Superelastic strain (ε SE ) exhibits higher value along RD and TD. Pure elastic strain (ε E ) shows higher value along RD and 45 deg. from RD

  3. Texturing and modeling a procedural approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, David S

    1994-01-01

    Congratulations to Ken Perlin for his 1997 Technical Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Board of Governors, given in recognition of the development of ""Turbulence"", Perlin Noise, a technique discussed in this book which is used to produce natural appearing textures on computer-generated surfaces for motion picture visual effects. Dr. Perlin joins Darwyn Peachey (co-developer of RenderMan(R), also discussed in the book) in being honored with this prestigious award.* * Written at a usable level by the developers of the techniques* Serves as a source book for

  4. DNS of flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture sizes, comparable to those of practical application. Textures studied with DNS are usually much larger, as the cost of the simulations would otherwise be prohibitive. For this reason, a multi-block code that allows for finer resolution near the walls has been developed. We focus particularly on the pressure distribution at the wall. This distribution can cause the deformation of the gas pockets, which can ultimately lead to their loss and that of the drag reduction effect. The layout of the texture causes stagnation pressures which can contribute substantially to the wall pressure signal (Seo et al. JFM, under review). We study a range of different textures and their influence on these pressures.

  5. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  6. Texture of altered layers issued from glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalippou, J.; Woignier, Th.; Ayral, A.

    1997-01-01

    The layers which develop at the glass surface subjected to water corrosion depend on a collection of interacting parameters. Such a material can be studied using techniques which have been previously demonstrated as suitable for gels. A detailed description of the behaviour of gels under measurements is given. Investigations show that to really know the texture both mechanical properties and permeability must be known. Different experiments are reported. They give a rough estimate of the altered layer texture. Results coming from different techniques are compared and in a few cases are used to estimate additional textural information. Finally we put an insight into the nature and consequently to the texture evolution of the layer as the corrosion proceeds. (authors)

  7. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.mx, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.com, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.com, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.com, E-mail: romerobeatriz98@hotmail.com, E-mail: napor@hotmail.com [INSTITUTO POLITECNICO NACIONAL Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-19

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E({sigma}{sup 2}{sub x} + {sigma}{sup 2}{sub y}) - {nu}/E({sigma}{sub x}{sigma}{sub y})]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of {theta} of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where {theta} is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  8. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch

    2011-01-01

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E(σ 2 x + σ 2 y ) - ν/E(σ x σy)]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of θ of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where θ is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  9. Multi-mode technique for the determination of the biaxial Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} permittivity tensor from 300 to 6 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, N. C., E-mail: natalia.docarmocarvalho@research.uwa.edu.au; Le Floch, J-M.; Tobar, M. E. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems (EQuS), 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Krupka, J. [Instytut Mikroelektroniki i Optoelektroniki PW, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-11

    The Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (YSO) crystal is a dielectric material with biaxial anisotropy with known values of refractive index at optical frequencies. It is a well-known rare-earth (RE) host material for optical research and more recently has shown promising performance for quantum-engineered devices. In this paper, we report the first microwave characterization of the real permittivity tensor of a bulk YSO sample, as well as an investigation of the temperature dependence of the tensor components from 296 K down to 6 K. Estimated uncertainties were below 0.26%, limited by the precision of machining the cylindrical dielectric. Also, the electrical Q-factors of a few electromagnetic modes were recorded as a way to provide some information about the crystal losses over the temperature range. To solve the tensor components necessary for a biaxial crystal, we developed the multi-mode technique, which uses simultaneous measurement of low order whispering gallery modes. Knowledge of the permittivity tensor offers important data, essential for the design of technologies involving YSO, such as microwave coupling to electron and hyperfine transitions in RE doped samples at low temperatures.

  10. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility, H.-von-Helmholtz-Pl. 1, 76344 Egg.-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kumari, Renu [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Besser, Heino [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Scharnweber, Tim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IBG-1, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta, E-mail: jyotsna@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  11. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm; Kumari, Renu; Besser, Heino; Scharnweber, Tim; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti_2O_3 phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  12. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  13. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  14. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators

  15. Improvement of IBAD-MgO texturing for high throughput of buffered substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsuse, K.; Kuriki, R.; Tokumaru, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    The requirements from the market on two important factors of performance and cost need to be satisfied for commercialization of the coated conductors. Highly biaxially grain texturing with high production rate should be realized from the perspective of buffer layers processing. IBAD-MgO process is one of the major techniques which are possible to satisfy those requirements. The structure of our buffered substrate is IBS-GZO/IBAD-MgO/RFsputter-LaMnO 3 /PLD-CeO 2 . The PLD-CeO 2 process is the rate limiting and cost dominant one in this architecture. It is proposed that the self-texturing CeO 2 layer thickness could be reduced by optimization of the MgO processing due to higher MgO texturing and/or effective growth of self-texturing CeO 2 . Influence of the IBAD beam conditions and deposition time has been studied to optimize the IBAD conditions. Optimized IBAD conditions were decided from the viewpoints of in-plane grain texturing and the stability to obtain high texturing on fabrication. The Δφ value of CeO 2 layer was improved from 4-5 o to 3-3.5 o by the optimization. This buffered substrate gave high and uniform I c values of 524-565 A/cm-width for 50 m long GdBCO (1.5 μm) tape, indicating uniform distribution of Δφ(CeO 2 ). This improvement of Δφ(CeO 2 ) enables to reduce the CeO 2 thickness down to 300 nm without making Δφ(CeO 2 ) > 5 o , which improves CeO 2 throughput from 10 m/h to 30 m/h. A 50 m long patch sample showed more uniform Δφ distribution around 4 o even by high speed of 30 m/h as CeO 2 through-put. Highly and uniformly textured CeO 2 buffered substrate was obtained in 100 m long cost-effectively by optimization of IBAD-MgO processing.

  16. Improvement of IBAD-MgO texturing for high throughput of buffered substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T., E-mail: t-ito@istec.or.jp [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Takahashi, Y.; Matsuse, K.; Kuriki, R.; Tokumaru, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The requirements from the market on two important factors of performance and cost need to be satisfied for commercialization of the coated conductors. Highly biaxially grain texturing with high production rate should be realized from the perspective of buffer layers processing. IBAD-MgO process is one of the major techniques which are possible to satisfy those requirements. The structure of our buffered substrate is IBS-GZO/IBAD-MgO/RFsputter-LaMnO{sub 3}/PLD-CeO{sub 2}. The PLD-CeO{sub 2} process is the rate limiting and cost dominant one in this architecture. It is proposed that the self-texturing CeO{sub 2} layer thickness could be reduced by optimization of the MgO processing due to higher MgO texturing and/or effective growth of self-texturing CeO{sub 2}. Influence of the IBAD beam conditions and deposition time has been studied to optimize the IBAD conditions. Optimized IBAD conditions were decided from the viewpoints of in-plane grain texturing and the stability to obtain high texturing on fabrication. The {Delta}{phi} value of CeO{sub 2} layer was improved from 4-5{sup o} to 3-3.5{sup o} by the optimization. This buffered substrate gave high and uniform I{sub c} values of 524-565 A/cm-width for 50 m long GdBCO (1.5 {mu}m) tape, indicating uniform distribution of {Delta}{phi}(CeO{sub 2}). This improvement of {Delta}{phi}(CeO{sub 2}) enables to reduce the CeO{sub 2} thickness down to 300 nm without making {Delta}{phi}(CeO{sub 2}) > 5{sup o}, which improves CeO{sub 2} throughput from 10 m/h to 30 m/h. A 50 m long patch sample showed more uniform {Delta}{phi} distribution around 4{sup o} even by high speed of 30 m/h as CeO{sub 2} through-put. Highly and uniformly textured CeO{sub 2} buffered substrate was obtained in 100 m long cost-effectively by optimization of IBAD-MgO processing.

  17. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  18. AUTOMATIC TEXTURE MAPPING OF ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 3D MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  19. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  20. Tribological Behavior of Laser Textured Hot Stamping Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Shihomatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping of high strength steels has been continuously developed in the automotive industry to improve mechanical properties and surface quality of stamped components. One of the main challenges faced by researchers and technicians is to improve stamping dies lifetime by reducing the wear caused by high pressures and temperatures present during the process. This paper analyzes the laser texturing of hot stamping dies and discusses how different surfaces textures influence the lubrication and wear mechanisms. To this purpose, experimental tests and numerical simulation were carried out to define the die region to be texturized and to characterize the textured surface topography before and after hot stamping tests with a 3D surface profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that laser texturing influences the lubrication at the interface die-hot sheet and improves die lifetime. In this work, the best texture presented dimples with the highest diameter, depth, and spacing, with the surface topography and dimples morphology practically preserved after the hot stamping tests.

  1. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  2. Texture analysis using Gabor wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Wang, Jian; Ogunbona, Philip O.

    1996-04-01

    Receptive field profiles of simple cells in the visual cortex have been shown to resemble even- symmetric or odd-symmetric Gabor filters. Computational models employed in the analysis of textures have been motivated by two-dimensional Gabor functions arranged in a multi-channel architecture. More recently wavelets have emerged as a powerful tool for non-stationary signal analysis capable of encoding scale-space information efficiently. A multi-resolution implementation in the form of a dyadic decomposition of the signal of interest has been popularized by many researchers. In this paper, Gabor wavelet configured in a 'rosette' fashion is used as a multi-channel filter-bank feature extractor for texture classification. The 'rosette' spans 360 degrees of orientation and covers frequencies from dc. In the proposed algorithm, the texture images are decomposed by the Gabor wavelet configuration and the feature vectors corresponding to the mean of the outputs of the multi-channel filters extracted. A minimum distance classifier is used in the classification procedure. As a comparison the Gabor filter has been used to classify the same texture images from the Brodatz album and the results indicate the superior discriminatory characteristics of the Gabor wavelet. With the test images used it can be concluded that the Gabor wavelet model is a better approximation of the cortical cell receptive field profiles.

  3. EUROMET SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - SURFACE TEXTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot labora...

  4. Color Textons for Texture Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Texton models have proven to be very discriminative for the recognition of grayvalue images taken from rough textures. To further improve the discriminative power of the distinctive texton models of Varma and Zisserman (VZ model) (IJCV, vol. 62(1), pp. 61-81, 2005), we propose two schemes to exploit

  5. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  6. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19¿60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  7. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Aken, G.A. van; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake,

  8. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  9. Biaxially mechanical tuning of 2-D reversible and irreversible surface topologies through simultaneous and sequential wrinkling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yagüe, Jose Luis; Boyce, Mary C; Gleason, Karen K

    2014-02-26

    Controlled buckling is a facile means of structuring surfaces. The resulting ordered wrinkling topologies provide surface properties and features desired for multifunctional applications. Here, we study the biaxially dynamic tuning of two-dimensional wrinkled micropatterns under cyclic mechanical stretching/releasing/restretching simultaneously or sequentially. A biaxially prestretched PDMS substrate is coated with a stiff polymer deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Applying a mechanical release/restretch cycle in two directions loaded simultaneously or sequentially to the wrinkled system results in a variety of dynamic and tunable wrinkled geometries, the evolution of which is investigated using in situ optical profilometry, numerical simulations, and theoretical modeling. Results show that restretching ordered herringbone micropatterns, created through sequential release of biaxial prestrain, leads to reversible and repeatable surface topography. The initial flat surface and the same wrinkled herringbone pattern are obtained alternatively after cyclic release/restretch processes, owing to the highly ordered structure leaving no avenue for trapping irregular topological regions during cycling as further evidenced by the uniformity of strains distributions and negligible residual strain. Conversely, restretching disordered labyrinth micropatterns created through simultaneous release shows an irreversible surface topology whether after sequential or simultaneous restretching due to creation of irregular surface topologies with regions of highly concentrated strain upon formation of the labyrinth which then lead to residual strains and trapped topologies upon cycling; furthermore, these trapped topologies depend upon the subsequent strain histories as well as the cycle. The disordered labyrinth pattern varies after each cyclic release/restretch process, presenting residual shallow patterns instead of achieving a flat state. The ability to

  10. Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, A; Hurtig, M B; Gordon, K D

    2015-01-01

    The menisci in the knee joint undergo complex loading in-vivo resulting in a multidirectional stress distribution. Extensive mechanical testing has been conducted to investigate the tissue properties of the knee meniscus, but the testing conditions do not replicate this complex loading regime. Biaxial testing involves loading tissue along two different directions simultaneously, which more accurately simulates physiologic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to report mechanical properties of meniscal tissue resulting from biaxial testing, while simultaneously investigating regional variations in properties. Ten left, fresh porcine joints were obtained, and the medial and lateral menisci were harvested from each joint (twenty menisci total). Each menisci was divided into an anterior, middle and posterior region; and three slices (femoral, deep and tibial layers) were obtained from each region. Biaxial and constrained uniaxial testing was performed on each specimen, and Young's moduli were calculated from the resulting stress strain curves. Results illustrated significant differences in regional mechanical properties, with the medial anterior (Young's modulus (E)=11.14 ± 1.10 MPa), lateral anterior (E=11.54 ± 1.10 MPa) and lateral posterior (E=9.0 ± 1.2 MPa) regions exhibiting the highest properties compared to the medial central (E=5.0 ± 1.22 MPa), medial posterior (E=4.16 ± 1.13 MPa) and lateral central (E=5.6 ± 1.20 MPa) regions. Differences with depth were also significant on the lateral meniscus, with the femoral (E=12.7 ± 1.22 MPa) and tibial (E=8.6 ± 1.22 MPa) layers exhibiting the highest Young's moduli. This data may form the basis for future modeling of meniscal tissue, or may aid in the design of synthetic replacement alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang; Dong, Weiming; Kong, Yan; Mei, Xing; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Paul, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis

  12. 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-01-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the 'triennial' series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8

  13. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  14. In-situ neutron diffraction study of Zircaloy 4 subjected to biaxial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharghouri, M.A. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); McDonald, D.; Xiao, L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Zircaloy-4 is widely used as fuel element cladding in nuclear reactors. Pellet-clad interaction (PCI) failure is a concern for many water reactor fuel designs. Extensive work on the mechanism of PCI failure has led to the conclusion that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by iodine vapour in the temperature range relevant to fuel operation is the most probable cause of PCI failure in zirconium alloy fuel element cladding. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements performed on tubular Zircaloy-4 specimens simultaneously pulled in tension and pressurized internally will provide information on the effects of stress biaxiality on the distribution of stresses at the crystal level during loading. (author)

  15. Numerical modelling of fracture initiation and propagation in biaxial tests on rock samples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Steen, B

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available and Peirce, 1995). Additional edges can be obtained in the Voronoi tessellation, by connecting the geometric centre of the Voronoi polygons with the vertices of the polygons. These last elements are further referred to as the internal fracture paths, while... samples without flaws therefore display a very brittle behaviour (Napier and Peirce, 1995). To obtain a more plastic behaviour, it may be necessary to adjust the flaw density as well (D0 to D0b, Table 2). The brittleness of the simulated biaxial tests...

  16. SPICE compatible analytical electron mobility model for biaxial strained-Si-MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Amit; Sangwan, S. [UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Roy, J. N., E-mail: amit_chaudhry01@yahoo.com [Solar Semiconductro Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad (India)

    2011-05-15

    This paper describes an analytical model for bulk electron mobility in strained-Si layers as a function of strain. Phonon scattering, columbic scattering and surface roughness scattering are included to analyze the full mobility model. Analytical explicit calculations of all of the parameters to accurately estimate the electron mobility have been made. The results predict an increase in the electron mobility with the application of biaxial strain as also predicted from the basic theory of strain physics of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. The results have also been compared with numerically reported results and show good agreement. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Magnetic response of FeNbCuBSi RQ ribbons to bi-axial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butvin, P. E-mail: fyzipbut@nic.savba.sk; Butvinova, B.; Frait, Z.; Sitek, J.; Svec, P

    2000-06-02

    Nanocrystalline strip samples of the FeNbCuBSi class that are macroscopically heterogeneous due to surface /volume differences have been investigated. This heterogeneity is found to be a general property of the class. It represents a base for mutual force influence between the surface and the majority volume beneath. The bi-axial in-plane stress exerted by the ribbon surfaces on the volume is demonstrated first of all by a magnetoelastic anisotropy. The contribution of the creep-induced anisotropy, which can build up under the surface stress at post-treatment temperature, is also found possible.

  18. Magnetic response of FeNbCuBSi RQ ribbons to bi-axial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butvin, P.; Butvinova, B.; Frait, Z.; Sitek, J.; Svec, P.

    2000-01-01

    Nanocrystalline strip samples of the FeNbCuBSi class that are macroscopically heterogeneous due to surface /volume differences have been investigated. This heterogeneity is found to be a general property of the class. It represents a base for mutual force influence between the surface and the majority volume beneath. The bi-axial in-plane stress exerted by the ribbon surfaces on the volume is demonstrated first of all by a magnetoelastic anisotropy. The contribution of the creep-induced anisotropy, which can build up under the surface stress at post-treatment temperature, is also found possible

  19. Tunnel splitting in biaxial spin models investigated with spin-coherent-state path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhide; Liang, J.-Q.; Pu, F.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Tunnel splitting in biaxial spin models is investigated with a full evaluation of the fluctuation functional integrals of the Euclidean kernel in the framework of spin-coherent-state path integrals which leads to a magnitude of tunnel splitting quantitatively comparable with the numerical results in terms of diagonalization of the Hamilton operator. An additional factor resulted from a global time transformation converting the position-dependent mass to a constant one seems to be equivalent to the semiclassical correction of the Lagrangian proposed by Enz and Schilling. A long standing question whether the spin-coherent-state representation of path integrals can result in an accurate tunnel splitting is therefore resolved

  20. SPICE compatible analytical electron mobility model for biaxial strained-Si-MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Amit; Sangwan, S.; Roy, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model for bulk electron mobility in strained-Si layers as a function of strain. Phonon scattering, columbic scattering and surface roughness scattering are included to analyze the full mobility model. Analytical explicit calculations of all of the parameters to accurately estimate the electron mobility have been made. The results predict an increase in the electron mobility with the application of biaxial strain as also predicted from the basic theory of strain physics of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. The results have also been compared with numerically reported results and show good agreement. (semiconductor devices)

  1. A novel biaxial specimen for inducing residual stresses in thermoset polymers and fibre composite material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik; Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    engineers when they challenge the material limits in present and future thermoset and composite component. In addition to the new specimen configuration, this paper presents an analytical solution for the residual stress state in the specimen. The analytical solution assumes linear elastic and isotropic......A new type of specimen configuration with the purpose of introducing a well-defined biaxial residual (axisymmetric) stress field in a neat thermoset or a fibre composite material is presented. The ability to experimentally validate residual stress predictions is an increasing need for design...

  2. Biaxial creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 in the high alpha phase temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The ballooning response of Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident may be calculated from a knowledge of the thermal environment of the rods and the creep deformation characteristics of the cladding. In support of such calculations biaxial creep studies have been performed on fuel tubes supplied by Westinghouse, Wolverine and Sandvik of temperatures in the alpha phase range. This paper presents the results of an investigation of their respective creep behaviour which has resulted in the formulation of equations for use in LOCA fuel ballooning codes. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Anisotropic Biaxial Stress Induced Around Trench Gate of Si Power Transistor Using Water-Immersion Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yokogawa, Ryo; Oasa, Kohei; Nishiwaki, Tatsuya; Hamamoto, Takeshi; Ogura, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    The trench gate structure is one of the promising techniques to reduce on-state resistance (R on) for silicon power devices, such as insulated gate bipolar transistors and power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. In addition, it has been reported that stress is induced around the trench gate area, modifying the carrier mobilities. We evaluated the one-dimensional distribution and anisotropic biaxial stress by quasi-line excitation and water-immersion Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results clearly confirmed anisotropic biaxial stress in state-of-the-art silicon power devices. It is theoretically possible to estimate carrier mobility using piezoresistance coefficients and anisotropic biaxial stress. The electron mobility was increased while the hole mobility was decreased or remained almost unchanged in the silicon (Si) power device. The stress significantly modifies the R on of silicon power transistors. Therefore, their performance can be improved using the stress around the trench gate.

  4. A Review Paper on Camouflage Texture Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Amol Patil; Girraj Prasad Rathode

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evaluation method of camouflage texture effect is subjective evaluation. It’s very tedious and inconvenient to direct the texture designing. In this project, a systemic and rational method for direction and evaluation of camouflage texture designing is proposed. Camouflage consists of things such as leaves, branches, or brown and green paint, which are used to make it difficult for an enemy to see military forces and equipment. A camouflage texture evaluation method based on WSSIM...

  5. Texture evolution in upset-forged P/M and wrought tantalum: Experimentation and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingert, J.F.; Desch, P.B.; Bingert, S.R.; Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.

    1997-11-01

    Preferred orientations in polycrystalline materials can significantly affect their physical and mechanical response through the retention of anisotropic properties inherent to the single crystal. In this study the texture evolution in upset-forged PIM and wrought tantalum was measured as a function of initial texture, compressive strain, and relative position in the pressing. A / duplex fiber texture parallel to the compression axis was generally observed, with varying degrees of a radial component evident in the wrought material. The development of deformation textures derives from restricted crystallographic slip conditions that generate lattice rotations, and these grain reorientations can be modeled as a function of the prescribed deformation gradient. Texture development was simulated for equivalent deformations using both a modified Taylor approach and a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. A comparison between the predicted evolution and experimental results shows a good correlation with the texture components, but an overly sharp prediction at large strains from both the Taylor and VPSC models

  6. Festive, Textural Indian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Laura; Bookenberger, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The sixth-grade art curriculum includes world cultures and the art-history timeline. This lesson was created as the authors were developing relevant projects. They also presented it at an Ohio Art Education Association fall conference as part of their thematic unit, "Art of the Himalayas." As teachers, they were fascinated by the annual…

  7. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  8. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  9. Modeling Human Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumfart, Stefan; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Lughofer, Edwin; Eitzinger, Christian; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Groissboeck, Werner; Richter, Roland

    Texture is extensively used in areas such as product design and architecture to convey specific aesthetic information. Using the results of a psychological experiment, we model the relationship between computational texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures. Contrary to previous

  10. Categories of dicompact BI- T 2 texture spaces and a Banach-stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal aim of this paper is to consider various aspects of the theory of dicompact bi-T2 texture spaces, and place them in a categorical setting. It culminates in a version of the Banach-Stone theorem. On the way, a new class of textures, called here nearly plain textures, is seen to play a crucial role in the development ...

  11. Analysis of Crystallographic Textures in Aluminum Plates Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Saiyi; Mishin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A modeling and experimental investigation has been conducted to explore the effect of processing route on texture evolution during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of aluminum plate samples. It is found that although the textures in the plates develop along orientation fibers previously ide...... identified for ECAE-processed rods and bars, the main components and strength of these textures vary significantly with processing route, which may lead to considerable differences in the plastic anisotropy of the plates....

  12. Experiment to measure the effects of biaxial strain on the critical current of NbTi superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Twisted multifilament, copper-clad NbTi superconductors have been axially and biaxially strained at 4.2K with a 7.5T background field. A simply-constructed cryogenic loading frame was built and used to strain the conductor. Results on 1.27 mm x 3.13 mm conductor have shown that degradation of less than .3 percent of critical current occurred when the wire was biaxially strained to +3260 μepsilon in the axial direction and -1875 μepsilon in the transverse direction. Degradation approaches 3 percent of critical current at approximately 6000 μepsilon in the axial direction only

  13. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  14. Biaxial-Type Concentrated Solar Tracking System with a Fresnel Lens for Solar-Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Chieh Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromechanical, biaxial-type concentrated solar tracking system was designed for solar-thermal applications. In our tracking system, the sunlight was concentrated by the microstructure of Fresnel lens to the heating head of the Stirling engine and two solar cells were installed to provide the power for tracking system operation. In order to obtain the maximum sun power, the tracking system traces the sun with the altitude-azimuth biaxial tracing method and accurately maintains the sun’s radiation perpendicular to the plane of the heating head. The results indicated that the position of heating head is an important factor for power collection. If the sunlight can be concentrated to completely cover the heating head with small heat loss, we can obtain the maximum temperature of the heating head of the Stirling engine. Therefore, the temperature of heating head can be higher than 1000 °C in our experiment on a sunny day. Moreover, the results also revealed that the temperature decrease of the heating head is less than the power decrease of solar irradiation because of the latent heat of copper and the small heat loss from the heating head.

  15. Laser damage metrology in biaxial nonlinear crystals using different test beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Anne; Wagner, Frank R.; Akhouayri, Hassan; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Laser damage measurements in nonlinear optical crystals, in particular in biaxial crystals, may be influenced by several effects proper to these materials or greatly enhanced in these materials. Before discussion of these effects, we address the topic of error bar determination for probability measurements. Error bars for the damage probabilities are important because nonlinear crystals are often small and expensive, thus only few sites are used for a single damage probability measurement. We present the mathematical basics and a flow diagram for the numerical calculation of error bars for probability measurements that correspond to a chosen confidence level. Effects that possibly modify the maximum intensity in a biaxial nonlinear crystal are: focusing aberration, walk-off and self-focusing. Depending on focusing conditions, propagation direction, polarization of the light and the position of the focus point in the crystal, strong aberrations may change the beam profile and drastically decrease the maximum intensity in the crystal. A correction factor for this effect is proposed, but quantitative corrections are not possible without taking into account the experimental beam profile after the focusing lens. The characteristics of walk-off and self-focusing have quickly been reviewed for the sake of completeness of this article. Finally, parasitic second harmonic generation may influence the laser damage behavior of crystals. The important point for laser damage measurements is that the amount of externally observed SHG after the crystal does not correspond to the maximum amount of second harmonic light inside the crystal.

  16. Equi-biaxial loading effect on austenitic stainless steel fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gourdin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue lifetime assessment is essential in the design of structures. Under-estimated predictions may result in unnecessary in service inspections. Conversely, over-estimated predictions may have serious consequences on the integrity of structures. In some nuclear power plant components, the fatigue loading may be equibiaxial because of thermal fatigue. So the potential impact of multiaxial loading on the fatigue life of components is a major concern. Meanwhile, few experimental data are available on austenitic stainless steels. It is essential to improve the fatigue assessment methodologies to take into account the potential equi-biaxial fatigue damage. Hence this requires obtaining experimental data on the considered material with a strain tensor in equibiaxial tension. Two calibration tests (with strain gauges and image correlation were used to obtain the relationship between the imposed deflection and the radial strain on the FABIME2 specimen. A numerical study has confirmed this relationship. Biaxial fatigue tests are carried out on two austenitic stainless steels for different values of the maximum deflection, and with a load ratio equal to -1. The interpretation of the experimental results requires the use of an appropriate definition of strain equivalent. In nuclear industry, two kinds of definition are used: von Mises and TRESCA strain equivalent. These results have permitted to estimate the impact of the equibiaxiality on the fatigue life of components

  17. Biaxial fatigue tests and crack paths for AISI 304L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chaves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AISI 304L stainless steel specimens have been tested in fatigue. The tests were axial, torsional and in-phase biaxial, all of them under load control and R=-1. The S-N curves were built following the ASTM E739 standard and the method of maximum likelihood proposed by Bettinelli. The fatigue limits of the biaxial tests were represented in axes σ-τ. The elliptical quadrant, appropriate for ductile materials, and the elliptical arc, appropriate for fragile materials, were included in the graph. The experimental values were better fitted with an elliptical quadrant, despite the ratio between the pure torsion and tension fatigue limits, τFL/σFL, is 0.91, close to 1, which is a typical value for fragile materials. The crack direction along the surface has been analyzed by using a microscope, with especial attention to the crack initiation zones. The crack direction during the Stage I has been compared with theoretical models.

  18. Experimental study of internal conical refraction in a biaxial crystal with Laguerre–Gauss light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of internal conical refraction (CR) in a biaxial crystal was studied using Laguerre–Gauss light beams LG 0 ℓ with ℓ=1 and 2, while the lowest-order LG 0 0 beam was used as a reference. The transition from ordinary double refraction to CR was examined. It has been shown that double refraction of an LG 0 ℓ beam forms two focal spots containing ℓ dark stripes. These stripes evolve into ℓ+1 dark rings over an annular focal image when CR is established, and it results in a fine-structure of ℓ+2 bright focal rings with different intensities. In a sharp contrast to the lowest-order reference, the multiring focal structure has a distinct asymmetry with respect to the focal image plane. It has been shown that bright off-axis ‘hot spot’ can be formed on the far-field profiles of outgoing light beams when the biaxial crystal is slightly tilted, and a small angle between the propagation axis of the beam and the optic axis of the crystal arises. These off-axis light structures emerge as either a charge-one optical vortex or a zero-charge spot with annihilated vorticity. Polarization selection reveals J 1 or J 0 Bessel-like profiles of the corresponding ‘hot spots’, and a complex pattern of forked fringes in the dark region near the beam core. (paper)

  19. Robust control for a biaxial servo with time delay system based on adaptive tuning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Chi; Yu, Chih-Hsien

    2009-07-01

    A robust control method for synchronizing a biaxial servo system motion is proposed in this paper. A new network based cross-coupled control and adaptive tuning techniques are used together to cancel out the skew error. The conventional fixed gain PID cross-coupled controller (CCC) is replaced with the adaptive cross-coupled controller (ACCC) in the proposed control scheme to maintain biaxial servo system synchronization motion. Adaptive-tuning PID (APID) position and velocity controllers provide the necessary control actions to maintain synchronization while following a variable command trajectory. A delay-time compensator (DTC) with an adaptive controller was augmented to set the time delay element, effectively moving it outside the closed loop, enhancing the stability of the robust controlled system. This scheme provides strong robustness with respect to uncertain dynamics and disturbances. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed control structure adapts to a wide range of operating conditions and provides promising results under parameter variations and load changes.

  20. Characterization of mechanical properties of pericardium tissue using planar biaxial tension and flexural deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle; Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Flexure is an important mode of deformation for native and bioprosthetic heart valves. However, mechanical characterization of bioprosthetic leaflet materials has been done primarily through planar tensile testing. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational cantilever beam bending test was performed to characterize the flexural properties of glutaraldehyde-treated bovine and porcine pericardium of different thicknesses. A strain-invariant based structural constitutive model was used to model the pericardial mechanical behavior quantified through the bending tests of this study and the planar biaxial tests previously performed. The model parameters were optimized through an inverse finite element (FE) procedure in order to describe both sets of experimental data. The optimized material properties were implemented in FE simulations of transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) deformation. It was observed that porcine pericardium TAV leaflets experienced significantly more flexure than bovine when subjected to opening pressurization, and that the flexure may be overestimated using a constitutive model derived from purely planar tensile experimental data. Thus, modeling of a combination of flexural and biaxial tensile testing data may be necessary to more accurately describe the mechanical properties of pericardium, and to computationally investigate bioprosthetic leaflet function and design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dependence of the optical conductivity on the uniaxial and biaxial strains in black phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. H.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, G. X.; Zhang, C.

    2018-06-01

    By using the Kubo formula, the optical conductivity of strained black phosphorene was studied. The anisotropic band dispersion gives rise to an orientation dependent optical conductivity. The energy gap can be tuned by the uniaxial and biaxial strains which can be observed from the interband optical conductivity polarized along the armchair (x ) direction. The preferential conducting direction is along the x direction. The dependence of the intraband optical conductivity along the zigzag (y ) direction on the Fermi energy and strain exhibits increasing or decreasing monotonously. However, along the x direction this dependence is complicated which originates from the carriers' inverse-direction movements obtained by two types of the nearest phosphorus atom interactions. The modification of the biaxial strain on the energy structure and optical-absorption property is more effective. The imaginary part of the total optical conductivity (Im σ ) can be negative around the threshold of the interband optical transition by modifying the chemical potential. Away from this frequency region, Im σ exhibits positive value. It can be used in the application of the surface plasmon propagations in multilayer dielectric structures.

  2. Upregulation of matrix synthesis in chondrocyte-seeded agarose following sustained bi-axial cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05. The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05, indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  3. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  4. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  5. Textural features for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Dinstein, I.; Shanmugam, K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependances, and illustration of their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data - namely, photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20,000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and ERTS multispectral imagery containing several land-use categories. Two kinds of decision rules are used - one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise-linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89% for the photomicrographs, 82% for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83% for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

  6. Texture studies of Zr-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, P.K.

    1976-09-01

    Basal pole figures of seven Zr-2 pressure tubes have been determined. The pole figures give texture factors but these do not correlate with the irradiation growth strains observed in SGHWR. Precautions taken in specimen preparation and in pole figure determination are described in detail. It is shown that any point on a pole figure may be unambiguously related to a defined set of coordinate axes in the pressure tube. (author)

  7. The role of textures in the forming of automotive sheet steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanak Mishra

    1996-01-01

    Crystallographic textures generally have a strong bearing on the drawability of sheet steels. Particularly in the case of automotive sheets, texture control is of paramount importance. In the last two decades, therefore, texture research has assumed much significance in the steel industry. X-ray diffraction continues to remain the most used tool for the study of textures. Early researches, from about 1940 to 1980, were invariably carried out by the pole figure method. However, for more quantitative results the ODF (Orientation Distribution Functions) analysis technique was developed. Since 1980, the ODF analysis has come to be used extensively. In the present paper, several unique features of textures in automotive grade deep drawing steels, as revealed from X-ray ODFS, will be presented. The relative importance of the various textural components with respect to forming will also be dealt with

  8. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  9. Biaxial creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 PWR fuel cladding in the alpha,(alpha + beta) and beta phase temperature ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Healey, T.; Horwood, R.A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The biaxial creep behaviour of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding has been determined at temperatures between 973 - 1073 K in the alpha phase range, in the duplex (alpha + beta) region between 1098 - 1223 K and in the beta phase range between 1323 - 1473 K. This paper presents the creep data together with empirical equations which describe the creep deformation response within each phase region. (author)

  10. Active-flux based motion sensorless vector control of biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, active-flux based, motion-sensorless vector control structure for biaxial excitation generator for automobiles (BEGA) for wide speed range operation. BEGA is a hybrid excited synchronous machine having permanent magnets on q-axis and a dc excitation on daxis. Using th...... electrical degrees in less than 2 ms test time....

  11. Mechanical response of cross-ply Si3N4/BN fibrous monoliths under uniaxial and biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Cruse, T. A.; Hermanson, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.; Zok, F. W.; McNulty, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical properties of hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 /BN fibrous monoliths (FMs) were evaluated under ambient conditions in four-point and biaxial flexure modes. Effects of cell orientation, 0degree/90degree and ±45degree, on elastic modulus and fracture strength of the FMs were investigated. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy

  12. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  13. Mechanical properties and annealing texture of zirconium sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif-ur-Rehman; Khawaja, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mechanical properties like yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength(UTS), percentage elongation and annealing texture has been studied in sheets of commercially pure zirconium. The YS and UTS decrease as a function of annealing temperature up to 600 V, but both quantities have maximum value in sample annealed at 800 deg. C. The percentage elongation decreased with increase in annealing temperature up to 600 deg. C. A slight decrease and minimum value of percentage elongation was observed at 650 and 800 C respectively. The texture development in the annealed samples has been studied by the X-ray diffraction method. The sampled annealed at 800 deg. C showed a texture component (0001) [01 bar 10] with orientation density of about 8 times random, while the samples annealed at 600,650 and 700 deg. C showed a texture component (0001)[2 bar 110] with orientation density of about 5 times random. Thus it is concluded, that the texture component (0001)[2 bar 110] and (0001)[01 bar 10] at 650 and 800 geg. C respectively, may be the responsible for the increase in YS and UTS and decrease in percentage elongation at these temperatures. (author)

  14. Possible influences on textures in unalloyed steels and their effects on steel properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossterlinden, R.; Imlau, K.P.; Kawalla, R.; Lotter, U.; Reip, C.-P.

    1996-01-01

    Textures in steels play an essential role for applications where anisotropic properties are favourable. For the example of deep-drawing steel sheet the correlation between parameters characterising the behaviour in the deep-drawing process, as Lankford r-value and planar anisotropy Δr, and the crystallographic texture is considered. Furthermore, the development of texture in the course of manufacturing cold strip is followed for unalloyed and microalloyed deep-drawing grades. For representation of typical features of textures the method of orientation distribution functions (ODF) together with the description of texture by characteristic fibres is used. In detail, the parameters influencing textures, such as chemical composition, finishing temperature in the hot-rolling mill (in relation to the austenite or ferrite region), transformation behaviour, cold-rolling reduction and the course of temperature during recrystallizing annealing, are discussed. From the given survey it may be concluded, that in the manufacturing process there are many possibilities to control the texture of the finished product. Finally, it is shown that the impact of textures on the r-value can be calculated with high precision. On the other hand, the formation of texture itself, particularly during hot-rolling, transformation and recrystallization after cold-rolling, at present can be calculated and modelled only in simple cases. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic crystallization of a eucrite basalt. [achondrite textural features produced by superheating and differing cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Powell, M. A.; Hays, J. F.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The textural features produced in Stannern, a non-porpyritic representative of the eucrite basaltic achondrite class of meteorite, at differing cooling rates and various degrees of initial superheating were studied. Textures produced from mildly superheated melts were found to be fasciculate rather than porphyritic as the result of the cosaturated bulk chemistry of Stannern. The qualitative type of texture apparently depends mainly on the degree of initial superheating, whereas cooling rate exerts a strong influence on the coarseness of texture. Increasing the degree of superheating produces textures from intergranular/subophitic to fasciculate/porphyritic. With initial superheating to 1200 deg C the transition to quasi-porphyritic is controlled by cooling rate, but the development of phenocrysts is merely an overprint on the fasciculate background texture of the groundmass. The suppression of fasciculate texture is completed by a decrease of the degree of initial superheating below the plagioclast entry and suppression of quasi-porphyritic texture is completed by decrease of the degree of initial superheating below pyroxene entry; these qualitative changes do not seem to be produced by changes of cooling rate. A grain size/cooling rate dependence has been used to deduce the cooling rate of fasciculate-textured Stannern clasts (10.1 to 100 deg C/hr).

  16. Objective and quantitative definitions of modified food textures based on sensory and rheological methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendin, Karin; Ekman, Susanne; Bülow, Margareta; Ekberg, Olle; Johansson, Daniel; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Stading, Mats

    2010-06-28

    Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of 'texture' that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objectively define and quantify categories of texture-modified food by conducting rheological measurements and sensory analyses. A further objective was to facilitate the communication and recommendations of appropriate food textures for patients with dysphagia. About 15 food samples varying in texture qualities were characterized by descriptive sensory and rheological measurements. Soups were perceived as homogenous; thickened soups were perceived as being easier to swallow, more melting and creamy compared with soups without thickener. Viscosity differed between the two types of soups. Texture descriptors for pâtés were characterized by high chewing resistance, firmness, and having larger particles compared with timbales and jellied products. Jellied products were perceived as wobbly, creamy, and easier to swallow. Concerning the rheological measurements, all solid products were more elastic than viscous (G'>G''), belonging to different G' intervals: jellied products (low G') and timbales together with pâtés (higher G'). By combining sensory and rheological measurements, a system of objective, quantitative, and well-defined food textures was developed that characterizes the different texture categories.

  17. All Organic Polymers Based Morphing Skin with Controllable Surface Texture

    KAUST Repository

    Favero Bolson, Natanael

    2018-05-01

    Smart skins are integrating an increasing number of functionalities in order to improve the interaction between the systems they equip and their ambient environment. Here we have developed an electromechanical soft actuator with controlled surface texture due to applied thermal gradient via electrical voltage. The device was fabricated and integrated with optimized process parameters for a prepared heater element [doped PEDOT: PSS (poly-(3, 4 ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonic acid))], a soft actuator (Ecoflex 00-50/ethanol) and overall packaging case [PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)]. To study a potential application of the proposed smart skin, we analyze the fluid drag reduction in a texture controlled water flow unit. As a result, we obtained a reduction of approximately 14% in the skin drag friction coefficient during the actuation. We conclude that the proposed soft actuator device is a preferred option for a texture-controlled skin that reduces the skin drag friction coefficient.

  18. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  19. Parametric classification of handvein patterns based on texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahafzah, Harbi; Imran, Mohammad; Supreetha Gowda H., D.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have developed Biometric recognition system adopting hand based modality Handvein,which has the unique pattern for each individual and it is impossible to counterfeit and fabricate as it is an internal feature. We have opted in choosing feature extraction algorithms such as LBP-visual descriptor, LPQ-blur insensitive texture operator, Log-Gabor-Texture descriptor. We have chosen well known classifiers such as KNN and SVM for classification. We have experimented and tabulated results of single algorithm recognition rate for Handvein under different distance measures and kernel options. The feature level fusion is carried out which increased the performance level.

  20. Texturing of continuous LOD meshes with the hierarchical texture atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Hermann

    2006-02-01

    For the rendering of detailed virtual environments, trade-offs have to be made between image quality and rendering time. An immersive experience of virtual reality always demands high frame-rates with the best reachable image qual-ity. Continuous Level of Detail (cLoD) triangle-meshes provide an continuous spectrum of detail for a triangle mesh that can be used to create view-dependent approximations of the environment in real-time. This enables the rendering with a constant number of triangles and thus with constant frame-rates. Normally the construction of such cLoD mesh representations leads to the loss of all texture information of the original mesh. To overcome this problem, a parameter domain can be created, in order to map the surface properties (colour, texture, normal) to it. This parameter domain can be used to map the surface properties back to arbitrary approximations of the original mesh. The parameter domain is often a simplified version of the mesh to be parameterised. This limits the reachable simplification to the domain mesh which has to map the surface of the original mesh with the least possible stretch. In this paper, a hierarchical domain mesh is presented, that scales between very coarse domain meshes and good property-mapping.

  1. Combinatory Effects of Texture and Aroma Modification on Taste Perception of Model Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, J.E.; Sala, G.; Smit, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of texture modification and aroma-induced sweetness enhancement were systematically investigated in apple-flavored semi-solid Na-caseinate gels. Gels containing apple juice as a basic flavor were developed differing in stiffness, brittleness and serum release (texture

  2. Bridges between multiple-point geostatistics and texture synthesis: Review and guidelines for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Multiple-Point Simulations (MPS) is a family of geostatistical tools that has received a lot of attention in recent years for the characterization of spatial phenomena in geosciences. It relies on the definition of training images to represent a given type of spatial variability, or texture. We show that the algorithmic tools used are similar in many ways to techniques developed in computer graphics, where there is a need to generate large amounts of realistic textures for applications such as video games and animated movies. Similarly to MPS, these texture synthesis methods use training images, or exemplars, to generate realistic-looking graphical textures. Both domains of multiple-point geostatistics and example-based texture synthesis present similarities in their historic development and share similar concepts. These disciplines have however remained separated, and as a result significant algorithmic innovations in each discipline have not been universally adopted. Texture synthesis algorithms present drastically increased computational efficiency, patterns reproduction and user control. At the same time, MPS developed ways to condition models to spatial data and to produce 3D stochastic realizations, which have not been thoroughly investigated in the field of texture synthesis. In this paper we review the possible links between these disciplines and show the potential and limitations of using concepts and approaches from texture synthesis in MPS. We also provide guidelines on how recent developments could benefit both fields of research, and what challenges remain open.

  3. Muscle Protein Profiles Used for Prediction of Texture of Farmed Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Gudjónsdóttir, María

    2017-01-01

    A soft texture is undesired in Atlantic salmon as it leads to downgrading and reduced yield, yet it is a factor for which the cause is not fully understood. This lack of understanding highlights the need for identifying the cause of the soft texture and developing solutions by which the processin...

  4. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of US soils grouped according to textural class and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance of the saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil hydraulic property led to the development of multiple pedotransfer functions for estimating it. One approach to estimating Ksat was using textural classes rather than specific textural fraction contents as pedotransfer inputs. The objective...

  5. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of US soils grouped according textural class and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance of the saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil hydraulic property led to the development of multiple pedotransfer functions for estimating it. One approach to estimating Ksat was using textural classes rather than specific textural fraction contents as pedotransfer inputs. The objective...

  6. Description of textures by a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, F; Shirai, Y; Tsuji, S

    1982-02-01

    A structural analysis system for describing natural textures is introduced. The analyzer automatically extracts the texture elements in an input image, measures their properties, classifies them into some distinctive classes (one ``ground'' class and some ``figure'' classes), and computes the distributions of the gray level, the shape, and the placement of the texture elements in each class. These descriptions are used for classification of texture images. An analysis-by-synthesis method for evaluating texture analyzers is also presented. We propose a synthesizer which generates a texture image based on the descriptions. By comparing the reconstructed image with the original one, we can see what information is preserved and what is lost in the descriptions.

  7. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  8. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K 1 values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  9. Fatigue and creep-fatigue strength of 304 steel under biaxial strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai; Aoto, Kazumi; Wada, Yusaku

    1990-01-01

    A series of fatigue and creep-fatigue tests were conducted with 304 stainless steel at 550degC under a variety of biaxial strain conditions. Fatigue life under nonproportional loading conditions showed a significant life reduction compared with that of proportional loading, and this life reduction was reasonably estimated by taking into account the strain paths along which the strain history is imposed. Furthermore, a marked life reduction was shown to occur under nonproportional loading by imposing a strain hold period at a peak tensile strain. This life reduction was evaluated by the linear damage rule. It was shown to be possible to estimate the fatigue damage and the creep damage under nonproportional loading by a linear damage rule by estimating a stress relaxation behavior by Mises-type equivalent stress or Huddleston-type equivalent stress. (author)

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.m, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.co, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.co, E-mail: eamerchan@gmail.co, E-mail: ricname@hotmail.co, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Unidad profesional, AZCAPOTZALCO, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K{sub 1} values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  11. The Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic liquid crystals: Uniaxiality versus Biaxiality

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-12-01

    We study small energy solutions within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional domains separately. In the two-dimensional case, we establish the equivalence of the Landau-de Gennes and Ginzburg-Landau theory. In the three-dimensional case, we give a new definition of the defect set based on the normalized energy. In the threedimensional uniaxial case, we demonstrate the equivalence between the defect set and the isotropic set and prove the C 1,α-convergence of uniaxial small energy solutions to a limiting harmonic map, away from the defect set, for some 0 < a < 1, in the vanishing core limit. Generalizations for biaxial small energy solutions are also discussed, which include physically relevant estimates for the solution and its scalar order parameters. This work is motivated by the study of defects in liquid crystalline systems and their applications.

  12. Method for measuring biaxial stress in a body subjected to stress inducing loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, W. N. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for measuring stress in test articles including the steps of obtaining for a calibrating specimen a series of transit time differentials between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated through the specimen as it is subjected to known stress load of a series of stress loads for thus establishing a series of indications of the magnitudes for stress loads induced in the specimen, and thereafter obtaining a transit time differential between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated in the planes of the stress axes of a test article and comparing the transit time differential thus obtained to the series of transit time differentials obtained for the specimen to determine the magnitude of biaxial stress in the test article.

  13. Potential drop crack growth monitoring in high temperature biaxial fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, B.P.; Krempl, E.

    1993-01-01

    The present work describes a procedure for monitoring crack growth in high temperature, biaxial, low cycle fatigue tests. The reversing DC potential drop equipment monitors smooth, tubular type 304 stainless steel specimens during fatigue testing. Electrical interference from an induction heater is filtered out by an analog filter and by using a long integration time. A Fourier smoothing algorithm and two spline interpolations process the large data set. The experimentally determined electrical potential drop is compared with the theoretical electrostatic potential that is found by solving Laplace's equation for an elliptical crack in a semi-infinite conducting medium. Since agreement between theory and experiment is good, the method can be used to measure crack growth to failure from the threshold of detectability

  14. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  15. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic conditions, road variables, skid resistance, texture depth, and accident data for the period 2000 - 2004 were analysed to develop models to establish the inter-relationships between skid resistance, macrotexture and incidence of accidents. Poisson regression relating to accident frequency and exposure variables ...

  16. Design and construction of an automatic texture goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, N.B. de; Pontes, E.W.; Monteiro, P.R.B.; Imakuma, K.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a two-axis automatic goniometer, operated by step motors, adaptable to the scanning goniometer SG-7 or SG-8 fabricated by Rigaku-Deuki. To allow the operation of this texture goniometer, computer codes has been developed. (E.G.) [pt

  17. The effect of casting conditions on the biaxial flexural strength of glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Shareef, M Y; Walsh, J M; Hatton, P V; van Noort, R; Hill, R G

    1998-11-01

    To assess the effect of mould and glass casting temperatures on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of two different types of castable glass-ceramic, using existing laboratory equipment and techniques. Two castable glass-ceramic materials were evaluated. One glass (LG3) is based on SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-CaO-CaF2, and is similar in composition to glasses used in the manufacture of glass-ionomer cements. The other glass (SG3) is based on SiO2-K2O-Na2O-CaO-CaF2, and is a canasite-based material. Both materials were used to produce discs of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness using the same lost-wax casting process as used for metal castings. Mould temperatures of between 500 degrees C and 1000 degrees C and glass casting temperatures of between 1100 degrees C and 1450 degrees C were evaluated. The cast discs were cerammed and the biaxial flexural strength determined with a Lloyd 2000 R tester. A significant difference was found for the BFS in the range of mould temperatures evaluated, with the optimum investment mould temperature being 590 degrees C for LG3 and 610 degrees C for SG3 (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.019, respectively). No significant differences were seen between any of the glass casting temperatures evaluated. The mould temperature for castable glass-ceramic materials produced using the lost-wax casting process can have a significant effect on BFS. The optimum mould temperature may differ slightly depending on the type of material being used. The glass casting temperature of these materials does not appear to have a significant effect on BFS.

  18. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling to magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters

  19. UV protective zinc oxide coating for biaxially oriented polypropylene packaging film by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kääriäinen, Tommi, E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@colorado.edu [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kotkamo, Sami, E-mail: sami.kotkamo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Seppänen, Tarja, E-mail: tarja.seppanen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@miktech.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging film was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to protect the film from UV degradation. The coatings were made at a process temperature of 100 °C using diethylzinc and water as zinc and oxygen precursors, respectively. The UV protective properties of the coatings were tested by using UV–VIS and infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a mechanical strength tester, which characterised the tensile and elastic properties of the film. The results obtained with 36 and 67 nm ZnO coatings showed that the ZnO UV protective layer is able to provide a significant decrease in photodegradation of the BOPP film under UV exposure. While the uncoated BOPP film suffered a complete degradation after a 4-week UV exposure, the 67 nm ZnO coated BOPP film was able to preserve half of its original tensile strength and 1/3 of its elongation at break after a 6-week exposure period. The infrared analysis and DSC measurements further proved the UV protection of the ZnO coatings. The results show that a nanometre scale ZnO coating deposited by ALD is a promising option when a transparent UV protection layer is sought for polymer substrates. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposited zinc oxide coatings were used as UV protection layers. • Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was well protected against UV light. • Formation of UV degradation products in BOPP was significantly reduced. • Mechanical properties of the UV exposed BOPP film were significantly improved.

  20. Fast Synthesis of Dynamic Colour Textures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal; Chetverikov, D.

    -, č. 66 (2006), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : dynamic colour texture * texture synthesis * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://www.ercim.org/publication/Ercim_News/enw66/haindl.html

  1. Texture and anisotropy in ferroelectric lead metaniobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Benjamin John

    Ferroelectric lead metaniobate, PbNb2O6, is a piezoelectric ceramic typically used because of its elevated Curie temperature and anisotropic properties. However, the piezoelectric constant, d33, is relatively low in randomly oriented ceramics when compared to other ferroelectrics. Crystallographic texturing is often employed to increase the piezoelectric constant because the spontaneous polarization axes of grains are better aligned. In this research, crystallographic textures induced through tape casting are distinguished from textures induced through electrical poling. Texture is described using multiple quantitative approaches utilizing X-ray and neutron time-of-flight diffraction. Tape casting lead metaniobate with an inclusion of acicular template particles induces an orthotropic texture distribution. Templated grain growth from seed particles oriented during casting results in anisotropic grain structures. The degree of preferred orientation is directly linked to the shear behavior of the tape cast slurry. Increases in template concentration, slurry viscosity, and casting velocity lead to larger textures by inducing more particle orientation in the tape casting plane. The maximum 010 texture distributions were two and a half multiples of a random distribution. Ferroelectric texture was induced by electrical poling. Electric poling increases the volume of material oriented with the spontaneous polarization direction in the material. Samples with an initial paraelectric texture exhibit a greater change in the domain volume fraction during electrical poling than randomly oriented ceramics. In tape cast samples, the resulting piezoelectric response is proportional to the 010 texture present prior to poling. This results in property anisotropy dependent on initial texture. Piezoelectric properties measured on the most textured ceramics were similar to those obtained with a commercial standard.

  2. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  3. Textural features for radar image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

  4. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  5. Biaxial bending of slender HSC columns and tubes filled with concrete under short- and long-term loads: I Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method that calculates both the short- and long-term response of slender columns made of high-strength concrete (HSC and tubes filled with concrete with generalized end conditions and subjected to transverse loads along the span and axial load at the ends (causing a single or double curvature under uniaxial or biaxial bending is presented. The proposed method, which is an extension of a method previously developed by the authors, is capable of predicting not only the complete load-rotation and load-deflection curves (both the ascending and descending parts but also the maximum load capacity. The columns that can be analyzed include solid and hollow (rectangular, circular, oval, C-, T-, L-, or any arbitrary shape cross sections and columns made of circular and rectangular steel tubes filled with HSC. The fiber method is used to calculate the moment-curvature diagrams at different levels of the applied axial load (i.e., the M-P-φ curves, and the Gauss method of integration (for the sum of the contributions of the fibers parallel to the neutral axis is used to calculate the lateral rotations and deflections along the column span. Long-term effects, such as creep and shrinkage of the concrete, are also included. However, the effects of the shear deformations and torsion along the member are not included. The validity of the proposed method is presented in a companion paper and compared against the experimental results for over seventy column specimens reported in the technical literature by different researchers.

  6. Using a constructive pavement texture index for skid resistance screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pei Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance measurement is one of the major measurements used to assess road safety. Typical devices used for measuring skid resistance include single point checking type and continuous measurements type. However, conducting periodic full roadway network skid resistance survey can be a relatively time consuming and difficult task because of the limited water carrying capacity used by all kinds of devices, including the continuous types. On the contrary, measurement of pavement surface texture can be conducted easily and continuously by most profilers. This research investigates the relation between pavement skid resistance and surface texture. The focus is on the development of a texture index that can serve as a screening indicator to filter out the high-risk pavement sections for further skid resistance measurement. Two measuring devices, GripTester (GT and National Taiwan University laser profiler (NTU Profiler, were used to collect data on pavement skid resistance and texture in a network of 555 sections, respectively. The pavement texture index of the mean difference of elevation (MDE is calculated at a 1 mm profile interval, which is a very promising indicator to represent pavement skid resistance. Through a sensitivity study, the MDE threshold of 0.15 mm is observed to provide a relatively reasonable screening function that filters out 29.01% of the entire surveyed network for further skid resistance inspection. It averted more than 70% skid resistance measurement capacity of the entire network. The accuracy of correct judgment by the selected threshold is about 80%, only 3.78% of roadway sections considered for further inspection of the recommended list are not included. Keywords: Skid resistance, Pavement texture, Macrotexture, Laser profiler, GripTester

  7. Interactions between soil texture, water, and nutrients control patterns of biocrusts abundance and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristina; Bowker, Matthew; Reed, Sasha; Howell, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneity in the abiotic environment structures biotic communities by controlling niche space and parameters. This has been widely observed and demonstrated in vascular plant and other aboveground communities. While soil organisms are presumably also strongly influenced by the physical and chemical dimensions of the edaphic environment, there are fewer studies linking the development, structure, productivity or function of surface soil communities to specific edaphic gradients. Here, we use biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system to determine mechanisms regulating community structure of soil organisms. We chose soil texture to serve as an edaphic gradient because of soil texture's influence over biocrust distribution on a landscape level. We experimentally manipulated texture in constructed soil, and simultaneously manipulated two main outcomes of texture, water and nutrient availability, to determine the mechanism underlying texture's influence on biocrust abundance and structure. We grew biocrust communities from a field-sourced inoculum on four different soil textures, sieved from the same parent soil material, manipulating watering levels and nutrient additions across soil textures in a full-factorial design over a 5-month period of time. We measured abundance and structure of biocrusts over time, and measured two metrics of function, N2 fixation rates and soil stabilization, at the conclusion of the experiment. Our results showed finer soil textures resulted in faster biocrust community development and dominance by mosses, whereas coarser textures grew more slowly and had biocrust communities dominated by cyanobacteria and lichen. Additionally, coarser textured soils contained cyanobacterial filaments significantly deeper into the soil profile than fine textured soils. N2-fixation values increased with increasing moss cover and decreased with increasing cyanobacterial cover, however, the rate of change depended on soil texture and water amount

  8. Development of a multi-scale simulation model of tube hydroforming for superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sumption, M.D., E-mail: sumption.3@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Bong, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lim, H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collings, E.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-01-02

    This work focuses on finite element modeling of the hydroforming process for niobium tubes intended for use in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The hydroforming of tubular samples into SRF-relevant shapes involves the complex geometries and loading conditions which develop during the deformation, as well as anisotropic materials properties. Numerical description of the process entails relatively complex numerical simulations. A crystal plasticity (CP) model was constructed that included the evolution of crystallographic orientation during deformation as well as the anisotropy of tubes in all directions and loading conditions. In this work we demonstrate a multi-scale simulation approach which uses both microscopic CP and macroscopic continuum models. In this approach a CP model (developed and implemented into ABAQUS using UMAT) was used for determining the flow stress curve only under bi-axial loading in order to reduce the computing time. The texture of the materials obtained using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and tensile test data were inputs for this model. Continuum FE analysis of tube hydroforming using the obtained constitutive equation from the CP modeling was then performed and compared to the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The results show that high quality predictions of the deformation under hydroforming of Nb tubes can be obtained using CP-FEM based on their known texture and the results of tensile tests. The importance of the CP-FEM based approach is that it reduces the need for hydraulic bulge testing, using a relatively simple computational approach.

  9. Development of a multi-scale simulation model of tube hydroforming for superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.; Sumption, M.D.; Bong, H.J.; Lim, H.; Collings, E.W.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on finite element modeling of the hydroforming process for niobium tubes intended for use in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The hydroforming of tubular samples into SRF-relevant shapes involves the complex geometries and loading conditions which develop during the deformation, as well as anisotropic materials properties. Numerical description of the process entails relatively complex numerical simulations. A crystal plasticity (CP) model was constructed that included the evolution of crystallographic orientation during deformation as well as the anisotropy of tubes in all directions and loading conditions. In this work we demonstrate a multi-scale simulation approach which uses both microscopic CP and macroscopic continuum models. In this approach a CP model (developed and implemented into ABAQUS using UMAT) was used for determining the flow stress curve only under bi-axial loading in order to reduce the computing time. The texture of the materials obtained using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and tensile test data were inputs for this model. Continuum FE analysis of tube hydroforming using the obtained constitutive equation from the CP modeling was then performed and compared to the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The results show that high quality predictions of the deformation under hydroforming of Nb tubes can be obtained using CP-FEM based on their known texture and the results of tensile tests. The importance of the CP-FEM based approach is that it reduces the need for hydraulic bulge testing, using a relatively simple computational approach.

  10. Texture and anisotropy in the bismuth sodium titanate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Christoher M.

    Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 has received interest as a potential replacement for lead containing ferroelectrics. However, the piezoelectric response of pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO 3 does not compare to the strong piezoelectric response of lead based piezoelectrics. To increase the piezoelectric response, Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3 has been alloyed with BaTiO3 and K 0.5Na0.5NbO3. Another route to enhance the response is to take advantage of the anisotropic properties by inducing a preferred crystallographic orientation. Both routes were used to investigate the effect a crystallographic texture has on the strain response of Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3-based ceramics. A crystallographic texture was induced by templated grain growth of pure phase Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 templates using the tape casting method to orient template particles relative to the tape cast normal. Sintered Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based materials developed a strong (00l)pc fiber texture relative to the tape cast normal, with no preferential alignment relative to the tape cast plane. Textured Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(5)BaTiO3 showed a piezoelectric response of 245 pC/N, a better than 50% enhancement from the 150 pC/N response of randomly oriented samples. The Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(5)BaTiO3-(2)K 0.5Na0.5NbO3 (x,y) system has been shown to undergo electric-field-induced phase transformation from a pseudocubic to polar phase. For (7,2) a strong 8.7 multiples of a random distribution (MRD) crystallographic texture increased the macroscopic strain response by 50%. Applying the electric field perpendicular to the fiber texture axis reduces the macroscopic strain response of textured (7,2) by 17%. The affect field direction has on the electric-field-induced phase transformations of textured (7,2) was investigated using in situ electric field dependent diffraction. In situ diffraction data showed the high strain response of textured (7,2) can be attributed to a reversible pseudocubic to tetragonal transformation. The field-induced tetragonal phase nucleates preferentially with a

  11. Texture and structure of VT-19 alloy thin sheets and their welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehgiz, I.V.; Babarehko, A.A.; Khorev, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The phase content and texture of VT-19 alloys in all zones of welded joints (weld, a heat affected zone a base metal) after different heat treatments and the effect of the latter on mechanical properties of the welded joint are studied. It is characteristic of a 2.5 mm sheet of the VT-19 alloy rolled in the β → α phase transformation temperature range the development of β-phase plane deformation textures with (001), (112), (111) orientations in the rolling plane that compose 56% of the β-phase material volume. In this case a texture of univariant phase transformation of the above β-phase components { 1120 } - { 1122 } - { 1124 }, as well as that of α-phase plane deformation } 1014 } - { 1015 } are formed in the α-phase. Hardening with subsequent ageing of the rolled sheet leads to increasing the fraction of textured material in the β-phase up to 95% with expanding the volume with the (111) orientation, but as a whole the β-phase texture type remains the same. The α-phase texture type corresponds to the univariant β → α phase transformation, the material having the α-phase texture accounts for 70%. In the weld zone the and axes with orientation spreading to 20 deg are the β-phase crystallization axes in the trans verse direction. The textured material accounts for ∼ 70%. The same texture is observed along the normal to the sheet plane. The α-phase texture after hardening and ageing corresponds to the univariant phase transformation of the above-mentionedβ-phase orientations, the material volume with the α-phase texture is ∼80%

  12. Effect of Molecular Flexibility on the Nematic-to-Isotropic Phase Transition for Highly Biaxial Molecular Non-Symmetric Liquid Crystal Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Nerea; López, David Orencio; Diez-Berart, Sergio; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Salud, Josep; Pérez-Jubindo, Miguel Angel; Ros, María Blanca

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a study of the nematic (N)–isotropic (I) phase transition has been made in a series of odd non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers, the α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4’-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4’-oxy) alkanes, by means of accurate calorimetric and dielectric measurements. These materials are potential candidates to present the elusive biaxial nematic (NB) phase, as they exhibit both molecular biaxiality and flexibility. According to the theory, the uniaxial nematic (NU)–isotropic (I) phase transition is first-order in nature, whereas the NB–I phase transition is second-order. Thus, a fine analysis of the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition would allow us to determine the presence or not of the biaxial nematic phase and understand how the molecular biaxiality and flexibility of these compounds influences the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition. PMID:28824100

  13. Texture Development in Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and J. J. Jonas: Acta Metall., 1989, 37, (8), 2197–2210. 17. S. Li, I. J. Beyerlein and M. A. M. Bourke : Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, A394, (1–2), 66–77...M. Bourke , D. Brown, B. Clausen, C. Tome, R. V. Dreele, C. Xu and T. Langdon: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2003, 426–432, 2661–2666. 26. J. A. Schneider and A

  14. Study of amino acids dynamics, superconducting alloys and texture determination by neutron scattering. Coordinated programme on neutron scattering techniques in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn Jun Kim

    1982-02-01

    Based on Bunges formalism, a computer program to analyze the fiber-type texture has been developed by expanding the orientation distribution function up to the 50th term. By annealing 99.9% cold-drawn copper wire, various degree of texture were developed. Using these samples, the accuracy of texture analysis has been studied by comparing experimental results with calculations obtained with various series truncations. Using the oriented silicon steels as sample, the sheet-type texture has been studied. Experimental evidences of the primary extinction and simultaneous reflections are discussed. From these, use of single-procedure geometry for pole figure measurement and precluding of strong reflections from input data for texture analysis are proposed to obtain accurate information for coarse-grained and strongly-textured materials. For the quantitative correlation between texture and physical anisotropy, the magnetic anisotropy energy and Young modulus in silicon steel have been studied by comparing measurements with theoretical results predicted from texture

  15. Textured surface structures formed using new techniques on transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Miyata, Toshihiro; Uozaki, Ryousuke; Sai, Hitoshi; Koida, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Surface-textured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films formed using two new techniques based on magnetron sputtering deposition were developed by optimizing the light scattering properties to be suitable for transparent electrode applications in thin-film silicon solar cells. Scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films were prepared using a new texture formation technique that post-etched pyramidal surface-textured AZO films prepared under deposition conditions suppressing c-axis orientation. In addition, double surface-textured AZO films were prepared using another new texture formation technique that completely removed, by post-etching, the pyramidal surface-textured AZO films previously prepared onto the initially deposited low resistivity AZO films; simultaneously, the surface of the low resistivity films was slightly etched. However, the obtained very high haze value in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light in the scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films did not contribute significantly to the obtainable photovoltaic properties in the solar cells fabricated using the films. Significant light scattering properties as well as a low sheet resistance could be achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films. In addition, a significant improvement of external quantum efficiency in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light was achieved in superstrate-type n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells fabricated using a double surface-textured AZO film prepared under optimized conditions as the transparent electrode. - Highlights: • Double surface-textured AZO films prepared using a new texture formation technique • Extensive light scattering properties with low sheet resistance achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films • Improved external quantum efficiency of μc-Si:H solar cells using a double surface-textured AZO film

  16. Textured surface structures formed using new techniques on transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Miyata, Toshihiro, E-mail: tmiyata@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Uozaki, Ryousuke [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Sai, Hitoshi; Koida, Takashi [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Surface-textured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films formed using two new techniques based on magnetron sputtering deposition were developed by optimizing the light scattering properties to be suitable for transparent electrode applications in thin-film silicon solar cells. Scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films were prepared using a new texture formation technique that post-etched pyramidal surface-textured AZO films prepared under deposition conditions suppressing c-axis orientation. In addition, double surface-textured AZO films were prepared using another new texture formation technique that completely removed, by post-etching, the pyramidal surface-textured AZO films previously prepared onto the initially deposited low resistivity AZO films; simultaneously, the surface of the low resistivity films was slightly etched. However, the obtained very high haze value in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light in the scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films did not contribute significantly to the obtainable photovoltaic properties in the solar cells fabricated using the films. Significant light scattering properties as well as a low sheet resistance could be achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films. In addition, a significant improvement of external quantum efficiency in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light was achieved in superstrate-type n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells fabricated using a double surface-textured AZO film prepared under optimized conditions as the transparent electrode. - Highlights: • Double surface-textured AZO films prepared using a new texture formation technique • Extensive light scattering properties with low sheet resistance achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films • Improved external quantum efficiency of μc-Si:H solar cells using a double surface-textured AZO film.

  17. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  18. D-branes and textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.; Kane, G.L.; King, S.F.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the flavor structure of the trilinear superpotential couplings which can result from embedding the Standard Model within D-brane sectors in Type IIB orientifold models, which are examples within the Type I string framework. We find in general that the allowed flavor structures of the Yukawa coupling matrices to leading order are given by basic variations on the d emocratic'' texture ansatz. In certain interesting cases, the Yukawa couplings have a novel structure in which a single right-handed fermion couples democratically at leading order to three left-handed fermions. We discuss the viability of such a s ingle right-handed democracy'' in detail; remarkably, even though there are large mixing angles in the u,d sectors separately, the CKM mixing angles are small. The analysis demonstrates the ways in which the Type I superstring framework can provide a rich setting for investigating novel resolutions to the flavor puzzle. (author)

  19. Subjective figures and texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, S W; Cavanagh, P

    1985-01-01

    A texture discrimination task using the Ehrenstein illusion demonstrates that subjective brightness effects can play an essential role in early vision. The subjectively bright regions of the Ehrenstein can be organized either as discs or as stripes, depending on orientation. The accuracy of discrimination between variants of the Ehrenstein and control patterns was a direct function of the presence of the illusory brightness stripes, being high when they were present and low otherwise. It is argued that neither receptive field structure nor spatial-frequency content can adequately account for these results. We suggest that the subjective brightness illusions, rather than being a high-level, cognitive aspect of vision, are in fact the result of an early visual process.

  20. The relative contribution of ferroelastic and ferroelectric texture to the character of a hard PZT ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Thomas Stallings

    The development of ferroelastic (90°) texture in addition to ferroelectric (180°) texture is essential to maximizing the piezoelectric properties of many hard tetragonal PZTs, including Piezoetechnologies K270. Ferroelastic texture results from motion of domain walls that is dependent on an individual crystals orientation. Increases in ferroelastic texture raises the maximum net polarization that can be achieved by changes in ferroelectric texture. By studying a hard PZT poled under various temperature conditions, insight was gained into factors affecting the development of ferroelastic texture and how ferroelastic texture contributes to piezoelectric properties. Depinning proved to be the major barrier to preventing ferroelastic domain wall motion where strain based domain interactions and polar defect complexes on the domain level appear to be the dominant factors. Insight into the affect of increased domain texture on the relationship between the increasing magnitude of the remnant polarization (|Pr|) and the magnitude of the coercive field (|EC|) was gained by plotting |EC| vs. |Pr| as a function of poling time for a variety of poling temperatures. At low |Pr| values, |EC| increased rapidly as a function of increases in |Pr| regardless of the poling temperature. This relationship was characteristic of samples poled at 25 °C where increases in ferroelastic texture were largely suppressed. Because increases in polarization were still observable changes in ferroelectric texture most responsible for the polarization increase and like play a strong role in the initial |EC| vs. |Pr| relationship. As |Pr| increased beyond 5 to 8 iC/cm2, the slope of |EC| vs. |Pr| decreased where the reduction in slope increased with poling temperature. This only occurred in samples poled at elevated temperatures where ferroelastic texture was know to ultimately develop during the poling process, leading to the suggestion that the change in slope was due to increases in combined

  1. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  2. Texture Repairing by Unified Low Rank Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Liang; Xiang Ren; Zhengdong Zhang; Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to harness both low-rank and sparse structures in regular or near-regular textures for image completion. Our method is based on a unified formulation for both random and contiguous corruption. In addition to the low rank property of texture, the algorithm also uses the sparse assumption of the natural image: because the natural image is piecewise smooth, it is sparse in certain transformed domain (such as Fourier or wavelet transform). We combine low-rank and sparsity properties of the texture image together in the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm based on convex optimization can automatically and correctly repair the global structure of a corrupted texture, even without precise information about the regions to be completed. This algorithm integrates texture rectification and repairing into one optimization problem. Through extensive simulations, we show our method can complete and repair textures corrupted by errors with both random and contiguous supports better than existing low-rank matrix recovery methods. Our method demonstrates significant advantage over local patch based texture synthesis techniques in dealing with large corruption, non-uniform texture, and large perspective deformation.

  3. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been...

  4. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rival theories of evolution of recrystallization textures i.e. oriented nucleation (ON) and oriented growth (OG) has been under dispute. In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special orientation. (grains) than random occur, thus accounting for the texture. In the OG model, it has been argued that the.

  5. Texture design for light touch perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Zeng, X.; Matthews, D.T.A.; Igartua, A.; Rodriguez Vidal, E.; Fortes, J. Contreras; Van Der Heide, E.

    This study focused on active light touch with predefined textures specially-designed for tactile perception. The counter-body material is stainless steel sheet. Three geometric structures (grid, crater and groove) were fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing. A total number of twenty volunteers

  6. Effect of strontium on the texture and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–1%Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hemant; Hoseini, Majid; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mg–1%Mn and Mg–1%Mn–(0.3–2)Sr alloys were extruded at elevated temperature. ► Strontium additions refine extruded microstructure of M1 alloys. ► Sr additions weaken the basal texture of extruded M1, improve the ductility and reduce the yield asymmetry. ► Texture weakening with increasing strontium additions is the result of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN). - Abstract: Magnesium–manganese, M1, alloy is preferred for extrusion applications due to its extrudability. It is mainly used as a sacrificial anode or as a creep resistant alloy at elevated temperatures in the nuclear industry. Since Mn does not provide a significant strengthening effect, the alloy is not considered for structural applications. The basal texture which forms after extrusion orients the basal planes parallel to the extrusion direction causing anisotropy in mechanical properties. This basal texture, as well as the low strength of the alloy are the main challenges in its widespread applications. In this study, the effect of Sr addition on the texture and mechanical properties of M1 alloy was studied. M1–Sr alloys showed weakened texture by developing random texture components during extrusion. The texture randomisation is attributed to particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) around Mg–Sr intermetallics during recrystallisation. M1–Sr compositions are found to show improved strength and ductility as well as reduced yield asymmetry.

  7. Cooking Methods for a Soft Diet Using Chicken Based on Food Texture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Emi; Maeno, Masami; Kayashita, Jun; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Kogirima, Miho

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition caused by difficulties in masticating is of growing concern among the elderly. Soft diets are often served at nursing homes; however, the styles differ with nursing homes. Improperly modified food texture and consistency may lead to further loss of nutritive value. Therefore, we developed a method to produce a soft diet using chicken. The texture-modified chicken was prepared by boiling a mixture of minced chicken and additive foodstuff that softened the meat. The best food additive was determined through testing cooking process, size after modification and texture. The optimum proportions of each component in the mixture were determined measuring food texture using a creep meter. Teriyaki chicken was cooked using the texture-modified chicken, and provided to a nursing home. The amount of food intake by elderly residents was subsequently surveyed. This study involved 22 residents (1 man and 21 women; mean age 91.4±5.3 y). Consequently, yakifu, which was made from wheat gluten, was the most suitable additive foodstuff. The hardness of the texture-modified chicken, with proportions of minced chicken, yakifu, and water being 50%, 10%, and 40% respectively, was under 40,000 N/m 2 . The intake amount of the texture-modified chicken of subjects whose intake amount of conventional chicken using chicken thigh was not 100% was significantly higher. These findings suggest that properly modified food textures could contribute to improve the quality of meals by preventing undernutrition among the elderly with mastication difficulties.

  8. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2014-01-01

    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One

  9. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  10. Influence of grain size and texture prior to warm rolling on microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. J.; Xu, Y. B.; Jiao, H. T.; Cheng, S. F.; Misra, R. D. K.; Li, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel hot bands with different initial grain size and texture were obtained through different annealing treatment. These bands were then warm rolled and annealed. An analysis on the evolution of microstructure and texture, particularly the formation of recrystallization texture was studied. The results indicated that initial grain size and texture had a significant effect on texture evolution and magnetic properties. Large initial grains led to coarse deformed grains with dense and long shear bands after warm rolling. Such long shear bands resulted in growth advantage for {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 oriented grains during recrystallization. On the other hand, sharp {11 h} 〈1, 2, 1/h〉 (α∗-fiber) texture in the coarse-grained sample led to dominant {1 1 2} 〈1 1 0〉 texture after warm rolling. Such {1 1 2} 〈1 1 0〉 deformed grains provided massive nucleation sites for {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 oriented grains during subsequent recrystallization. These {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 grains were confirmed to exhibit an advantage on grain growth compared to γ-fiber grains. As a result, significant {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 texture was developed and unfavorable γ-fiber texture was inhibited in the final annealed sheet. Both these aspects led to superior magnetic properties in the sample with largest initial grain size. The magnetic induction B8 was 1.36 T and the high frequency core loss P10/400 was 17.07 W/kg.

  11. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075 T6 Under Different Biaxial Stress Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    Subjected to Biaxial Cyclic Loads.” Engineering Fracture Mechanics , 78:1516- 1528, 2011. [37] Sih, G.C.. “A Special Theory of Crack Propagation...of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and...environments from pre- cracked notched circular hole in a 7075-T6 cruciform specimen using a fracture mechanics approach. With stress ratio of R

  12. Effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Tabassom; Parvizi, Shaghayegh; Keshvad, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics reinforced by leucite or lithium disilicate crystals. Forty glass ceramic disks (14-mm diameter, 2-mm thick) consisting of 20 leucite-based ceramic disks (IPS Empress) and 20 lithia disilicate-based ceramic (IPS Empress 2) were produced by hot-pressing technique. All specimens were polished and then cleaned ultrasonically in distilled water. Ten specimens of each ceramic group were then etched with 9% hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel for 2 minutes and cleaned ultrasonically again. The biaxial flexural strength was measured by the piston-on-three-ball test in a universal testing machine. Data based on ten specimens in each group were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Microstructure of ceramic surfaces before and after acid etching was also examined by a scanning electron microscope. The mean biaxial flexural strength values for each group tested were (in MPa): nonetched IPS Empress = 118.6 +/- 25.5; etched IPS Empress = 102.9 +/- 15.4; nonetched IPS Empress 2 = 283.0 +/- 48.5; and etched IPS Empress 2 = 250.6 +/- 34.6. The results showed that the etching process reduced the biaxial flexural strengths significantly for both ceramic types (p= 0.025). No significant interaction between the ceramic type and etching process was found (p= 0.407). From the results, it was concluded that surface HF acid etching could have a weakening effect on hot-pressed leucite or lithia disilicate-based glass ceramic systems.

  13. Soil texture and depth influence on the neutron probe calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Reginaldo Ferreira; Carlesso, Reimar

    1998-01-01

    The neutron probe is an equipment used on determination of the soil water content, based on the fast neutron attenuation. Therefore, there is a calibration need in the field and, consequently, to verify the soil texture and depth influence for to determining the calibration curves in relation to the water content. The study was developed at Santa Maria's Federal University in a lisimeter group, protected from the rains with transparent plastic. There different soil textures, three depths (10, 30 and 50 cm from the soil surface) and four replicates were used. Linear regression equations between neutron counts and soil water contents were made. The results showed that there was interference of the texture and depth of the soil, analyzed jointly, on the calibration curves, and the observed and estimated values varied form o,02 to 0,06 cm3/cm3 of the soil water content and the correlation coefficients were 0,86 0,95 and 0,89 for clayray, franc-silt-clayey and franc-sandy, respectively. For soil texture and depth, analyzed separately, the differences among the values observed in the field and the estimated ones, varied from 0,0 to 0,02 cm3/cm3 soil water content and presented correlation coefficients between 0,97 and 1,0. (author)

  14. Live texturing of augmented reality characters from colored drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnenat, Stéphane; Ngo, Dat Tien; Zünd, Fabio; Ryffel, Mattia; Noris, Gioacchino; Rothlin, Gerhard; Marra, Alessia; Nitti, Maurizio; Fua, Pascal; Gross, Markus; Sumner, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Coloring books capture the imagination of children and provide them with one of their earliest opportunities for creative expression. However, given the proliferation and popularity of digital devices, real-world activities like coloring can seem unexciting, and children become less engaged in them. Augmented reality holds unique potential to impact this situation by providing a bridge between real-world activities and digital enhancements. In this paper, we present an augmented reality coloring book App in which children color characters in a printed coloring book and inspect their work using a mobile device. The drawing is detected and tracked, and the video stream is augmented with an animated 3-D version of the character that is textured according to the child's coloring. This is possible thanks to several novel technical contributions. We present a texturing process that applies the captured texture from a 2-D colored drawing to both the visible and occluded regions of a 3-D character in real time. We develop a deformable surface tracking method designed for colored drawings that uses a new outlier rejection algorithm for real-time tracking and surface deformation recovery. We present a content creation pipeline to efficiently create the 2-D and 3-D content. And, finally, we validate our work with two user studies that examine the quality of our texturing algorithm and the overall App experience.

  15. Squeeze flow between a sphere and a textured wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastel, T.; Mongruel, A., E-mail: anne.mongruel@upmc.fr [Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes, UMR 7636 CNRS–ESPCI, Université Pierre et Marie Curie–Université Paris-Diderot, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-02-15

    The motion of a millimetric sphere, translating in a viscous fluid towards a wettable textured wall, is investigated experimentally. The textures consist of square arrays of cylindrical or square micro-pillars, the height, width, and spacing of which are varied, keeping the periodicity small compared to the sphere radius. An interferometric device is used to measure the sphere vertical displacement, for distances between the sphere and the base of the pillars smaller than 0.1 sphere radius, and with a resolution of 200 nm. At a given distance from the top of the pillars, the sphere velocity is found to be significantly larger than the corresponding velocity for a smooth solid wall. A squeeze flow model of two adjacent fluid layers is developed in the lubrication approximation, one fluid layer having an effective viscosity that reflects the viscous dissipation through the array of pillars. The pressure field in the gap between the sphere and the textured surface is then used to obtain the drag force on the sphere and hence its velocity. Adjustment of the model to the velocity measurements yields the effective viscosity for a given texture. Finally, a correlation between the effective viscosity and the geometry of the pillar array is proposed.

  16. Non-monotonic probability of thermal reversal in thin-film biaxial nanomagnets with small energy barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the short time-scale, thermally-induced probability of magnetization reversal for an biaxial nanomagnet that is characterized with a biaxial magnetic anisotropy. For the first time, we clearly show that for a given energy barrier of the nanomagnet, the magnetization reversal probability of an biaxial nanomagnet exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on its saturation magnetization. Specifically, there are two reasons for this non-monotonic behavior in rectangular thin-film nanomagnets that have a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. First, a large perpendicular anisotropy lowers the precessional period of the magnetization making it more likely to precess across the x^=0 plane if the magnetization energy exceeds the energy barrier. Second, the thermal-field torque at a particular energy increases as the magnitude of the perpendicular anisotropy increases during the magnetization precession. This non-monotonic behavior is most noticeable when analyzing the magnetization reversals on time-scales up to several tens of ns. In light of the several proposals of spintronic devices that require data retention on time-scales up to 10’s of ns, understanding the probability of magnetization reversal on the short time-scales is important. As such, the results presented in this paper will be helpful in quantifying the reliability and noise sensitivity of spintronic devices in which thermal noise is inevitably present.

  17. Biaxial stress driven tetragonal symmetry breaking and high-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor from half-metallic CrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2018-03-01

    It is highly desirable to combine the full spin polarization of carriers with modern semiconductor technology for spintronic applications. For this purpose, one needs good crystalline ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) semiconductors with high Curie temperatures. Rutile CrO2 is a half-metallic spintronic material with Curie temperature 394 K and can have nearly full spin polarization at room temperature. Here, we find through first-principles investigation that when a biaxial compressive stress is applied on rutile CrO2, the density of states at the Fermi level decreases with the in-plane compressive strain, there is a structural phase transition to an orthorhombic phase at the strain of -5.6 % , and then appears an electronic phase transition to a semiconductor phase at -6.1 % . Further analysis shows that this structural transition, accompanying the tetragonal symmetry breaking, is induced by the stress-driven distortion and rotation of the oxygen octahedron of Cr, and the half-metal-semiconductor transition originates from the enhancement of the crystal field splitting due to the structural change. Importantly, our systematic total-energy comparison indicates the ferromagnetic Curie temperature remains almost independent of the strain, near 400 K. This biaxial stress can be realized by applying biaxial pressure or growing the CrO2 epitaxially on appropriate substrates. These results should be useful for realizing full (100%) spin polarization of controllable carriers as one uses in modern semiconductor technology.

  18. On the field-induced switching of molecular organization in a biaxial nematic cell and its relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Matteo; Berardi, Roberto; Zannoni, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the switching of a biaxial nematic filling a flat cell with planar homogeneous anchoring using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. We have found that an aligning field applied across the film, and acting on specific molecular axes, can drive the reorientation of the secondary biaxial director up to one order of magnitude faster than that for the principal director. While the π/2 switching of the secondary director does not affect the alignment of the long molecular axes, the field-driven reorientation of the principal director proceeds via a concerted rotation of the long and transversal molecular axes. More importantly, while upon switching off a (relatively) weak or intermediate field, the biaxial nematic liquid crystal is always able to relax to the initial surface aligned director state; this is not the case when using fields above a certain threshold. In that case, while the secondary director always recovers the initial state, the principal one remains, occasionally, trapped in a nonuniform director state due to the formation of domain walls.

  19. High-Speed Rolling of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Having Different Initial Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Yusuke; Hara, Kenichiro; Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-02-01

    It is known that magnesium alloys can be rolled up to a large thickness reduction and develop a unique texture when the rolling speed is high (>1000 m/min). In order to understand the texture formation mechanism during high-strain-rate deformation, high-speed rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy samples having different initial textures was conducted. The main components of the textures after the rolling were the RD-split basal, which consisted of 10°-20° inclining basal poles from the normal direction toward the rolling direction of the sheet, regardless of the different initial textures. With preheating at 473 K, all the samples were rolled without cracking while all were cracked when preheating was not applied. The optical micrographs and EBSD measurements showed a significant amount of twins and the cracks that developed along the shear bands consisted with laminated twins. Based on the texture simulation using the visco-plastic self-consistent model, it is concluded that the rapid development of the RD-split basal component from the initial basal alignment along the transverse direction was attributable to the tension twinning, The effect of the initial texture on the crack formation can be explained by the activation of the twinning system.

  20. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  1. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John

    2009-01-01

    fields and Maximum Entropy (FRAME) model [213, 214] is used for inpaining texture. We argue that many ’textures’ contain details that must be inpainted exactly. Simultaneous reconstruction of geometric structure and texture is a difficult problem, therefore, a two-phase reconstruction procedure...... is proposed. An inverse temperature is added to the FRAME model. In the first phase, the geometric structure is reconstructed by cooling the distribution, and in the second phase, the texture is added by heating the distribution. Empirically, we show that the long range geometric structure is inpainted...

  2. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  3. Study of CT image texture using deep learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sandeep; Fan, Jiahua; Chevalier, David

    2018-03-01

    For CT imaging, reduction of radiation dose while improving or maintaining image quality (IQ) is currently a very active research and development topic. Iterative Reconstruction (IR) approaches have been suggested to be able to offer better IQ to dose ratio compared to the conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction. However, it has been widely reported that often CT image texture from IR is different compared to that from FBP. Researchers have proposed different figure of metrics to quantitate the texture from different reconstruction methods. But there is still a lack of practical and robust method in the field for texture description. This work applied deep learning method for CT image texture study. Multiple dose scans of a 20cm diameter cylindrical water phantom was performed on Revolution CT scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha) and the images were reconstructed with FBP and four different IR reconstruction settings. The training images generated were randomly allotted (80:20) to a training and validation set. An independent test set of 256-512 images/class were collected with the same scan and reconstruction settings. Multiple deep learning (DL) networks with Convolution, RELU activation, max-pooling, fully-connected, global average pooling and softmax activation layers were investigated. Impact of different image patch size for training was investigated. Original pixel data as well as normalized image data were evaluated. DL models were reliably able to classify CT image texture with accuracy up to 99%. Results show that the deep learning techniques suggest that CT IR techniques may help lower the radiation dose compared to FBP.

  4. On the Landau-de Gennes Elastic Energy of a Q-Tensor Model for Soft Biaxial Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Domenico; Nicolodi, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    In the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, the propensities for alignments of molecules are represented at each point of the fluid by an element Q of the vector space S_0 of 3× 3 real symmetric traceless matrices, or Q-tensors. According to Longa and Trebin (1989), a biaxial nematic system is called soft biaxial if the tensor order parameter Q satisfies the constraint tr(Q^2) = {const}. After the introduction of a Q-tensor model for soft biaxial nematic systems and the description of its geometric structure, we address the question of coercivity for the most common four-elastic-constant form of the Landau-de Gennes elastic free-energy (Iyer et al. 2015) in this model. For a soft biaxial nematic system, the tensor field Q takes values in a four-dimensional sphere S^4_ρ of radius ρ ≤ √{2/3} in the five-dimensional space S_0 with inner product = tr(QP). The rotation group it{SO}(3) acts orthogonally on S_0 by conjugation and hence induces an action on S^4_ρ \\subset {S}_0. This action has generic orbits of codimension one that are diffeomorphic to an eightfold quotient S^3/H of the unit three-sphere S^3, where H={± 1, ± i, ± j, ± k} is the quaternion group, and has two degenerate orbits of codimension two that are diffeomorphic to the projective plane RP^2. Each generic orbit can be interpreted as the order parameter space of a constrained biaxial nematic system and each singular orbit as the order parameter space of a constrained uniaxial nematic system. It turns out that S^4_ρ is a cohomogeneity one manifold, i.e., a manifold with a group action whose orbit space is one-dimensional. Another important geometric feature of the model is that the set Σ _ρ of diagonal Q-tensors of fixed norm ρ is a (geodesic) great circle in S^4_ρ which meets every orbit of S^4_ρ orthogonally and is then a section for S^4_ρ in the sense of the general theory of canonical forms. We compute necessary and sufficient coercivity conditions for the elastic energy by

  5. Multi-cracking in uniaxial and biaxial fatigue of 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupil, J.

    2012-01-01

    When a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated mechanical stress, it may be damaged after a number of cycles by several cracks initiation and propagation of a main crack. This is the phenomenon of fatigue damage. The thesis deals specifically with possible damage to some components of nuclear plants due to thermal fatigue. Unlike conventional mechanical fatigue damage where a main crack breaks the part, the thermal fatigue damage usually results in the appearance of a surface crack network. Two aspects are discussed in the thesis. The first is the experimental study of fatigue multiple cracking stage also called multi-cracking. Two mechanical test campaigns with multi-cracking detection by digital image correlation were conducted. These campaigns involve uniaxial and equi-biaxial mechanical loads in tension/compression without mean stress. This work allows to monitor and to observe the evolution of different networks of cracks through mechanical solicitations. The second is the numerical simulation of the phenomenon of fatigue damage. Several types of model are used (stochastic, probabilistic, cohesive finite elements). The experimental results have led to identify a multiple crack initiation law in fatigue which is faced with the numerical results. This comparison shows the relevance of the use of an analytical probabilistic model to find statistical results on the density of cracks that can be initiated with thermal and mechanical fatigue loadings. (author) [fr

  6. DEM Simulation of Biaxial Compression Experiments of Inherently Anisotropic Granular Materials and the Boundary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.

  7. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  8. Electron beam induced modifications in flexible biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate sheets: Improved mechanical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, N. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Koiry, S.P. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Singh, A., E-mail: asb_barc@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Tillu, A.R. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Debnath, A.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Aswal, D.K., E-mail: dkaswal@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Mondal, R.K. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effects of electron beam irradiation (with dose ranging from 2 to 32 kGy) on mechanical and electrical properties of biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) sheets. The sol-gel analysis, Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations of the irradiated BOPET sheets suggest partial cross-linking of PET chains through the diethylene glycol (DEG). The mechanical properties of BOPET, such as, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical resistivity shows improvement with increasing dose and saturate for doses >10 kGy. The improved mechanical properties and high electrical resistivity of electron beam modified BOPET sheets may have additional advantages in applications, such as, packaging materials for food irradiation, medical product sterilization and electronic industries. - Graphical abstract: Irradiation of BOPET by electron beam leads to the formation of diethylene glycol that crosslink's the PET chains, resulting in improved mechanical properties and enhanced electrical resistivity. - Highlights: • BOPET exhibit improved tensile strength/Young's modulus after e-beam exposure. • Electrical resistivity of BOPET increases after e-beam exposure. • Cross-linking of PET chains through diethylene glycol was observed after e-beam exposure.

  9. General planar transverse domain walls realized by optimized transverse magnetic field pulses in magnetic biaxial nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    The statics and field-driven dynamics of transverse domain walls (TDWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) have attracted continuous interests because of their theoretical significance and application potential in future magnetic logic and memory devices. Recent results demonstrate that uniform transverse magnetic fields (TMFs) can greatly enhance the wall velocity, meantime leave a twisting in the TDW azimuthal distribution. For application in high-density NW devices, it is preferable to erase the twisting so as to minimize magnetization frustrations. Here we report the realization of a completely planar TDW with arbitrary tilting attitude in a magnetic biaxial NW under a TMF pulse with fixed strength and well-designed orientation profile. We smooth any twisting in the TDW azimuthal plane thus completely decouple the polar and azimuthal degrees of freedom. The analytical differential equation describing the polar angle distribution is derived and the resulting solution is not the Walker-ansatz form. With this TMF pulse comoving, the field-driven dynamics of the planar TDW is investigated with the help of the asymptotic expansion method. It turns out the comoving TMF pulse increases the wall velocity under the same axial driving field. These results will help to design a series of modern magnetic devices based on planar TDWs.

  10. Strain distribution and failure mode of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries under biaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Wang, Yanli; Li, Jianlin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Turner, John A.; Gorney, Phillip

    2018-02-01

    Deformation of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries has been studied under biaxial tension by using a dome test setup. This deformation mode provides characterization of separator strength under more complex loading conditions, closer representing deformation of an electric vehicle battery during crash event, compared to uniaxial tension or compression. Two polymer separators, Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 were investigated by deformation with spheres of three different diameters. Strains in separators were measured in situ by using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results show consistent rupture of separators along the machine direction coinciding with areas of high strain accumulation. The critical first principal strain for failure was independent of the sphere diameter and was determined to be approximately 34% and 43% for Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 respectively. These values can be taken as a criterion for internal short circuit in a battery following an out-of-plane impact. A Finite Element (FE) model was built with the anisotropic description of separator behavior, derived from tensile tests in orthogonal directions. The results of simulations predicted the response of separator rather well when compared to experimental results for various sizes of rigid sphere.

  11. Evaluation of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Aortic Media Based on the Lamellar Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Taghizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the mechanical properties of arterial wall components is necessary for establishing a precise mechanical model applicable in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as remodeling. In this contribution, a new approach for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of aortic media accounting for the lamellar structure is proposed. We assumed aortic media to be composed of two sets of concentric layers, namely sheets of elastin (Layer I and interstitial layers composed of mostly collagen bundles, fine elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells (Layer II. Biaxial mechanical tests were carried out on human thoracic aortic samples, and histological staining was performed to distinguish wall lamellae for determining the dimensions of the layers. A neo-Hookean strain energy function (SEF for Layer I and a four-parameter exponential SEF for Layer II were allocated. Nonlinear regression was used to find the material parameters of the proposed microstructural model based on experimental data. The non-linear behavior of media layers confirmed the higher contribution of elastic tissue in lower strains and the gradual engagement of collagen fibers. The resulting model determines the nonlinear anisotropic behavior of aortic media through the lamellar microstructure and can be assistive in the study of wall remodeling due to alterations in lamellar structure during pathological conditions and aging.

  12. Biodegradable multilayer barrier films based on alginate/polyethyleneimine and biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Hong; Wang, Jia-Jun; Yu, Yang; Sun, Hui; Shuai, Ning; Wei, Bing

    2013-02-15

    A layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was used to assemble alternating layers of sodium alginate (ALG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) on biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid) (BOPLA) films in order to produce bio-based all-polymer thin films with low gas permeability. Increasing the depositing of ALG and PEI from 0 to 30 layers results in large thickness variations (from 0 to 3.92 μm). After 30 ALG/PEI layers are deposited, the resulting assembly has an OTR of 1.22 cm(3)/(m(2) day atm). When multiplied by thickness, the resulting oxygen permeability (OP) is found to be less than 3.8×10(-17) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of uncoated BOPLA film (1.8×10(-14) cm(3)cm/cm(2) s Pa). At the same time, the resulting multilayer-coated BOPLA films maintain high optical clarity and tensile properties. This unique barrier thin film has become a promising alternative to non-biodegradable synthetic food packaging materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biaxial Solar Tracking System Based on the MPPT Approach Integrating ICTs for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid and distributed generation based on renewable energy applications often involve the use of information and communication technology (ICT coupled with advanced control and monitoring algorithms to improve the efficiency and reliability of the electrical grid and renewable generation systems. Photovoltaic (PV systems have been recently applied with success in the fields of distributed generation due to their lower environmental impact where the electrical energy generation is related to the amount of solar irradiation and thus the angle of incident ray of the sun on the surface of the modules. This paper introduces an integration of ICTs in order to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT using a biaxial solar tracking system for PV power applications. To generate the references for the digital control of azimuth and elevation angles a Global Positioning System (GPS by satellites is used which enables acquiring the geographic coordinates of the sun in real-time. As a total integration of the system a communication platform based on the 802.15.4 protocol for the wireless sensor networks (WSNs is adopted for supervising and monitoring the PV plant. A 2.4 kW prototype system is implemented to validate the proposed control scheme performance.

  14. Analysis of biaxial strain in InN(0001) epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, E.; Domagala, J.; Iliopoulos, E.; Adikimenakis, A.; Georgakilas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The in-plane lattice parameters of InN, GaN and Al 2 O 3 in a InN/GaN/Al 2 O 3 (0001) heterostructure have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 25-350 C, using high resolution X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that both the GaN and InN crystals follow the in-plane thermal expansion of the Al 2 O 3 substrate's lattice and there is no rearrangement of misfit dislocations at the InN/GaN and GaN/Al 2 O 3 interfaces. It was also found that either compressive or tensile character of residual biaxial strain is possible for the InN films, depending on the two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) growth mode of InN on the GaN(0001) buffer layer. The tensile strain is inherent to the nucleation and coalescence of 3D islands. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Transfer the multiscale texture of crystalline Si onto thin-film micromorph cell by UV nanoimprint for light trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daiming; Wang, Qingkang; Wang, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Surface texturing is of great significance in light trapping for solar cells. Herein, the multiscale texture, consisting of microscale pyramids and nanoscale porous arrangement, was fabricated on crystalline Si by KOH etching and Ag-assisted HF etching processes and subsequently replicated onto glass with high fidelity by UV nanoimprint method. Light trapping of the multiscale texture was studied by spectral (reflectance, haze ratio) characterizations. Results reveal the multiscale texture provides the broadband reflection reducing, the highlighted light scattering and the additional self-cleaning behaviors. Compared with bare cell, the multiscale textured micromorph cell achieves a 4% relative increase in power conversion efficiency. This surface texturing route paves a promising way for developing low-cost, large-scale and high-efficiency solar applications.

  16. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  17. Decameter-Scale Regolith Textures on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Zharkova, A. Yu.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    Like on the Moon, regolith gardening smooths the surface. Small craters are in equilibrium. “Elephant hide“ typical on the lunar slopes is infrequent on Mercury. Finely Textured Slope Patches have no analog on the Moon.

  18. Textural Evolution During Micro Direct Metal Deposition of NiTi Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademzadeh, Saeed; Bariani, Paolo F.; Bruschi, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a micro direct metal deposition process, newly developed as a potential method for micro additive manufacturing was used to fabricate NiTi builds. The effect of scanning strategy on grain growth and textural evolution was investigated using scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction detector. Investigations showed that, the angle between the successive single tracks has an important role in grain size distribution and textural evolution of NiTi phase. Unidirectional laser beam scanning pattern developed a fiber texture; conversely, a backward and forward scanning pattern developed a strong ‖‖ RD texture on the surface of NiTi cubic samples produced by micro direct metal deposition.

  19. X-ray study of texture in zirconium alloy tubes and in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.V.; Alekseev, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray study of texture in zirconium alloy tubes and in graphite has been developed. The method is based on constructing coordinate grid of stereographic projection determining quantity and coordinates of points where measurements should be performed depending on a specimen slope pitch. Complete stereographic projection obtained so is a base both for constructing pole figures showing distribution normales of plane system being studied and for calculating texture coefficients determining property anisotropy in materials under investigation. This method can be applied to study texture in items of any materials independent of the item shape

  20. Fiscal 1998 intellectual infrastructure project utilizing civil sector functions. Research and development project on prompt-effect type intellectual infrastructure creation (Research and development concerning relations between sintered body textural structure and material characteristics in fine ceramics); 1998 nendo minkan no kino wo katsuyoshita chiteki kiban jigyo seika hokokusho. Sokkogata chiteki kiban sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo (fine ceramics no shoketsutai soshiki kozo to zairyo tokusei tono kankei ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development was carried out involving fine ceramic sintered body textural structure evaluation methods for the development of process technologies for achieving higher quality and lower cost. Studies centered about a method for evaluating coarse pores and coarse grains in sintered bodies, relations between sintered body fracture strength and textural structure, and the standardization of evaluation methods. As the result, an evaluation method for observing pore structures in a sintered body flake specimen under an optical microscope and another for observing coarse grains under a polarization microscope were proposed. As for the effect of coarse defects on the fracture strength of ceramics, it was demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that coarse defects several tens of micrometers in size greatly affected the fracture strength. In the study of methods for sintered body grain size evaluation, findings were obtained about the processing of the specimen surface. (NEDO)

  1. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  2. Determination of textures by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, P.; Penelle, R.

    1989-01-01

    In virtue of the low absorption coefficient of most materials in regard to neutrons, neutron diffraction is particularly well adapted for high-precision characterizing of the gross texture of massive fine-grained or coarse-grained specimens of the order of the cubic centimeter. The firt part of this paper is devoted to a description of the distribution of crystalline orientations, and the second part to experimental identification of textures [fr

  3. Texture and inflation in a closed universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, S.; Sarmiento, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present a cosmological model with a global homogeneous texture and inflation, but without an initial singularity. The Universe starts from an equilibrium configuration in a symmetric vacuum; the dynamic stability of this configuration is studied. We obtain numerical solutions which show that the Universe expands exponentially and the texture field decays in a finite time; this corresponds to a period of inflation followed naturally by a Friedmann expansion

  4. Filtering Color Mapped Textures and Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Heitz , Eric; Nowrouzezahrai , Derek; Poulin , Pierre; Neyret , Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Color map textures applied directly to surfaces, to geometric microsurface details, or to procedural functions (such as noise), are commonly used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient color map filt...

  5. Combining fine texture and coarse color features for color texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yangyu; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    Color texture classification plays an important role in computer vision applications because texture and color are two fundamental visual features. To classify the color texture via extracting discriminative color texture features in real time, we present an approach of combining the fine texture and coarse color features for color texture classification. First, the input image is transformed from RGB to HSV color space to separate texture and color information. Second, the scale-selective completed local binary count (CLBC) algorithm is introduced to extract the fine texture feature from the V component in HSV color space. Third, both H and S components are quantized at an optimal coarse level. Furthermore, the joint histogram of H and S components is calculated, which is considered as the coarse color feature. Finally, the fine texture and coarse color features are combined as the final descriptor and the nearest subspace classifier is used for classification. Experimental results on CUReT, KTH-TIPS, and New-BarkTex databases demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art classification performance. Moreover, the proposed method is fast enough for real-time applications.

  6. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  7. Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruz'elová, M; Vratislav, S; Kalvoda, L; Dlouhá, M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague. Procedures for studying textures with thermal neutrons and procedures for obtaining texture parameters (direct and inverse pole figures, three dimensional orientation distribution function) are also described. Observed data were processed by software packages HEXAL and GSAS. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) All samples of zirconium alloys show the distribution of middle area into two maxima in basal pole figures. This is caused by alloying elements. A characteristic split of the basal pole maxima tilted from the normal direction toward the transverse direction can be observed for all samples, ii) Sheet samples prefer orientation of planes (100) and (110) perpendicular to rolling direction and orientation of planes (002) perpendicular to normal direction, iii) Basal planes of tubes are oriented parallel to tube axis, meanwhile (100) planes are oriented perpendicular to tube axis. Level of resulting texture and maxima position is different for tubes and for sheets. The obtained results are characteristic for zirconium based alloys.

  8. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  9. Introduction of new food textures during complementary feeding: Observations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marduel Boulanger, A; Vernet, M

    2018-01-01

    Complementary feeding plays a crucial role in the development of infants and toddlers and studies suggest benefits specific to the introduction of food textures. Evaluate the recommendations given to parents, their practices, and their attitudes towards the introduction of food textures during complementary feeding in France. This was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted in 2013. One hundred and eighty-one parents with at least one child aged 6-36 months living in France completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Eighty-eight percent of the parents surveyed received oral information on complementary feeding, but only 46% received such information on the introduction of food textures. Pediatricians were the most frequently listed source of oral information on complementary feeding. More than half the parents also looked for additional information in books and on the internet. While oral recommendations matched parents' practices, they seemed to occur at a later age compared to infants' physiological ability to handle new textures. The quality of information on food texture advice available in paper and electronic formats evaluated using a 4-point scale was found to be limited. Introducing new food texture was spontaneously reported as the most common difficulty in complementary feeding (16%). Fear of choking when first introducing food pieces was reported by 54% of the parents. The parents' lack of information on the introduction of food textures, as well as their fear that their child may choke, should encourage providing new recommendations in France. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbaša, Radomir; Jevrić, Lidija; Lončar, Eva; Vitas, Jasmina; Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Sanja; Milanović, Spasenija; Kovačević, Strahinja

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, relationships between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with various teas were investigated by using chemometric analysis. The presented data which describe numerically the textural characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity) were analysed. The quadratic correlation was determined between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained at fermentation temperatures of 40 and 43 °C, using milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat and kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint, stinging nettle, wild thyme and winter savory. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to identify the similarities among the fermented products. The best mathematical models predicting the textural characteristics of investigated samples were developed. The results of this study indicate that textural characteristics of sample based on winter savory have a significant effect on textural characteristics of samples based on peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme, which can be very useful in the determination of products texture profile.

  11. Modelling the transport phenomena and texture changes of chicken breast meat during the roasting in a convective oven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabeler, Felix; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    2018-01-01

    A numerical 3D model of coupled transport phenomena and texture changes during the roasting of chicken breast meat in a convection oven was developed. The model is based on heat and mass transfer coupled with the kinetics of temperature induced texture changes of chicken breast meat. The partial...... experimentally values. The developed model enables the prediction of the texture development inside the chicken meat as function of the process parameters. The model predictions and measured values show the clear effect of changing process settings on the texture profiles during the roasting process. Overall......, the developed model provides deep insights into the local and spatial texture changes of chicken breast meat during the roasting process that cannot be gained by experimentation alone....

  12. Experimental Studies on Strength Behaviour of Notched Glass/Epoxy Laminated Composites under Uni-axial and Bi-axial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guptha, V. L. Jagannatha; Sharma, Ramesh S.

    2017-11-01

    The use of FRP composite materials in aerospace, aviation, marine, automotive and civil engineering industry has increased rapidly in recent years due to their high specific strength and stiffness properties. The structural members contrived from such composite materials are generally subjected to complex loading conditions and leads to multi-axial stress conditions at critical surface localities. Presence of notches, much required for joining process of composites, makes it further significant. The current practice of using uni-axial test data alone to validate proposed material models is inadequate leading to evaluation and consideration of bi-axial test data. In order to correlate the bi-axial strengths with the uni-axial strengths of GFRP composite laminates in the presence of a circular notch, bi-axial tests using four servo-hydraulic actuators with four load cells were carried out. To determine the in-plane strength parameters, bi-axial cruciform test specimen model was considered. Three different fibre orientations, namely, 0°, 45°, and 90° are considered with a central circular notch of 10 mm diameter in the present investigation. From the results obtained, it is observed that there is a reduction in strength of 5.36, 2.41 and 13.92% in 0°, 45°, and 90° fibre orientation, respectively, under bi-axial loading condition as compared to that of uni-axial loading in laminated composite.

  13. Green-Kubo relations for the viscosity of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Sten

    1996-09-01

    We derive Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal. In this system there are seven shear viscosities, three twist viscosities, and three cross coupling coefficients between the antisymmetric strain rate and the symmetric traceless pressure tensor. According to the Onsager reciprocity relations these couplings are equal to the cross couplings between the symmetric traceless strain rate and the antisymmetric pressure. Our method is based on a comparison of the microscopic linear response generated by the SLLOD equations of motion for planar Couette flow (so named because of their close connection to the Doll's tensor Hamiltonian) and the macroscopic linear phenomenological relations between the pressure tensor and the strain rate. In order to obtain simple Green-Kubo relations we employ an equilibrium ensemble where the angular velocities of the directors are identically zero. This is achieved by adding constraint torques to the equations for the molecular angular accelerations. One finds that all the viscosity coefficients can be expressed as linear combinations of time correlation function integrals (TCFIs). This is much simpler compared to the expressions in the conventional canonical ensemble, where the viscosities are complicated rational functions of the TCFIs. The reason for this is, that in the constrained angular velocity ensemble, the thermodynamic forces are given external parameters whereas the thermodynamic fluxes are ensemble averages of phase functions. This is not the case in the canonical ensemble. The simplest way of obtaining numerical estimates of viscosity coefficients of a particular molecular model system is to evaluate these fluctuation relations by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Dependence of electronic properties of germanium on the in-plane biaxial tensile strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China); Yu, Z.Y., E-mail: yuzhongyuan30@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China); Liu, Y.M.; Lu, P.F. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, T. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, M.; Manzoor, S. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China)

    2013-10-15

    The hybrid HSE06 functional with the spin–orbit coupling effects is used to calculate the habituation of the electronic properties of Ge on the (0 0 1), (1 1 1), (1 0 1) in-plane biaxial tensile strains (IPBTSs). Our motivation is to explore the nature of electronic properties of tensile-strained Ge on different substrate orientations. The calculated results demonstrate that one of the most effective and practical approaches for transforming Ge into a direct transition semiconductor is to introduce (0 0 1) IPBTS to Ge. At 2.3% (0 0 1) IPBTS, Ge becomes a direct bandgap semiconductor with 0.53 eV band gap, in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results. We find that the (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) IPBTSs are not efficient since the shear strain and inner displacement of atoms introduced by them quickly decrease the indirect gap of Ge. By investigating the dependence of valence band spin–orbit splitting on strain, we prove that the dependency relationship and the coupled ways between the valence-band states of tensile-strained Ge are closely related to the symmetry of strain tensor, i.e., the symmetry of the substrate orientation. The first- and second-order coefficients describing the dependence of indirect gap, direct gap, the valence band spin–orbit coupling splitting, and heavy-hole–light-hole splitting of Ge on IPBTSs have been obtained by the least squares polynomial fitting. These coefficients are significant to quantitatively modulate the electronic properties of Ge by tensile strain and design tensile-strained Ge devices by semiconductor epitaxial technique.

  15. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, V.

    2001-11-01

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10 -5 ) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  16. Progress in melt-texturing of YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, K.; Lee, D.F.; Selvamanickam, V.

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS), tremendous efforts have been expanded toward the improvement of these materials. Due to the weak-link problem associated with grain boundaries, sintered bulk HTS possess a transport critical current density (J c ) on the order of 10 2 -10 3 A/cm 2 at 77 K. While these sintered superconductors may be utilized in low current applications, novel processing methods have to be developed to obtain HTS that can sustain high currents. Melt-texturing of HTS was found to result in a high degree of grain orientation, and is presently the most prominent processing method used to manufacture bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (123) with superior transport and magnetic properties. In this review paper, various melt-texturing methods will be discussed, and the variation in J c with processing will be presented. (orig.)

  17. Texture recognition of medical images with the ICM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinser, Jason M.; Wang Guisong

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Cortical Model (ICM) is based upon several models of the mammalian visual cortex and produces pulse images over several iterations. These pulse images tend to isolate segments, edges, and textures that are inherent in the input image. To create a texture recognition engine the pulse spectrum of individual pixels are collected and used to develop a recognition library. Recognition is performed by comparing pulse spectra of unclassified regions of images with the known regions. Because signatures are smaller than images, signature-based computation is quite efficient and parasites can be recognized quickly. The precision of this method depends on the representative of signatures and classification. Our experiment results support the theoretical findings and show perspectives of practical applications of ICM-based method. The advantage of ICM method is using signatures to represent objects. ICM can extract the internal features of objects and represent them with signatures. Signature classification is critical for the precision of recognition

  18. Local texture measurements with the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottstein, G.; Engler, O.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for convenient measurement of the crystallographic orientation of small volumes in bulk samples by electron diffraction in the SEM are discussed. They make use of Selected Area Electron Channelling Patterns (SAECP) and Electron Back Scattering Patterns (EBSP). The principle of pattern formation as well as measuring and evaluation procedure are introduced. The methods offer a viable procedure for obtaining information on the spatial arrangement of orientations, i.e. on orientation topography. Thus, they provide a new level of information on crystallographic texture. An application of the techniques for local texture measurements is demonstrated by an example, namely for investigation of considering the recrystallization behaviour of binary Al-1.3% Mn with large precipitates. Finally, further developments of the EBSP technique are addressed. (orig.)

  19. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  20. Cloud field classification based on textural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sailes Kumar

    1989-01-01

    An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes