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Sample records for bias voltage applied

  1. Influence of Applied Bias Voltage on the Composition, Structure, and Properties of Ti:Si-Codoped a-C:H Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The titanium- and silicon-codoped a-C:H films were prepared at different applied bias voltage by magnetron sputtering TiSi target in argon and methane mixture atmosphere. The influence of the applied bias voltage on the composition, surface morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of the films was investigated by XPS, AFM, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and nanoindenter. The tribological properties of the films were characterized on an UMT-2MT tribometer. The results demonstrated that the film became smoother and denser with increasing the applied bias voltage up to −200 V, whereas surface roughness increased due to the enhancement of ion bombardment as the applied bias voltage further increased. The sp3 carbon fraction in the films monotonously decreased with increasing the applied bias voltage. The film exhibited moderate hardness and the superior tribological properties at the applied bias voltage of −100 V. The tribological behaviors are correlated to the H/E or H3/E2 ratio of the films.

  2. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Sue, Ruei-Siang; Lin, Jian-Cheng; Syu, Hong-Jang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2016-08-10

    This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs) and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode with periodic holes (perforations) under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  3. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO electrode with periodic holes (perforations under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  4. Influence of 60Co γ-ray irradiation and applied bias voltages on dielectric properties of Al/SiO2/p-Si (MIS) structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascioglu, I.; Uslu, H.; Aydemir, U.

    2010-01-01

    The MIS structures were exposed to 6 0Co γ-ray source at 5 kGy and radiation effect on dielectric properties has been investigated using admittance method (C-V and G/ω-V) by applying a small ac signal of 40 mV amplitude at 1 MHz and room temperature. The voltage dependent dielectric constant (ε'), dielectric loss (ε''), loss tangent (tanδ), electric modulus(M*) and ac electrical conductivity (σ a c) profiles show an intersection behavior about 1.6 V. The ε', ε'', tanδ and σ a c values decrease with increasing dose before intersection point after than they become increase. Such behavior can be explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization and restructuring and reordering of interface states charges due to the effect of γ-ray irradiation. Also, the imaginer part of M* exhibits a peak. It is concluded that all these parameters of MIS structure are strongly dependent on the radiation dose and applied bias voltage especially in depletion region.

  5. Influence of negative substrate bias voltage on the impurity concentrations in Zr films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Bae, J.W.; Mimura, K.; Isshiki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Zr films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates without a substrate bias voltage and with substrate bias voltages of -50 V and -100 V using a non-mass separated ion beam deposition system. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry were used to determine the impurity concentrations in a Zr target and Zr films. It was found that the total amount of impurities in the Zr film deposited at the substrate bias voltage of -50 V was much lower than that in the Zr film deposited without the substrate bias voltage. It means that applying a negative bias voltage to the substrate can suppress the increase in impurities of Zr films. Furthermore, it was confirmed that dominant impurity elements such as C, N and O have a considerable effect on the purity of Zr films and these impurities can be remarkably reduced by applying the negative substrate bias voltage

  6. Variation of microchannel plate resistance with temperature and applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.F.; Fraser, G.W.; Whiteley, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The resistance of microchannel plate electron multiplier is well known to be a function of both applied voltage and detector temperature. We show that the apparent variation of resistance with bias voltage is simply due to plate temperature increases resulting from resistive heating. (orig.)

  7. Effects of bias voltage on the properties of ITO films prepared on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Song, Woochang; Yi, Junsin

    2005-01-01

    The ITO (indium tin oxide) thin films were deposited on acryl, glass, PET, and poly-carbonate substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was changed from -20 to -80 V. As the bias voltage increased, the deposition rate of ITO films decreased regardless of substrate types. The roughness of the films on PET increased with the bias voltage. The study demonstrated that the bias improved the electrical and optical properties of ITO films regardless of substrate types. The lowest electrical resistivity of 5.5x10 -4 no. OMEGAno. -cm and visible transmittance of about 80% were achieved by applying a negative bias of -60 V

  8. Bias voltage induced resistance switching effect in single-molecule magnets' tunneling junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Liang

    2014-09-12

    An electric-pulse-induced reversible resistance change effect in a molecular magnetic tunneling junction, consisting of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) sandwiched in one nonmagnetic and one ferromagnetic electrode, is theoretically investigated. By applying a time-varying bias voltage, the SMM's spin orientation can be manipulated with large bias voltage pulses. Moreover, the different magnetic configuration at high-resistance/low-resistance states can be 'read out' by utilizing relative low bias voltage. This device scheme can be implemented with current technologies (Khajetoorians et al 2013 Science 339 55) and has potential application in molecular spintronics and high-density nonvolatile memory devices.

  9. Bias voltage induced resistance switching effect in single-molecule magnets’ tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Liang

    2014-09-01

    An electric-pulse-induced reversible resistance change effect in a molecular magnetic tunneling junction, consisting of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) sandwiched in one nonmagnetic and one ferromagnetic electrode, is theoretically investigated. By applying a time-varying bias voltage, the SMM's spin orientation can be manipulated with large bias voltage pulses. Moreover, the different magnetic configuration at high-resistance/low-resistance states can be ‘read out’ by utilizing relative low bias voltage. This device scheme can be implemented with current technologies (Khajetoorians et al 2013 Science 339 55) and has potential application in molecular spintronics and high-density nonvolatile memory devices.

  10. Bias voltage dependence of a flux-sensitive Al/GaAs/Al (SNS) interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1999-01-01

    bias voltage the fabricated interferometers typically exhibit 3% sinusoidal modulation of the conductance as a function of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the loop. The conductance modulation is caused by resonant Andreev states in the normal GaAs region of the device. With increasing bias...... voltage of the order of a few microvolts the device is driven out of resonance and the conductance oscillations are extinguished. However, at higher bias voltage corresponding to the superconducting energy gap of Al (178 mu V) the conductance oscillations reappear but with reduced amplitude...

  11. Effect of bias voltage on microstructure and mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, authors report on the effect that substrate bias voltage has on the ... ings and at high deposition rates, having a wide range of .... The coatings were then ultra- ... The results of a typical compositional analysis carried out.

  12. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  13. Additional ion bombardment in PVD processes generated by a superimposed pulse bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, W.; Kampschulte, G.

    1993-01-01

    The superimposed pulse bias voltage is a tool to apply an additional ion bombardment during deposition in physical vapour deposition (PVD) processes. It is generated by the combination of a d.c. ground voltage and a higher d.c. pulse voltage. Using a superimposed pulse bias voltage in ion-assisted PVD processes effects an additional all-around ion bombardment on the surface with ions of higher energy. Both metal and reactive or inert-gas ions are accelerated to the surface. The basic principles and important characteristics of this newly developed process such as ion fluxes or deposition rates are shown. Because of pulsing the high voltage, the deposition temperature does not increase much. The adhesion, structure, morphology and internal stresses are influenced by these additional ion impacts. The columnar growth of the deposited films could be suppressed by using the superimposed pulse bias voltage without increasing the deposition temperature. Different metallizations (Cr and Cu) produced by arc and sputter ion plating are investigated. Carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxy are coated with PVD copper films for further treatment in electrochemical processes. (orig.)

  14. A voltage biased superconducting quantum interference device bootstrap circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xiaoming; Wang Huiwu; Wang Yongliang; Dong Hui; Jiang Mianheng; Zhang Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I; Offenhaeusser, Andreas; Mueck, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit operating in the voltage bias mode and called a SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC). The SBC is an alternative implementation of two existing methods for suppression of room-temperature amplifier noise: additional voltage feedback and current feedback. Two circuit branches are connected in parallel. In the dc SQUID branch, an inductively coupled coil connected in series provides the bias current feedback for enhancing the flux-to-current coefficient. The circuit branch parallel to the dc SQUID branch contains an inductively coupled voltage feedback coil with a shunt resistor in series for suppressing the preamplifier noise current by increasing the dynamic resistance. We show that the SBC effectively reduces the preamplifier noise to below the SQUID intrinsic noise. For a helium-cooled planar SQUID magnetometer with a SQUID inductance of 350 pH, a flux noise of about 3 μΦ 0 Hz -1/2 and a magnetic field resolution of less than 3 fT Hz -1/2 were obtained. The SBC leads to a convenient direct readout electronics for a dc SQUID with a wider adjustment tolerance than other feedback schemes.

  15. Effect of applied bias voltage on corrosion-resistance for TiC 1- xN x and Ti 1- xNb xC 1- yN y coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, J. C.; Amaya, C.; Yate, L.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.; Gómez, M. E.; Alvarado-Rivera, J.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.; Prieto, P.

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion-resistance behavior of titanium carbon nitride (Ti-C-N) and titanium niobium carbon nitride (Ti-Nb-C-N) coatings deposited onto Si(1 0 0) and AISI 4140 steel substrates via r.f. magnetron sputtering process was analyzed. The coatings in contact with a solution of sodium chloride at 3.5% were studied by Tafel polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy methods (EIS). Variations of the bias voltage were carried out for each series of deposition to observe the influence of this parameter upon the electrochemical properties of the coatings. The introduction of Nb in the ternary Ti-C-N film was evaluated via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The structure was characterized by using Raman spectroscopy to identify ternary and quaternary compounds. Surface corrosion processes were characterized using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show conformation of the quaternary phase, change in the strain of the film, and lattice parameter as the effect of the Nb inclusion. The main Raman bands were assigned to interstitial phases and "impurities" of the coatings. Changes in Raman intensities were attributed to the incorporation of niobium in the Ti-C-N structure and possibly to resonance enhancement. Finally, the corrosion data obtained for Ti-C-N were compared with the results of corrosion tests of Ti-Nb-C-N coating. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of niobium to Ti-C-N coatings led to an increase in the corrosion-resistance. On another hand, an increase in the bias voltage led to a decrease in the corrosion-resistance for both Ti-C-N and Ti-Nb-C-N coatings.

  16. Effect of applied bias voltage on corrosion-resistance for TiC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and Ti{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}C{sub 1-y}N{sub y} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: Jcesarca@calima.univalle.edu.co [Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Amaya, C. [Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros DT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Yate, L. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M.E. [Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Alvarado-Rivera, J.; Munoz-Saldana, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro (Mexico); Prieto, P. [Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, Calle 13 100-00 Edificio 320, espacio 1026, Cali (Colombia)

    2010-02-15

    Corrosion-resistance behavior of titanium carbon nitride (Ti-C-N) and titanium niobium carbon nitride (Ti-Nb-C-N) coatings deposited onto Si(1 0 0) and AISI 4140 steel substrates via r.f. magnetron sputtering process was analyzed. The coatings in contact with a solution of sodium chloride at 3.5% were studied by Tafel polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy methods (EIS). Variations of the bias voltage were carried out for each series of deposition to observe the influence of this parameter upon the electrochemical properties of the coatings. The introduction of Nb in the ternary Ti-C-N film was evaluated via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The structure was characterized by using Raman spectroscopy to identify ternary and quaternary compounds. Surface corrosion processes were characterized using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show conformation of the quaternary phase, change in the strain of the film, and lattice parameter as the effect of the Nb inclusion. The main Raman bands were assigned to interstitial phases and 'impurities' of the coatings. Changes in Raman intensities were attributed to the incorporation of niobium in the Ti-C-N structure and possibly to resonance enhancement. Finally, the corrosion data obtained for Ti-C-N were compared with the results of corrosion tests of Ti-Nb-C-N coating. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of niobium to Ti-C-N coatings led to an increase in the corrosion-resistance. On another hand, an increase in the bias voltage led to a decrease in the corrosion-resistance for both Ti-C-N and Ti-Nb-C-N coatings.

  17. Effect of applied bias voltage on corrosion-resistance for TiC1-xNx and Ti1-xNbxC1-yNy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J.C.; Amaya, C.; Yate, L.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M.E.; Alvarado-Rivera, J.; Munoz-Saldana, J.; Prieto, P.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion-resistance behavior of titanium carbon nitride (Ti-C-N) and titanium niobium carbon nitride (Ti-Nb-C-N) coatings deposited onto Si(1 0 0) and AISI 4140 steel substrates via r.f. magnetron sputtering process was analyzed. The coatings in contact with a solution of sodium chloride at 3.5% were studied by Tafel polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy methods (EIS). Variations of the bias voltage were carried out for each series of deposition to observe the influence of this parameter upon the electrochemical properties of the coatings. The introduction of Nb in the ternary Ti-C-N film was evaluated via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The structure was characterized by using Raman spectroscopy to identify ternary and quaternary compounds. Surface corrosion processes were characterized using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show conformation of the quaternary phase, change in the strain of the film, and lattice parameter as the effect of the Nb inclusion. The main Raman bands were assigned to interstitial phases and 'impurities' of the coatings. Changes in Raman intensities were attributed to the incorporation of niobium in the Ti-C-N structure and possibly to resonance enhancement. Finally, the corrosion data obtained for Ti-C-N were compared with the results of corrosion tests of Ti-Nb-C-N coating. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of niobium to Ti-C-N coatings led to an increase in the corrosion-resistance. On another hand, an increase in the bias voltage led to a decrease in the corrosion-resistance for both Ti-C-N and Ti-Nb-C-N coatings.

  18. Field angle dependence of voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance under DC bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We studied the rectification function of microwaves in CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Our findings reveal that the shape of the structure of the spectrum depends on the rotation angle of the external magnetic field, providing clear evidence that FMR dynamics are excited by voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy changes. Further, enhancement of the rectified voltage was demonstrated under a DC bias voltage. In our experiments, the highest microwave detection sensitivity obtained was 350 mV/mW, at an RF frequency of 1.0 GHz and field angle of θ_H=80°, ϕ_H=0°. The experimental results correlated with those obtained via simulation, and the calculated results revealed the magnetization dynamics at the resonance state. - Highlights: • Examined voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under various field angles. • FMR dynamics are excited by voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy changes. • Microwave detection sensitivity depends on input RF and elevation angle. • Microwave detection sensitivity=350 mV/mW at RF=1.0 GHz, θ_H=80°, ϕ_H=0°.

  19. Influence of bias voltage on the stability of CsI photocathodes exposed to air

    CERN Document Server

    Nitti, M A; Nappi, E; Singh, B K; Valentini, A

    2002-01-01

    We describe a possible correlation between the bias voltage applied to the substrate during the growth of CsI photocathodes and the variation of quantum efficiency (QE) after one day exposure to humid air. It was found that fresh samples are much less sensitive to humid air when a high negative bias voltage was applied during film growth. A model based on surface film interaction with water molecules is presented for the observed effect. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been performed to examine, respectively, the bulk structure and the surface of fresh and exposed CsI samples. Also reported are transmittance measurements for fresh and aged CsI samples in the wavelength range 190-850 nm.

  20. Influence of X and gamma radiation and bias conditions on dropout voltage of voltage regulators serial transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukic, V.; Osmokrovic, P.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Research topic presented in this paper is degradation of characteristics of low-dropout voltage regulator's serial transistor during exposure of device to the ionizing radiation. Voltage regulators were exposed to X and γ radiation in two modes: without bias conditions, and with bias conditions and load. Tested circuits are representatives of the first and the second generation of low-dropout voltage regulators, with lateral and vertical PNP serial transistor: LM2940 and L4940. Experimental results of output voltage and serial dropout voltage change in function of total ionizing dose, during the medium-dose-rate exposure, were presented. (author) [sr

  1. Effect of Reverse Bias Stress on Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltages of Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of solid tantalum capacitors are produced by high-temperature sintering of a fine tantalum powder around a tantalum wire followed by electrolytic anodization that forms a thin amorphous Ta2O5 dielectric layer and pyrolysis of manganese nitrite on the oxide to create a conductive manganese dioxide electrode. A contact to tantalum wire is used as anode terminal and to the manganese layer as a cathode terminal of the device. This process results in formation of an asymmetric Ta -- Ta2O5 -- MnO2 capacitor that has different characteristics at forward (positive bias applied to tantalum) and reverse (positive bias applied to manganese cathode) voltages. Reverse bias currents might be several orders of magnitude larger than forward leakage currents so I-V characteristics of tantalum capacitors resemble characteristics of semiconductor rectifiers. Asymmetric I-V characteristics of Ta -- anodic Ta2O5 systems have been observed at different top electrode materials including metals, electrolytes, conductive polymers, and manganese oxide thus indicating that this phenomenon is likely related to the specifics of the Ta -- Ta2O5 interface. There have been multiple attempts to explain rectifying characteristics of capacitors employing anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. A brief review of works related to reverse bias (RB) behavior of tantalum capacitors shows that the mechanism of conduction in Ta -- Ta2O5 systems is still not clear and more testing and analysis is necessary to understand the processes involved. If tantalum capacitors behave just as rectifiers, then the assessment of the safe reverse bias operating conditions would be a relatively simple task. Unfortunately, these parts can degrade with time under reverse bias significantly, and this further complicates analysis of the I-V characteristics and establishing safe operating areas of the parts. On other hand, time dependence of reverse currents might provide additional information for investigation of

  2. Bias-Voltage Stabilizer for HVHF Amplifiers in VHF Pulse-Echo Measurement Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Park, Chulwoo; Kim, Jungsuk; Jung, Hayong

    2017-10-23

    The impact of high-voltage-high-frequency (HVHF) amplifiers on echo-signal quality is greater with very-high-frequency (VHF, ≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers than with low-frequency (LF, ≤15 MHz) ultrasound transducers. Hence, the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier must be stabilized to ensure stable echo-signal amplitudes. We propose a bias-voltage stabilizer circuit to maintain stable DC voltages over a wide input range, thus reducing the harmonic-distortion components of the echo signals in VHF pulse-echo measurement systems. To confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we measured and compared the deviations in the gain of the HVHF amplifier with and without a bias-voltage stabilizer. Between -13 and 26 dBm, the measured gain deviations of a HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer are less than that of an amplifier without a bias-voltage stabilizer. In order to confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we compared the pulse-echo responses of the amplifiers, which are typically used for the evaluation of transducers or electronic components used in pulse-echo measurement systems. From the responses, we observed that the amplitudes of the echo signals of a VHF transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer were higher than those of the transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier alone. The second, third, and fourth harmonic-distortion components of the HVHF amplifier with the bias-voltage stabilizer were also lower than those of the HVHF amplifier alone. Hence, the proposed scheme is a promising method for stabilizing the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier, and improving the echo-signal quality of VHF transducers.

  3. Output pressure and harmonic characteristics of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Hansen, Sebastian Molbech

    2015-01-01

    of the transmitted signal. The generation of intrinsic harmonics by the CMUT can be minimized by decreasing the excitation signal. This, however, leads to lower fundamental pressure which limits the desired generation of harmonics in the medium. This work examines the output pressure and harmonic characteristics...... of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage. The harmonic to fundamental ratio of the surface pressures declines for decreasing excitation voltage and increasing bias voltage. The ratio, however, becomes unchanged for bias levels close to the pull-in voltage. The harmonic limitations of the CMUT...

  4. In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of redox molecules. Coherent electron transfer at large bias voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Theories of in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) of molecules with redox levels near the substrate and tip Fermi levels point to 'spectroscopic' current-overpotential features. Prominent features require a narrow 'probing tip', i.e. a small bias voltage, eV(bias), compared...... a broad tunnelling current-overpotential range at a constant (large) bias voltage of +0.2 V. The current is found to be constant over a 0.25 V overpotential range, which covers roughly the range where the oxidised and reduced redox levels are located within the energy tip. STM contrast and apparent...... of previous theoretical work on in situ STM of redox molecules, to large bias voltages, \\eV(bias)\\ > E-r. Large bias voltages give tunnelling contrasts independent of the overpotential over a broad range, as both the oxidised and reduced redox levels are located within the 'energy tip' between the substrate...

  5. Exponential dependence of potential barrier height on biased voltages of inorganic/organic static induction transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yang Jianhong; Cai Xueyuan; Wang Zaixing

    2010-01-01

    The exponential dependence of the potential barrier height φ c on the biased voltages of the inorganic/organic static induction transistor (SIT/OSIT) through a normalized approach in the low-current regime is presented. It shows a more accurate description than the linear expression of the potential barrier height. Through the verification of the numerical calculated and experimental results, the exponential dependence of φ c on the applied biases can be used to derive the I-V characteristics. For both SIT and OSIT, the calculated results, using the presented relationship, are agreeable with the experimental results. Compared to the previous linear relationship, the exponential description of φ c can contribute effectively to reduce the error between the theoretical and experimental results of the I-V characteristics. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Impurity effects on electrical conductivity of doped bilayer graphene in the presence of a bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, E; Rezania, H; Arghavaninia, B; Yarmohammadi, M

    2016-01-01

    We address the electrical conductivity of bilayer graphene as a function of temperature, impurity concentration, and scattering strength in the presence of a finite bias voltage at finite doping, beginning with a description of the tight-binding model using the linear response theory and Green’s function approach. Our results show a linear behavior at high doping for the case of high bias voltage. The effects of electron doping on the electrical conductivity have been studied via changing the electronic chemical potential. We also discuss and analyze how the bias voltage affects the temperature behavior of the electrical conductivity. Finally, we study the behavior of the electrical conductivity as a function of the impurity concentration and scattering strength for different bias voltages and chemical potentials respectively. The electrical conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with impurity scattering strength due to the increased scattering among electrons at higher impurity scattering strength. (paper)

  7. Best voltage bias-flipping strategy towards maximum piezoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junrui; Chung, Henry Shu-Hung

    2013-01-01

    In piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems, energy extracted from piezoelectric structure can be increased by making piezoelectric voltage in phase with vibration velocity and raising the voltage amplitude. Such voltage manipulations can be realized by synchronously flipping the piezoelectric voltage with respect to a bias dc source at every displacement extremum. Given that net harvested energy is obtained by deducting dissipated energy from total extracted energy, a sophisticated voltage bias-flipping scheme, which can maximize extracted energy at low dissipative cost, is required towards harvested energy optimization. This paper extends the state of the art by proposing the best bias-flip strategy, which is delivered on conceptual synchronized multiple bias-flip (SMBF) interface circuits. The proposed strategy coordinates both requirements on larger voltage change in synchronized instant for more extracted energy and smaller voltage change in each bias-flip action for less dissipated energy. It not only leads to further enhancement of harvesting capability beyond existing solutions, but also provides an unprecedented physical insight on maximum achievable harvesting capability of PEH interface circuit

  8. Bias Voltage-Dependent Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Hydrothermally Synthesized ZnS Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arka; Dhar, Joydeep; Sil, Sayantan; Jana, Rajkumar; Ray, Partha Pratim

    2018-04-01

    In this report, bias voltage-dependent dielectric and electron transport properties of ZnS nanoparticles were discussed. ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by introducing a modified hydrothermal process. The powder XRD pattern indicates the phase purity, and field emission scanning electron microscope image demonstrates the morphology of the synthesized sample. The optical band gap energy (E g = 4.2 eV) from UV measurement explores semiconductor behavior of the synthesized material. The electrical properties were performed at room temperature using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique as a function of frequency (40 Hz-10 MHz) under different forward dc bias voltages (0-1 V). The CIS analysis demonstrates the contribution of bulk resistance in conduction mechanism and its dependency on forward dc bias voltages. The imaginary part of the impedance versus frequency curve exhibits the existence of relaxation peak which shifts with increasing dc forward bias voltages. The dc bias voltage-dependent ac and dc conductivity of the synthesized ZnS was studied on thin film structure. A possible hopping mechanism for electrical transport processes in the system was investigated. Finally, it is worth to mention that this analysis of bias voltage-dependent dielectric and transport properties of as-synthesized ZnS showed excellent properties for emerging energy applications.

  9. One-carrier free space charge motion under applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, P.C.; Ferreira, G.F.L.

    1976-01-01

    The system of partial differential equations describing the one-carrier free space-charge motion under a given applied voltage is transformed into a system of two ordinary differential equations. The method is applied to find the external current injection [pt

  10. Multipacting in a coaxial coupler with bias voltage for SRF operation with a large beam current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-K.; Wang, Ch.; Chang, F.-Y.; Chang, L.-H.; Chang, M.-H.; Chen, L.-J.; Chung, F.-T.; Lin, M.-C.; Lo, C.-H.; Tsai, C.-L.; Tsai, M.-H.; Yeh, M.-S.; Yu, T.-C.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) module is commonly used for a high-energy accelerator; its purpose is to provide energy to the particle beam. Because of the low power dissipation and smaller impedance of a higher-order mode for this module, it can provide more power to the particle beam with better stability through decreasing the couple bunch instability. A RF coupler is necessary to transfer the high power from a RF generator to the cavity. A coupler of coaxial type is a common choice. With high-power operation, it might suffer from multipacting, which is a resonance phenomenon due to re-emission of secondary electrons. Applying a bias voltage between inner and outer conductors of the coaxial coupler might increase or decrease the strength of the multipacting effect. We studied the effect of a bias voltage on multipacting using numerical simulation to track the motion of the electrons. The simulation results and an application for SRF operation with a large beam current are presented in this paper.

  11. Electric field-induced ferromagnetic resonance in a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction under dc bias voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Shun; Gajek, Martin; Worledge, D. C.; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-12-01

    We measure homodyne-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) induced by the electric-field effect in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with perpendicular magnetic easy axis under dc bias voltages up to 0.1 V. From the bias dependence of the resonant frequency, we find that the first order perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is modulated by the applied electric field, whereas the second order component is virtually independent of the electric field. The lineshapes of the FMR spectra are bias dependent, which are explained by the combination of electric-field effect and reflection of the bias voltage from the MTJ.

  12. In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of redox molecules. Coherent electron transfer at large bias voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Theories of in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) of molecules with redox levels near the substrate and tip Fermi levels point to 'spectroscopic' current-overpotential features. Prominent features require a narrow 'probing tip', i.e. a small bias voltage, eV(bias), compared...

  13. Dose-rate effects of low-dropout voltage regulator at various biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiyuan; Zheng Yuzhan; Gao Bo; Chen Rui; Fei Wuxiong; Lu Wu; Ren Diyuan

    2010-01-01

    A low-dropout voltage regulator, LM2941, was irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at various dose rates and biases for investigating the total dose and dose rate effects. The radiation responses show that the key electrical parameters, including its output and dropout voltage, and the maximum output current, are sensitive to total dose and dose rates, and are significantly degraded at low dose rate and zero bias. The integrated circuits damage change with the dose rates and biases, and the dose-rate effects are relative to its electric field. (authors)

  14. Large Magnetoresistance at High Bias Voltage in Double-layer Organic Spin Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, R. C.; Liang, S. H.; Geng, R.; Zhang, Q. T.; Lou, L.; Wang, J.; Han, X. F.; Nguyen, T. D.

    We report studies of magnetoresistance (MR) in double-layer organic spin valves (DOSV) using tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) spacers. The device exhibits three distinct resistance levels depending on the relative magnetizations of the ferromagnetic electrodes. We observed a much weaker bias voltage dependence of MR in the device compared to that in the conventional organic spin valve (OSV). The MR magnitude reduces by the factor of two at 0.7 V bias voltage in the DOSV compared to 0.02 V in the conventional OSV. Remarkably, the MR magnitude reaches 0.3% at 6 V bias in the DOSVs, the largest MR response ever reported in OSVs at this bias. Our finding may have a significant impact on achieving high efficient bipolar OSVs strictly performed at high voltages. University of Georgia start-up fund, Ministry of Education, Singapore, National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  15. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  16. An AMOLED AC-Biased Pixel Design Compensating the Threshold Voltage and I-R Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel pixel design and an AC bias driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs. The proposed threshold voltage and I-R drop compensation circuit, which comprised three transistors and one capacitor, have been verified to supply uniform output current by simulation work using the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator. The simulated results demonstrate excellent properties such as low error rate of OLED anode voltage variation (<0.7% and low voltage drop of VDD power line. The proposed pixel circuit effectively enables threshold-voltage-deviation correction of driving TFT and compensates for the voltage drop of VDD power line using AC bias on OLED cathode.

  17. Macroscopic quantum effects in the zero voltage state of the current biased Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.; Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.; Esteve, D.

    1985-05-01

    When a weak microwave current is applied to a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in the thermal limit the escape rate from the zero voltage state is enhanced when the microwave frequency is near the plasma frequency of the junction. The resonance curve is markedly asymmetric because of the anharmonic properties of the potential well: this behavior is well explained by a computer simulation using a resistively shunted junction model. This phenomenon of resonant activation enables one to make in situ measurements of the capacitance and resistance shunting the junction, including contributions from the complex impedance presented by the current leads. For the relatively large area junctions studied in these experiments, the external capacitive loading was relatively unimportant, but the damping was entirely dominated by the external resistance

  18. Effect of negative bias voltage on CrN films deposited by arc ion plating. I. Macroparticles filtration and film-growth characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qimin; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-01-01

    Chromium nitride (CrN) films were deposited on Si wafers by arc ion plating (AIP) at various negative bias voltages and several groups of N 2 /Ar gas flux ratios and chamber gas pressures. The authors systematically investigated the influence of negative bias voltage on the synthesis, composition, microstructure, and properties of the AIP CrN films. In this part (Part I), the investigations were mainly focused on the macroparticle distributions and film-growth characteristics. The results showed that macroparticle densities on the film surfaces decreased greatly by applying negative bias voltage, which can be affected by partial pressure of N 2 and Ar gases. From the statistical analysis of the experimental results, they proposed a new hybrid mechanism of ion bombardment and electrical repulsion. Also, the growth of the AIP CrN films was greatly altered by applying negative bias voltage. By increasing the bias voltage, the film surfaces became much smoother and the films evolved from apparent columnar microstructures to an equiaxed microstructure. The impinging high-energy Cr ions accelerated by negative bias voltages were deemed the inherent reason for the evolution of growth characteristics

  19. A 50–60 GHz mm-wave rectifier with bulk voltage bias in 65-nm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters-Kammerer, M.; Harpe, P.; Baltus, P.

    2016-01-01

    This letter presents a 50∼60 GHz fully integrated 3-stage rectifier with bulk voltage bias for threshold voltage modulation in a 65-nm CMOS technology, which can be integrated in a mm-wave hybrid rectifier structure as the main rectifier. In this letter, the new technique of bulk voltage bias is

  20. Analytical solution of the PNP equations at AC applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, Anatoly; Trimper, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    A symmetric binary polymer electrolyte subjected to an AC voltage is considered. The analytical solution of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations (PNP) is found and analyzed for small applied voltages. Three distinct time regimes offering different behavior can be discriminated. The experimentally realized stationary behavior is discussed in detail. An expression for the external current is derived. Based on the theoretical result a simple method is suggested of measuring the ion mobility and their concentration separately. -- Highlights: ► Analytical solution of Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations. ► Binary polymer electrolyte subjected to an external AC voltage. ► Three well separated time scales exhibiting different behavior. ► The experimentally realized stationary behavior is discussed in detail. ► A method is proposed measuring the mobility and the concentration separately.

  1. Ion peak narrowing by applying additional AC voltage (ripple voltage) to FAIMS extractor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervukhin, Viktor V; Sheven, Dmitriy G

    2010-01-01

    The use of a non-uniform electric field in a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer increases sensitivity but decreases resolution. The application of an additional AC voltage to the extractor electrode ("ripple" voltage, U(ripple)) can overcome this effect, which decreases the FAIMS peak width. In this approach, the diffusion ion loss remains minimal in the non-uniform electric field in the cylindrical part of the device, and all ion losses under U(ripple) occur in a short portion of their path. Application of the ripple voltage to the extractor electrode is twice as efficient as the applying of U(ripple) along the total length of the device. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Triple Line-Voltage Cascaded VIENNA Converter Applied as the Medium-Voltage AC Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel rectifier based on a triple line-voltage cascaded VIENNA converter (LVC-VC was proposed. Compared to the conventional cascaded H-bridge converters, the switch voltage stress is lower, and the numbers of switches and dc capacitors are fewer under similar operating conditions in the proposed new multilevel converter. The modeling and control for the LVC-VC ware presented. Based on the analysis of the operation principle of the new converter, the power factor correction of the proposed converter was realized by employing a traditional one-cycle control strategy. The minimum average value and maximum harmonic components of the dc-link voltages of the three VIENNA rectifier modules ware calculated. Three VIENNA dc-link voltages were unbalanced under the unbalanced load conditions, so the zero sequence current was injected to the three inner currents for balancing three VIENNA dc-link voltages. Simulation and the results of the experiment verified the availability of the new proposed multilevel converter and the effectiveness of the corresponding control strategy applied.

  3. One-carrier free space charge motion under applied voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de ALMEIDA, L E.C.; FERREIRA, G F.L. [SAO PAULO UNIV., SAO CARLOS (BRAZIL). INSTITUTO DE FISICA E QUIMICA

    1975-12-01

    It is shown how to transform the system of partial differential equations, describing the free one-carrier space charge motion in solid dielectrics under a given applied voltage and while the charge distribution touches only one of the electrodes, into a first order ordinary differential equation from whose solution all the interesting quantities may be easily derived. It was found that some charge distributions can display current reversal.

  4. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  5. Bias voltage effect on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic two-phase composite barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Ju Sheng; Li, Z.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bias voltage on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier is investigated theoretically. Because of the inversion symmetry breaking of the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, bias voltage dependence of the electron tunneling shows significant differences between the positive bias and the negative one. The differences of spin filtering or tunnel magnetoresistance increase with the increasing absolute value of bias voltage. Such direction preferred electron tunneling is found intimately related with the unusual asymmetry of the electrical potential profile in two-phase composite barrier and provides a unique change to realize rectifying functions in spintronics. - Highlights: ► Electron tunneling across a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier junction. ► TMR effect is different under the same value but opposite direction bias voltage. ► This directionality of the electron tunneling enhances with increasing bias voltage.

  6. Bias voltage dependence of magnetic tunnel junctions comprising amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer with double barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, H.I.; Lee, S.Y.; Hwang, J.Y.; Rhee, J.R.; Chun, B.S.; Wang, K.L.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, S.S.; Hwang, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with and without an amorphous ferromagnetic material such as CoFeSiB 10, CoFe 5/CoFeSiB 5, and CoFe 10 (nm) were prepared and compared to investigate the bias voltage dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. Typical DMTJ structures were Ta 45/Ru 9.5/IrMn 10/CoFe 7/AlO x /free layer 10/AlO x /CoFe 7/IrMn 10/Ru 60 (in nanometers). The interlayer coupling field and the normalized TMR ratios at the applied voltages of +0.4 and -0.4 V of the amorphous CoFeSiB free-layer DMTJ offer lower and higher values than that of the polycrystalline CoFe free-layer DMTJ, respectively. An amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer improves the interface roughness of the free layer/tunnel barrier and, as a result, the interlayer coupling field and bias voltage dependence of the TMR ratio are suppressed at a given voltage. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. A Self-Biased Active Voltage Doubler for Energy Harvesting Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyab, Umais

    2017-12-03

    An active voltage doubler utilizing a single supply op-amp for energy harvesting system is presented. The proposed doubler is used for rectification process to achieve both acceptably high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and large rectified DC voltage. The incorporated op-amp is self-biased, meaning no external supply is needed but rather it uses part of the harvested energy for its biasing. The proposed active doubler achieves maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 61.7% for a 200 Hz sinusoidal input of 0.8 V for a 20 K load resistor. This efficiency is 2 times more when compared with the passive voltage doubler. The rectified DC voltage is almost 2 times more than conventional passive doubler. The relation between PCE and the load resistor is also presented. The proposed active voltage doubler is designed and simulated in LF 0.15 μm CMOS process technology using Cadence virtuoso tool.

  8. Linearity optimizations of analog ring resonator modulators through bias voltage adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2018-03-01

    The linearity of ring resonator modulator (RRM) in microwave photonic links is studied in terms of instantaneous bandwidth, fabrication tolerances, and operational bandwidth. A proposed bias voltage adjustment method is shown to maximize spur-free dynamic range (SFDR) at instantaneous bandwidths required by microwave photonic link (MPL) applications while also mitigating RRM fabrication tolerances effects. The proposed bias voltage adjustment method shows RRM SFDR improvement of ∼5.8 dB versus common Mach-Zehnder modulators at 500 MHz instantaneous bandwidth. Analyzing operational bandwidth effects on SFDR shows RRMs can be promising electro-optic modulators for MPL applications which require high operational frequencies while in a limited bandwidth such as radio-over-fiber 60 GHz wireless network access.

  9. Non-equilibrium scaling analysis of the Kondo model with voltage bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Peter; Kehrein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The quintessential description of Kondo physics in equilibrium is obtained within a scaling picture that shows the buildup of Kondo screening at low temperature. For the non-equilibrium Kondo model with a voltage bias, the key new feature are decoherence effects due to the current across the impurity. In the present paper, we show how one can develop a consistent framework for studying the non-equilibrium Kondo model within a scaling picture of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations). Decoherence effects appear naturally in third order of the β-function and dominate the Hamiltonian flow for sufficiently large voltage bias. We work out the spin dynamics in non-equilibrium and compare it with finite temperature equilibrium results. In particular, we report on the behavior of the static spin susceptibility including leading logarithmic corrections and compare it with the celebrated equilibrium result as a function of temperature.

  10. Investigations of a voltage-biased microwave cavity for quantum measurements of nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Hugo; Lahaye, Matt

    2015-03-01

    Quantum electromechanical systems incorporating superconducting qubits have received extensive interest in recent years due to their promising prospects for studying fundamental topics of quantum mechanics such as quantum measurement, entanglement and decoherence in new macroscopic limits, also for their potential as elements in technological applications in quantum information network and weak force detector, to name a few. In this presentation we will discuss ours efforts toward to devise an electromechanical circuit to strongly couple a nanomechanical resonator to a superconductor qubit, where a high voltage dc-bias is required, to study quantum behavior of a mechanical resonator. Preliminary results of our latest generation of devices integrating a superconductor qubit into a high-Q voltage biased microwave cavities are presented. Developments in the circuit design to couple a mechanical resonator to a qubit in the high-Q voltage bias CPW cavity is discussed as well prospects of achieving single-phonon measurement resolution. National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1056423 and Grant No. DMR-1312421.

  11. Relationship between bias voltage and microstructure as well as properties of CrAlYN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Ying-Ying; Li Hong-Xuan; Ji Li; Liu Xiao-Hong; Zhou Hui-Di; Chen Jian-Min; Liu Liu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a series of CrAlYN films doped with 1 at.% yttrium were deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering under different bias voltages. The effects of bias voltage on microstructure and properties of the CrAlYN films were subsequently investigated. It is found that all the as-deposited films have similar chemical composition and crystalline structure. However, the bias voltage has significant impact on the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the resulting films. Namely, the film deposited at 100 V has the highest hardness and best oxidation resistance, which are mainly attributed to its denser structure and higher Al content than others. In addition, the film obtained at 100 V exhibits superior oxidation resistance even at 1000 °C, and good friction and wear properties at 600 and 800 °C, and the latter two are mainly ascribed to the formation of compact transfer layer on the worn surfaces. However, this film experienced obvious wear loss at low testing temperatures (i.e., 200 and 400 °C) due to the serious abrasive wear. (paper)

  12. Effects of target bias voltage on indium tin oxide films deposited by high target utilisation sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, Sonya; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Dann, Sandra E.; Thwaites, Mike J.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by reactive High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS) onto glass and polyimide substrates. The ion plasma was generated by an RF power source while the target bias voltage was varied from 300 V to 500 V using a separate DC power supply. The deposition rate, at constant target power, increased with DC target voltage due to increased ion energy reaching 34 nm/min at 500 V. All the films were polycrystalline and showed strong (400) and (222) reflections with the relative strength of latter increasing with target bias voltage. The resistivity was lowest at 500 V with values of 1.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 2.4 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass and polyimide, respectively but was still less than 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 400 V. All films were highly transparent to visible light, (> 80%) but the NIR transmittance decreased with increasing target voltage due to higher free carrier absorption. Therefore, ITO films can be deposited onto semiconductor layers such as in solar cells, with minimal ion damage while maintaining low resistivity

  13. Quantum dynamics of a Josephson junction driven cavity mode system in the presence of voltage bias noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor F ) for a Josephson junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e., noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Through the ac Josephson effect, the dc voltage bias drives the effectively nonlinear microwave cavity mode into an amplitude squeezed state (F Armour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 247001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247001], but bias noise acts to degrade this squeezing. We find that the sensitivity of the Fano factor to bias voltage noise depends qualitatively on which stable fixed point regime the system is in for the corresponding classical nonlinear steady-state dynamics. Furthermore, we show that the impact of voltage bias noise is most significant when the cavity is excited to states with large average photon number.

  14. Current-voltage characteristics of quantum-point contacts in the closed-channel regime: Transforming the bias voltage into an energy scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloos, K.; Utko, P.; Aagesen, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the I(V) characteristics (current versus bias voltage) of side-gated quantum-point contacts, defined in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. These point contacts are operated in the closed-channel regime, that is, at fixed gate voltages below zero-bias pinch-off for conductance. Our....... Such a built-in energy-voltage calibration allows us to distinguish between the different contributions to the electron transport across the pinched-off contact due to thermal activation or quantum tunneling. The first involves the height of the barrier, and the latter also its length. In the model that we...

  15. Effects of detector–source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. 133 Ba and 207 Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. - Highlights: ► Effect of the source-detector distance on time spectra was investigated. ► Effect of the detector bias voltage variations on time spectra was examined. ► Optimum detector–source distance was determined for the best time resolution. ► Optimum detector bias voltage was determined for the best time resolution. ► 133 Ba and 207 Bi radioisotopes were used.

  16. Simulations of momentum transfer process between solar wind plasma and bias voltage tethers of electric sail thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guangqing; Han, Yajie; Chen, Liuwei; Wei, Yanming; Yu, Yang; Chen, Maolin

    2018-06-01

    The interaction between the solar wind plasma and the bias voltage of long tethers is the basic mechanism of the electric sail thruster. The momentum transfer process between the solar wind plasma and electric tethers was investigated using a 2D full particle PIC method. The coupled electric field distribution and deflected ion trajectory under different bias voltages were compared, and the influence of bias voltage on momentum transfer process was analyzed. The results show that the high potential of the bias voltage of long tethers will slow down, stagnate, reflect and deflect a large number of ions, so that ion cavities are formed in the vicinity of the tether, and the ions will transmit the axial momentum to the sail tethers to produce the thrust. Compared to the singe tether, double tethers show a better thrust performance.

  17. Effects of doping and bias voltage on the screening in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam; Shirzadi Tabar, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the static polarization of AAA-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG) and study its screening properties within the random phase approximation (RPA) in all undoped, doped and biased regimes. We find that the static polarization of undoped AAA-stacked TLG is a combination of the doped and undoped single-layer graphene static polarization. This leads to an enhancement of the dielectric background constant along a Thomas-Fermi screening with the Thomas-Fermi wave vector which is independent of carrier concentrations and a 1/r3 power law decay for the long-distance behavior of the screened Coulomb potential. We show that effects of a bias voltage can be taken into account by a renormalization of the interlayer hopping energy to a new bias-voltage-dependent value, indicating screening properties of AAA-stacked TLG can be tuned electrically. We also find that screening properties of doped AAA-stacked TLG, when μ exceeds √{2}γ, are similar to that of doped SLG only depending on doping. While for μ<√{2}γ, its screening properties are combination of SLG and AA-stacked bilayer graphene screening properties and they are determined by doping and the interlayer hopping energy.

  18. Calibration of the ISOLDE acceleration voltage using a high-precision voltage divider and applying collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, A.; Catherall, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Kramer, J.; Neugart, R.; Rosendahl, S.; Schipper, J.; Siesling, E.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Yordanov, D.T.; Nortershauser, W.

    2011-01-01

    A high-voltage divider with accuracy at the ppm level and collinear laser spectroscopy were used to calibrate the highvoltage installation at the radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. The accurate knowledge of this voltage is particularly important for collinear laser spectroscopy measurements. Beam velocity measurements using frequencycomb based collinear laser spectroscopy agree with the new calibration. Applying this, one obtains consistent results for isotope shifts of stable magnesium isotopes measured using collinear spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy on laser-cooled ions in a trap. The long-term stability and the transient behavior during recovery from a voltage dropout were investigated for the different power supplies currently applied at ISOLDE.

  19. Chemical and Morphological Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered at Different Bias Voltages Cr-Al-C Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Obrosov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available MAX phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C/N are of special interest because they possess a unique combination of the advantages of both metals and ceramics. Most attention is attracted to the ternary carbide Cr2AlC because of its excellent high-temperature oxidation, as well as hot corrosion resistance. Despite lots of publications, up to now the influence of bias voltage on the chemical bonding structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the film is still not well understood. In the current study, Cr-Al-C films were deposited on silicon wafers (100 and Inconel 718 super alloy by dc magnetron sputtering with different substrate bias voltages and investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, and nanoindentation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM was used to analyze the correlation between the growth of the films and the coating microstructure. The XPS results confirm the presence of Cr2AlC MAX phase due to a negative shift of 0.6–0.9 eV of the Al2p to pure aluminum carbide peak. The XRD results reveal the presence of Cr2AlC MAX Phase and carbide phases, as well as intermetallic AlCr2. The film thickness decreases from 8.95 to 6.98 µm with increasing bias voltage. The coatings deposited at 90 V exhibit the lowest roughness (33 nm and granular size (76 nm combined with the highest hardness (15.9 GPa. The ratio of Al carbide to carbide-like carbon state changes from 0.12 to 0.22 and correlates with the mechanical properties of the coatings. TEM confirms the columnar structure, with a nanocrystalline substructure, of the films.

  20. Flying capacitor resonant pole inverter applying five voltage levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settels, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial applications, e.g. semiconductor manufacturing equipment, require power amplifiers providing high power with high precision and bandwidth. Due to limitations in system infrastructure, increasing voltage is favorable to increasing current to generate more output power. This research

  1. Calibration of the ISOLDE acceleration voltage using a high-precision voltage divider and applying collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, A., E-mail: kriegea@uni-mainz.d [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Geppert, Ch. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Catherall, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Hochschulz, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kraemer, J.; Neugart, R. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Rosendahl, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schipper, J.; Siesling, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Weinheimer, Ch. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Yordanov, D.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-03-11

    A high-voltage divider with accuracy at the ppm level and collinear laser spectroscopy were used to calibrate the high-voltage installation at the radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. The accurate knowledge of this voltage is particularly important for collinear laser spectroscopy measurements. Beam velocity measurements using frequency-comb based collinear laser spectroscopy agree with the new calibration. Applying this, one obtains consistent results for isotope shifts of stable magnesium isotopes measured using collinear spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy on laser-cooled ions in a trap. The long-term stability and the transient behavior during recovery from a voltage dropout were investigated for the different power supplies currently applied at ISOLDE.

  2. Time scales of bias voltage effects in FE/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage-dependent perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytvynenko, Ia.M.; Hauet, T.; Montaigne, F.; Bibyk, V.V.; Andrieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Interplay between voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy transition and voltage-induced atomic diffusion is studied in epitaxial V/Fe (0.7 nm)/ MgO/ Fe(5 nm)/Co/Au magnetic tunnel junction where thin Fe soft electrode has in-plane or out-of-plane anisotropy depending on the sign of the bias voltage. We investigate the origin of the slow resistance variation occurring when switching bias voltage in opposite polarity. We demonstrate that the time to reach resistance stability after voltage switching is reduced when increasing the voltage amplitude or the temperature. A single energy barrier of about 0.2 eV height is deduced from temperature dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the resistance change is not correlated to a change in soft electrode anisotropy. This conclusion contrasts with observations recently reported on analogous systems. - Highlights: • Voltage-induced time dependence of resistance is studied in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe. • Resistance change is not related to the bottom Fe/MgO interface. • The effect is thermally activated with an energy barrier of the order of 0.2 eV height

  3. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V [Williamsburg, VA; Popov, Vladimir E [Newport News, VA

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  4. Evidence for Response Bias as a Source of Error Variance in Applied Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robert E.; Mitchell, Matthew; Kim, Brian H.; Hough, Leaetta

    2010-01-01

    After 100 years of discussion, response bias remains a controversial topic in psychological measurement. The use of bias indicators in applied assessment is predicated on the assumptions that (a) response bias suppresses or moderates the criterion-related validity of substantive psychological indicators and (b) bias indicators are capable of…

  5. Effect of Radio-Frequency and Low-Frequency Bias Voltage on the Formation of Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manis-Levy, Hadar; Mintz, Moshe H.; Livneh, Tsachi; Zukerman Ido; Raveh, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of radio-frequency (RF) or low-frequency (LF) bias voltage on the formation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films was studied on silicon substrates with a low methane (CH 4 ) concentration (2–10 vol.%) in CH 4 +Ar mixtures. The bias substrate was applied either by RF (13.56 MHz) or by LF (150 kHz) power supply. The highest hardness values (∼18–22 GPa) with lower hydrogen content in the films (∼20 at.%) deposited at 10 vol.% CH 4 , was achieved by using the RF bias. However, the films deposited using the LF bias, under similar RF plasma generation power and CH 4 concentration (50 W and 10 vol.%, respectively), displayed lower hardness (∼6–12 GPa) with high hydrogen content (∼40 at.%). The structures analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman scattering measurements provide an indication of trans-polyacetylene structure formation. However, its excessive formation in the films deposited by the LF bias method is consistent with its higher bonded hydrogen concentration and low level of hardness, as compared to the film prepared by the RF bias method. It was found that the effect of RF bias on the film structure and properties is stronger than the effect of the low-frequency (LF) bias under identical radio-frequency (RF) powered electrode and identical PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) system configuration. (plasma technology)

  6. Thermoacoustic and thermoreflectance imaging of biased integrated circuits: Voltage and temperature maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Rosales, E.; Cedeño, E. [Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute, University of Campinas - Unicamp, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigación, CP 11500, México, DF (Mexico); Hernandez-Wong, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigación, CP 11500, México, DF (Mexico); CONACYT, México, DF, México (Mexico); Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Marin, E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigación, CP 11500, México, DF (Mexico); Gandra, F. C. G.; Mansanares, A. M., E-mail: manoel@ifi.unicamp.br [Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute, University of Campinas - Unicamp, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-25

    In this work a combined thermoacoustic and thermoreflectance set-up was designed for imaging biased microelectronic circuits. In particular, it was used with polycrystalline silicon resistive tracks grown on a monocrystalline Si substrate mounted on a test chip. Thermoreflectance images, obtained by scanning a probe laser beam on the sample surface, clearly show the regions periodically heated by Joule effect, which are associated to the electric current distribution in the circuit. The thermoacoustic signal, detected by a pyroelectric/piezoelectric sensor beneath the chip, also discloses the Joule contribution of the whole sample. However, additional information emerges when a non-modulated laser beam is focused on the sample surface in a raster scan mode allowing imaging of the sample. The distribution of this supplementary signal is related to the voltage distribution along the circuit.

  7. Effects of an applied voltage on direct interspecies electron transfer via conductive materials for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Hee-Deung

    2017-10-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between exoelectrogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea via conductive materials is reported as an efficient method to produce methane in anaerobic organic waste digestion. A voltage can be applied to the conductive materials to accelerate the DIET between two groups of microorganisms to produce methane. To evaluate this hypothesis, two sets of anaerobic serum bottles with and without applied voltage were used with a pair of graphite rods as conductive materials to facilitate DIET. Initially, the methane production rate was similar between the two sets of serum bottles, and later the serum bottles with an applied voltage of 0.39V showed a 168% higher methane production rate than serum bottles without an applied voltage. In cyclic voltammograms, the characteristic redox peaks for hydrogen and acetate oxidation were identified in the serum bottles with an applied voltage. In the microbial community analyses, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g. Methanobacterium) were observed to be abundant in serum bottles with an applied voltage, while methanogens utilizing carbon dioxide (e.g., Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina) were dominant in serum bottles without an applied voltage. Taken together, the applied voltage on conductive materials might not be effective to promote DIET in methane production. Instead, it appeared to generate a condition for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sizing of SRAM Cell with Voltage Biasing Techniques for Reliability Enhancement of Memory and PUF Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chip-Hong Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Static Random Access Memory (SRAM has recently been developed into a physical unclonable function (PUF for generating chip-unique signatures for hardware cryptography. The most compelling issue in designing a good SRAM-based PUF (SPUF is that while maximizing the mismatches between the transistors in the cross-coupled inverters improves the quality of the SPUF, this ironically also gives rise to increased memory read/write failures. For this reason, the memory cells of existing SPUFs cannot be reused as storage elements, which increases the overheads of cryptographic system where long signatures and high-density storage are both required. This paper presents a novel design methodology for dual-mode SRAM cell optimization. The design conflicts are resolved by using word-line voltage modulation, dynamic voltage scaling, negative bit-line and adaptive body bias techniques to compensate for reliability degradation due to transistor downsizing. The augmented circuit-level techniques expand the design space to achieve a good solution to fulfill several otherwise contradicting key design qualities for both modes of operation, as evinced by our statistical analysis and simulation results based on complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS 45 nm bulk Predictive Technology Model.

  9. High-efficient and brightness white organic light-emitting diodes operated at low bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Kai; Jian, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) used for display application and lighting need to possess high efficiency, high brightness, and low driving voltage. In this work, white OLEDs consisted of ambipolar 9,10-bis 2-naphthyl anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue light-emitting layer (EML) doped with tetrabutyleperlene (TBPe) and a thin codoped layer consisted of N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) as a host of yellow light-emitting layer doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were investigated. With appropriate tuning in the film thickness, position, and dopant concentration of the co-doped layer, a white OLED with a luminance yield of 10.02 cd/A with the CIE coordinates of (0.29, 0.33) has been achieved at a bias voltage of 9 V and a luminance level of over 10,000 cd/m2. By introducing the PIN structure with both HIL and bis(10- hydroxybenzo-quinolinato)-beryllium (BeBq2) ETL, the power efficiency of white OLED was improved.

  10. Redefinition of the self-bias voltage in a dielectrically shielded thin sheath RF discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck Seng; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2018-05-01

    In a geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled discharge where the powered electrode is shielded from the plasma by a layer of dielectric material, the self-bias manifests as a nonuniform negative charging in the dielectric rather than on the blocking capacitor. In the thin sheath regime where the ion transit time across the powered sheath is on the order of or less than the Radiofrequency (RF) period, the plasma potential is observed to respond asymmetrically to extraneous impedances in the RF circuit. Consequently, the RF waveform on the plasma-facing surface of the dielectric is unknown, and the behaviour of the powered sheath is not easily predictable. Sheath circuit models become inadequate for describing this class of discharges, and a comprehensive fluid, electrical, and plasma numerical model is employed to accurately quantify this behaviour. The traditional definition of the self-bias voltage as the mean of the RF waveform is shown to be erroneous in this regime. Instead, using the maxima of the RF waveform provides a more rigorous definition given its correlation with the ion dynamics in the powered sheath. This is supported by a RF circuit model derived from the computational fluid dynamics and plasma simulations.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate detectors I: steady-state voltage bias results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Wu, Craig Kruschwitz, Dane Morgan, Jiaming Morgan

    2008-07-01

    X-ray detectors based on straight-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) are a powerful diagnostic tool for two-dimensional, time-resolved imaging and timeresolved x-ray spectroscopy in the fields of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion and fast z-pinch experiments. Understanding the behavior of microchannel plates as used in such detectors is critical to understanding the data obtained. The subject of this paper is a Monte Carlo computer code we have developed to simulate the electron cascade in a microchannel plate under a static applied voltage. Also included in the simulation is elastic reflection of low-energy electrons from the channel wall, which is important at lower voltages. When model results were compared to measured microchannel plate sensitivities, good agreement was found. Spatial resolution simulations of MCP-based detectors were also presented and found to agree with experimental measurements.

  12. Effects of detector-source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, E E; Celiktas, C

    2012-12-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. (133)Ba and (207)Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, L.J.; Burggraf, L.K.; Reece, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling

  14. On-chip active gate bias circuit for MMIC amplifier applications with 100% threshold voltage variation compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, A.P. de; Busking, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the design and performance of an on-chip active gate bias circuit for application in MMIC amplifiers, which gives 100% compensation for threshold variation and at the same time is insensitive to supply voltage variations, is discussed. Design equations have been given. In addition, the

  15. Hard coatings on magnesium alloys by sputter deposition using a pulsed d.c. bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Griepentrog, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    An increasing use of magnesium-based light-metal alloys for various industrial applications was predicted in different technological studies. Companies in different branches have developed machine parts made of magnesium alloys (e.g. cars, car engines, sewing and knitting machines). Hence, this work was started to evaluate the ability of hard coatings obtained by physical vapour deposition (PVD) in combination with coatings obtained by electrochemical deposition to protect magnesium alloys against wear and corrosion. TiN hard coatings were deposited onto magnesium alloys by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. A bipolar pulsed d.c. bias voltage was used to limit substrate temperatures to 180 C during deposition without considerable loss of microhardness and adhesion. Adhesion, hardness and load-carrying capacity of TiN coatings deposited directly onto magnesium alloys are compared with the corresponding values of TiN coatings deposited onto substrates which had been coated electroless with an Ni-P alloy interlayer prior to the PVD. (orig.)

  16. Ion collection from laser-induced plasma by applying radio-frequency voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Ions were collected on the electrodes from a laser resonance photoionized plasma by applying 1.8MHz radio-frequency voltage to the electrode. It was demonstrated that the ions are collected in a shorter time at the same kinetic energy of the collected ions compared with ion collection by applying DC voltage to the electrode. A simple one-dimensional model was extended for prediction of ion collection times in the cases of applications of not only the DC voltage but also the radio-frequency voltage. The ion collection times estimated using the simple one-dimensional model agreed with experimental values in both cases of DC and radio-frequency voltages. (author)

  17. Efficiency enhancement using voltage biasing for ferroelectric polarization in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmo; Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2018-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are one of the most promising third generation solar cells that have been extensively researched over the past decade as alternative to silicon-based solar cells, due to their low production cost and high energy-conversion efficiency. In general, a DSSC consists of a transparent electrode, a counter electrode, and an electrolyte such as dye. To achieve high power-conversion efficiency in cells, many research groups have focused their efforts on developing efficient dyes for liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs fabricated using a mixture of TiO2 with nanosized Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (nFe-BLT) powder). Firstly, nFe-BLT powders were prepared using a high-energy ball milling process and then, TiO2 and nFe-BLT powders were stoichiometrically blended. Direct current (DC) bias of 20 MV/m was applied to lab-made DSSCs. With the optimal concentration of nFe-BLT doped in the electrode, their light-to-electricity conversion efficiency could be improved by ∼64% compared with DSSCs where no DC bias was applied.

  18. Effect of Advanced Plasma Source bias voltage on properties of HfO2 films prepared by plasma ion assisted electron evaporation from metal hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Meiping; Yi, Kui; Arhilger, Detlef; Qi, Hongji; Shao, Jianda

    2013-01-01

    HfO 2 films, using metal hafnium as starting material, are deposited by plasma-ion assisted electron evaporation with different Advanced Plasma Source (APS) bias voltages. The refractive index and extinction coefficient are calculated, the chemical state and composition, as well as the stress and aging behavior is investigated. Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) and damage mechanism are also evaluated and discussed. Optical, structural, mechanical and laser induced damage properties of HfO 2 films are found to be sensitive to APS bias voltage. The film stress can be tuned by varying the APS bias voltage. Damage morphologies indicate the LIDT of the HfO 2 films at 1064 nm and 532 nm are dominated by the nodular-defect density in coatings, while the 355 nm LIDT is dominated by the film absorption. HfO 2 films with higher 1064 nm LIDT than samples evaporated from hafnia are achieved with bias voltage of 100 V. - Highlights: • HfO 2 films are evaporated with different Advanced Plasma Source (APS) bias voltages. • Properties of HfO 2 films are sensitive to APS bias voltage. • With a bias voltage of 100 V, HfO 2 coatings without any stress can be achieved. • Higher 1064 nm laser induced damage threshold is achieved at a bias voltage of 100 V

  19. Hidden multidimensional social structure modeling applied to biased social perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Intricacies of the structure of social relations are realized by representing a collection of overlapping opinions as a simplicial complex, thus building latent multidimensional structures, through which agents are, virtually, moving as they exchange opinions. The influence of opinion space structure on the distribution of opinions is demonstrated by modeling consensus phenomena when the opinion exchange between individuals may be affected by the false consensus effect. The results indicate that in the cases with and without bias, the road toward consensus is influenced by the structure of multidimensional space of opinions, and in the biased case, complete consensus is achieved. The applications of proposed modeling framework can easily be generalized, as they transcend opinion formation modeling.

  20. Differences between signal currents for both polarities of applied voltages on cavity ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, N.

    2000-01-01

    It is necessary to obtain precise values of signal currents for the measurement of exposure rates for gamma rays with cavity ionization chambers. Signal currents are usually expected to have the same absolute values for both polarities of applied voltages. In the case of cylindrical cavity ionization chambers, volume recombination loss of ion pairs depends on the polarity of the applied voltage. This is because the values of mobility are different for positive and negative ions. It was found, however, that values of signal currents from a cylindrical ionization chamber change slightly more with a negative than with a positive applied voltage, even after being corrected for volume recombination loss. Moreover, absolute values of saturation currents, which are obtained by extrapolation of correction of initial recombination and diffusion loss, were larger for the negative than for the positive applied voltage. It is known from an experiment with parallel plate ionization chambers that when negative voltage is applied to the repeller electrode, the saturated signal current decreases with an increase in the applied voltage. This is because secondary electrons are accelerated and the stopping power of air for these electrons decreases. When positive voltage is applied, the reverse is true. The effects of acceleration and deceleration of secondary electrons by the electric field thus seem to cause a tendency opposite to the experimental results on the signal currents from cylindrical ionization chambers. The experimental results for the cylindrical ionization chamber can be explained as follows. When negative voltage is applied, secondary electrons are attracted to the central (collecting) electrode. Consequently, the path length of the trajectories of these secondary electrons in the ionization volume increases and signal current increases. The energy gain from the electric field by secondary electrons which stop in the ionization chamber also contributes to the

  1. Application of the voltage biased digital relay for the optimal protection of high inertia drive induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes typical protection schemes for large-size high inertia drive motor that are generally rotor thermal limited. Difficult and variable starting conditions of the large-size high inertia drive motor and compromises in the selection and setting of the protective devices are frequently encountered. The motors that typically encounter severe starting duty and present difficulties in achieving full motor protection are reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), blowers and compressors. For difficult starting conditions that are encountered by the large-size high inertia drive motors, state-of-the-art computer based calculations are capable of providing realistic predictions of the band of margin available for applying the protective relay. Based on the analysis of starting characteristics of large-size high inertia drive motors, this paper recommends that the optimal protection scheme for high inertia drive motors for nuclear power plants can be achieved by using the voltage biased digital relay instead of a speed switch and conventional overcurrent relays. (author)

  2. Influence of bias voltage on properties of AlCrN coatings prepared by cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomello, F.; Sanchette, F.; Schuster, F.; Tabarant, M.; Billard, A.

    2013-01-01

    AlCrN coatings were prepared by vacuum cathodic arc deposition. This low-temperature technique has been chosen due to its versatility, allowing the industrial up-scaling. In this study, the attention was focused on the correlation of the bias voltage with the resulting mechanical-tribological properties. For this purpose, the bias voltage was varied from 0 to -150 V. Indeed, the variation of grain sizes from 24 to 16 nm as well as the residual stresses from -0.68 to -8.94 GPa lead to obtain different mechanical-tribological properties. In this context, the sample deposited at -100 V exhibited an enhanced hardness (50 ± 2 GPa) and an acceptable wear resistance. (authors)

  3. Substrate-bias effect on the breakdown characteristic in a new silicon high-voltage device structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Wang Weidong; Zhao Qiuming; Wei Xueming

    2012-01-01

    A novel silicon double-RESURF LDMOS structure with an improved breakdown characteristic by substrate bias technology (SB) is reported. The P-type epitaxial layer is embedded between an N-type drift region and an N-type substrate to block the conduction path in the off-state and change the distributions of the bulk electric field. The substrate bias strengthens the charge share effect of the drift region near the source, and the vertical electric field peak under the drain is decreased, which is especially helpful in improving the vertical breakdown voltage in a lateral power device with a thin drift region. The numerical results by MEDICI indicate that the breakdown voltage of the proposed device is increased by 97% compared with a conventional LDMOS, while maintaining a lowon-resistance. (semiconductor devices)

  4. Sequential injection of domain walls into ferroelectrics at different bias voltages: Paving the way for “domain wall memristors”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyte, J. R.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Einsle, J. F.; Gregg, J. M., E-mail: m.gregg@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Nanostructured Media (CNM), School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, C. M. [Centre for Nanostructured Media (CNM), School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Canalias, C. [Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gruverman, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588–0299 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    Simple meso-scale capacitor structures have been made by incorporating thin (∼300 nm) single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) between two coplanar Pt electrodes. The influence that either patterned protrusions in the electrodes or focused ion beam milled holes in the KTP have on the nucleation of reverse domains during switching was mapped using piezoresponse force microscopy imaging. The objective was to assess whether or not variations in the magnitude of field enhancement at localised “hot-spots,” caused by such patterning, could be used to both control the exact locations and bias voltages at which nucleation events occurred. It was found that both the patterning of electrodes and the milling of various hole geometries into the KTP could allow controlled sequential injection of domain wall pairs at different bias voltages; this capability could have implications for the design and operation of domain wall electronic devices, such as memristors, in the future.

  5. Influence of bias voltage on structural and optical properties of TiN{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Omveer, E-mail: poonia.omveer@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India); Dahiya, Raj P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India); Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal – 131039 (India); Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Parmod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present work, Ti thin films were deposited on Si substrate using DC sputtering technique. Indigenous hot cathode arc discharge plasma system was used for nitriding over these samples, where the plasma parameters and work piece can be controlled independently. A mixture of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} gases (in the ratio of 80:20) was supplied into the plasma chamber. The effect of bias voltage on the crystal structure, morphology and optical properties was investigated by employing various physical techniques such as X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and UV-Vis spectrometry. It was found that bias voltage affects largely the crystal structure and band gap which in turn is responsible for the modifications in optical properties of the deposited films.

  6. Angular dependence of SiO2 etch rate at various bias voltages in a high density CHF3 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyeo-Re; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the SiO 2 etch rate on the angle of ions incident on the substrate surface was studied over a bias voltage range from -20 to -600 V in a high-density CHF 3 plasma using a Faraday cage to control the ion incident angle. The effect of the bottom plane on the sidewall etching was also examined. Differences in the characteristics of the etch rate as a function of the ion angle were observed for different bias voltage regions. When the absolute value of the bias voltage was smaller than 200 V, the normalized etch rate (NER) defined as the etch rate normalized by the rate on the horizontal surface, changed following a cosine curve with respect to the ion incident angle, defined as the angle between the ion direction and the normal of the substrate surface. When the magnitude of the bias voltage was larger than 200 V, the NER was deviated to higher values from those given by a cosine curve at ion angles between 30 deg. and 70 deg. , and then drastically decreased at angles higher than 70 deg. until a net deposition was observed at angles near 90 deg. . The characteristic etch-rate patterns at ion angles below 70 deg. were determined by the ion energy transferred to the surface, which affected the SiO 2 etch rate and, simultaneously, the rate of removal of a fluorocarbon polymer film formed on the substrate surface. At high ion angles, particles emitted from the bottom plane contributed to polymer formation on and affected the etching characteristics of the substrate

  7. Influence of the applied voltage on the Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the influence of the applied voltage (electrical field) on the value of the chloride migration coefficient, as determined with the Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test, and on other properties of cement based mortars. It is shown that in the investigated ranges of applied

  8. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  9. Tuning of the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of a-C:H films by bias voltage of high frequency unipolar pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Cao, Zhongyue; Pan, Fuping; Wang, Fuguo; Liang, Aimin; Zhang, Junyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • a-C:H films deposited by high frequency unipolar pulse PECVD. • The film structures can be adjusted by bias voltage. • More graphitic structures form at high bias voltage. • The mechanical and tribological properties are improved by these structures. - Abstract: Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by high frequency unipolar pulse plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in CH 4 , Ar, and H 2 atmosphere with the bias voltage in the range of −800 –−1600 V. The microstructures and mechanical properties of a-C:H films were investigated via high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Nanoindenter. The results reveal that the curved and straight graphitic microstructures appear in amorphous carbon matrix, and their contents increase obviously with the bias voltage. At the same time, the corresponding hardness decreases and elastic recovery increases, however even in such a case films still possess excellent mechanical properties. According to the tribological property characterization, we believe that the bias voltage also influences their tribological performances significantly, the higher the bias voltage finally gets, the lower the friction coefficient and wear rate occur. These results indicate that the microstructures of a-C:H films can be tuned efficiently by bias voltage and the films with good mechanical and tribological properties can be obtained at a higher range.

  10. Tuning of the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of a-C:H films by bias voltage of high frequency unipolar pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Cao, Zhongyue; Pan, Fuping [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Fuguo, E-mail: fgwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liang, Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Junyan, E-mail: zhangjunyan@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • a-C:H films deposited by high frequency unipolar pulse PECVD. • The film structures can be adjusted by bias voltage. • More graphitic structures form at high bias voltage. • The mechanical and tribological properties are improved by these structures. - Abstract: Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by high frequency unipolar pulse plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in CH{sub 4}, Ar, and H{sub 2} atmosphere with the bias voltage in the range of −800 –−1600 V. The microstructures and mechanical properties of a-C:H films were investigated via high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Nanoindenter. The results reveal that the curved and straight graphitic microstructures appear in amorphous carbon matrix, and their contents increase obviously with the bias voltage. At the same time, the corresponding hardness decreases and elastic recovery increases, however even in such a case films still possess excellent mechanical properties. According to the tribological property characterization, we believe that the bias voltage also influences their tribological performances significantly, the higher the bias voltage finally gets, the lower the friction coefficient and wear rate occur. These results indicate that the microstructures of a-C:H films can be tuned efficiently by bias voltage and the films with good mechanical and tribological properties can be obtained at a higher range.

  11. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under simultaneous negative gate bias and illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Cambridge University, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Powell, M. J. [252, Valley Drive, Kendal LA9 7SL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-07

    It has been previously observed that thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconducting channel suffer from a threshold voltage shift when subjected to a negative gate bias and light illumination simultaneously. In this work, a thermalization energy analysis has been applied to previously published data on negative bias under illumination stress (NBIS) in a-IGZO TFTs. A barrier to defect conversion of 0.65–0.75 eV is extracted, which is consistent with reported energies of oxygen vacancy migration. The attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 6}−10{sup 7} s{sup −1}, which suggests a weak localization of carriers in band tail states over a 20–40 nm distance. Models for the NBIS mechanism based on charge trapping are reviewed and a defect pool model is proposed in which two distinct distributions of defect states exist in the a-IGZO band gap: these are associated with states that are formed as neutrally charged and 2+ charged oxygen vacancies at the time of film formation. In this model, threshold voltage shift is not due to a defect creation process, but to a change in the energy distribution of states in the band gap upon defect migration as this allows a state formed as a neutrally charged vacancy to be converted into one formed as a 2+ charged vacancy and vice versa. Carrier localization close to the defect migration site is necessary for the conversion process to take place, and such defect migration sites are associated with conduction and valence band tail states. Under negative gate bias stressing, the conduction band tail is depleted of carriers, but the bias is insufficient to accumulate holes in the valence band tail states, and so no threshold voltage shift results. It is only under illumination that the quasi Fermi level for holes is sufficiently lowered to allow occupation of valence band tail states. The resulting charge localization then allows a negative threshold voltage

  12. Independent variations of applied voltage and injection current for controlling the quantum-confined Stark effect in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Horng-Shyang; Liu, Zhan Hui; Shih, Pei-Ying; Su, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chih-Yen; Lin, Chun-Han; Yao, Yu-Feng; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2014-04-07

    A reverse-biased voltage is applied to either device in the vertical configuration of two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned and flat Si (110) substrates with weak and strong quantum-confined Stark effects (QCSEs), respectively, in the InGaN/GaN quantum wells for independently controlling the applied voltage across and the injection current into the p-i-n junction in the lateral configuration of LED operation. The results show that more carrier supply is needed in the LED of weaker QCSE to produce a carrier screening effect for balancing the potential tilt in increasing the forward-biased voltage, when compared with the LED of stronger QCSE. The small spectral shift range in increasing injection current in the LED of weaker QCSE is attributed not only to the weaker QCSE, but also to its smaller device resistance such that a given increment of applied voltage leads to a larger increment of injection current. From a viewpoint of practical application in LED operation, by applying a reverse-biased voltage in the vertical configuration, the applied voltage and injection current in the lateral configuration can be independently controlled by adjusting the vertical voltage for keeping the emission spectral peak fixed.

  13. A Self-Biased Active Voltage Doubler for Energy Harvesting Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyab, Umais; Alzaher, Hussain A.

    2017-01-01

    An active voltage doubler utilizing a single supply op-amp for energy harvesting system is presented. The proposed doubler is used for rectification process to achieve both acceptably high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and large rectified DC

  14. Effect of applied voltage parameters on the electric characteristics of a DBD in coaxial electrode configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrovic, D.; Martens, T.; De Bie, C.; Brok, W.J.M.; Bogaerts, A.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical parameter study has been performed for a cylindrical atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in helium with nitrogen impurities using a two-dimensional time dependent fluid model. The calculated electric currents and gap voltages as a function of time for a given applied

  15. Color change mechanism of niobium oxide thin film with incidental light angle and applied voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Isao [Course of Information Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University (Japan); Aoki, Hayata [Course of Electro Photo Optics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Ebisawa, Mizue [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute (Japan); Kuroda, Akihiro [Department of Optical and Imaging Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Kuroda Consulting Incorporated (Japan); Kuroda, Koichi [Kuroda Consulting Incorporated (Japan); Maeda, Shuichi [Course of Information Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University (Japan); Course of Electro Photo Optics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Department of Optical and Imaging Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Niobium oxide thin layers made by the anodization process showed coloration owing to thin film interference. The reflection spectra depended on both the applied voltage and incident light angle. Large color differences were observed at incident light angles between 5° and 70°, when the applied voltage was over 60 V. In this study, we explored the cause of these results using ellipsometry and goniophotometry to understand the transition of optical constants and the reflection spectra with applied voltage. Finally, we concluded that the coloration of the reflection spectra, which included only a first-order interference peak, exhibits a smaller change because the first order interference peak has a wider half value width than higher order interference peaks. - Highlights: • We investigated color change of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxide thin layers with incidental light angle. • The reflection spectra shift to lower wavelength region with increasing incident light angle. • The reflection spectra shift to higher wavelength region with increasing applied voltage. • First-order interference has wider half value width, and exhibits small color change.

  16. Development of a broadband reflective T-filter for voltage biasing high-Q superconducting microwave cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; LaHaye, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a reflective stop-band filter based on quasi-lumped elements that can be utilized to introduce large dc and low-frequency voltage biases into a low-loss superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. Transmission measurements of the filter are seen to be in good agreement with simulations and demonstrate insertion losses greater than 20 dB in the range of 3–10 GHz. Moreover, transmission measurements of the CPW's fundamental mode demonstrate that loaded quality factors exceeding 10 5 can be achieved with this design for dc voltages as large as 20 V and for the cavity operated in the single-photon regime. This makes the design suitable for use in a number of applications including qubit-coupled mechanical systems and circuit QED

  17. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abou-Ras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe2 solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe2/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe2 layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w2 and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  18. Low Noise Bias Current/Voltage References Based on Floating-Gate MOS Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of floating-gate MOS transistors as reference current and voltage sources is investigated. Test structures of common source and common drain floating-gate devices have been implemented in a commercially available 0.8 micron double-poly CMOS process. The measurements performed...

  19. Electronic transport in Thue-Morse gapped graphene superlattice under applied bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongmei; Liu, De

    2018-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the electronic transport properties of Thue-Morse gapped graphene superlattice under an applied electric field. The results indicate that the combined effect of the band gap and the applied bias breaks the angular symmetry of the transmission coefficient. The zero-averaged wave-number gap can be greatly modulated by the band gap and the applied bias, but its position is robust against change of the band gap. Moreover, the conductance and the Fano factor are strongly dependent not only on the Fermi energy but also on the band gap and the applied bias. In the vicinity of the new Dirac point, the minimum value of the conductance obviously decreases and the Fano factor gradually forms a Poissonian value plateau with increasing of the band gap.

  20. Effect of self-bias voltage on the wettability, chemical functionality and nanomechanical properties of hexamethyldisiloxane films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.D.F. [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, E. [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Center of Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Perdone, R.R.T. [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simao, R.A., E-mail: renata@metalmat.ufrj.br [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    Copper and silicon substrates were coated by chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursor gas. Substrates were placed both at the anode and cathode of a glow discharge reactor, and films were deposited using different self-bias voltages. This study focuses on comparing the differences between the hydrophilicity, polymeric character, chemical structure and nanomechanical properties of HMDSO films produced at the cathode and anode of the reactor at different self-bias voltages. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy indicated a significant increase in the content of organic groups when films were deposited at the anode. Analyzing the nanomechanical properties of the cathode and anode films indicated that the penetration depth was higher for samples prepared at the cathode (lower hardness) compared with the samples produced at the anode. The measured contact angles indicated that all samples became hydrophobic with water contact angles close to 100°; however, a different lyophobic character was observed when diiodomethane was used. Films produced at the anode with diiodomethane exhibited higher contact angles than did films produced at the cathode. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films deposited by CVD on Si and Cu substrates • HMDSO films produced at the anode have greater content of organic SiO{sub 4} groups. • Films produced at the anode are harder than those deposited at the cathode. • HMDSO films produced at the cathode exhibited higher elastic recovery. • All films are hydrophobic (θ close to 100°)

  1. Effect of self-bias voltage on the wettability, chemical functionality and nanomechanical properties of hexamethyldisiloxane films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M.D.F.; Santos, E.; Perdone, R.R.T.; Simao, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Copper and silicon substrates were coated by chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursor gas. Substrates were placed both at the anode and cathode of a glow discharge reactor, and films were deposited using different self-bias voltages. This study focuses on comparing the differences between the hydrophilicity, polymeric character, chemical structure and nanomechanical properties of HMDSO films produced at the cathode and anode of the reactor at different self-bias voltages. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy indicated a significant increase in the content of organic groups when films were deposited at the anode. Analyzing the nanomechanical properties of the cathode and anode films indicated that the penetration depth was higher for samples prepared at the cathode (lower hardness) compared with the samples produced at the anode. The measured contact angles indicated that all samples became hydrophobic with water contact angles close to 100°; however, a different lyophobic character was observed when diiodomethane was used. Films produced at the anode with diiodomethane exhibited higher contact angles than did films produced at the cathode. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films deposited by CVD on Si and Cu substrates • HMDSO films produced at the anode have greater content of organic SiO 4 groups. • Films produced at the anode are harder than those deposited at the cathode. • HMDSO films produced at the cathode exhibited higher elastic recovery. • All films are hydrophobic (θ close to 100°)

  2. Influence of substrate bias voltage on structure and properties of the CrAlN films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanhong; Ji, Li; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Hongxuan; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-02-01

    The CrAlN films were deposited on silicon and stainless steel substrates by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The influence of substrate bias on deposition rate, composition, structure, morphology and properties of the CrAlN films was investigated. The results showed that, with the increase of the substrate bias voltage, the deposition rate decreased accompanied by a change of the preferred orientation of the CrAlN film from (2 2 0) to (2 0 0). The grain size and the average surface roughness of the CrAlN films declined as the bias voltage increases above -100 V. The morphology of the films changed from obviously columnar to dense glass-like structure with the increase of the bias voltage from -50 to -250 V. Meanwhile, the films deposited at moderate bias voltage had better mechanical and tribological properties, while the films deposited at higher bias voltage showed better corrosion resistance. It was found that the corrosion resistance improvement was not only attributed to the low pinhole density of the film, but also to chemical composition of films.

  3. Modular high-voltage bias generator powered by dual-looped self-adaptive wireless power transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Huang, An-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Shi-Zhong; Zhang, Han-Lu

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a modular high-voltage (HV) bias generator powered by a novel transmitter-sharing inductive coupled wireless power transmission technology, aimed to extend the generator's flexibility and configurability. To solve the problems caused through an uncertain number of modules, a dual-looped self-adaptive control method is proposed that is capable of tracking resonance frequency while maintaining a relatively stable induction voltage for each HV module. The method combines a phase-locked loop and a current feedback loop, which ensures an accurate resonance state and a relatively constant boost ratio for each module, simplifying the architecture of the boost stage and improving the total efficiency. The prototype was built and tested. The input voltage drop of each module is less than 14% if the module number varies from 3 to 10; resonance tracking is completed within 60 ms. The efficiency of the coupling structure reaches up to 95%, whereas the total efficiency approaches 73% for a rated output. Furthermore, this technology can be used in various multi-load wireless power supply applications.

  4. Simulation of subnanosecond streamers in atmospheric-pressure air: Effects of polarity of applied voltage pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Results of simulation of subnanosecond streamer propagation in corona gap configuration, obtained in the framework of 2D fluid model, are presented. Effects related with the polarity of a voltage pulse applied to the stressed electrode are discussed. It is argued that these effects (dependence of the discharge current and propagation velocity on the polarity of applied voltage) observed in experiments can be attributed to the difference in initial (preceding the streamer formation) distributions of charged species inside the gap. This difference can be caused by preionization (at negative polarity) of the gas inside the discharge gap by runaway electrons. Calculated streamers have large widths (up to 1 cm) and move with velocities in the range of 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10 }cm s{sup −1}, similar to experimental data.

  5. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  6. APPLIED OPTICS. Voltage-tunable circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, Eugene J; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-14

    Electronic bands in crystals can support nontrivial topological textures arising from spin-orbit interactions, but purely orbital mechanisms can realize closely related dynamics without breaking spin degeneracies, opening up applications in materials containing only light elements. One such application is the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), which is the generation of photocurrents whose magnitude and polarity depend on the chirality of optical excitation. We show that the CPGE can arise from interband transitions at the metal contacts to silicon nanowires, where inversion symmetry is locally broken by an electric field. Bias voltage that modulates this field further controls the sign and magnitude of the CPGE. The generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism will enable new functionalities in silicon that can be integrated with conventional electronics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  8. Bias stress effect and recovery in organic field effect transistors : proton migration mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; Bao, Z.; McCulloch, I.

    2010-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors exhibit operational instabilities when a gate bias is applied. For a constant gate bias the threshold voltage shifts towards the applied gate bias voltage, an effect known as the bias-stress effect. We have performed a detailed experimental and theoretical study of

  9. Bias voltage dependence of molecular orientation of dialkyl ketone and fatty acid alkyl ester at the liquid–graphite interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, Masahiro, E-mail: hibino@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Department of Applied Sciences, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 18-pentatriacontanone (as ketone) and stearyl stearate (as ester) were formed on a graphite surface at the liquid–solid interface. • Orientations of the molecules in SAMs on the substrate were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. • A perpendicular carbon skeleton-plane orientation with the CO pointing up on the surface is favorable for a substrate with negative charge and vice versa. - Abstract: Molecular orientations of self-assembled 18-pentatriacontanone (as ketone) and stearyl stearate (as ester) monolayers adsorbed on a graphite surface were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the liquid–solid interface. At a positive sample bias, the central areas of the dialkyl ketone and fatty acid alkyl ester molecules in the STM images appeared as two bright regions on both sides of a dim spot and a bright region on one side of a dim spot, whereas at a negative sample bias, the areas appeared dim. This contrast variation indicates that a perpendicular carbon skeleton-plane orientation with the CO pointing down on the surface is favorable for a substrate with positive charge and vice versa because of the greater electronegativity of the oxygen atom. Upon the bias voltage reversal, the delay time for the STM image contrast change in the region was observed on a time scale of minutes. The difference between the delay time lengths for the direction of bias polarity change indicates that the perpendicular configuration with CO pointing up is more stable than that with CO pointing down. These results indicate that the use of an electric field along a direction vertical to the monolayer on the substrate provides control over the orientations of the molecules between two stable states at the liquid–solid interface.

  10. Effect of applied voltage on phase components of composite coatings prepared by micro-arc oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fang, Yu-Jing [Department of Colorectal Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Zheng, Huade [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tan, Guoxin [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Province 510006 (China); Cheng, Haimei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this report, we present results from our experiments on composite coatings formed on biomedical titanium substrates by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in constant-voltage mode. The coatings were prepared on the substrates in an aqueous electrolyte containing calcium acetate and β-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (β-GP). We analyzed the element distribution and phase components of the coatings prepared at different voltages by X-ray diffraction, thin-coating X-ray diffraction, electron-probe microanalysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the composite coatings formed at 500 V consist of titania (TiO{sub 2}), hydroxylapatite (HA), and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Furthermore, the concentration of Ca, P, and Ti gradually changes with increasing applied voltage, and the phase components of the composite coatings gradually change from the bottom of the coating to the top: the bottom layer consists of TiO{sub 2}, the middle layer consists of TiO{sub 2} and HA, and the top layer consists of HA and a small amount of CaCO{sub 3}. The formation of HA directly on the coating surface by MAO technique can greatly enhance the surface bioactivity. - Highlights: • Coatings prepared on biomedical titanium substrate by micro-arc oxidation • Coatings composed of titania, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate • Hydroxyapatite on the coating surface can enhance the surface bioactivity.

  11. Effect of applied voltage and initial concentration to desalting NaCl solution using electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubakri, Ali; Gzara, Lassaad; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Bouguecha, Salah

    2009-01-01

    The desalination process of electrodialysis is one of membrane separation that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water and seawater. In this work water desalination using a laboratory electrodialysis was performed and evaluated to desalting aqueous solutions containing 5000, 10000 and 20000 mg/L NaCl at different applied potential (10, 15 and 20 V) and at a constant flow rate of 3 L/min. Nine electrodialysis runs were performed. The results showed that the increasing of applied potential and decreasing of NaCl concentration have an important effect to enhance the electrodialysis performance. The efficiencies of each experiment were evaluated as function of specific power consumption with the electrical energy consumed in electrodialysis stack. It was obtained that the specific power consumption increased when the salt concentration and applied voltage increased. A laboratory electrodialysis stack containing fifteen cation exchange membranes and fifteen anion exchange membranes of 0,716 m 2 total effective area was used.

  12. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindugal-624622 (India); Subramanian, N. Sankara [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai -625015, Tamilnadu (India); Loganathan, S. [Ion Plating, Titan Industries Ltd., Hosur - 635126, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  13. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy L

    2007-11-26

    The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a qualitative description of study limitations. The latter approach is

  14. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  15. Towards an understanding of induced-charge electrokinetics at large applied voltages in concentrated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z; Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Storey, Brian D; Ajdari, Armand

    2009-11-30

    The venerable theory of electrokinetic phenomena rests on the hypothesis of a dilute solution of point-like ions in quasi-equilibrium with a weakly charged surface, whose potential relative to the bulk is of order the thermal voltage (kT/e approximately 25 mV at room temperature). In nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena, such as AC or induced-charge electro-osmosis (ACEO, ICEO) and induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP), several V approximately 100 kT/e are applied to polarizable surfaces in microscopic geometries, and the resulting electric fields and induced surface charges are large enough to violate the assumptions of the classical theory. In this article, we review the experimental and theoretical literatures, highlight discrepancies between theory and experiment, introduce possible modifications of the theory, and analyze their consequences. We argue that, in response to a large applied voltage, the "compact layer" and "shear plane" effectively advance into the liquid, due to the crowding of counterions. Using simple continuum models, we predict two general trends at large voltages: (i) ionic crowding against a blocking surface expands the diffuse double layer and thus decreases its differential capacitance, and (ii) a charge-induced viscosity increase near the surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility; each trend is enhanced by dielectric saturation. The first effect is able to predict high-frequency flow reversal in ACEO pumps, while the second may explain the decay of ICEO flow with increasing salt concentration. Through several colloidal examples, such as ICEP of an uncharged metal sphere in an asymmetric electrolyte, we show that nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena are generally ion-specific. Similar theoretical issues arise in nanofluidics (due to confinement) and ionic liquids (due to the lack of solvent), so the paper concludes with a general framework of modified electrokinetic equations for finite-sized ions.

  16. Characterization and gas sensing properties of CuO synthesized by DC directly applying voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinbumrung, Arrak [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai, E-mail: schthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CuO as a p-type semiconductor. • It was synthesized by directly applying voltage. • A promising material for ammonia detection. - Abstract: CuO microstructure was successfully synthesized by 50 A and 3.6 V DC directly applying voltage. Crystalline structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The sample of the 15 min processing time has an irregular shape with diameter about several hundreds of nanometer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to determine vibrational modes and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples: 529 and 585 cm{sup −1} vibrational modes, 3.95 eV band gap, and 402 nm emitting wavelength in violet region of CuO. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition, Cu(II)O, of the metal oxide surface. Gas sensing performance exposing to NH{sub 3} mixed with air at various working temperatures and NH{sub 3} concentrations of the as-synthesized CuO has the best response at the optimal working temperature of 250 °C: sensitivity of 56.6% exposed to 5275 ppm NH{sub 3}.

  17. Characterization and gas sensing properties of CuO synthesized by DC directly applying voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinbumrung, Arrak; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO as a p-type semiconductor. • It was synthesized by directly applying voltage. • A promising material for ammonia detection. - Abstract: CuO microstructure was successfully synthesized by 50 A and 3.6 V DC directly applying voltage. Crystalline structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The sample of the 15 min processing time has an irregular shape with diameter about several hundreds of nanometer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to determine vibrational modes and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples: 529 and 585 cm −1 vibrational modes, 3.95 eV band gap, and 402 nm emitting wavelength in violet region of CuO. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition, Cu(II)O, of the metal oxide surface. Gas sensing performance exposing to NH 3 mixed with air at various working temperatures and NH 3 concentrations of the as-synthesized CuO has the best response at the optimal working temperature of 250 °C: sensitivity of 56.6% exposed to 5275 ppm NH 3

  18. Bias voltage dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance in granular C60–Co films with current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Seiji; Mitani, Seiji; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Entani, Shiro; Avramov, Pavel; Ohtomo, Manabu; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Takanashi, Koki

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance effect in the granular C 60 –Co films has been investigated for the samples with the current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry. The transport measurements under this geometry demonstrate that the granular C 60 –Co films show an unusual exponential bias voltage dependence of the magnetoresistance ratio down to zero voltage. Small characteristic energies of less than 10's meV are derived from the temperature dependences of the characteristic voltage in the exponential relationship. Considering the magnitudes of the voltage drop between Co nanoparticles and also the effect of cotunneling on the energy values, the characteristic energies for the voltage-induced degradation of the spin polarization are found to show a satisfactory agreement with that for the thermally-induced one. It can be reasonably expected that the onset of magnetic disorder to the localized d-electron spins at the interface region of the C 60 -based matrix (C 60 –Co compound) with Co nanoparticles leading to the unusual voltage and temperature dependence of the magnetoresistance ratio and the spin polarization at low temperatures. - Highlights: ► Unusual voltage dependence of the TMR effect in granular C 60 –Co films is studied. ► Linear temperature-characteristic voltage dependence in the MR–V relationship. ► Spin-flip scattering by the exchange-coupled d-electron spins at the interface.

  19. Model of 1/f noise in ion implanted resistors as a function of the resistance, determined by a reverse bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, H.G.E.

    1979-01-01

    A model is presented for the 1/f noise in ion-implanted resistors. The resistance was changed by a reverse bias voltage. The model explains the experimentally found square dependence between the relative 1/f noise intensity C/C 0 and the relative change in resistance R/R 0 . (author)

  20. Magnetoresistance and negative differential resistance in Ni/graphene/Ni vertical heterostructures driven by finite bias voltage: a first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saha, Kamal K.; Blom, Anders; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory, we study finite bias quantum transport in Ni/Grn/Ni vertical heterostructures where n graphene layers are sandwiched between two semi-infinite Ni(111) electrodes. We find that the recently predicted “pess...... differential resistance as the bias voltage is increased from Vb=0 V to Vb≃0.5 V. We confirm that both of these nonequilibrium transport effects hold for different types of bonding of Gr on the Ni(111) surface while maintaining Bernal stacking between individual Gr layers....... “pessimistic” magnetoresistance of 100% for n≥5 junctions at zero bias voltage Vb→0 persists up to Vb≃0.4 V, which makes such devices promising for spin-torque-based device applications. In addition, for parallel orientations of the Ni magnetizations, the n=5 junction exhibits a pronounced negative...

  1. Effect of supply voltage and body-biasing on single-event transient pulse quenching in bulk fin field-effect-transistor process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun-Ting; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Huang Peng-Cheng; Song Rui-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Charge sharing is becoming an important topic as the feature size scales down in fin field-effect-transistor (FinFET) technology. However, the studies of charge sharing induced single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching with bulk FinFET are reported seldomly. Using three-dimensional technology computer aided design (3DTCAD) mixed-mode simulations, the effects of supply voltage and body-biasing on SET pulse quenching are investigated for the first time in bulk FinFET process. Research results indicate that due to an enhanced charge sharing effect, the propagating SET pulse width decreases with reducing supply voltage. Moreover, compared with reverse body-biasing (RBB), the circuit with forward body-biasing (FBB) is vulnerable to charge sharing and can effectively mitigate the propagating SET pulse width up to 53% at least. This can provide guidance for radiation-hardened bulk FinFET technology especially in low power and high performance applications. (paper)

  2. Condition for the occurrence of phase slip centers in superconducting nanowires under applied current or voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the phase slip process in superconducting lead nanowires are presented under two different experimental conditions: constant applied current or constant voltage. Based on these experiments we established a simple model which gives us the condition of the appearance of phase...... slip centers in a quasi-one-dimensional wire. The competition between two relaxations times (relaxation time of the absolute value of the order parameter τ and relaxation time of the phase of the order parameter in the phase slip center τ) governs the phase slip process. Phase slips, as periodic...... oscillations in time of the order parameter, are only possible if the gradient of the phase grows faster than the value of the order parameter in the phase slip center, or equivalently if τ≤ τ....

  3. Programming Arduino to Control Bias Voltages to Temperature-Depedndent Gamma-ray Detectors aboard TRYAD Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevons, C. E.; Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are sub-millisecond gamma-ray flashes that are correlated with lightning have been observed with numerous satellites since their discovery in the early 1990s. Although substantial research has been conducted on TGFs, puzzling questions regarding their origin are still left unanswered. Consequently, the Terrestrial RaYs Analysis and Detection (TRYAD) mission is designed to solve many issues about TGFs by measuring the beam profile and orientation of TGFs in low Earth orbit. This project consists of sending two CubeSats into low-Earth orbit where they will independently sample TGF beams. Both of the TRYAD CubeSats will contain a gamma-ray detector composed of lead doped plastic scintillator coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. The gain readings of the SiPMs vary with temperature and the bias voltage must be corrected to compensate. Using an Arduino micro-controller, circuitry and software was developed to control the gain in response to the resistance of a thermistor. I will present the difficulties involved with this project along with our solutions.

  4. Effect of applied voltage and inter-pulse delay in spark-assisted LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Martinez, A.; Sobral, H.; Garcia-Villarreal, A.

    2018-06-01

    We report the results obtained in an investigation on the effect of the time delay between the laser and electrical pulses in a spark-assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment. The electrical discharge is produced by the discharge of a charged coaxial cable. This arrangement produces a fast unipolar current pulse (500 ns) that applies high power ( 600 kW) to the laser ablation plasma. The delay between the laser pulse and the electric pulse can be controlled at will in order to find the optimal time in terms of enhancement of the emitted lines. It was found that the application of the high voltage pulse enhances the ionic lines emitted by up to two orders of magnitude. An additional enhancement by a factor of 2-4 can be obtained delaying the application of the electric pulse by a time of 0.6-20 μs. In the tests it was noticed that the ionic lines were found to be clearly responsive to increments in the applied electric energy while the neutral lines did so marginally. Our results show that the intensification of the lines is mainly due to reheating of the ablation plasma as the application of the electrical pulse increments the temperature of the ablation plasma by about 50%. It is demonstrated that the present technique is an efficient way of intensifying the lines emitted without incurring in additional damage to the sample.

  5. Hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of a nanopore induced by an applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Mao; Ghosal, Sandip; Hu Guohui

    2013-01-01

    Continuum simulation is employed to study ion transport and fluid flow through a nanopore in a solid-state membrane under an applied potential drop. The results show the existence of concentration polarization layers on the surfaces of the membrane. The nonuniformity of the ionic distribution gives rise to an electric pressure that drives vortical motion in the fluid. There is also a net hydrodynamic flow through the nanopore due to an asymmetry induced by the membrane surface charge. The qualitative behavior is similar to that observed in a previous study using molecular dynamic simulations. The current–voltage characteristics show some nonlinear features but are not greatly affected by the hydrodynamic flow in the parameter regime studied. In the limit of thin Debye layers, the electric resistance of the system can be characterized using an equivalent circuit with lumped parameters. Generation of vorticity can be understood qualitatively from elementary considerations of the Maxwell stresses. However, the flow strength is a strongly nonlinear function of the applied field. Combination of electrophoretic and hydrodynamic effects can lead to ion selectivity in terms of valences and this could have some practical applications in separations. (paper)

  6. Boron doped bcc-W films: Achieving excellent mechanical properties and tribological performance by regulating substrate bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Zhang, Kan; Zeng, Yi; Wang, Xin; Du, Suxuan; Tao, Chuanying; Ren, Ping; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Mao

    2017-11-01

    Boron doped bcc-W (WBx, x = B/W) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by magnetron co-sputtering pure W and B targets. Our results reveal that when the absolute value of substrate bias voltage (Vb) increases from floating to 240 V, the value of x monotonously decreases from 0.18 to 0.04, accompanied by a phase transition from a mixture of tetragonal γ-W2B and body-centered cubic α-W(B) phase (-Vb ≤ 60 V) to α-W(B) single phase (-Vb > 60 V). Hardness, depending on Vb, increases first and then drops, where the maximum hardness of 30.8 GPa was obtained at -Vb = 60 V and far higher than pure W and W2B theoretical value. In the mixed phase structure, the grain boundaries strengthening, Hall-Petch effect and solid-solution strengthening induced by B dominate the strengthening mechanism. Astonishingly, the film grown at -Vb = 120 V still possesses twice higher hardness than pure W, wherein unexpectedly low (6.7 at.%) B concentration and only the single α-W(B) phase can be identified. In this case, both Hall-Petch effect and solid-solution strengthening work. Besides, low friction coefficient of ∼0.18 can be obtained for the films with α-W(B) phase, which is competitive to that of reported B-rich transition-metal borides, such as TiB2, CrB and CrB2.

  7. Mo-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon deposited by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc with selective pulsed bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Intarasiri, Saweat; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Anders, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Metal-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were produced by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma sources operated in sequentially pulsed mode. Negatively pulsed bias was applied to the substrate when carbon plasma was generated, whereas it was absent when the molybdenum plasma was presented. Film thickness was measured after deposition by profilometry. Glass slides with silver pads were used as substrates for the measurement of the sheet resistance. The microstructure and composition of the films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, respectively. It was found that the electrical resistivity decreases with an increase of the Mo content, which can be ascribed to an increase of the sp 2 content and an increase of the sp 2 cluster size

  8. Improved performance of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell with enlarged anode and high applied voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bo; Luo, Haiping; Lu, Yaobin; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Li, Xiao

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve performance of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) using enlarged anode and high applied voltages. MEDCCs with anode lengths of 9 and 48cm (i.e., the 9cm-anode MEDCC and 48cm-anode MEDCC, respectively) were tested under different voltages (1.2-3.0V). Our results demonstrated for the first time that the MEDCC could maintain high performance even under the applied voltage higher than that for water dissociation (i.e., 1.8V). Under the applied voltage of 2.5V, the maximum current density in the 48cm-anode MEDCC reached 32.8±2.6A/m 2 , which is one of the highest current densities reported so far in the bioelectrochemical system (BES). The relative abundance of Geobacter was changed along the anode length. Our results show the great potential of the BES with enlarged anode and high applied voltages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under positive gate bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niang, K. M.; Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Cambridge University, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, P. M. C.; Martins, R. F. P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, B. [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Powell, M. J. [252, Valley Drive, Kendal LA9 7SL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-29

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) employing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel layer exhibit a positive shift in the threshold voltage under the application of positive gate bias stress (PBS). The time and temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shift was measured and analysed using the thermalization energy concept. The peak energy barrier to defect conversion is extracted to be 0.75 eV and the attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. These values are in remarkable agreement with measurements in a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS) reported recently (Flewitt and Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 134501 (2014)). This suggests that the same physical process is responsible for both PBS and NBIS, and supports the oxygen vacancy defect migration model that the authors have previously proposed.

  10. Effect of applied DC voltages and temperatures on space charge behaviour of multi-layer oil-paper insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Chao; Liao Ruijin [The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University (China); Chen, G [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Fu, M, E-mail: tangchao_1981@163.co [AVERA T and D Technology Centre, Stafford (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, space charge in a multi-layer oil-paper insulation system was investigated using the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique. A series of measurements had been carried following subjection of the insulation system to different applied voltages and different temperatures. Charge behaviours in the insulation system were analyzed and the influence of temperature on charge dynamics was discussed. The test results shows that homocharge injection takes place under all the test conditions, the applied DC voltage mainly affects the amount of space charge, while the temperature has greater influence on the distribution and mobility of space charge inside oil-paper samples.

  11. Five-Level Converter with Low Switching Frequency Applied as DC Voltage Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multi-level converter as a DC supply. Equations for the converter will be deduced in the nondissipative case. The equations provide solutions to DC voltage and the angle of converter voltage. In addition the spectrum for the harmonics after the elimination of sel...

  12. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique. The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (V th ) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump. The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS process. Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits. This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance and Interfacial Conductivity of TiC x/a-C Nanolayered Coatings via Synergy of Substrate Bias Voltage for Bipolar Plates Applications in PEMFCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peiyun; Zhang, Weixin; Bi, Feifei; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2018-06-06

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are one kind of renewable and clean energy conversion device, whose metallic bipolar plates are one of the key components. However, high interfacial contact resistance and poor corrosion resistance are still great challenges for the commercialization of metallic bipolar plates. In this study, we demonstrated a novel strategy for depositing TiC x /amorphous carbon (a-C) nanolayered coatings by synergy of 60 and 300 V bias voltage to enhance corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity. The synergistic effects of bias voltage on the composition, microstructure, surface roughness, electrochemical corrosion behaviors, and interfacial conductivity of TiC x /a-C coatings were explored. The results revealed that the columnar structures in the inner layer were suppressed and the surface became rougher with the 300 V a-C layer outside. The composition analysis indicated that the sp 2 content increased with an increase of 300 V sputtering time. Due to the synergy strategy of bias voltage, lower corrosion current densities were achieved both in potentiostatic polarization (1.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode) and potentiodynamic polarization. With the increase of 300 V sputtering time, the interfacial conductivity was improved. The enhanced corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity of the TiC x /a-C coatings would provide new opportunities for commercial bipolar plates.

  14. The effect of substrate bias voltages on impact resistance of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyan, Yu; Linhai, Tian; Yinghui, Wei; Shebin, Wang; Tianbao, Li; Bingshe, Xu

    2009-01-01

    CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate negative bias voltages on the impact property of the CrAlN coatings was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with the (1 1 1), (2 0 0) (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) diffraction peaks observed. Two-dimensional surface morphologies of CrAlN coatings were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results show that with increasing substrate bias voltage the coatings became more compact and denser, and the microhardness and fracture toughness of the coatings increased correspondingly. In the dynamic impact resistance tests, the CrAlN coatings displayed better impact resistance with the increase of bias voltage, due to the reduced emergence and propagation of the cracks in coatings with a very dense structure and the increase of hardness and fracture toughness in coatings.

  15. Effect of substrate bias voltage on tensile properties of single crystal silicon microstructure fully coated with plasma CVD diamond-like carbon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlei; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2018-06-01

    Tensile strength and strength distribution in a microstructure of single crystal silicon (SCS) were improved significantly by coating the surface with a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. To explore the influence of coating parameters and the mechanism of film fracture, SCS microstructure surfaces (120 × 4 × 5 μm3) were fully coated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of a DLC at five different bias voltages. After the depositions, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), surface profilometry, atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement, and nanoindentation methods were used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. Tensile test indicated that the average strength of coated samples was 13.2-29.6% higher than that of the SCS sample, and samples fabricated with a -400 V bias voltage were strongest. The fracture toughness of the DLC film was the dominant factor in the observed tensile strength. Deviations in strength were reduced with increasingly negative bias voltage. The effect of residual stress on the tensile properties is discussed in detail.

  16. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to -100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = -100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0-50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO2 films deposited at -100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties. Comparison between the corrosion resistance of the uncoated and coated samples showed a reduction in corrosion current density for coated samples compared to the uncoated one. The best corrosion current density of the film deposited at -75 V was 5.9 nA/cm2, which is about 11 times less than that of the uncoated steel 68.3 nA/cm2). The

  17. Investigation on the energy spectrums of electrons in atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets and their dependences on the applied voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxian; Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Yadi; Li, Xiaotong; Pan, Jie; Wang, Xiaolong

    2017-08-01

    This work presents a systematical investigation on the spatiotemporal evolution of the energy spectrum of electrons in atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets and its dependence on the applied voltage. The investigations are carried out by means of the numerical simulation based on a particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision model. The characteristics of the spatiotemporal evolution of the energy spectrum of electrons (ESE) in the discharge space have been presented, and especially the mechanisms of inducing these characteristics have also been revealed. The present work shows the following conclusions. In the evolution of ESE, there is a characteristic time under each applied voltage. Before the characteristic time, the peak value of ESE decreases, the peak position shifts toward high energy, and the distribution of ESE becomes wider and wider, but the reverse is true after the characteristic time. The formation of these characteristics can be mainly attributed to the transport of electrons toward a low electric field as well as a balance between the energy gained from the electric field including the effect of space charges and the energy loss due to inelastic collisions in the process of electron transport. The characteristic time decreases with the applied voltage. In addition, the average energy of electrons at the characteristic time can be increased by enhancing the applied voltage. The results presented in this work are of importance for regulating and controlling the energy of electrons in the plasma jets applied to plasma medicine.

  18. Temperature Dependency and Alpha Response of Semi-Insulating GaAs Schottky Radiation Detector at Low Bias Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Mook; Ha, Jang Ho; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Han Soo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen a growing interest in semiconductor radiation detectors operated at room or nearly room temperature. Great efforts have been invested in the development of radiation detectors based on semi-insulating (SI) GaAs. The main reasons are as follows: (i) high resistance against radiation damage; (ii) it possesses a good energy resolution, which relates to its active volume; (iii) such a detector also exhibits fast signal rise times, which results from a high mobility and drift velocity of charge carriers; (iv) its large band gap energy allows a SI GaAs detector to operate at room temperature. Other important features are a good technology base and low production and operating costs. An alpha particle monitoring method for the detection of Pu-238 and U-235 is becoming important in homeland security. Alpha measurement in a vacuum is known to provide a good resolution sufficient to separate an isotope abundance in nuclear materials. However, in order to apply it to a high radiation field like a spent fuel treatment facility, a nuclear material loading and unloading process in a vacuum is one of the great disadvantages. Therefore, the main technical issue is to develop a detector for alpha detection at air condition and low power operation for integration type device. In this study we fabricated GaAs Schottky detector by using semi-insulating (SI) wafer and measured current-voltage characteristic curve and alpha response with 5.5 MeV Am-241 source

  19. Hydrogen Permeation, and Mechanical and Tribological Behavior, of CrNx Coatings Deposited at Various Bias Voltages on IN718 by Direct Current Reactive Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor B. Kashkarov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the microstructure, hydrogen permeability, and properties of chromium nitride (CrNx thin films deposited on the Inconel 718 superalloy using direct current reactive sputtering are investigated. The influence of the substrate bias voltage on the crystal structure, mechanical, and tribological properties before and after hydrogen exposure was studied. It was found that increasing the substrate bias voltage leads to densification of the coating. X-ray diffraction (XRD results reveal a change from mixed fcc-CrN + hcp-Cr2N to the approximately stoichiometric hcp-Cr2N phase with increasing substrate bias confirmed by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS. The texture coefficients of (113, (110, and (111 planes vary significantly with increasing substrate bias voltage. The hydrogen permeability was measured by gas-phase hydrogenation. The CrN coating deposited at 60 V with mixed c-CrN and (113 textured hcp-Cr2N phases exhibits the lowest hydrogen absorption at 873 K. It is suggested that the crystal orientation is only one parameter influencing the permeation resistance of the CrNx coating together with the film structure, the presence of mixing phases, and the packing density of the structure. After hydrogenation, the hardness increased for all coatings, which could be related to the formation of a Cr2O3 oxide film on the surface, as well as the defect formation after hydrogen loading. Tribological tests reveal that hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the friction coefficient by up to 40%. The lowest value of 0.25 ± 0.02 was reached for the CrNx coating deposited at 60 V after hydrogenation.

  20. Bias-corrected Pearson estimating functions for Taylor's power law applied to benthic macrofauna data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bent; Demétrio, Clarice G. B.; Kristensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of Taylor’s power law for species abundance data may be performed by linear regression of the log empirical variances on the log means, but this method suffers from a problem of bias for sparse data. We show that the bias may be reduced by using a bias-corrected Pearson estimating...

  1. Fast switching thyristor applied in nanosecond-pulse high-voltage generator with closed transformer core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Bao, Chaobing; Feng, Xibo; Liu, Yunlong; Fochan, Lin

    2013-02-01

    For a compact and reliable nanosecond-pulse high-voltage generator (NPHVG), the specification parameter selection and potential usage of fast controllable state-solid switches have an important bearing on the optimal design. The NPHVG with closed transformer core and fast switching thyristor (FST) was studied in this paper. According to the analysis of T-type circuit, the expressions for the voltages and currents of the primary and secondary windings on the transformer core of NPHVG were deduced, and the theoretical maximum analysis was performed. For NPHVG, the rise-rate of turn-on current (di/dt) across a FST may exceed its transient rating. Both mean and maximum values of di/dt were determined by the leakage inductances of the transformer, and the difference is 1.57 times. The optimum winding ratio is helpful to getting higher voltage output with lower specification FST, especially when the primary and secondary capacitances have been established. The oscillation period analysis can be effectively used to estimate the equivalent leakage inductance. When the core saturation effect was considered, the maximum di/dt estimated from the oscillating period of the primary current is more accurate than one from the oscillating period of the secondary voltage. Although increasing the leakage inductance of NPHVG can decrease di/dt across FST, it may reduce the output peak voltage of the NPHVG.

  2. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 7: understanding the potential impacts of dissemination bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrew; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather; Toews, Ingrid; Noyes, Jane; Rashidian, Arash; Berg, Rigmor C; Nyakang'o, Brenda; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2018-01-25

    The GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach has been developed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Working Group. The approach has been developed to support the use of findings from qualitative evidence syntheses in decision-making, including guideline development and policy formulation. CERQual includes four components for assessing how much confidence to place in findings from reviews of qualitative research (also referred to as qualitative evidence syntheses): (1) methodological limitations, (2) coherence, (3) adequacy of data and (4) relevance. This paper is part of a series providing guidance on how to apply CERQual and focuses on a probable fifth component, dissemination bias. Given its exploratory nature, we are not yet able to provide guidance on applying this potential component of the CERQual approach. Instead, we focus on how dissemination bias might be conceptualised in the context of qualitative research and the potential impact dissemination bias might have on an overall assessment of confidence in a review finding. We also set out a proposed research agenda in this area. We developed this paper by gathering feedback from relevant research communities, searching MEDLINE and Web of Science to identify and characterise the existing literature discussing or assessing dissemination bias in qualitative research and its wider implications, developing consensus through project group meetings, and conducting an online survey of the extent, awareness and perceptions of dissemination bias in qualitative research. We have defined dissemination bias in qualitative research as a systematic distortion of the phenomenon of interest due to selective dissemination of studies or individual study findings. Dissemination bias is important for qualitative evidence syntheses as the selective dissemination of qualitative studies and/or study findings may distort our understanding of

  3. Note: Self-biased voltage to suppress secondary electrons by a ZnO varistor in a compact pulsed neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, J.; Long, J. D.; Lan, C. H.; Wang, T.; Dong, P.; He, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    A large amount of back streaming electrons will bring about a part of current drain on power supply, cause sparking or high-voltage breakdowns, and affect the neutron yield and waveform for a compact sealed-tube pulsed neutron generator. A novel idea which uses a ZnO varistor to provide a constant self-biased voltage to suppress the secondary electrons is introduced. The I-V curve for the ZnO varistor was measured in the experiment. The effects of suppressing the secondary electrons were investigated using a ZnO varistor, linear resistors, and an independent power supply, respectively. The results show that the secondary electrons are suppressed effectively by the compact ZnO varistor, while not increasing the size and the component of the device. It is a promising design for compact sealed-tube neutron generators.

  4. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO{sub 2} deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bait, L. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Azzouz, L. [Université de Amar Telidji, Laghouat (Algeria); Madaoui, N. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N., E-mail: nsaoula@cdta.dz [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO{sub 2} coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO{sub 2} films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO{sub 2} thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO{sub 2} films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O{sub 2} gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO{sub 2} films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the

  5. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO 2 coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO 2 films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO 2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO 2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO 2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO 2 films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties

  6. Evaluation of resistive switching properties of Si-rich oxide embedded with Ti nanodots by applying constant voltage and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Akio; Kato, Yusuke; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the resistive switching behaviors of electron beam (EB) evaporated Si-rich oxide (SiO x ) sandwiched between Ni electrodes by applying a constant voltage and current. Additionally, the impact of Ti nanodots (NDs) embedded into SiO x on resistive switching behaviors was investigated because it is expected that NDs can trigger the formation of a conductive filament path in SiO x . The resistive switching behaviors of SiO x show that the response time during resistance switching was decreased by increasing the applied constant current or constant voltage. It was found that Ti-NDs in SiO x enhance the conductive filament path formation owing to electric field concentration by Ti-NDs.

  7. Discrimination Voltage and Overdrive Bias Dependent Performance Evaluation of Passively Quenched SiC Single-Photon-Counting Avalanche Photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fei; Yang Sen; Zhou Dong; Lu Hai; Zhang Rong; Zheng You-Dou

    2015-01-01

    In many critical civil and emerging military applications, low-level UV detection, sometimes at single photon level, is highly desired. In this work, a mesa-type 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiode (APD) is designed and fabricated, which exhibits low leakage current and high avalanche gain. When studied by using a passive quenching circuit, the APD exhibits self-quenching characteristics due to its high differential resistance in the avalanche region. The single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate of the APD are evaluated as functions of discrimination voltage and over-drive voltage. The optimized operation conditions of the single photon counting APD are discussed. (paper)

  8. Effects of bias voltage and annealing on the structure and mechanical properties of WC0.75N0.25 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.D.; Hu, C.Q.; Wen, M.; Wang, C.; Liu, D.S.; Zheng, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both bias voltage and annealing on the structure and mechanical properties of WC 0.75 N 0.25 thin films, deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by a direct current reactive magnetron sputtering system, in which the negative substrate bias voltage (V b ) was varied from floating (-1.6 V) to -200 V, and the deposited films were annealed at 800 deg. C for 2 h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction analyses, along with the density-functional theory (DFT) calculations on the electronic structure, showed that WC 0.75 N 0.25 films were a single-phase of carbonitrides. After annealing, a significant decrease in hardness for the films was observed, being a result of point-defect annihilation as V b was in the range of floating to -120 V. However, when V b was in the range of -160 to -200 V, the hardness increased from ∼37 GPa for the as-deposited film to a maximum of ∼43 GPa for the annealed one. This increase in hardness after annealing might be attributed to age-hardening.

  9. Bias-voltage dependence of perpendicular spin-transfer torque in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Se Chung; Park, Seung Young; Manchon, Aurelien; Chshiev, Mairbek; Han, Jae Ho; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jang Eun; Nam, Kyung Tae; Jo, Younghun; Kong, Yo Chan; Dieny, Bernard; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2009-01-01

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Bias-voltage dependence of perpendicular spin-transfer torque in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Se Chung

    2009-10-25

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: Applied to low voltage circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J. W.; Balestrero, A.; Tribulato, G.; Ghezzi, L.; Cross, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1x10 6 images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  12. Applying signal-detection theory to the study of observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Bellaci, Emily; Miller, Jonathan; Karp, Hilary; Mahmood, Angela; Strobel, Maggie; Mullen, Shelley; Keyl, Alice; Toupard, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of signal-detection theory (SDT). Sixty-one individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated teacher-child interactions. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to determine if brief feedback and contingencies for scoring accurately would bias responding reliably. Experiment 2 focused on one variable (specificity of the operational definition) that we hypothesized might decrease the likelihood of bias. The effects of social consequences and information about expected behavior change were examined in Experiment 3. Results indicated that feedback and contingencies reliably biased responding and that the clarity of the definition only moderately affected this outcome.

  13. Influence of the polarity of the applied voltage on the reignition of a discharge below a dielectric layer in air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechereau, François; Bourdon, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer obstacle on the discharge path is investigated numerically for different applied voltages. Whatever the polarity of the voltage applied, first, a streamer discharge of the same polarity ignites at the point and propagates towards the dielectric layer. After the impact on the dielectric surface, the streamer discharge spreads along the upper dielectric surface and charges it positively or negatively depending on its polarity. On the bottom surface of the dielectric layer, charges with an opposite polarity are deposited. Surface charges on both faces of the dielectric layer are shown to have a significant influence on the discharge reignition for a negative applied voltage, but not for a positive one. Furthermore, it is shown that the dynamics of the discharge reignition below the dielectric layer depends on the polarity of the applied voltage at the point electrode. For a positive applied voltage, the reignited discharge is a positive ionization wave propagating towards the grounded plane. For a negative applied voltage, a double headed discharge is observed with positive and negative fronts propagating in opposite directions. Finally, the minimal value of the ionization integral to have a discharge reignition below the dielectric obstacle is found to be less for a negative applied voltage than for a positive one. (paper)

  14. Regression Analysis of the Effect of Bias Voltage on Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Ion-Plating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films are deposited by bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA technique with DC and pulsed bias voltage. The effects of varying bias voltage on nanoindentation and nanowear properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage of −50 V exhibited the greatest hardness at approximately 50 GPa, a low modulus of dissipation, low elastic modulus to nanoindentation hardness ratio, and high nanowear resistance. Nanoindentation hardness was positively correlated with the Raman peak ratio Id/Ig, whereas wear depth was negatively correlated with this ratio. These nanotribological properties highly depend on the films’ nanostructures. The tribological properties of the FCVA-DLC films were also investigated using a ball-on-disk test. The average friction coefficient of DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage was lower than that of DLC films deposited with pulse bias voltage. The friction coefficient calculated from the ball-on-disk test was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness in dry conditions. However, under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate had little correlation with nanoindentation hardness, and wear behavior seemed to be influenced by other factors such as adhesion strength between the film and substrate.

  15. Luminous flux improvement of xenon fluorescent lamps by applying synchronized high-voltage pulse to the auxiliary external electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motomura, Hideki; Oka, Kojiro; Sogabe, Toru; Jinno, Masafumi, E-mail: hmoto@mayu.ee.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ehime University 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-08

    As the environmental awareness of people becomes stronger, the demand for mercury-free light sources also becomes stronger. The authors have been developing cold cathode fluorescent lamps in which xenon gas is filled as an ultraviolet radiator instead of mercury. Previously the authors reported the luminous flux enhancement method using a grounded auxiliary external electrode (AEE). In this paper, in order to improve the luminous flux much more, a positive voltage pulse which was synchronized to the main driving negative voltage pulse was applied to the AEE. As a result, the maximum input power increased under which the positive column did not constrict and the luminous flux improved by 70% at the xenon filling pressure of 6.7 kPa. It is proved that the positive voltage pulse application to the AEE with the amplitude of more than 2 kV expands the positive column in the radial direction. It is attributed to the phenomenon that the residual ions and electrons, which are generated by dielectric barrier discharge between the AEE and the anode during the falling edge of the negative pulse to the cathode, spread the discharge path from the anode towards the AEE during the cold cathode discharge mode. By increasing the xenon filling pressure, luminous efficacy was improved to 25 lm W{sup -1}.

  16. Coordination of voltage and reactive power control in the extra high voltage substations based on the example of solutions applied in the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kołodziej

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents examples of coordination between automatic voltage and reactive power control systems (ARST covering adjacent and strongly related extra high voltage substations. Included are conclusions resulting from the use of these solutions. The Institute of Power Engineering, Gdańsk Division has developed and deployed ARST systems in the national power system for a dozen or so years.

  17. APPLIED BEHAVIORAL FINANCE: INVESTOR BIASES, PERFORMANCE REVERSION TO THE MEAN and TREND FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of understanding the behavior of the market player, the basic argument relays on the supposition that the risk appetite increases exactly at the worst moment - when the capacity to assume additional risk decreases significantly.People view a sample randomly drawn from a population as highly representative and cvasi similar to the population in all its essential characteristics. They expect any two samples drawn from a particular population to be more similar to one another and to the population than is statistically justifiable. This behavior is different from the tenets of classic finance theory. The paper aims at demonstating that investor psychological biases lead to investment performance to tilt to the mean in the long run and by following the trend, the financial market population do not enjoy significant sustainable benefits. As a reflection of the behavioral biases and influences, the statistical demonstration supports the conclusion that markets do not random walk.

  18. Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Jun-Hee; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2015-09-07

    Recently, low-frequency driving of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels to minimize power consumption has drawn much attention. In the case in which an LCD panel is driven by a fringe-field at a low frequency, the image flickering phenomenon occurs when the sign of the applied electric field is reversed. We investigated image flickering induced by the flexoelectric effect in a fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal cell in terms of the transmittance difference between frames and the ripple phenomenon. Experimental results show that image flicker due to transmittance difference can be eliminated completely and that the ripple phenomena can be reduced significantly by applying a bipolar voltage wave to the FFS cell.

  19. Determination of half value layer and applied voltage from emitted spectra by an X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzales, Alejandro H.L.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a method for assessment of half value layer (HVL) and peak tube voltage (kVp) applied in an X-ray tube by means of experimental X-ray spectra measured using a CdTe detector. It was assessed some parameters that can affect the evaluation of these quantities such as dead time, count rate and tube current (mA). For this study, two sets of X-ray spectra were measured: Set A), spectra measurements using Cu filters with different thicknesses (1.8 - 5.4 mm) and fixed tube current; Set B), spectra measurements keeping a fixed Cu filtration and varying tube current (0.5 - 3.0 mA). The experimental setup for the Set A spectra measurements allowed the assessment of the HVL and kVp for different count rates and dead time in the detection system, while the Set B setup allowed to assess the dependence of these quantities with the tube current. The spectrometer was energy calibrated using standard X/γ rays radioactive sources. The tube voltage values were estimated by means of experimental measured X-ray spectra, using linear regression in order to search the end point of each spectrum. The spectra correction was performed using the stripping procedure developed for the Matlab® software and the HVL values were derived from these corrected spectra. For comparison, HVL was also determined using a 30 cm"3 ion chamber and high purity Al filters. The results show that it is possible to determine the kVp with accuracy and reproducibility using spectra with dead time of up to 10%. In spite of this, the values obtained showed a deviation of up to 7 kV, for spectra measured using the same nominal tube voltage different tube current values, indicating dependence between these two parameters. (author)

  20. Fluctuation in Interface and Electronic Structure of Single-Molecule Junctions Investigated by Current versus Bias Voltage Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Yuji; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2018-03-14

    Structural and electronic detail at the metal-molecule interface has a significant impact on the charge transport across the molecular junctions, but its precise understanding and control still remain elusive. On the single-molecule scale, the metal-molecule interface structures and relevant charge transport properties are subject to fluctuation, which contain the fundamental science of single-molecule transport and implication for manipulability of the transport properties in electronic devices. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to investigate the fluctuation in the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage ( I- V) measurements in combination with first-principles simulation. Contrary to conventional molecular conductance studies, this I- V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface and the molecular orbital energy level. This statistical approach was employed to study fluctuation in single-molecule junctions of 1,4-butanediamine (DAB), pyrazine (PY), 4,4'-bipyridine (BPY), and fullerene (C 60 ). We demonstrate that molecular-dependent fluctuation of σ-, π-, and π-plane-type interfaces can be captured by analyzing the molecular orbital (MO) energy level under mechanical perturbation. While the MO level of DAB with the σ-type interface shows weak distance dependence and fluctuation, the MO level of PY, BPY, and C 60 features unique distance dependence and molecular-dependent fluctuation against the mechanical perturbation. The MO level of PY and BPY with the σ+π-type interface increases with the increase in the stretch distance. In contrast, the MO level of C 60 with the π-plane-type interface decreases with the increase in the stretching perturbation. This study provides an approach to resolve the structural and electronic fluctuation in the single-molecule junctions and insight into the molecular-dependent fluctuation in

  1. Influence of duration and rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage on ozone concentration in the barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovski, A.V.; Knysh, A.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The barrier glow discharge between two planar electrodes, covered with dielectric, is studied under high-voltage pulsed power supply. Wide applications of such type of discharges, in particular, for ozone production, stimulated a number of investigations in this direction. In this work we investigated the dependence of ozone concentration on the duration and the rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage. The thyristor converter circuit with the shortening of input pulses on the base of the saturable throttle was used for the realization of this task. The output pulses with amplitude up to 15 kV, repetition frequency of 1 kHz, pulse duration of 0.3 μs (or 7 μs) and the rate of pulse rise of 0.1 μs were generated with this scheme. Measurements of the ozone concentration produced in the air mixture have shown that its value increased by factor two with variation of the rate of pulse rise from 0.5 μs to 0.1 μs (for pulse duration of 7 μs). The dependence of the ozone concentration on the variation of air mixture pressure in the discharge gap of reactor was investigated also. It was shown proportional increase of the output concentration of ozone with increasing the pressure value. Spectroscopic measurements carried out in the ultraviolet spectrum made it possible to analyze changing the concentration of ozone and nitric components. (author)

  2. De-biasing the dynamic mode decomposition for applied Koopman spectral analysis of noisy datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Maziar S.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Deem, Eric A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.

    2017-08-01

    The dynamic mode decomposition (DMD)—a popular method for performing data-driven Koopman spectral analysis—has gained increased popularity for extracting dynamically meaningful spatiotemporal descriptions of fluid flows from snapshot measurements. Often times, DMD descriptions can be used for predictive purposes as well, which enables informed decision-making based on DMD model forecasts. Despite its widespread use and utility, DMD can fail to yield accurate dynamical descriptions when the measured snapshot data are imprecise due to, e.g., sensor noise. Here, we express DMD as a two-stage algorithm in order to isolate a source of systematic error. We show that DMD's first stage, a subspace projection step, systematically introduces bias errors by processing snapshots asymmetrically. To remove this systematic error, we propose utilizing an augmented snapshot matrix in a subspace projection step, as in problems of total least-squares, in order to account for the error present in all snapshots. The resulting unbiased and noise-aware total DMD (TDMD) formulation reduces to standard DMD in the absence of snapshot errors, while the two-stage perspective generalizes the de-biasing framework to other related methods as well. TDMD's performance is demonstrated in numerical and experimental fluids examples. In particular, in the analysis of time-resolved particle image velocimetry data for a separated flow, TDMD outperforms standard DMD by providing dynamical interpretations that are consistent with alternative analysis techniques. Further, TDMD extracts modes that reveal detailed spatial structures missed by standard DMD.

  3. High Voltage Distribution System (HVDS) as a better system compared to Low Voltage Distribution System (LVDS) applied at Medan city power network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinzi, R.; Hamonangan, TS; Fahmi, F.

    2018-02-01

    In the current distribution system, a large-capacity distribution transformer supplies loads to remote locations. The use of 220/380 V network is nowadays less common compared to 20 kV network. This results in losses due to the non-optimal distribution transformer, which neglected the load location, poor consumer profile, and large power losses along the carrier. This paper discusses how high voltage distribution systems (HVDS) can be a better system used in distribution networks than the currently used distribution system (Low Voltage Distribution System, LVDS). The proposed change of the system into the new configuration is done by replacing a large-capacity distribution transformer with some smaller-capacity distribution transformers and installed them in positions that closest to the load. The use of high voltage distribution systems will result in better voltage profiles and fewer power losses. From the non-technical side, the annual savings and payback periods on high voltage distribution systems will also be the advantage.

  4. Taxonomy of anaerobic digestion microbiome reveals biases associated with the applied high throughput sequencing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    In the past few years, many studies investigated the anaerobic digestion microbiome by means of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results obtained from these studies were compared to each other without taking into consideration the followed procedure for amplicons preparation and data analysis...... specifically, the microbial compositions of three laboratory scale biogas reactors were analyzed before and after addition of sodium oleate by sequencing the microbiome with three different approaches: 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun DNA and shotgun RNA. This comparative analysis revealed that......, in amplicon sequencing, abundance of some taxa (Euryarchaeota and Spirochaetes) was biased by the inefficiency of universal primers to hybridize all the templates. Reliability of the results obtained was also influenced by the number of hypervariable regions under investigation. Finally, amplicon sequencing...

  5. Annealing, temperature, and bias-induced threshold voltage instabilities in integrated E/D-mode InAlN/GaN MOS HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, M.; Gregušová, D.; Haščík, Š.; Ťapajna, M.; Fröhlich, K.; Šatka, A.; Kuzmík, J.

    2017-07-01

    Threshold voltage instabilities are examined in self-aligned E/D-mode n++ GaN/InAlN/GaN MOS HEMTs with a gate length of 2 μm and a source-drain spacing of 10 μm integrated in a logic invertor. The E-mode MOS HEMT technology is based on selective dry etching of the cap layer which is combined with Al2O3 grown by atomic-layer deposition at 380 K. In the D-mode MOS HEMT, the gate recessing is skipped. The nominal threshold voltage (VT) of E/D-mode MOS HEMTs was 0.6 and -3.4 V, respectively; the technology invariant maximal drain current was about 0.45 A/mm. Analysis after 580 K/15 min annealing step and at an elevated temperature up to 430 K reveals opposite device behavior depending on the HEMT operational mode. It was found that the annealing step decreases VT of the D-mode HEMT due to a reduced electron injection into the modified oxide. On the other hand, VT of the E-mode HEMT increases with reduced density of surface donors at the oxide/InAlN interface. Operation at the elevated temperature produces reversible changes: increase/decrease in the VT of the respective D-/E-mode HEMTs. Additional bias-induced experiments exhibit complex trapping phenomena in the devices: Coaction of shallow (˜0.1 eV below EC) traps in the GaN buffer and deep levels at the oxide/InAlN interface was identified for the E-mode device, while trapping in the D-mode HEMTs was found to be consistent with a thermo-ionic injection of electrons into bulk oxide traps (˜0.14 eV above EF) and trapping at the oxide/GaN cap interface states.

  6. Effects of bias voltage on the corrosion resistance of titanium nitride thin films fabricated by dynamic plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic plasma-based thin-film deposition incorporating ion mixing and plasma immersion is an effective technique to synthesize nitride-based hard films. We have fabricated TiN films using a filtered titanium vacuum arc in a nitrogen plasma environment. A pulsed high voltage is applied to the target for a short time when the metallic arc is fired to attain simultaneous plasma deposition and ion mixing. We investigate the dependence of the corrosion resistance and interfacial structure of the treated samples on the applied voltage. Our Auger results reveal an oxygen-rich surface film due to the non-ultra-high-vacuum conditions and high affinity of oxygen to titanium. The corrosion current is reduced by two orders of magnitude comparing the sample processed at 8 kV to the untreated sample, but the 23 kV sample unexpectedly shows worse results. The pitting potential diminishes substantially although the corrosion current is similar to that observed in the 8 kV sample. The polarization test data are consistent with our scanning electron microscopy observation, corroborating the difference in the pitting distribution and appearance. This anomalous behavior is believed to be due to the change in the chemical composition as a result of high-energy ion bombardment

  7. Angular dependence of Si3N4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO2 to Si3N4 at different bias voltages in a high-density C4F8 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Kwan; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of Si 3 N 4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 on ion-incident angles was studied for different bias voltages in a high-density C 4 F 8 plasma. A Faraday cage and specially designed substrate holders were used to accurately control the angles of incident ions on the substrate surface. The normalized etch yield (NEY), defined as the etch yield obtained at a given ion-incident angle normalized to that obtained on a horizontal surface, was unaffected by the bias voltage in Si 3 N 4 etching, but it increased with the bias voltage in SiO 2 etching in the range of -100 to -300 V. The NEY changed showing a maximum with an increase in the ion-incident angle in the etching of both substrates. In the Si 3 N 4 etching, a maximum NEY of 1.7 was obtained at 70 deg. in the above bias voltage range. However, an increase in the NEY at high ion-incident angles was smaller for SiO 2 than for Si 3 N 4 and, consequently, the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 decreased with an increase in the ion-incident angle. The etch selectivity decreased to a smaller extent at high bias voltage because the NEY of SiO 2 had increased. The characteristic changes in the NEY for different substrates could be correlated with the thickness of a steady-state fluorocarbon (CF x ) film formed on the substrates

  8. Effect of applied voltage on surface properties of anodised titanium in mixture of β-glycerophosphate (β-GP) and calcium acetate (CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuan, Lee Te, E-mail: gd130079@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Rathi, Muhammad Fareez Mohamad, E-mail: cd110238@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abidin, Muhamad Yusuf Zainal, E-mail: cd110221@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, Hasan Zuhudi, E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my; Idris, Maizlinda Izwana, E-mail: izwana@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Anodic oxidation is a surface modification method which combines electric field driven metal and oxygen ion diffusion for formation of oxide layer on the anode surface. This method has been widely used to modify the surface morphology of biomaterial especially titanium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applied voltage on titanium. Specifically, the titanium foil was anodised in mixture of β-glycerophosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (β-GP) and calcium acetate monohydrate (CA) with different applied voltage (50-350 V), electrolyte concentration (0.04 M β-GP + 0.4 M CA), anodising time (10minutes) and current density (50 and 70 mA.cm{sup −2}) at room temperature. Surface oxide properties of anodised titanium were characterised by digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR camera), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At lower applied voltage (≤150 V), surface of titanium foils were relatively smooth. With increasing applied voltage (≥250 V), the oxide layer became more porous and donut-shaped pores were formed on the surface of titanium foils. The AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of anodised titanium increases with increasing of applied voltage. The porous and rough surface is able to promote the osseointegration and reduce the suffering time of patient.

  9. Spin-polarization and spin-flip in a triple-quantum-dot ring by using tunable lateral bias voltage and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi, Mohamad, E-mail: Mo_molavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizabadi, Edris, E-mail: Edris@iust.ac.ir [School of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter. - Highlights: • The effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots. • In the situation that the QDs have non-zero on-site energies, the system can demonstrate the full spin-polarization. • By tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength and magnetic flux encountered by the ring the system operates as a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  10. THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE, BIAS VOLTAGE AND ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON N₂ AND N₂+SiH₄ DOPED WC/C DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERED LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hornak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide (WC/C layers are often researched due to their outstanding mechanical and tribological properties. Here, optimized indented hardness (HIT, indentation modulus (EIT and coefficient of friction (COF values were measured to study the effect of pressure and bias voltage on WC/C layers, deposited on Si by DC magnetron spluttering. Maximal values of HIT=37.2±4.8 GPa, EIT=447±28 GPa and COF=0.64±0.09 were obtained. Additionally, the effect of temperature on optimized layers deposited with and without N₂ and N₂+SiH₄ annealed at 200 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C, were also investigated. The values of HIT, EIT and COF and, observed morphology and structural composition of these contaminated and non-contaminated WC/C layers were evaluated. It was found that layer degradation occurred at different rates depending on the temperature and gas mixture used during the annealing and deposition process, respectively.

  11. Numerical study of the influence of applied voltage on the current balance factor of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Fei-ping; Liu, Xiao-bin; Xing, Yong-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Current balance factor (CBF) value, the ratio of the recombination current density and the total current density of a device, has an important function in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), as well as in the performance of the organic electrophosphorescent devices. This paper investigates the influence of the applied voltage of a device on the CBF value of single layer OLED based on the numerical model of a bipolar single layer OLED with organic layer trap free and without doping. Results show that the largest CBF value can be achieved when the electron injection barrier (ϕ n ) is equal to the hole injection barrier (ϕ p ) in the lower voltage region at any instance. The largest CBF in the higher voltage region can be achieved in the case of ϕ n  > ϕ p under the condition of electron mobility (μ 0n ) > hole mobility (μ 0p ), whereas the result for the case of μ 0n   0p , is opposite. The largest CBF when μ 0n  = μ 0p can be achieved in the case of ϕ n  = ϕ p in the entire region of the applied voltage. In addition, the CBF value of the device increases with increasing applied voltage. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the OLED working mechanism and help in the future fabrication of high efficiency OLEDs

  12. Analysis of bias voltage dependent spectral response in Ga0.51In0.49P/Ga0.99In0.01As/Ge triple junction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Tomah; Ogura, Akio; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Spectral response measurement plays great role in characterizing solar cell device because it directly reflects the efficiency by which the device converts the sunlight into an electrical current. Based on the spectral response results, the short circuit current of each subcell can be quantitatively determined. Although spectral response dependence on wavelength, i.e., the well-known external quantum efficiency (EQE), has been widely used in characterizing multijunction solar cell and has been well interpreted, detailed analysis of spectral response dependence on bias voltage (SR −V bias ) has not been reported so far. In this work, we have performed experimental and numerical studies on the SR −V bias for Ga 0.51 In 0.49 P/Ga 0.99 In 0.01 As/Ge triple junction solar cell. Phenomenological description was given to clarify the mechanism of operation matching point variation in SR −V bias measurements. The profile of SR−V bias curve was explained in detail by solving the coupled two-diode current-voltage characteristic transcend formula for each subcell

  13. Analysis of bias voltage dependent spectral response in Ga{sub 0.51}In{sub 0.49}P/Ga{sub 0.99}In{sub 0.01}As/Ge triple junction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Tomah, E-mail: Sogabe@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ogura, Akio; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8504 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Spectral response measurement plays great role in characterizing solar cell device because it directly reflects the efficiency by which the device converts the sunlight into an electrical current. Based on the spectral response results, the short circuit current of each subcell can be quantitatively determined. Although spectral response dependence on wavelength, i.e., the well-known external quantum efficiency (EQE), has been widely used in characterizing multijunction solar cell and has been well interpreted, detailed analysis of spectral response dependence on bias voltage (SR −V{sub bias}) has not been reported so far. In this work, we have performed experimental and numerical studies on the SR −V{sub bias} for Ga{sub 0.51}In{sub 0.49}P/Ga{sub 0.99}In{sub 0.01}As/Ge triple junction solar cell. Phenomenological description was given to clarify the mechanism of operation matching point variation in SR −V{sub bias} measurements. The profile of SR−V{sub bias} curve was explained in detail by solving the coupled two-diode current-voltage characteristic transcend formula for each subcell.

  14. Single Step Formation of C-TiO2 Nanotubes: Influence of Applied Voltage and Their Photocatalytic Activity under Solar Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-aligned and high-uniformity carbon (C- titania (TiO2 nanotube arrays were successfully formed via single step anodization of titanium (Ti foil at 30 V for 1 h in a bath composed of ethylene glycol (EG, ammonium fluoride (NH4F, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. It was well established that applied voltage played an important role in controlling field-assisted oxidation and field-assisted dissolution during electrochemical anodization process. Therefore, the influences of applied voltage on the formation of C-TiO2 nanotube arrays were discussed. It was found that a minimal applied voltage of 30 V was required to form the self-aligned and high-uniformity C-TiO2 nanotube arrays with diameter of ~75 nm and length of ~2 μm. The samples synthesized using different applied voltages were then subjected to heat treatment for the conversion of amorphous phase to crystalline phase. The photocatalytic activity evaluation of C-TiO2 samples was made under degradation of organic dye (methyl orange (MO solution. The results revealed that controlled nanoarchitecture C-TiO2 photocatalyst led to a significant enhancement in photocatalytic activity due to the creation of more specific active surface areas for incident photons absorption from the solar illumination.

  15. Numerical study of the influence of applied voltage on the current balance factor of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Fei-ping, E-mail: lufp-sysu@163.com; Liu, Xiao-bin; Xing, Yong-zhong [College of Physics and Information Science, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001 (China)

    2014-04-28

    Current balance factor (CBF) value, the ratio of the recombination current density and the total current density of a device, has an important function in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), as well as in the performance of the organic electrophosphorescent devices. This paper investigates the influence of the applied voltage of a device on the CBF value of single layer OLED based on the numerical model of a bipolar single layer OLED with organic layer trap free and without doping. Results show that the largest CBF value can be achieved when the electron injection barrier (ϕ{sub n}) is equal to the hole injection barrier (ϕ{sub p}) in the lower voltage region at any instance. The largest CBF in the higher voltage region can be achieved in the case of ϕ{sub n} > ϕ{sub p} under the condition of electron mobility (μ{sub 0n}) > hole mobility (μ{sub 0p}), whereas the result for the case of μ{sub 0n} < μ{sub 0p}, is opposite. The largest CBF when μ{sub 0n} = μ{sub 0p} can be achieved in the case of ϕ{sub n} = ϕ{sub p} in the entire region of the applied voltage. In addition, the CBF value of the device increases with increasing applied voltage. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the OLED working mechanism and help in the future fabrication of high efficiency OLEDs.

  16. Adaptive Droop Control Applied to Voltage-Source Inverters Operating in Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, J. C.; Guerrero, J. M.; Luna, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel control for voltagesource inverters with the capability to flexibly operate in gridconnected and islanded modes. The control scheme is based on the droop method, which uses some estimated grid parameters such as the voltage and frequency and the magnitude and angle of ...

  17. Transformer-assisted PWM zero-voltage switching pole inverter with high output bandwidth applied to linear motor drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrzik, J.M.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Haardt, de P.; Vissers, J.

    2002-01-01

    An application of the transformer-assisted PWM zero-voltage switching pole inverter (TRAP) is described in this paper. The TRAP is based on the auxiliary resonant commutated pole inverter (ARCP), but avoids its disadvantages. This paper describes the converter functionality and its applicability

  18. Addressing Omitted Prior Achievement Bias in International Assessments: An Applied Example Using PIRLS-NPD Matched Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Televantou, Ioulia

    2018-01-01

    Omitted prior achievement bias is pervasive in international assessment studies and precludes causal inference. For example, reported negative associations between student-oriented teaching strategies and student performance are against expectations and might actually reflect omitted prior achievement bias. Namely, that these teaching strategies…

  19. Electrochemical sensors applied to pollution monitoring: Measurement error and gas ratio bias - A volcano plume case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. J.; Saffell, J. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Lurton, T.

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing scientific interest in the use of miniature electrochemical sensors to detect and quantify atmospheric trace gases. This has led to the development of ‘Multi-Gas' systems applied to measurements of both volcanic gas emissions, and urban air pollution. However, such measurements are subject to uncertainties introduced by sensor response time, a critical issue that has received limited attention to date. Here, a detailed analysis of output from an electrochemical SO2 sensor and two H2S sensors (contrasting in their time responses and cross-sensitivities) demonstrates how instrument errors arise under the conditions of rapidly fluctuating (by dilution) gas abundances, leading to scatter and importantly bias in the reported gas ratios. In a case study at Miyakejima volcano (Japan), electrochemical sensors were deployed at both the crater-rim and downwind locations, thereby exposed to rapidly fluctuating and smoothly varying plume gas concentrations, respectively. Discrepancies in the H2S/SO2 gas mixing ratios derived from these measurements are attributed to the sensors' differing time responses to SO2 and H2S under fluctuating plume conditions, with errors magnified by the need to correct for SO2 interference in the H2S readings. Development of a sensor response model that reproduces sensor t90 behaviour (the time required to reach 90% of the final signal following a step change in gas abundance) during calibration enabled this measurement error to be simulated numerically. The sensor response times were characterised as SO2 sensor (t90 ~ 13 s), H2S sensor without interference (t90 ~ 11 s), and H2S sensor with interference (t90 ~ 20 s to H2S and ~ 32 s to SO2). We show that a method involving data integration between periods of episodic plume exposure identifiable in the sensor output yields a less biased H2S/SO2 ratio estimate than that derived from standard analysis approaches. For the Miyakejima crater-rim dataset this method yields highly

  20. Comparison of different applied voltage waveforms on CO{sub 2} reforming of CH{sub 4} in an atmospheric plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Duc Ba; Lee, Won Gyu [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Sinusoidal and pulse waveforms of applied voltage were employed for CO{sub 2} reforming of CH{sub 4} to syngas in an atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The discharge power of a pulse waveform was higher than that of sinusoidal waveform at the same applied voltage. The plasma reaction by a pulse waveform enhanced the conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and the selectivity of H{sub 2} and CO. It was confirmed that CO{sub 2} reforming of CH{sub 4} can be improved by the adaption of pulse-type power supply in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor immersed in an electrically insulating oil bath.

  1. Direct detection of the parametrically generated half-harmonic voltage in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The first direct observation of the parametrically generated half-harmonic voltage in a Josephson tunnel junction is reported. A microwave signal at f=17.25 GHz is applied to the junction dc current biased at zero voltage such that the Josephson plasma resonance fp=f/2. Under these conditions...

  2. Dual-electrode biasing experiments in KT-5C device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yi; Lu Ronghua; Wang Chen; Pan Geshen; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Ma Jinxiu; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the single biasing electrode experiments to optimize the confinement of plasma in the device of KT-5C tokamak, dual-biasing electrodes were inserted into the KT5C plasma for the first time to explore the enhancement of the effects of biasing and the mechanisms of the biasing. By means of applying different combinations of biasing voltages to the dual electrodes, the changes in E r , which is the key factor for boosting up the Er x B flow shear, were observed. The time evolution showed the inner electrode played a major role in dual-biasing, for it always drew a larger current than the outer one. The outer electrode made little influence. It turned out that the dual-biasing electrodes were as effective as a single one, in improving plasma confinement, for the mechanism of biasing was essentially an edge effect. (author)

  3. Quantitative evaluation of automated skull-stripping methods applied to contemporary and legacy images: effects of diagnosis, bias correction, and slice location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ozyurt, I Burak; Clark, Camellia P

    2006-01-01

    Extractor (BSE, Sandor and Leahy [1997] IEEE Trans Med Imag 16:41-54; Shattuck et al. [2001] Neuroimage 13:856-876) to manually stripped images. The methods were applied to uncorrected and bias-corrected datasets; Legacy and Contemporary T1-weighted image sets; and four diagnostic groups (depressed...... distances, and an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Methods tended to perform better on contemporary datasets; bias correction did not significantly improve method performance. Mesial sections were most difficult for all methods. Although AD image sets were most difficult to strip, HWA and BSE were more...

  4. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, Andrey E; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Gull, Emanuel

    2016-01-22

    We examine the dynamics of a correlated quantum dot in the mixed valence regime. We perform numerically exact calculations of the current after a quantum quench from equilibrium by rapidly applying a bias voltage in a wide range of initial temperatures. The current exhibits short equilibration times and saturates upon the decrease of temperature at all times, indicating Kondo behavior both in the transient regime and in the steady state. The time-dependent current saturation temperature connects the equilibrium Kondo temperature to a substantially increased value at voltages outside of the linear response. These signatures are directly observable by experiments in the time domain.

  5. A system for biasing a differential amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Daniel; Ittel, J.M.; Poujois, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns a system for biasing a differential amplifier. It particularly applies to the integrated differential amplifiers designed with MOS field effect transistors. Variations in the technological parameters may well cause the amplifying transistors to work outside their usual operational area, in other words outside the linear part of the transfer characteristic. To ensure that these transistors function correctly, it is necessary that the value of the voltage difference at the output be equally null. To do this and to centre on the so called 'rest' point of the amplifier transfer charateristic, the condition will be set that the output potentials of each amplifier transistor should have a zero value or a constant value as sum. With this in view, the bias on the source (generally a transistor powered by its grid bias voltage) supplying current to the two amplifying transistors fitted in parallel, is permanently adjusted in a suitable manner [fr

  6. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, J.W.; Nathan, A.; Barquinha, P.; Pereira, L.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.; Cobb, B.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We

  7. Preliminary Studies on the Reflectance Characteristics of graphene/SiO2 under Different Applied Voltages for Optical Modulation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, K. P.; Yam, F. K.; Abdalrheem, Raed; Ng, Y. Z.; Suhaimi, F. H. A.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    A preliminary study on the interband transition of graphene was done via reflectance spectra of graphene/SiO2 sample at various applied potential. Prior to that, Raman spectroscopy and four-point probe measurement was done on graphene/SiO2 sample. It was found that the sample consisted of monolayer graphene with sheet resistance around 402.32 Ω/□. Post-processing of the reflectance data lead to the plot of ratio of change in reflectance towards reflectance at 0 V (ΔR/R) against applied potential. From there, the ratio increases along with applied potential, indicative of higher absorption due to interband transition.

  8. Depth of interaction and bias voltage depenence of the spectral response in a pixellated CdTe detector operating in time-over-threshold mode subjected to monochromatic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, E.; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Stewart, G.; Wilhelm, H.; Modh Zain, R.; Thungström, G.

    2012-03-01

    High stopping power is one of the most important figures of merit for X-ray detectors. CdTe is a promising material but suffers from: material defects, non-ideal charge transport and long range X-ray fluorescence. Those factors reduce the image quality and deteriorate spectral information. In this project we used a monochromatic pencil beam collimated through a 20μm pinhole to measure the detector spectral response in dependance on the depth of interaction. The sensor was a 1mm thick CdTe detector with a pixel pitch of 110μm, bump bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-Over-Threshold mode. The measurements were carried out at the Extreme Conditions beamline I15 of the Diamond Light Source. The beam was entering the sensor at an angle of \\texttildelow20 degrees to the surface and then passed through \\texttildelow25 pixels before leaving through the bottom of the sensor. The photon energy was tuned to 77keV giving a variation in the beam intensity of about three orders of magnitude along the beam path. Spectra in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode were recorded showing each individual interaction. The bias voltage was varied between -30V and -300V to investigate how the electric field affected the spectral information. For this setup it is worth noticing the large impact of fluorescence. At -300V the photo peak and escape peak are of similar height. For high bias voltages the spectra remains clear throughout the whole depth but for lower voltages as -50V, only the bottom part of the sensor carries spectral information. This is an effect of the low hole mobility and the longer range the electrons have to travel in a low field.

  9. High Efficient THz Emission From Unbiased and Biased Semiconductor Nanowires Fabricated Using Electron Beam Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Soner; Czaplewski, David A.; Jung, Il Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Hatami, Fariba; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2017-07-01

    Besides having perfect control on structural features, such as vertical alignment and uniform distribution by fabricating the wires via e-beam lithography and etching process, we also investigated the THz emission from these fabricated nanowires when they are applied DC bias voltage. To be able to apply a voltage bias, an interdigitated gold (Au) electrode was patterned on the high-quality InGaAs epilayer grown on InP substrate bymolecular beam epitaxy. Afterwards, perfect vertically aligned and uniformly distributed nanowires were fabricated in between the electrodes of this interdigitated pattern so that we could apply voltage bias to improve the THz emission. As a result, we achieved enhancement in the emitted THz radiation by ~four times, about 12 dB increase in power ratio at 0.25 THz with a DC biased electric field compared with unbiased NWs.

  10. Effect of applied voltage on the structural properties of SnO2 nanostuctures grown on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dea Uk; Yun, Dong Yeol; No, Young Soo; Hwang, Jun Ho; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2013-11-01

    SnO2 nanostuctures were formed on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed the existence of elemental Sn and O in the samples, indicative of the formation of SnO2 materials. An XPS spectrum showing the O 1s peak at a binding energy of 531.5 eV indicated that the oxygen atoms were bonded to the SnO2. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that the samples formed by using the ECD method had SnO2 nanostructures with a size between 280 and 350 nm. FE-SEM images showed that the size of the SnO2 nanostructures formed at 65 degrees C for 30 min increased with decreasing applied voltage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the SnO2 nanostrucures had tetragonal structures with cell parameters of a = 4.738 A and c = 3.187 A. XRD results showed that the peak intensity of the (110) plane increased with decreasing applied voltage, indicative of a preferencial orientation of the (110) plane.

  11. Influence of Applied Voltage and Film-Formation Time on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Formed on Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca Bio-magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandong, Yu; Shuzhen, Kuang; Jie, Li

    2015-09-01

    The influence of applied voltage and film-formation time on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of coatings formed on a Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy has been investigated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Phase composition and microstructure of as-coated samples were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. And the porosity and average of micro-pore aperture of the surface on ceramic coatings were analyzed by general image software. Corrosion microstructure of as-coated samples was caught by a microscope digital camera. The long-term corrosion resistance of as-coated samples was tested in simulated body fluid for 30 days. The results showed that the milky white smooth ceramic coating formed on the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy was a compound of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3, and its corrosion resistance was significantly improved compared with that of the magnesium substrate. In addition, when the MAO applied voltage were 450 V and 500 V and film-formation time were 9 min and 11 min, the surface micro-morphology and the corrosion resistance of as-coated samples were relatively improved. The results provided a theoretical foundation for the application of the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy in biomedicine.

  12. Practical investigation of the gate bias effect on the reverse recovery behavior of the body diode in power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Petersen, Lars Press; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2014-01-01

    This work considers an alternative method of reducing the body diode reverse recovery by taking advantage of the MOSFET body effect, and applying a bias voltage to the gate before reverse recovery. A test method is presented, allowing the accurate measurement of voltage and current waveforms during...... reverse recovery at high di=dt. Different bias voltages and dead times are combined, giving a loss map which makes it possible to evaluate the practical efficacy of gate bias on reducing the MOSFET body diode reverse recovery, while comparing it to the well known methods of dead time optimization...

  13. Effects of negative bias on structure and surface topography of titanium films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Linglong

    2008-01-01

    Pure Ti films were fabricated by bias sputtering. The deposition rate, the density and the surface topography of the Ti films at different negative bias were studied. The results show that the deposition rate is weakly affected when the bias power is low. As the bias voltage increases, the deposition rate decreases strongly due to the increase of the layer density and the resputtering phenomena. The film density increased and saturated to nearly bulk value at a bias voltage of -119.1 V. SEM view indicates that the columnar-type structure of Ti films can be destroyed by applying negative bias. The experiments demonstrated that a dense Ti film with more smooth surface can be produced by applying negative bias. (authors)

  14. Two-stage unified stretched-exponential model for time-dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias-stresses in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Hee-Joong; Hong, Sae-Young; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we show that the two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can more exactly describe the time-dependence of threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH) under long-term positive-bias-stresses compared to the traditional stretched-exponential model in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). ΔV TH is mainly dominated by electron trapping at short stress times, and the contribution of trap state generation becomes significant with an increase in the stress time. The two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can provide useful information not only for evaluating the long-term electrical stability and lifetime of the a-IGZO TFT but also for understanding the stress-induced degradation mechanism in a-IGZO TFTs.

  15. Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.

  16. Voltage control of cavity magnon polariton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S., E-mail: kaurs3@myumanitoba.ca; Rao, J. W.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M., E-mail: hu@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Yao, B. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-07-18

    We have experimentally investigated the microwave transmission of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) generated by integrating a low damping magnetic insulator onto a 2D microwave cavity. The high tunability of our planar cavity allows the cavity resonance frequency to be precisely controlled using a DC voltage. By appropriately tuning the voltage and magnetic bias, we can observe the cavity photon magnon coupling and the magnetic coupling between a magnetostatic mode and the generated CMP. The dispersion of the generated CMP was measured by either tuning the magnetic field or the applied voltage. This electrical control of CMP may open up avenues for designing advanced on-chip microwave devices that utilize light-matter interaction.

  17. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of the drug omeprazole on nanocrystalline titania films in alkaline media: Effect of applied electrical bias on degradation and transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantis, Iosif [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Bousiakou, Leda [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Automation Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Pireaus, GR-12244 Athens (Greece); Frontistis, Zacharias; Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Konstantinou, Ioannis; Antonopoulou, Maria [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Karikas, George-Albert [Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12210 Athens (Greece); Lianos, Panagiotis, E-mail: lianos@upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of the proton pump omeprazole. • Improvement of photocatalysis rate by applying a moderate forward bias. • Highlighting of the advantages of photoelectrocatalysis in a straightforward manner. • HPLC and HR-LC–MS analysis of transformation products. - Abstract: Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of the drug omeprazole has been studied in the presence of nanocrystalline titania films supported on glass slides or transparent FTO electrodes in alkaline environment. Its photocatalytic degradation rate was assessed by its UV absorbance and by HPLC, while its transformation products were analyzed by HR-LC–MS. Based on UV absorbance, omeprazole can be photocatalytically degraded at an average rate of 6.7 × 10{sup −4} min{sup −1} under low intensity UVA irradiation of 1.5 mW cm{sup −2} in the presence of a nanoparticulate titania film. This corresponds to degradation of 1.4 mg of omeprazole per gram of the photocatalyst per liter of solution per hour. The photodegradation rate can be accelerated in a photoelectrochemical cell by applying a forward bias. In this case, the maximum rate reached under the present conditions was 11.6 × 10{sup −4} min{sup −1} by applying a forward bias of +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Four major transformation products were successfully identified and their profiles were followed by HR-LC–MS. The major degradation path includes the scission of the sulfoxide bridge into the corresponding pyridine and benzimidazole ring derivates and this is accompanied by the release of sulfate anions in the reaction mixture.

  19. Light emitting diode driver with differential voltage supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The current invention relates to a driver for driving one or a plurality of LEDs (D1, D2), comprising at least one driving unit (201, 202) adapted to be supplied with a differential voltage, between one first bias voltage (VB1) and one second bias voltage (VB2), the differential voltage being

  20. Characterising bias in regulatory risk and decision analysis: An analysis of heuristics applied in health technology appraisal, chemicals regulation, and climate change governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Brian H

    2017-08-01

    In many environmental and public health domains, heuristic methods of risk and decision analysis must be relied upon, either because problem structures are ambiguous, reliable data is lacking, or decisions are urgent. This introduces an additional source of uncertainty beyond model and measurement error - uncertainty stemming from relying on inexact inference rules. Here we identify and analyse heuristics used to prioritise risk objects, to discriminate between signal and noise, to weight evidence, to construct models, to extrapolate beyond datasets, and to make policy. Some of these heuristics are based on causal generalisations, yet can misfire when these relationships are presumed rather than tested (e.g. surrogates in clinical trials). Others are conventions designed to confer stability to decision analysis, yet which may introduce serious error when applied ritualistically (e.g. significance testing). Some heuristics can be traced back to formal justifications, but only subject to strong assumptions that are often violated in practical applications. Heuristic decision rules (e.g. feasibility rules) in principle act as surrogates for utility maximisation or distributional concerns, yet in practice may neglect costs and benefits, be based on arbitrary thresholds, and be prone to gaming. We highlight the problem of rule-entrenchment, where analytical choices that are in principle contestable are arbitrarily fixed in practice, masking uncertainty and potentially introducing bias. Strategies for making risk and decision analysis more rigorous include: formalising the assumptions and scope conditions under which heuristics should be applied; testing rather than presuming their underlying empirical or theoretical justifications; using sensitivity analysis, simulations, multiple bias analysis, and deductive systems of inference (e.g. directed acyclic graphs) to characterise rule uncertainty and refine heuristics; adopting "recovery schemes" to correct for known biases

  1. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, J. E.; Zagorodnii, V.; Hutchison, A.; Celinski, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal.

  2. Voltage control of a magnetic switching field for magnetic tunnel junctions with low resistance and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, N.; Oikawa, S.; Matsuura, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Irisawa, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Tsunekawa, K.

    2018-05-01

    The authors investigated the voltage control of a magnetic anisotropy field for perpendicular-magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with low and high resistance-area (RA) products and for synthetic antiferromagnetic free and pinned layers. It was found that the sample with low RA products was more sensitive to the applied bias voltage than the sample with high RA products. The bias voltage effect was less pronounced for our sample with the synthetic antiferromagnetic layer for high RA products compared to the MTJs with single free and pinned layers.

  3. Front-side biasing of n-in-p silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Baselga Bacardit, Marta; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Dragicevic, Marko Gerhart; Konig, Axel; Pree, Elias; Metzler, Marius

    2018-01-01

    Front-side biasing is an alternative method to bias a silicon sensor. Instead of directly applying high voltage to the back-side, one can exploit the conductive properties of the edge region to bias a detector exclusively via top-side connections. This option can be beneficial for the detector design and might help to facilitate the assembly process of modules. The effective bias voltage is affected by the resistance of the edge region and the sensor current. The measurements of n-in-p sensors performed to qualify this concept have shown that the voltage drop emerging from this resistance is negligible before irradiation. After irradiation, however, the resistivity of the edge region increases with fluence and saturates in the region of 10$^{7}\\,\\Omega$ at a fluence of 1$\\,\\cdot\\,10^{15}\\,$n$_{\\textrm{eq}}$cm$^{-2}$. The measurements are complemented by TCAD simulations and interpretations of the observed effects.

  4. Bias against research on gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislak, Aleksandra; Formanowicz, Magdalena; Saguy, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    The bias against women in academia is a documented phenomenon that has had detrimental consequences, not only for women, but also for the quality of science. First, gender bias in academia affects female scientists, resulting in their underrepresentation in academic institutions, particularly in higher ranks. The second type of gender bias in science relates to some findings applying only to male participants, which produces biased knowledge. Here, we identify a third potentially powerful source of gender bias in academia: the bias against research on gender bias. In a bibliometric investigation covering a broad range of social sciences, we analyzed published articles on gender bias and race bias and established that articles on gender bias are funded less often and published in journals with a lower Impact Factor than articles on comparable instances of social discrimination. This result suggests the possibility of an underappreciation of the phenomenon of gender bias and related research within the academic community. Addressing this meta-bias is crucial for the further examination of gender inequality, which severely affects many women across the world.

  5. Towards improving the reliability of future regional climate projections: A bias-correction method applied to precipitation over the west coast of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valved, A.; Barstad, I.; Sobolowski, S.

    2012-04-01

    The early winter of 2011/2012 in the city of Bergen, located on the west coast of Norway, was dominated by warm, wet and extreme weather. This might be a glimpse of future average climate conditions under continued atmospheric warming and an enhanced hydrological cycle. The extreme weather events have resulted in drainage/sewage problems, landslides, flooding property damage and even death. As the Municipality plans for the future they must contend with a growing population in a geographically complex area in addition to any effects attributable to climate change. While the scientific community is increasingly confident in the projections of large scale changes over the mid - high latitudes this confidence does not extend to the local - regional scale where the magnitude and even direction of change may be highly uncertain. Meanwhile it is precisely these scales that Municipalities such as Bergen require information if they are to plan effectively. Thus, there is a need for reliable, local climate projections, which can aid policy makers and planners in decision-making. Current state of the art regional climate models are capable of providing detailed simulations on the order of 1 or 10km. However, due to the increased computational demands of these simulations, large ensembles, such as those used for GCM experiments, are often not possible. Thus, greater detail, under these circumstances, does not necessarily correspond to greater reliability. One way to deal with this issue is to apply a statistical bias correction method where model results are fitted to observationally derived probability density functions (pdfs). In this way, a full distribution of potential changes may be generated which are constrained by known, observed data.This will result in a shifted model distribution with mean and spread that more closely follows observations. In short, the method temporarily removes the climate signals from the model run working on the different percentiles, fits the

  6. Graphene-coated hollow fiber membrane as the cathode in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors – Effect of configuration and applied voltage on performance and membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.; Katuri, Krishna; Rao, Hari Ananda; Chen, Wei; Lai, Zhiping; Logan, Bruce E.; Amy, Gary L.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Electrically conductive, graphene-coated hollow-fiber porous membranes were used as cathodes in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors (AnEMBRs) operated at different applied voltages (0.7 V and 0.9 V) using a new rectangular reactor configuration, compared to a previous tubular design (0.7 V). The onset of biofouling was delayed and minimized in rectangular reactors operated at 0.9 V, compared to those at 0.7 V due to higher rates of hydrogen production. Maximum transmembrane pressures for the rectangular reactor were only 0.10 bar (0.7 V) or 0.05 bar (0.9 V) after 56 days of operation, compared to 0.46 bar (0.7 V) for the tubular reactor after 52 days. The thickness of the membrane biofouling layer was approximately 0.4 µm for rectangular reactors and 4 µm for the tubular reactor. Higher permeate quality (TSS = 0.05 mg/L) was achieved in the rectangular AnEMBR than the tubular AnEMBR (TSS = 17 mg/L), likely due to higher current densities that minimized the accumulation of cells in suspension. These results show that the new rectangular reactor design, which had increased rates of hydrogen production, successfully delayed the onset of cathode biofouling and improved reactor performance.

  7. Graphene-coated hollow fiber membrane as the cathode in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors – Effect of configuration and applied voltage on performance and membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-12-22

    Electrically conductive, graphene-coated hollow-fiber porous membranes were used as cathodes in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors (AnEMBRs) operated at different applied voltages (0.7 V and 0.9 V) using a new rectangular reactor configuration, compared to a previous tubular design (0.7 V). The onset of biofouling was delayed and minimized in rectangular reactors operated at 0.9 V, compared to those at 0.7 V due to higher rates of hydrogen production. Maximum transmembrane pressures for the rectangular reactor were only 0.10 bar (0.7 V) or 0.05 bar (0.9 V) after 56 days of operation, compared to 0.46 bar (0.7 V) for the tubular reactor after 52 days. The thickness of the membrane biofouling layer was approximately 0.4 µm for rectangular reactors and 4 µm for the tubular reactor. Higher permeate quality (TSS = 0.05 mg/L) was achieved in the rectangular AnEMBR than the tubular AnEMBR (TSS = 17 mg/L), likely due to higher current densities that minimized the accumulation of cells in suspension. These results show that the new rectangular reactor design, which had increased rates of hydrogen production, successfully delayed the onset of cathode biofouling and improved reactor performance.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of automated skull-stripping methods applied to contemporary and legacy images: effects of diagnosis, bias correction, and slice location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ozyurt, I Burak; Clark, Camellia P

    2006-01-01

    Performance of automated methods to isolate brain from nonbrain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) structural images may be influenced by MR signal inhomogeneities, type of MR image set, regional anatomy, and age and diagnosis of subjects studied. The present study compared the performance of four...... methods: Brain Extraction Tool (BET; Smith [2002]: Hum Brain Mapp 17:143-155); 3dIntracranial (Ward [1999] Milwaukee: Biophysics Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin; in AFNI); a Hybrid Watershed algorithm (HWA, Segonne et al. [2004] Neuroimage 22:1060-1075; in FreeSurfer); and Brain Surface...... Extractor (BSE, Sandor and Leahy [1997] IEEE Trans Med Imag 16:41-54; Shattuck et al. [2001] Neuroimage 13:856-876) to manually stripped images. The methods were applied to uncorrected and bias-corrected datasets; Legacy and Contemporary T1-weighted image sets; and four diagnostic groups (depressed...

  9. A SVPWM based on fluctuate capacitor voltage in 3L-NPC back-to-back converter applied to wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Qunjing; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Three-level Neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) converters are becoming a realistic alternative to the conventional converters in high-power wind-energy applications. But the unbalance in the supported capacitors' voltage of back-to-back 3L-NPC converters, including the dynamics of the capacitors...... between the fluctuate voltage of upper and lower capacitors is extracted. Based on this error factor the duty-time of every active voltage vector is calculated. In order to validate the model and the control strategy proposed in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has been simulated....

  10. Study on the drain bias effect on negative bias temperature instability degradation of an ultra-short p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Rong, Cao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Yue, Hao; Shi-Gang, Hu

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of drain bias on ultra-short p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOSFET) degradation during negative bias temperature (NBT) stress. When a relatively large gate voltage is applied, the degradation magnitude is much more than the drain voltage which is the same as the gate voltage supplied, and the time exponent gets larger than that of the NBT instability (NBTI). With decreasing drain voltage, the degradation magnitude and the time exponent all get smaller. At some values of the drain voltage, the degradation magnitude is even smaller than that of NBTI, and when the drain voltage gets small enough, the exhibition of degradation becomes very similar to the NBTI degradation. When a relatively large drain voltage is applied, with decreasing gate voltage, the degradation magnitude gets smaller. However, the time exponent becomes larger. With the help of electric field simulation, this paper concludes that the degradation magnitude is determined by the vertical electric field of the oxide, the amount of hot holes generated by the strong channel lateral electric field at the gate/drain overlap region, and the time exponent is mainly controlled by localized damage caused by the lateral electric field of the oxide in the gate/drain overlap region where hot carriers are produced. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Indium tin oxide thin films by bias magnetron rf sputtering for heterojunction solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Zhou Zhibin; Peng Hua; Cui Rongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation ITO thin films were prepared by bias magnetron rf sputtering technique at substrate temperature of 180 deg. C and low substrate-target distance for future a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells application. Microstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of these films were characterized and analyzed. The effects of ion bombardments on growing ITO films are well discussed. XRD analysis revealed a change in preferential orientation of polycrystalline structure from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0) plane with the increase of negative bias voltage. Textured surface were observed on AFM graphs of samples prepared at high negative bias. Hall measurements showed that the carrier density and Hall mobility of these ITO films are sensitive to the bias voltage applied. We attributed these effects to the sensitivity of energy of Ar + ions bombarding on growing films to the applied bias voltage in our experiments. At last the figure of merit was calculated to evaluate the quality of ITO thin films, the results of which show that sample prepared at bias voltage of -75 V is good to be used in HJ cells application

  12. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  13. A field ion microscope study of the surface reaction of tungsten with n-octanol under an applied positive voltage: reaction conditions for the 'splitting' of (110) plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, T.; Iwatsu, F.; Morikawa, H.

    1993-01-01

    Field ion microscopy is a powerful tool for the study of surface phenomena on an atomic scale, especially when they are crystal plane dependent, because the microscope shows many crystal planes of the sample tip simultaneously. Although a large number of FIM studies on vapor deposition, surface diffusion and surface reactions at a metal-gas interface have been reported, those on reactions at a metal-liquid interface are few. The authors have studied the corrosion or tungsten with aqueous solutions and found that water corroded the tungsten tips very severely to reduce the radius of curvature of the tip cap drastically. The reaction was so severe that it was not possible to trace it back to the very initial stages. They adopted, as a weaker reagent, one of the higher alcohols, n-octanol(C 8 H 17 OH), and found that it reacted with tungsten tips when an electrical pulse with a positive voltage between 5 and 10V was applied to the tip, giving very interesting field ion images in which the central (110) plane was divided into two parts located side by side across the [001] zone line. This means that some anisotropic surface reaction occurred which made a groove along the [001] zone line going through the (110) plane, usually the most stable plane chemically for bcc metals. They named this phenomenon 'splitting'. This reaction was less severe than that with water and some results on the morphology of the groove and on the reaction sequence have been reported. In the present paper more detailed reaction conditions which give rise to the splitting are described

  14. The effect of applied control strategy on the current-voltage correlation of a solid oxide fuel cell stack during dynamic operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Komatsu, Yosuke; Brus, Grzegorz; Ghigliazza, Francesco; Kimijima, Shinji; Ściążko, Anna

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V) correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC) was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values ofthe fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.

  15. The effect of applied control strategy on the current-voltage correlation of a solid oxide fuel cell stack during dynamic operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmyd Janusz S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values ofthe fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.

  16. The annihilation of vertical-Bloch lines in the walls of hard domains to which bias fields and in-plane fields are alternately applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.Y.; Hu, H.N.; Nie, X.F.

    2001-01-01

    The annihilation of vertical-Bloch lines in magnetic domain walls of the ordinary hard bubbles, to which both bias fields and in-plane fields are alternately applied, is investigated experimentally. The influence of an in-plane magnetic field on ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), dumbbell domains of the first kind (ID), and dumbbell domains of the second kind (IID) was analyzed, and a critical in-plane field range [H ip 0 ,H ip 2 ] for vertical Bloch line (VBL) annihilation was found. For the three types of hard domains (H ip 0 is the minimum critical in-plane field of VBLs which begin to be unstable, H ip 2 is the minimum critical in-plane field which only needs to be applied one time for collapse of all OHBs), the critical field range is the same with H ip 0 ≅8πM s . We hypothesize that there exists a direction along which the vertical-Bloch lines in the domain walls are annihilated most easily. It is also observed that the stability of vertical-Bloch lines in the domain walls does not depend on the initial state. This provides a more detailed description of the minimum critical in-plane field than previously known

  17. Bias dependent charge trapping in MOSFETs during 1 and 6 MeV electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Mie University, 5148507 (Japan); Kulkarni, V.R.; Mathakari, N.L.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, Univeristy of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, Univeristy of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-06-15

    To study irradiation-induced charge trapping in SiO{sub 2} and around the SiO{sub 2}-Si interface, depletion n-MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor) were used. The devices were gate biased during 1 and 6 MeV pulsed electron irradiation. The I{sub D}-V{sub DS} (drain current versus drain voltage) and I{sub D}-V{sub GS} (drain current versus gate voltage) characteristics were measured before and after irradiation. The shift in threshold voltage {delta}V{sub T} (difference in threshold voltage V{sub T} before and after irradiation) exhibited trends depending on the applied gate bias during 1 MeV electron irradiation. This behavior can be associated to the contribution of irradiation-induced negative charge {delta}N{sub IT} buildup around the SiO{sub 2}-Si interface to {delta}V{sub T}, which is sensitive to the electron tunneling from the substrates. However, only weak gate bias dependence was observed in 6 MeV electron irradiated devices. Independent of the energy loss and applied bias, the positive oxide trapped charge {delta}N{sub OT} is marginal and can be associated to thin and good quality of SiO{sub 2}. These results are explained using screening of free and acceptor states by the applied bias during irradiation, thereby reducing the total irradiation-induced charges.

  18. Origin of the transition voltage in gold–vacuum–gold atomic junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Kunlin

    2012-12-13

    The origin and the distance dependence of the transition voltage of gold-vacuum-gold junctions are investigated by employing first-principles quantum transport simulations. Our calculations show that atomic protrusions always exist on the electrode surface of gold-vacuum-gold junctions fabricated using the mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) method. The transition voltage of these gold-vacuum-gold junctions with atomically sharp electrodes is determined by the local density of states (LDOS) of the apex gold atom on the electrode surface rather than by the vacuum barrier shape. More specifically, the absolute value of the transition voltage roughly equals the rising edge of the LDOS peak contributed by the 6p atomic orbitals of the gold atoms protruding from the electrode surface, whose local Fermi level is shifted downwards when a bias voltage is applied. Since the LDOS of the apex gold atom depends strongly on the exact shape of the electrode, the transition voltage is sensitive to the variation of the atomic configuration of the junction. For asymmetric junctions, the transition voltage may also change significantly depending on the bias polarity. Considering that the occurrence of the transition voltage requires the electrode distance to be larger than a critical value, the interaction between the two electrodes is actually rather weak. Consequently, the LDOS of the apex gold atom is mainly determined by its local atomic configuration and the transition voltage only depends weakly on the electrode distance as observed in the MCBJ experiments. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Origin of the transition voltage in gold–vacuum–gold atomic junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kunlin; Bai Meilin; Hou Shimin; Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The origin and the distance dependence of the transition voltage of gold–vacuum–gold junctions are investigated by employing first-principles quantum transport simulations. Our calculations show that atomic protrusions always exist on the electrode surface of gold–vacuum–gold junctions fabricated using the mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) method. The transition voltage of these gold–vacuum–gold junctions with atomically sharp electrodes is determined by the local density of states (LDOS) of the apex gold atom on the electrode surface rather than by the vacuum barrier shape. More specifically, the absolute value of the transition voltage roughly equals the rising edge of the LDOS peak contributed by the 6p atomic orbitals of the gold atoms protruding from the electrode surface, whose local Fermi level is shifted downwards when a bias voltage is applied. Since the LDOS of the apex gold atom depends strongly on the exact shape of the electrode, the transition voltage is sensitive to the variation of the atomic configuration of the junction. For asymmetric junctions, the transition voltage may also change significantly depending on the bias polarity. Considering that the occurrence of the transition voltage requires the electrode distance to be larger than a critical value, the interaction between the two electrodes is actually rather weak. Consequently, the LDOS of the apex gold atom is mainly determined by its local atomic configuration and the transition voltage only depends weakly on the electrode distance as observed in the MCBJ experiments. (paper)

  20. Electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Liang, B J

    1988-09-01

    The electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid-crystal film is investigated by using birefringence measurements. When a magnetic field is applied, the threshold voltage of the Freedericksz transition no longer exists. The dependence of the birefringence on the magnetic field strength in the low field regime is presented. A theory that accounts for the results is given.

  1. Application of Photocurrent Model on Polymer Solar Cells Under Forward Bias Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Torto, Lorenzo; Wrachien, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We performed a constant current stress at forward bias on organic heterojunction solar cells. We measured current voltage curves in both dark and light at each stress step to calculate the photocurrent. An existing model applied to photocurrent experimental data allows the estimation of several...

  2. Flow reversal at low voltage and low frequency in a microfabricated ac electrokinetic pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Brask, Anders

    2007-01-01

    measured in a regime, where both the applied voltage and the frequency are low, Vrms1.5 V and f20 kHz, compared to previously investigated parameter ranges. The impedance spectrum has been thoroughly measured and analyzed in terms of an equivalent circuit diagram to rule out trivial circuit explanations......Microfluidic chips have been fabricated in Pyrex glass to study electrokinetic pumping generated by a low-voltage ac bias applied to an in-channel asymmetric metallic electrode array. A measurement procedure has been established and followed carefully resulting in a high degree of reproducibility...... of the measurements over several days. A large coverage fraction of the electrode array in the microfluidic channels has led to an increased sensitivity allowing for pumping measurements at low bias voltages. Depending on the ionic concentration a hitherto unobserved reversal of the pumping direction has been...

  3. Enhanced Emission by Accumulated Charges at Organic/Metal Interfaces Generated during the Reverse Bias of Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Nozoe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A high frequency rectangular alternating voltage was applied to organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al and ITO/CoPc/Alq3/Al, where ITO is indium-tin-oxide, TPD is 4,4′-bis[N-phenyl-N-(m-tolylamino]biphenyl, CoPc is cobalt phthalocyanine, and Alq3 is Tris(8-quinolinolatoaluminum, and the effect on emission of the reverse bias was examined. The results reveal that the emission intensity under an alternating reverse-forward bias is greater than that under an alternating zero-forward bias. The difference in the emission intensity (∆I increased both for decreasing frequency and increasing voltage level of the reverse bias. In particular, the change in emission intensity was proportional to the voltage level of the reverse bias given the same frequency. To understand ΔI, this paper proposes a model in which an OLED works as a capacitor under reverse bias, where positive and negative charges accumulate on the metal/organic interfaces. In this model, the emission enhancement that occurs during the alternating reverse-forward bias is rationalized as a result of the charge accumulation at the organic/metal interfaces during the reverse bias, which possibly modulates the vacuum level shifts at the organic/metal interfaces to reduce both the hole injection barrier at the organic/ITO interface and the electron injection barrier at the organic/Al interface under forward bias.

  4. Phase diagrams and switching of voltage and magnetic field in dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Carretero, M.; Bonilla, L.L. [G. Millan Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Maths., Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Platero, G. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The response of an n-doped dc voltage biased II-VI multi-quantum well dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructure having its first well doped with magnetic (Mn) impurities is analyzed by sweeping wide ranges of both the voltage and the Zeeman level splitting induced by an external magnetic field. The level splitting versus voltage phase diagram shows regions of stable self-sustained current oscillations immersed in a region of stable stationary states. Transitions between stationary states and self-sustained current oscillations are systematically analyzed by both voltage and level splitting abrupt switching. Sudden voltage or/and magnetic field changes may switch on current oscillations from an initial stationary state, and reciprocally, current oscillations may disappear after sudden changes of voltage or/and magnetic field changes into the stable stationary states region. The results show how to design such a device to operate as a spin injector and a spin oscillator by tuning the Zeeman splitting (through the applied external magnetic field), the applied voltage and the sample configuration parameters (doping density, barrier and well widths, etc.) to select the desired stationary or oscillatory behavior. Phase diagram of Zeeman level splitting {delta} vs. dimensionless applied voltage {phi} for N = 10 QWs. White region: stable stationary states; black: stable self-sustained current oscillations. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Effects of the location of a biased limiter on turbulent transport in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, R.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A.; Meshkani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma confinement plays an important role in fusion study. Applying an external voltage using limiter biasing system is proved to be an efficient approach for plasma confinement. In this study, the position of the limiter biasing system was changed to investigate the effect of applying external voltages at different places to the plasma. The external voltages of ±200 V were applied at the different positions of edge, 5 mm and 10 mm inside the plasma. Then, the main plasma parameters were measured. The results show that the poloidal turbulent transport and radial electric field increased about 25-35% and 35-45%, respectively (specially when the limiter biasing system was placed 5 mm inside the plasma). Also, the Reynolds stress has experienced its maximum reduction about 5-10% when the limiter biasing system was at 5 mm inside the plasma and the voltage of +200 V was applied to the plasma. When the limiter biasing system move 10 mm inside the plasma, the main plasma parameters experienced more instabilities and fluctuations than other positions. (authors)

  6. El aprendizaje bajo incertidumbre aplicado al mantenimiento de interruptores de potencia; Machine learning applied to the maintenance in high voltage breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Gondres Torné

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La gestión del mantenimiento en las subestaciones eléctricas, así como en los interruptores de potencia ha evolucionado en el transcurso de los años de acuerdo a los equipos de medición de parámetros eléctricos y a las filosofías de mantenimiento mundial. El presente trabajo trata dichos avances desde una visión diferente, se utiliza la inteligencia artificial, específicamente el aprendizaje bajo incertidumbre para la toma de decisiones en la planificación del mantenimiento a los interruptores de potencia de una subestación. Se determina el índice de deterioro, los coeficientes de importancia del deterioro de cada tipo y del elemento del interruptor con la ayuda de los expertos. Posteriormente se obtienen los índices de membresías con los procesos correspondientes para la fusificación y defusificación; finalmente se realiza la evaluación de las reglas y defusificación para el tiempo de mantenimiento, implementando dicho método en diferentes interruptores de potencia. The maintenance management in electrical substations over the years has evolved according to the measurement equipment and the electrical parameters of global maintenance philosophies, and in particular the high voltage breakers have not been left behind. This paper is such advances from a different vision, artificial intelligence, specifically machine learning for decision-making in planning maintenance high voltage breaker sused in a substation. It determines the rate of deterioration, the coefficients of importance of each type of the deterioration and the high voltage breaker element with the help of experts. Subsequently are obtained the membership rates with the corresponding processes for fuzzification and defuzzification; finally the rule evaluation and defuzzification for the time maintenance is performed, the method is appliance in different high voltage breakers.

  7. Exchange bias effect in L10-ordered FePt and FeCo-based bilayer structure: effect of increasing applied field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sadhana; Kumar, Dileep; Bhagat, Babli; Choudhary, R. J.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay

    2018-02-01

    The applied magnetic field (H APP) dependence of the exchange bias (EB) is studied in an exchange-coupled thin-film bilayer composed of a hard ferromagnetic FePt layer in the proximity of a soft ferromagnetic FeCo layer. FePt/FeCo structure is deposited in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the FePt layer was first annealed at 823 K for 30 min and subsequently cooled to room temperature in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field, H MAX ~ 1.5 kOe to promote L10-ordered hard magnetic phase with magnetic moments aligned in one of the in-plane directions in the FePt layer. In-situ magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements during different stages of bilayer growth and detailed ex-situ superconducting quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometer measurements jointly revealed that due to the interplay between exchange coupling at the interface and dipolar energies of the saturated hard FePt layer, a hysteresis loop of FeCo layer shifts along the magnetic field axis. A clear dependence of EB field (H EB) on increasing maximum value of the H APP during the hysteresis loop measurement is understood in terms of the magnetic state of soft and hard magnetic layers, where EB increases with increasing H APP until the hard layer moment remains undisturbed in its remanence state. As soon as the field was sufficient to rotate the spins of the FePt layer, the loop became symmetric with respect to the field axis.

  8. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  9. Some device implications of voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy in Co/Gd2O3 thin films through REDOX chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guanhua; Noviasky, Nicholas; Cao, Shi; Sabirianov, Ildar; Yin, Yuewei; Ilie, Carolina C.; Kirianov, Eugene; Sharma, Nishtha; Sokolov, Andrei; Marshall, Andrew; Xu, Xiaoshan; Dowben, Peter A.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of intermediate interfacial oxidation on the in-plane magnetization of multilayer stack Pt/Co/Gd2O3, on a p-type silicon substrate, has been investigated by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements, the anomalous Hall effect, and magnetoresistance measurements. While voltage controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a metal/oxide heterostructure is known, this heterostructure displays an inverse relationship between voltage and coercivity. The anomalous Hall effect demonstrates a significant change in hysteresis, with the applied bias sign. There is a higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with positive bias exposure.

  10. Charge movement in a GaN-based hetero-structure field effect transistor structure with carbon doped buffer under applied substrate bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooth, Alexander; Uren, Michael J.; Cäsar, Markus; Kuball, Martin; Martin, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Charge trapping and transport in the carbon doped GaN buffer of a GaN-based hetero-structure field effect transistor (HFET) has been investigated under both positive and negative substrate bias. Clear evidence of redistribution of charges in the carbon doped region by thermally generated holes is seen, with electron injection and capture observed during positive bias. Excellent agreement is found with simulations. It is shown that these effects are intrinsic to the carbon doped GaN and need to be controlled to provide reliable and efficient GaN-based power HFETs

  11. Probabilistic Multiple-Bias Modeling Applied to the Canadian Data From the Interphone Study of Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Glioma, Meningioma, Acoustic Neuroma, and Parotid Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoli, F; Siemiatycki, J; McBride, M L; Parent, M-É; Richardson, L; Bedard, D; Platt, R; Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Krewski, D

    2017-10-01

    We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the 13-country case-control Interphone Study (2001-2004), in which researchers evaluated the associations of mobile phone use with the risks of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. In the main publication of the multinational Interphone Study, investigators concluded that biases and errors prevented a causal interpretation. We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and nonparticipant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. In our modeling, we sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, when comparing those in the highest quartile of use (>558 lifetime hours) to those who were not regular users, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). After adjustment for selection and recall biases, the odds ratio was 2.2 (95% limits: 1.3, 4.1). There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our results from Canadian data. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Extreme Energy-Density Research Inst., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  13. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  14. The impact of the biasing radial electric field on the SOL in a divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V.; Tendler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Strong radial electric field can be induced within the SOL in a divertor tokamak by applying a voltage to divertor plates with respect to the first wall. This biasing scheme results in the strong radial electric field which is much larger than the natural electric field, usually of the order T e /e. Experiments employing this biasing scheme were carried out on the tokamak TdeV. Many interesting effects such as - modifications of the density profile and radial transport of impurities as a function of the polarity and the magnitude of the biasing voltage, the generation of the flux surface average toroidal rotation proportional to the applied voltage, redistribution of the plasma outflow onto divertor plates and so on - were demonstrated to result from the biasing. Furthermore, in contrast to studies carried out employing a different biasing scheme which primarily results in a poloidal electric field, the strong radial electric field impacts more significantly within SOL than the poloidal electric field. Here, we aim to show that the main effects observed experimentally follow from the analysis, provided continuity and momentum balances are employed invoking anomalous viscosity and inertia. (author) 4 refs

  15. Simulation of HPIB propagation in biased charge collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyu; Qiu Aici

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5D PIC simulation using KARAT code for inner charge propagation within biased charge collector for measuring HPIB is presented. The simulation results indicate that the charges were neutralized but the current non-neutralized in the biased charge collector. The influence of ions collected vs biased voltage of the collector was also simulated. -800 V biased voltage can meet the measurement of 500 keV HPIB, and this is consistent with the experimental results

  16. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  17. Dynamic range of low-voltage cascode current mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Shah, Peter Jivan

    1995-01-01

    Low-voltage cascode current mirrors are reviewed with respect to the design limitations imposed if all transistors in the mirror are required to operate in the saturation region. It is found that both a lower limit and an upper limit exist for the cascode transistor bias voltage. Further, the use....... The proposed configuration has the advantage of simplicity combined with a complete elimination of the need for fixed bias voltages or bias currents in the current mirror. A disadvantage is that it requires a higher input voltage to the current mirror...

  18. Bias temperature instability in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizubayashi, Wataru; Mori, Takahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Morita, Yukinori; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yongxun; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the bias temperature instability (BTI) of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The positive BTI and negative BTI mechanisms in TFETs are the same as those in metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). In TFETs, although traps are generated in high-k gate dielectrics by the bias stress and/or the interface state is degraded at the interfacial layer/channel interface, the threshold voltage (V th) shift due to BTI degradation is caused by the traps and/or the degradation of the interface state locating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) region near the source/gate edge. The BTI lifetime in n- and p-type TFETs is improved by applying a drain bias corresponding to the operation conditions.

  19. Sympathetic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J

    2008-06-01

    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation.

  20. The Coefficient of the Voltage Induced Frequency Shift Measurement on a Quartz Tuning Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Hou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift (VIFS of a 32.768 KHz quartz tuning fork. Three vibration modes were studied: one prong oscillating, two prongs oscillating in the same direction, and two prongs oscillating in opposite directions. They all showed a parabolic dependence of the eigen-frequency shift on the bias voltage applied across the fork, due to the voltage-induced internal stress, which varies as the fork oscillates. The average coefficient of the VIFS effect is as low as several hundred nano-Hz per millivolt, implying that fast-response voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loops with nano-Hz resolution can be built.

  1. Voltage color tunable OLED with (Sm,Eu)-β-diketonate complex blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E. E. S.; Brito, H. F.; Malta, O. L.

    2004-09-01

    Light emission from organic electroluminescent diodes (OLEDs) in which mixed samarium and europium β-diketonate complexes, [Sm 0.7Eu 0.3(TTA) 3(TPPO) 2], was used as the emitting layer is described. The electroluminescence spectra exhibit narrow peaks arising from 4f-intraconfigurational transitions of the Sm 3+ and Eu 3+ ions and a broad emission band attributed to the electrophosphorescence of the TTA ligand. The intensity ratio of the peaks determined by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, together with the ligand electrophosphorescence, allows to obtain a voltage-tunable color light source.

  2. Anomalous degradation behaviors under illuminated gate bias stress in a-Si:H thin film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Lin, Kun-Yao; Wu, Yi-Chun; Huang, Shih-Feng; Chiang, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Po-Lin; Lai, Tzu-Chieh; Lo, Chang-Cheng; Lien, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of gate bias stress with and without light illumination in a-Si:H thin film transistors. It has been observed that the I–V curve shifts toward the positive direction after negative and positive gate bias stress due to interface state creation at the gate dielectric. However, this study found that threshold voltages shift negatively and that the transconductance curve maxima are anomalously degraded under illuminated positive gate bias stress. In addition, threshold voltages shift positively under illuminated negative gate bias stress. These degradation behaviors can be ascribed to charge trapping in the passivation layer dominating degradation instability and are verified by a double gate a-Si:H device. - Highlights: • There is abnormal V T shift induced by illuminated gate bias stress in a-Si:H thin film transistors. • Electron–hole pair is generated via trap-assisted photoexcitation. • Abnormal transconductance hump is induced by the leakage current from back channel. • Charge trapping in the passivation layer is likely due to the fact that a constant voltage has been applied to the top gate

  3. rf power dependence of subharmonic voltage spectra of two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebboul, S.E.; Garland, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the rf-bias-current dependence of the ν/2 subharmonic spectral response of planar 300x300 Nb-Au-Nb proximity-coupled Josephson-junction arrays. The ν/2 subharmonic voltage spectrum was examined at two rf-bias frequencies, ν/ν c ∼1.4, 2.0 (ν c ∼120 MHz), and in applied magnetic fields corresponding to f=0,1/2 flux quantum per plaquette. The measurements were compared to analytical predictions for an rf-biased asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device with non-negligble loop inductance and large rf-bias-current amplitudes, based on the resistively shunted Josephson-junction model. Reasonable agreement was found between experiment and theory, suggesting that a possible origin for the observed subharmonic behavior in arrays involves an interplay between array plaquette inductances and junction critical-current variations

  4. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  5. A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Hao; Chen Xingbi, E-mail: huhao21@uestc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  7. Analytical modeling of Schottky tunneling source impact ionization MOSFET with reduced breakdown voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated a novel Schottky tunneling source impact ionization MOSFET (STS-IMOS to lower the breakdown voltage of conventional impact ionization MOS (IMOS and developed an analytical model for the same. In STS-IMOS there is an accumulative effect of both impact ionization and source induced barrier tunneling. The silicide source offers very low parasitic resistance, the outcome of which is an increment in voltage drop across the intrinsic region for the same applied bias. This reduces operating voltage and hence, it exhibits a significant reduction in both breakdown and threshold voltage. STS-IMOS shows high immunity against hot electron damage. As a result of this the device reliability increases magnificently. The analytical model for impact ionization current (Iii is developed based on the integration of ionization integral (M. Similarly, to get Schottky tunneling current (ITun expression, Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB approximation is employed. Analytical models for threshold voltage and subthreshold slope is optimized against Schottky barrier height (ϕB variation. The expression for the drain current is computed as a function of gate-to-drain bias via integral expression. It is validated by comparing it with the technology computer-aided design (TCAD simulation results as well. In essence, this analytical framework provides the physical background for better understanding of STS-IMOS and its performance estimation.

  8. Active voltage contrast imaging of cross-sectional surface of multilayer ceramic capacitor using helium ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, C., E-mail: SAKAI.Chikako@nims.go.jp; Ishida, N.; Masuda, H.; Nagano, S.; Kitahara, M.; Fujita, D. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ogata, Y. [TAIYO YUDEN CO., LTD., Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-3347 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    We studied active voltage contrast (AVC) imaging using helium ion microscopy (HIM). We observed secondary electron (SE) images of the cross-sectional surface of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with and without a voltage applied to the internal electrodes. When no voltage was applied, we obtained an image reflecting the material contrast between the Ni internal electrode region and the BaTiO{sub 3} dielectric region of the cross-sectional surface of the MLCC. When a voltage was applied, the electrical potential difference between the grounded and the positively biased internal electrodes affected the contrast (voltage contrast). Moreover, attenuation of the SE intensity from the grounded to the positively biased internal electrodes was observed in the dielectric region. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements of the contact potential difference (CPD) were performed on the same sample. By using the AVC image from the HIM observation and the CPD image from the KPFM measurement, we could quantitatively evaluate the electrical potential. We think that the results of this study will lead to an expansion in the number of applications of HIM.

  9. Tunable reverse-biased graphene/silicon heterojunction Schottky diode sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amol; Uddin, Ahsan; Sudarshan, Tangali; Koley, Goutam

    2014-04-24

    A new chemical sensor based on reverse-biased graphene/Si heterojunction diode has been developed that exhibits extremely high bias-dependent molecular detection sensitivity and low operating power. The device takes advantage of graphene's atomically thin nature, which enables molecular adsorption on its surface to directly alter graphene/Si interface barrier height, thus affecting the junction current exponentially when operated in reverse bias and resulting in ultrahigh sensitivity. By operating the device in reverse bias, the work function of graphene, and hence the barrier height at the graphene/Si heterointerface, can be controlled by the bias magnitude, leading to a wide tunability of the molecular detection sensitivity. Such sensitivity control is also possible by carefully selecting the graphene/Si heterojunction Schottky barrier height. Compared to a conventional graphene amperometric sensor fabricated on the same chip, the proposed sensor demonstrated 13 times higher sensitivity for NO₂ and 3 times higher for NH₃ in ambient conditions, while consuming ∼500 times less power for same magnitude of applied voltage bias. The sensing mechanism based on heterojunction Schottky barrier height change has been confirmed using capacitance-voltage measurements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  11. Journal bias or author bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics regarding bias and conflicts of interest in medical journals. Wilson targets one journal (the New England Journal of Medicine: NEJM) and one particular "scandal" to make his point that journals' decisions on publication are biased by commercial conflicts of interest (CoIs). It is interesting that he chooses the NEJM which, by his own admission, had one of the strictest CoI policies and had published widely on this topic. The feeling is that if the NEJM can be guilty, they can all be guilty.

  12. Biased Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Josse Delfgaauw; Michiel Souverijn

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When verifiable performance measures are imperfect, organizations often resort to subjective performance pay. This may give supervisors the power to direct employees towards tasks that mainly benefit the supervisor rather than the organization. We cast a principal-supervisor-agent model in a multitask setting, where the supervisor has an intrinsic preference towards specific tasks. We show that subjective performance pay based on evaluation by a biased supervisor ...

  13. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  14. Low-bias negative differential conductance controlled by electrode separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ran; Bi, Jun-Jie; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Li, Zong-Liang

    2016-12-01

    The electronic transport properties of a single thiolated arylethynylene molecule with 9,10-dihydroanthracene core, denoted as TADHA, is studied by using non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with ab initio calculations. The numerical results show that the TADHA molecule exhibits excellent negative differential conductance (NDC) behavior at lower bias regime as probed experimentally. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecule originates from the Stark effect of the applied bias voltage, by which the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the HOMO-1 are pulled apart and become localized. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecular system is tunable by changing the electrode distance. Shortening the electrode separation can enhance the NDC effect which is attributed to the possible increase of coupling between the two branches of TADHA molecule. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374195 and 11405098) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2013FM006).

  15. Low-bias negative differential conductance controlled by electrode separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xiao-Hua; Liu Ran; Bi Jun-Jie; Jiao Yang; Wang Chuan-Kui; Li Zong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of a single thiolated arylethynylene molecule with 9,10-dihydroanthracene core, denoted as TADHA, is studied by using non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with ab initio calculations. The numerical results show that the TADHA molecule exhibits excellent negative differential conductance (NDC) behavior at lower bias regime as probed experimentally. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecule originates from the Stark effect of the applied bias voltage, by which the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the HOMO-1 are pulled apart and become localized. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecular system is tunable by changing the electrode distance. Shortening the electrode separation can enhance the NDC effect which is attributed to the possible increase of coupling between the two branches of TADHA molecule. (paper)

  16. Observation of electrostatically released DNA from gold electrodes with controlled threshold voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Shunsaku; Rant, Ulrich; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Buchholz, Karin; Usuki, Tatsuya; Arinaga, Kenji; Takemoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Tornow, Marc; Fujita, Shozo; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Yokoyama, Naoki

    2004-03-22

    DNA oligo-nucleotides, localized at Au metal electrodes in aqueous solution, are found to be released when applying a negative bias voltage to the electrode. The release was confirmed by monitoring the intensity of the fluorescence of cyanine dyes (Cy3) linked to the 5' end of the DNA. The threshold voltage of the release changes depending on the kind of linker added to the DNA 3'-terminal. The amount of released DNA depends on the duration of the voltage pulse. Using this technique, we can retain DNA at Au electrodes or Au needles, and release the desired amount of DNA at a precise location in a target. The results suggest that DNA injection into living cells is possible with this method. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  17. Design concept for radiation hardening of low power and low voltage dynamic memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleifer, H.; Ropp, T.V.D.; Reczek, W.

    1995-01-01

    A radiation hard low power, low voltage dynamic memory is obtained by the use of a dummy cell concept. Compared to conventional dummy cell concepts, this concept applies a fully sized dummy cell. By optimizing the dummy cell precharge voltage for 5 V and 3 V operation and the timing of the dummy word-line, the overall soft error rate (SER) of the chip is improved by 2 orders of magnitude. An additional improvement of 1 order of magnitude is possible for 3 V operation by adjusting substrate bias and cell plate voltage. The results are verified by an accelerated SER measurement with a radium 226 source and an additional field soft error study

  18. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  19. Room temperature resistive state switching with hysteresis in GdMnO3 thin film with low threshold voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Rajib; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Mukovskii, Ya. M.; Andreev, N.; Chichkov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report a room temperature resistive state switching with hysteresis, in a thin film of GdMnO 3 grown on NdGaO 3 substrate. The switched states have a resistance ratio ≈10 3 . The switching is unipolar in nature, with a low set voltage <3 V, while the reset voltage <0.3 V. The switching occurs between a high resistance polaronic insulating state and a low resistance metallic state. The resistance state transition has been ascribed to an electronic mechanism that originates from co-existing phases (created by charge disproportionation) that can undergo a percolative transition enabled by the applied bias

  20. Influence of surface losses and the self-pumping effect on current-voltage characteristics of a long Josephson junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, A.L.; Sobolev, A.S.; Koshelets, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long linear Josephson tunnel junction with overlap geometry. Biased by a direct current (dc) and an applied dc magnetic field, the junction has important applications as tunable high frequency oscillator [flux-flow oscillator (FFO......) placed at both ends of the FFO. In our model, the damping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and on the amplitude of the ac voltage. In order to find the dc current-voltage curves, the damping parameter has to be calculated self-consistently by successive approximations and time integration...

  1. SIMULACIÓN DE MONTE CARLO APLICADA A LA ESTIMACIÓN DE DEPRESIONES RÁPIDAS DE LA TENSIÓN EN REDES ELÉCTRICAS MONTE CARLO SIMULATION APPLIED TO THE ESTIMATION OF VOLTAGE DIPS IN ELECTRIC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arias Albornoz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aplica el método de simulación de Monte Carlo (MC para estimar el número de depresiones rápidas de tensión (dips esperados en barras de una red eléctrica. Las estimaciones obtenidas a través de MC se comparan con los resultados de otro método de cálculo conocido como Método de Posiciones de Falla (MPF. Entre los resultados se muestra tanto la convergencia del algoritmo MC a los valores de largo plazo del método MPF como la distribución completa de frecuencias para diferentes eventos, lo cual representa información valiosa para apoyar la toma de decisiones sobre el empleo de equipos sensibles a este tipo de perturbación.In this work, the Monte Carlo simulation method (MC is applied to estimate the number of expected voltage dips in the nodes of an electric network. The estimations obtained through MC are compared with the results of another method of calculation, known as Failure Position Method (MPF. In the results, both the convergence of the algorithm with the long-term values of the MPF method and the complete distribution of frequencies for different events are shown. This represents valuable information to support the decision-making process for equipment that is sensitive to this type of perturbation.

  2. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque

  3. Resistance and resistance fluctuations in random resistor networks under biased percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta, Cecilia; Reggiani, L; Trefán, Gy; Alfinito, E

    2002-06-01

    We consider a two-dimensional random resistor network (RRN) in the presence of two competing biased processes consisting of the breaking and recovering of elementary resistors. These two processes are driven by the joint effects of an electrical bias and of the heat exchange with a thermal bath. The electrical bias is set up by applying a constant voltage or, alternatively, a constant current. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to analyze the network evolution in the full range of bias values. Depending on the bias strength, electrical failure or steady state are achieved. Here we investigate the steady state of the RRN focusing on the properties of the non-Ohmic regime. In constant-voltage conditions, a scaling relation is found between /(0) and V/V(0), where is the average network resistance, (0) the linear regime resistance, and V0 the threshold value for the onset of nonlinearity. A similar relation is found in constant-current conditions. The relative variance of resistance fluctuations also exhibits a strong nonlinearity whose properties are investigated. The power spectral density of resistance fluctuations presents a Lorentzian spectrum and the amplitude of fluctuations shows a significant non-Gaussian behavior in the prebreakdown region. These results compare well with electrical breakdown measurements in thin films of composites and of other conducting materials.

  4. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions: Ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2010-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) has recently been introduced as a spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions where it offers the possibility to probe molecular level energies at relatively low bias voltages. In this work we perform extensive ab initio calculations of the nonlinear current...

  6. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  7. Is there bias in editorial choice? Yes

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Nature has recently published a Correspondence claiming the absence of fame biases in the editorial choice. The topic is interesting and deserves a deeper analysis than it was presented because the reported brief analysis and its conclusion are somewhat biased for many reasons, some of them are discussed here. Since the editorial assessment is a form of peer-review, the biases reported on external peer-reviews would, thus, apply to the editorial assessment, too. The biases would be proportion...

  8. Influence of Bias on the Friction Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in Single Crystal Barium Titanate Energy Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction imaging of newlycleaved surface domains of single crystal BaTiO3 energy storage materials under both positive and negative voltage bias is investigated by scanning force microscope. When the bias was applied and reversed, three regions with different brightness and contrast in friction image indicated different response to the biases: the friction image of domain A displayed a great change in brightness while domains B and C displayed only a very small change. Possible mechanisms of the interesting phenomena originating from different static force between different charged tip and the periodical array of surface charges inside the inplane domains were proposed. These results provide a new method for the determination of the polarization direction for the domain parallel to the surface and may be useful in the investigation of ferroelectric energy storage materials, especially the relationship between the polarization direction of domain and the bias.

  9. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  10. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  11. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  12. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  13. Generation of future potential scenarios in an Alpine Catchment by applying bias-correction techniques, delta-change approaches and stochastic Weather Generators at different spatial scale. Analysis of their influence on basic and drought statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio

    2017-04-01

    Assessing impacts of potential future climate change scenarios in precipitation and temperature is essential to design adaptive strategies in water resources systems. The objective of this work is to analyze the possibilities of different statistical downscaling methods to generate future potential scenarios in an Alpine Catchment from historical data and the available climate models simulations performed in the frame of the CORDEX EU project. The initial information employed to define these downscaling approaches are the historical climatic data (taken from the Spain02 project for the period 1971-2000 with a spatial resolution of 12.5 Km) and the future series provided by climatic models in the horizon period 2071-2100 . We have used information coming from nine climate model simulations (obtained from five different Regional climate models (RCM) nested to four different Global Climate Models (GCM)) from the European CORDEX project. In our application we have focused on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario, which is the most unfavorable scenario considered in the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For each RCM we have generated future climate series for the period 2071-2100 by applying two different approaches, bias correction and delta change, and five different transformation techniques (first moment correction, first and second moment correction, regression functions, quantile mapping using distribution derived transformation and quantile mapping using empirical quantiles) for both of them. Ensembles of the obtained series were proposed to obtain more representative potential future climate scenarios to be employed to study potential impacts. In this work we propose a non-equifeaseble combination of the future series giving more weight to those coming from models (delta change approaches) or combination of models and techniques that provides better approximation to the basic

  14. Rf-biasing of highly idealized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, R.H.J.; Blauw, M.A.; Goedheer, W.J.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    Remote plasmas, which are subjected to a radio-frequency (RF) biased surface, have been investigated theoretically and experimentally for decades. The relation between the complex power (DC) voltage characteristics, the ion energy distribution and control losses of the ion bombardment are of

  15. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  16. High-conductance low-voltage organic thin film transistor with locally rearranged poly(3-hexylthiophene) domain by current annealing on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zingway; Tsai, Hsing-Wang; Lai, Hsin-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The organic material based thin film transistors (TFTs) are attractive for flexible optoelectronics applications due to the ability of lager area fabrication by solution and low temperature process on plastic substrate. Recently, the research of organic TFT focus on low operation voltage and high output current to achieve a low power organic logic circuit for optoelectronic device,such as e-paper or OLED displayer. To obtain low voltage and high output current, high gate capacitance and high channel mobility are key factors. The well-arranged polymer chain by a high temperature postannealing, leading enhancement conductivity of polymer film was a general method. However, the thermal annealing applying heat for all device on the substrate and may not applicable to plastic substrate. Therefore, in this work, the low operation voltage and high output current of polymer TFTs was demonstrated by locally electrical bias annealing. The poly(styrene-comethyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) with ultra-thin thickness is used as gate dielectric that the thickness is controlled by thermal treatment after spin coated on organic electrode. In electrical bias-annealing process, the PS-r- PMMA is acted a heating layer. After electrical bias-annealing, the polymer TFTs obtain high channel mobility at low voltage that lead high output current by a locally annealing of P3HT film. In the future, the locally electrical biasannealing method could be applied on plastic substrate for flexible optoelectronic application.

  17. Construction of test-bed system of voltage management system to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction of test-bed system of voltage management system to apply physical power system. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... system of voltage management system (VMS) in order to apply physical power system.

  18. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  19. Voltage-controlled inversion of tunnel magnetoresistance in epitaxial nickel/graphene/MgO/cobalt junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, F.; Doudin, B.; Henry, Y.; Halley, D., E-mail: halley@ipcms.unistra.fr, E-mail: dayen@ipcms.unistra.fr; Dayen, J.-F., E-mail: halley@ipcms.unistra.fr, E-mail: dayen@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Venkata Kamalakar, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-10-13

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of vertical spin-valve structures using a thick epitaxial MgO barrier as spacer layer and a graphene-passivated Ni film as bottom ferromagnetic electrode. The devices show robust and scalable tunnel magnetoresistance, with several changes of sign upon varying the applied bias voltage. These findings are explained by a model of phonon-assisted transport mechanisms that relies on the peculiarity of the band structure and spin density of states at the hybrid graphene|Ni interface.

  20. Substrate bias voltage and deposition temperature dependence on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films or a coating of any sort prior to its application into real world has to be studied for the dependence of ..... For line focusing, incident beam mask was employed with ..... org/content/avs/journal/jvst/11/4/10.1116/1.1312732. Thornton J A ...

  1. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  3. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  4. The electrical performance and gate bias stability of an amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistor with HfO2 high-k dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo Zheng; Wu, Sheng Li; Li, Xin Yu; Zhang, Jin Tao

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we set out to fabricate an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with SiNx/HfO2/SiNx (SHS) sandwiched dielectrics. The J-V and C-V of this SHS film were extracted by the Au/p-Si/SHS/Ti structure. At room temperature the a-IGZO with SHS dielectrics showed the following electrical properties: a threshold voltage of 2.9 V, a subthreshold slope of 0.35 V/decade, an on/off current ratio of 3.5 × 107, and a mobility of 12.8 cm2 V-1 s-1. Finally, we tested the influence of gate bias stress on the TFT, and the result showed that the threshold voltage shifted to a positive voltage when applying a positive gate voltage to the TFT.

  5. Optical characterization of voltage-accelerated degradation in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Taketo; Tex, David M; Shimazaki, Ai; Aharen, Tomoko; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the performance degradation mechanism of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells under bias voltage in air and nitrogen atmospheres using photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques. When applying forward bias, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells decreased significantly in air, but showed no degradation in nitrogen atmosphere. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on these devices revealed that the application of forward bias in air accelerates the generation of non-radiative recombination centers in the perovskite layer buried in the device. We found a negative correlation between the electroluminescence intensity and the injected current intensity in air. The irreversible change of the perovskite grain surface in air initiates the degradation of the perovskite solar cells.

  6. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  7. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  8. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  9. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  10. Electric-field-control of magnetic anisotropy of Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2/oxide stacks using reduced voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Koji; Abraham, David W.; Gajek, Martin J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated purely electrical manipulation of the magnetic anisotropy of a Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2 film by applying only 8 V across the CoFeB/oxide stack. A clear transition from in-plane to perpendicular anisotropy was observed. The quantitative relationship between interface anisotropy energy and the applied electric-field was determined from the linear voltage dependence of the saturation field. By comparing the dielectric stacks of MgO/Al2O3 and MgO/HfO2/Al2O3, enhanced voltage control was also demonstrated, due to the higher dielectric constant of the HfO2. These results suggest the feasibility of purely electrical control of magnetization with small voltage bias for spintronics applications.

  11. IGZO TFT-based circuit with tunable threshold voltage by laser annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Yu, Guang; Wu, Chenfei

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a high-performance inverter based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been fabricated, which consists of a driver TFT and a load TFT. The threshold voltage (Vth) of the load TFT can be tuned by applying an area-selective laser annealing. The transfer curve of the load TFT shows a parallel shift into the negative bias direction upon laser annealing. Based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the negative Vth shift can be attributed to the increase of oxygen vacancy concentration within the device channel upon laser irradiation. Compared to the untreated inverter, the laser annealed inverter shows much improved switching characteristics, including a large output swing range which is close to full swing, as well as an enhanced output voltage gain. Furthermore, the dynamic performance of ring oscillator based on the laser-annealed inverter is improved.

  12. Room-temperature low-voltage electroluminescence in amorphous carbon nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Legnani, C.; Ribeiro Pinto, P. M.; Cremona, M.; de Araújo, P. J. G.; Achete, C. A.

    2003-06-01

    White-blue electroluminescent emission with a voltage bias less than 10 V was achieved in rf sputter-deposited amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN) and amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiCN) thin-film-based devices. The heterojunction structures of these devices consist of: Indium tin oxide (ITO), used as a transparent anode; amorphous carbon film as an emission layer, and aluminum as a cathode. The thickness of the carbon films was about 250 Å. In all of the produced diodes, a stable visible emission peaked around 475 nm is observed at room temperature and the emission intensity increases with the current density. For an applied voltage of 14 V, the luminance was about 3 mCd/m2. The electroluminescent properties of the two devices are discussed and compared.

  13. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  14. Capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasmas excited by tailored voltage waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, T; Delattre, P A; Booth, J P; Johnson, E V

    2013-01-01

    By applying certain types of ‘tailored’ voltage waveforms (TVWs) to capacitively coupled plasmas, a dc self-bias and an asymmetric plasma response can be produced, even in geometrically symmetric reactors. Furthermore, these arbitrary applied waveforms can produce a number of interesting phenomena that are not present in typical single-frequency sinusoidal discharges. This electrical asymmetry effect presents emerging possibilities for the improved control of the ion energy and ion flux in these systems; parameters of vital importance to both etching and deposition applications for materials processing. With a combined research approach utilizing both experimental measurements, and particle-in-cell simulations, we review and extend recent investigations that study a particular class of TVW. The waveforms used have a pulse-type shape and are composed of a varying number of harmonic frequencies. This allows a strong self-bias to be produced, and causes most of the applied voltage to be dropped across a single sheath. Additionally, decreasing the pulse width (by increasing the number of harmonics), allows the plasma density and ion flux to be increased. Simulation and experimental results both demonstrate that this type of waveform can be used to separately control the ion flux and ion energy, while still producing a uniform plasma over large area (50 cm diameter) rf electrodes. (paper)

  15. Through thick and thin: tuning the threshold voltage in organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Hardigree, Josué F; Katz, Howard E

    2014-04-15

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) constitute a class of organic materials containing densely packed, overlapping conjugated molecular moieties that enable charge carrier transport. Their unique optical, electrical, and magnetic properties have been investigated for use in next-generation electronic devices, from roll-up displays and radiofrequency identification (RFID) to biological sensors. The organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is the key active element for many of these applications, but the high values, poor definition, and long-term instability of the threshold voltage (V(T)) in OFETs remain barriers to realization of their full potential because the power and control circuitry necessary to compensate for overvoltages and drifting set points decrease OFET practicality. The drifting phenomenon has been widely observed and generally termed "bias stress." Research on the mechanisms responsible for this poor V(T) control has revealed a strong dependence on the physical order and chemical makeup of the interfaces between OSCs and adjacent materials in the OFET architecture. In this Account, we review the state of the art for tuning OFET performance via chemical designs and physical processes that manipulate V(T). This parameter gets to the heart of OFET operation, as it determines the voltage regimes where OFETs are either ON or OFF, the basis for the logical function of the devices. One obvious way to decrease the magnitude and variability of V(T) is to work with thinner and higher permittivity gate dielectrics. From the perspective of interfacial engineering, we evaluate various methods that we and others have developed, from electrostatic poling of gate dielectrics to molecular design of substituted alkyl chains. Corona charging of dielectric surfaces, a method for charging the surface of an insulating material using a constant high-voltage field, is a brute force means of shifting the effective gate voltage applied to a gate dielectric. A gentler and more

  16. Effect of Anode Floating Voltage and its Applications in Characterizing Silicon Drift Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-Guo, Wu; Hong-Ri, Li; Kun, Liang; Ru, Yang; De-Jun, Han; Xue-Lei, Cao; Huan-Yu, Wang; Jun-Ming, An; Xiong-Wei, Hu

    2009-01-01

    Anode Boating voltage is predicted and investigated for silicon drift detectors (SDDs) with an active area of 5 mm 2 fabricated by a double-side parallel technology. It is demonstrated that the anode Boating voltage increases with the increasing inner ring voltage, and is almost unchanged with the external ring voltage. The anode Boating voltage will not be affected by the back electrode biased voltage until it reaches the full-depleted voltage (−50 V) of the SDD. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the anode Boating voltage is equal to the sum of the inner ring voltage and the built-in potential between the p + inner ring and the n + anode. A fast checking method before detector encapsulation is proposed by employing the anode Boating voltage along with checking the leakage current, potential distribution and drift properties

  17. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  18. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  19. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  20. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  1. Experiment of bias probe method at NIRS-18 GHz ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jincho, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu; Okada, Takanori; Takasugi, Wataru; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Tomohiro [Accelerator Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan); Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Biri, Sandor [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary)

    2000-11-01

    An 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC) has been developed to produce highly charged heavy ions from Ar to Xe. In order to increase the beam intensity of highly charged ion, we tried a technique of supplying cold electrons into the ECR plasma. In this paper, enhancement of the beam intensity is discussed in detail. The bias voltage is applied on the probe to repel cold electrons which flow from a plasma. The output beam current is 130 e{mu}A for Ar{sup 11+}. (J.P.N.)

  2. Experiment of bias probe method at NIRS-18 GHz ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jincho, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu; Okada, Takanori; Takasugi, Wataru; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Biri, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    An 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC) has been developed to produce highly charged heavy ions from Ar to Xe. In order to increase the beam intensity of highly charged ion, we tried a technique of supplying cold electrons into the ECR plasma. In this paper, enhancement of the beam intensity is discussed in detail. The bias voltage is applied on the probe to repel cold electrons which flow from a plasma. The output beam current is 130 eμA for Ar 11+ . (J.P.N.)

  3. Electrical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO nanowires formed by biased plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Doping is an effective method for tuning electrical properties of zinc oxide nanowires, which are used in nanoelectronic devices. Here, ZnO nanowires were prepared by a thermal oxidation method. Fluorine doping was achieved by a biased plasma treatment, with bias voltages of 100, 200, and 300 V. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the nanowires treated at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V featured low crystallinity. When the bias voltage was 300 V, the nanowires showed single crystalline structures. Photoluminescence measurements revealed that concentrations of oxygen and surface defects decreased at high bias voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the F content increased as the bias voltage was increased. The conductivity of the as-grown nanowires was less than 103 S/m; the conductivity of the treated nanowires ranged from 1 × 104-5 × 104, 1 × 104-1 × 105, and 1 × 103-2 × 104 S/m for bias voltage treatments at 100, 200, and 300 V, respectively. The conductivity improvements of nanowires formed at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V, were attributed to F-doping, defects and surface states. The conductivity of nanowires treated at 300 V was attributed to the presence of F ions. Thus, we provide a method of improving electrical properties of ZnO nanowires without altering their crystal structure.

  4. New method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-01-01

    The avalanche breakdown and Geiger mode of the silicon p-n junction is considered. A precise physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDE rel ) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDE rel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts. [ru

  5. Substrate-biasing during plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition to tailor metal-oxide thin film growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Profijt, H. B.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessele, W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two substrate-biasing techniques, i.e., substrate-tuned biasing and RF biasing, have been implemented in a remote plasma configuration, enabling control of the ion energy during plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD). With both techniques, substrate bias voltages up to -200 V have been

  6. Influence of substrate dc bias on crystallinity of silicon films grown at a high rate from inductively-coupled plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosku, N.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of substrate bias on the microcrystalline film growth from inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) of H 2 -diluted SiH 4 at 250 deg. C to get an insight on the role of ion and electron incidence for the crystallization. By applying dc bias voltage to the substrate in the range of -20 ∼ 20 V during the film growth, the crystallinity is improved significantly with no significant change in the deposition rate, but in contrast the application of biases as high as ±50 V degrades the crystallinity. These results indicate that the incidence of ions or electrons with a moderate energy to the growing film surface promotes the nucleation and the growth of crystallites. Also, the optimum bias condition for the crystallization is changed with the antenna-substrate distance, which suggests the contribution of hydrogen radical flux to the crystalline film growth

  7. Biasing of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliano, Giosue; Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) represent an effective alternative to piezoelectric transducers for medical ultrasound imaging applications. They are microelectromechanical devices fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques, developed in the last two decades in many laboratories. The interest for this novel transducer technology relies on its full compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology that makes it possible to integrate on the same chip the transducers and the electronics, thus enabling the realization of extremely low-cost and high-performance devices, including both 1-D or 2-D arrays. Being capacitive transducers, CMUTs require a high bias voltage to be properly operated in pulse-echo imaging applications. The typical bias supply residual ripple of high-quality high-voltage (HV) generators is in the millivolt range, which is comparable with the amplitude of the received echo signals, and it is particularly difficult to minimize. The aim of this paper is to analyze the classical CMUT biasing circuits, highlighting the features of each one, and to propose two novel HV generator architectures optimized for CMUT biasing applications. The first circuit proposed is an ultralow-residual ripple (generator that uses an extremely stable sinusoidal power oscillator topology. The second circuit employs a commercially available integrated step-up converter characterized by a particularly efficient switching topology. The circuit is used to bias the CMUT by charging a buffer capacitor synchronously with the pulsing sequence, thus reducing the impact of the switching noise on the received echo signals. The small area of the circuit (about 1.5 cm 2 ) makes it possible to generate the bias voltage inside the probe, very close to the CMUT, making the proposed solution attractive for portable applications. Measurements and experiments are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approaches presented.

  8. Theory and experimental study of biased charge collector for measuring HPIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoping; Wang Haiyang; Sun Jianfeng; Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Tang Junping; Li Jingya; Li Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Structure of the biased charge collector for measuring HPIB (High-power ion beam) is introduced in this paper. The inner charge propagation process of HPIB in the biased charge collector was simulated with KARAT PIC code. The simulation results indicated that charge was neutralized but current was not neutralized in the biased charge collector. The influence of biased voltage and aperture diameter were also simulated. A -800V biased voltage can meet the requirement for measuring 500 keV HPIB, and this is consistent with the experimental results

  9. Combination of biased forecasts: Bias correction or bias based weights?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Most of the literature on combination of forecasts deals with the assumption of unbiased individual forecasts. Here, we consider the case of biased forecasts and discuss two different combination techniques resulting in an unbiased forecast. On the one hand we correct the individual forecasts, and on the other we calculate bias based weights. A simulation study gives some insight in the situations where we should use the different methods.

  10. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Vishnu; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I excess  = I r0  + K 1 exp (K 2 V), where I r0 , K 1 , and K 2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers

  11. Effect of annealing on the second harmonic amplitude of Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) voltage of a Co-Fe-Si-B amorphous wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, S.K. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)], E-mail: skp@nmlindia.org; Panda, A.K.; Mitra, A. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2008-02-15

    Second harmonic amplitude (V{sub 2f}) of Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) voltage of (Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 94}){sub 72.5}Si{sub 12.5}B{sub 15} amorphous wires has been studied systematically for as-cast and Joule-heated states. Joule heating was carried out at current densities (J) of 20-40 A/mm{sup 2} for a period of 1-300 min. The amplitude of the second harmonic voltage (V{sub 2f}) initially increased with J, attained maximum and then decreased. The maximum amplitude of V{sub 2f} was observed for the sample annealed at J=25 A/mm{sup 2} for 5 min. The second harmonic peak shifted towards the higher field side with the increase of annealing current density and annealing period (t{sub p}). Few-fold increase in the amplitude of the second harmonic voltage (V{sub 2f}) was observed due to the presence of a small dc bias current (I{sub b}) of amplitude 1 mA. The asymmetry in V{sub 2f} was also observed in a Joule-heated sample. The observed asymmetry has been correlated with the bias field generated between the surface crystallized layer and the amorphous core. A small bias current of amplitude of 1 mA was applied along the direction of the applied field to minimize the asymmetry.

  12. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  13. Measurement and statistical analysis of single-molecule current-voltage characteristics, transition voltage spectroscopy, and tunneling barrier height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaoyin; Hihath, Joshua; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Tao, Nongjian

    2011-11-30

    We report on the measurement and statistical study of thousands of current-voltage characteristics and transition voltage spectra (TVS) of single-molecule junctions with different contact geometries that are rapidly acquired using a new break junction method at room temperature. This capability allows one to obtain current-voltage, conductance voltage, and transition voltage histograms, thus adding a new dimension to the previous conductance histogram analysis at a fixed low-bias voltage for single molecules. This method confirms the low-bias conductance values of alkanedithiols and biphenyldithiol reported in literature. However, at high biases the current shows large nonlinearity and asymmetry, and TVS allows for the determination of a critically important parameter, the tunneling barrier height or energy level alignment between the molecule and the electrodes of single-molecule junctions. The energy level alignment is found to depend on the molecule and also on the contact geometry, revealing the role of contact geometry in both the contact resistance and energy level alignment of a molecular junction. Detailed statistical analysis further reveals that, despite the dependence of the energy level alignment on contact geometry, the variation in single-molecule conductance is primarily due to contact resistance rather than variations in the energy level alignment.

  14. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  15. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  16. Modelling of current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type – II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diodes with unipolar blocking layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Gopal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb super-lattices with uni-polar blocking layers can be modelled similar to a junction diode with a finite series resistance on account of blocking barriers. As an example this paper presents the results of a study of current-voltage characteristics of a type II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diode with PbIbN architecture using a recently proposed [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 084502 (2014] method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. The thermal diffusion, generation – recombination (g-r, and ohmic currents are found as principal components besides a component of photocurrent due to background illumination. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current (diffusion + g-r, photo-current and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1exp(K2 V, where Ir0, K1 and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. The present investigations suggest that the exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage may be taking place along the localized regions in the diode. These localized regions are the shunt resistance paths on account of the surface leakage currents and/or defects and dislocations in the base of the diode.

  17. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  18. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  19. Conductance of single-atom platinum contacts: Voltage dependence of the conductance histogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.K.; Noat, Y.; Brandbyge, Mads

    2003-01-01

    The conductance of a single-atom contact is sensitive to the coupling of this contact atom to the atoms in the leads. Notably for the transition metals this gives rise to a considerable spread in the observed conductance values. The mean conductance value and spread can be obtained from the first...... peak in conductance histograms recorded from a large set of contact-breaking cycles. In contrast to the monovalent metals, this mean value for Pt depends strongly on the applied voltage bias and other experimental conditions and values ranging from about 1 G(0) to 2.5 G(0) (G(0)=2e(2)/h) have been...... reported. We find that at low bias the first peak in the conductance histogram is centered around 1.5 G(0). However, as the bias increases past 300 mV the peak shifts to 1.8 G(0). Here we show that this bias dependence is due to a geometric effect where monatomic chains are replaced by single-atom contacts...

  20. Auger-generated hot carrier current in photo-excited forward biased single quantum well blue light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenlaub, Andrew C.; Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Nakamura, Shuji; Weisbuch, Claude; Speck, James S.

    2018-04-01

    We report on measurements of the photo-modulated current-voltage and electroluminescence characteristics of forward biased single quantum well, blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with and without electron blocking layers. Low intensity resonant optical excitation of the quantum well was observed to induce an additional forward current at constant forward diode bias, in contrast to the usual sense of the photocurrent in photodiodes and solar cells, as well as an increased electroluminescence intensity. The presence of an electron blocking layer only slightly decreased the magnitude of the photo-induced current at constant forward bias. Photo-modulation at constant forward diode current resulted in a reduced diode bias under optical excitation. We argue that this decrease in diode bias at constant current and the increase in forward diode current at constant applied bias can only be due to additional hot carriers being ejected from the quantum well as a result of an increased Auger recombination rate within the quantum well.

  1. Artifical Excitation of Ferro-Resonance for Testing Electrotechnical Equipment in Distribution Devices with Increased Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dmitriev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed device for protection against of ferro-resonant and high-frequency cumulative over-voltages an algorithm for obtaining a voltage imitating ferro-resonant over-voltages is proposed in the paper. This algorithm presupposes to apply a voltage to the secondary transformer side from an extraneous source is proposed.

  2. Maximum magnitude in bias-dependent spin accumulation signals of CoFe/MgO/Si on insulator devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Inokuchi, T.; Tanamoto, T.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.; Tezuka, N.

    2013-01-01

    We study in detail how the bias voltage (V bias ) and interface resistance (RA) depend on the magnitude of spin accumulation signals (|ΔV| or |ΔV|/I, where I is current) as detected by three-terminal Hanle measurements in CoFe/MgO/Si on insulator (SOI) devices with various MgO layer thicknesses and SOI carrier densities. We find the apparent maximum magnitude of spin polarization as a function of V bias and the correlation between the magnitude of spin accumulation signals and the shape of differential conductance (dI/dV) curves within the framework of the standard spin diffusion model. All of the experimental results can be explained by taking into account the density of states (DOS) in CoFe under the influence of the applied V bias and the quality of MgO tunnel barrier. These results indicate that it is important to consider the DOS of the ferromagnetic materials under the influence of an applied V bias and the quality of tunnel barrier when observing large spin accumulation signals in Si

  3. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  4. The control of inorganic nanotube morphology using an applied potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, Todd R; Wilson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of the filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a generic molten salt to form hexagonal-net-based inorganic nanotubes (INTs) are described. A model is introduced to incorporate CNT metallicity which imposes variable Gaussian charges on each atomic site in order to retain an equipotential. The inclusion of CNT metallicity is observed to have no significant effect on the distribution of the INT morphologies formed as compared with the filling of non-metallic CNTs. The application of a voltage bias to the CNT forms a new class of INTs which can be considered as constructed from concentric layers of pseudo-close-packed anions and cations. Removal of the voltage bias leads to the formation of hexagonal-net-based INTs with a distribution of morphologies different to that observed for the filling of the unbiased CNTs. The differences in distributions are interpreted in terms of the CNTs behaving as effective energy landscape filters, for which the applied voltage acts as an additional control variable. The application of a potential acts to control the distribution of INT morphologies by facilitating alternative mechanistic pathways to nanotube formation.

  5. An optical fiber Bragg grating and piezoelectric ceramic voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; He, Yanxiao; Sun, Shangpeng; Luo, Mandan; Han, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Voltage measurement is essential in many fields like power grids, telecommunications, metallurgy, railways, and oil production. A voltage-sensing unit, consisting of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and piezoelectric ceramics, based on which an optical over-voltage sensor was proposed and fabricated in this paper. No demodulation devices like spectrometer or Fabry-Perot filter were needed to gain the voltage signal, and a relatively large sensing frequency range was acquired in this paper; thus, the cost of the sensing system is more acceptable in engineering application. The voltage to be measured was directly applied to the piezoelectric ceramic, and deformation of the ceramics and the grating would be caused because of the inverse piezoelectric effect. With a reference grating, the output light intensity change will be caused by the FBG center wavelength change; thus, the relationship between the applied voltage and the output light intensity was established. Validation of the sensor was accomplished in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 20 kHz and switching impulse waves with a test platform; good linearity of the input-output characteristic was achieved. A temperature validation test was completed, showing that the sensor maintains good temperature stability. Experimental results show that the optical over-voltage sensor can be used for voltage monitoring, and if applied with a voltage divider, the sensor can be used to measure high voltage.

  6. An optical fiber Bragg grating and piezoelectric ceramic voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; He, Yanxiao; Sun, Shangpeng; Luo, Mandan; Han, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Voltage measurement is essential in many fields like power grids, telecommunications, metallurgy, railways, and oil production. A voltage-sensing unit, consisting of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and piezoelectric ceramics, based on which an optical over-voltage sensor was proposed and fabricated in this paper. No demodulation devices like spectrometer or Fabry-Perot filter were needed to gain the voltage signal, and a relatively large sensing frequency range was acquired in this paper; thus, the cost of the sensing system is more acceptable in engineering application. The voltage to be measured was directly applied to the piezoelectric ceramic, and deformation of the ceramics and the grating would be caused because of the inverse piezoelectric effect. With a reference grating, the output light intensity change will be caused by the FBG center wavelength change; thus, the relationship between the applied voltage and the output light intensity was established. Validation of the sensor was accomplished in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 20 kHz and switching impulse waves with a test platform; good linearity of the input-output characteristic was achieved. A temperature validation test was completed, showing that the sensor maintains good temperature stability. Experimental results show that the optical over-voltage sensor can be used for voltage monitoring, and if applied with a voltage divider, the sensor can be used to measure high voltage.

  7. Vivitron 1995, transient voltage simulation, high voltage insulator tests, electric field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, G.; Osswald, F.; Heusch, B.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary investigations showed clearly that, because of the discrete electrode structure of the Vivitron, important overvoltage leading to insulator damage can appear in case of a spark. The first high voltage tests showed damage connected with such events. This fact leads to a severe voltage limitation. This work describes, at first, studies made to understand the effects of transients and the associated over-voltage appearing in the Vivitron. Then we present the high voltage tests made with full size Vivitron components using the CN 6 MV machine as a pilot machine. Extensive field calculations were made. These involve simulations of static stresses and transient overvoltages, on insulating boards and electrodes. This work gave us the solutions for arrangements and modifications in the machine. After application, the Vivitron runs now without any sparks and damage at 20 MV. In the same manner, we tested column insulators of a new design and so we will find out how to get to higher voltages. Electric field calculation around the tie bars connecting the discrete electrodes together showed field enhancements when the voltages applied on the discrete electrodes are not equally distributed. This fact is one of the sources of discharges and voltage limitations. A scenario of a spark event is described and indications are given how to proceed towards higher voltages, in the 30 MV range. (orig.)

  8. Theory and experiment on charging and discharging a capacitor through a reverse-biased diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arijit; Mallick, Abhishek; Adhikari, Aparna; Guin, Priyanka; Chatterjee, Dibyendu

    2018-06-01

    The beauty of a diode lies in its voltage-dependent nonlinear resistance. The voltage on a charging and discharging capacitor through a reverse-biased diode is calculated from basic equations and is found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Instead of the exponential dependence of charging and discharging voltages with time for a resistor-capacitor circuit, a linear time dependence is found when the resistor is replaced by a reverse-biased diode. Thus, well controlled positive and negative ramp voltages are obtained from the charging and discharging diode-capacitor circuits. This experiment can readily be performed in an introductory physics and electronics laboratory.

  9. Electrode and limiter biasing experiments on the tokamak ISTTOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.; Figueiredo, H.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Nedzelsky, I.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution limiter and electrode biasing experiments are compared, in particular in what concerns their effects on the edge plasma parameters. For electrode AC bias a substantial increase (>50%) in the average plasma density is observed with positive voltage, without significant changes in the edge density, leading to steeper profiles. The ratio n e /Hα also increases significantly (>20%), indicating an improvement in gross particle confinement. The plasma potential profile is strongly modified as both the edge E r and its shear increase significantly. For positive limiter bias an increase in the average plasma density and the radiation losses is observed, resulting in almost no modification, or a slight, in particle confinement. Preliminary results of simultaneous electrode and limiter bias experiments show that the control of the plasma potential profile is very limited, since negative voltages do not modify the plasma parameters significantly. (author)

  10. Bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jing-Xin; Cheng, Yan; Sanvito, Stefano; Chen, Xiang-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains sandwiched between gold electrodes is investigated with density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method. At zero bias, in contrast to the typical odd-even oscillations observed in most metallic chains, we find that the conductance oscillates with a period of four atoms. However, as the bias voltage is increased the current displays a two-atom periodicity. This emerges gradually, first for the longer chains and then, at voltages larger than 0.7 V, for lengths. The oscillatory behaviors are analyzed by the density of states and the energy-dependent and bias-dependent transmission coefficients. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jing-Xin

    2012-01-01

    The bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains sandwiched between gold electrodes is investigated with density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method. At zero bias, in contrast to the typical odd-even oscillations observed in most metallic chains, we find that the conductance oscillates with a period of four atoms. However, as the bias voltage is increased the current displays a two-atom periodicity. This emerges gradually, first for the longer chains and then, at voltages larger than 0.7 V, for lengths. The oscillatory behaviors are analyzed by the density of states and the energy-dependent and bias-dependent transmission coefficients. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Voltage Mode Universal Biquad Using CCCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-input single-output (MISO second-order active-C voltage mode (VM universal filter using two second-generation current-controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs and two equal-valued capacitors. The proposed circuit realizes low pass, band pass, high pass, all pass, and notch responses from the same topology. The filter uses-minimum number of passive components and no resistor which is suitable for IC Design. The filter enjoys low-sensitivity performance and exhibits electronic and orthogonal tunability of pole frequency (0 and quality factor (0 via bias current of CCCIIs. PSPICE simulation results confirm the theory.

  13. An Analytical Threshold Voltage Model of Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFETs with Back-Gate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an analytical threshold voltage model for back-gated fully depleted (FD), recessed-source drain silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Analytical surface potential models have been developed at front and back surfaces of the channel by solving the two-dimensional (2-D) Poisson's equation in the channel region with appropriate boundary conditions assuming a parabolic potential profile in the transverse direction of the channel. The strong inversion criterion is applied to the front surface potential as well as on the back one in order to find two separate threshold voltages for front and back channels of the device, respectively. The device threshold voltage has been assumed to be associated with the surface that offers a lower threshold voltage. The developed model was analyzed extensively for a variety of device geometry parameters like the oxide and silicon channel thicknesses, the thickness of the source/drain extension in the buried oxide, and the applied bias voltages with back-gate control. The proposed model has been validated by comparing the analytical results with numerical simulation data obtained from ATLAS™, a 2-D device simulator from SILVACO.

  14. Adaptable history biases in human perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, Arman; Silva, Laura Luz; Dakin, Steven C; Carandini, Matteo; Gardner, Justin L

    2016-06-21

    When making choices under conditions of perceptual uncertainty, past experience can play a vital role. However, it can also lead to biases that worsen decisions. Consistent with previous observations, we found that human choices are influenced by the success or failure of past choices even in a standard two-alternative detection task, where choice history is irrelevant. The typical bias was one that made the subject switch choices after a failure. These choice history biases led to poorer performance and were similar for observers in different countries. They were well captured by a simple logistic regression model that had been previously applied to describe psychophysical performance in mice. Such irrational biases seem at odds with the principles of reinforcement learning, which would predict exquisite adaptability to choice history. We therefore asked whether subjects could adapt their irrational biases following changes in trial order statistics. Adaptability was strong in the direction that confirmed a subject's default biases, but weaker in the opposite direction, so that existing biases could not be eradicated. We conclude that humans can adapt choice history biases, but cannot easily overcome existing biases even if irrational in the current context: adaptation is more sensitive to confirmatory than contradictory statistics.

  15. The role of bulk and interface states on performance of a-Si: H p-i-n solar cells using reverse current-voltage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S A; Kabir, M Z; Murthy, R V R; Dutta, V

    2009-01-01

    The defect state densities in the bulk of the i-layer and at the p/i interface have been studied in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) solar cells using reverse current-voltage (J-V) measurements. In this work the cells have been soaked with blue and red lights prior to measurements. The voltage-dependent reverse current has been analysed on the basis of thermal generation of the carriers from midgap states in the i-layer and the carrier injection through the p/i interface. Based on the reverse current behaviour, it has been analysed that at lower reverse bias (reverse voltage, V r r ∼ 25 V) the defect states at the p/i interface are contributing to the reverse currents. The applied reverse bias annealing (RBA) treatment on these cells shows more significant annihilation of defect states at the p/i interface as compared with the bulk of the i-layer. An analytical model is developed to explain the observed behaviour. There is good agreement between the theory and the experimental observations. The fitted defect state densities are 9.1 x 10 15 cm -3 and 8 x 10 18 cm -3 in the bulk of the i-layer and near the p/i interface, respectively. These values decrease to 2.5 x 10 15 cm -3 and 6 x 10 17 cm -3 , respectively, in the samples annealed under reverse bias at 2 V.

  16. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  17. Structural evolution of bias sputtered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shih-Hsuan; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Leu, Hoang-Jyh

    2014-01-01

    LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) thin films have been deposited on stainless steel substrates using radio frequency (f = 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering, followed by thermal annealing in ambient atmosphere. Various negative biases were applied on the substrates during deposition. The structural evolution of LNMO thin films under different negative biases has been investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction. All of the deposited films exhibit a crystalline spinel structure with a space group of Fd-3m, which is a so-called disordered phase. The results also indicate that particle size decreases with increasing negative bias. The electrochemical properties of the LNMO thin films as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries were investigated. Two distinctive voltage plateaus at ∼ 4.7 V and at ∼ 4.0 V (vs. Li + /Li) can be observed in the discharge curves, corresponding to the reactions of the disordered phase. The capacity of LNMO thin film electrodes under suitable negative bias can be optimized. - Highlights: • LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 thin films have been deposited on stainless steel substrates. • Various negative biases were applied on the substrates during deposition. • The particle sizes of LNMO thin films decrease with increasing negative bias

  18. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative VTH shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H2O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  19. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jong Woo [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Nathan, Arokia, E-mail: an299@cam.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, Brian [Holst Centre/TNO, Eindhoven, 5656 AE (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative V{sub TH} shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H{sub 2}O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  20. Good practices for quantitative bias analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy L; Fox, Matthew P; MacLehose, Richard F; Maldonado, George; McCandless, Lawrence C; Greenland, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative bias analysis serves several objectives in epidemiological research. First, it provides a quantitative estimate of the direction, magnitude and uncertainty arising from systematic errors. Second, the acts of identifying sources of systematic error, writing down models to quantify them, assigning values to the bias parameters and interpreting the results combat the human tendency towards overconfidence in research results, syntheses and critiques and the inferences that rest upon them. Finally, by suggesting aspects that dominate uncertainty in a particular research result or topic area, bias analysis can guide efficient allocation of sparse research resources. The fundamental methods of bias analyses have been known for decades, and there have been calls for more widespread use for nearly as long. There was a time when some believed that bias analyses were rarely undertaken because the methods were not widely known and because automated computing tools were not readily available to implement the methods. These shortcomings have been largely resolved. We must, therefore, contemplate other barriers to implementation. One possibility is that practitioners avoid the analyses because they lack confidence in the practice of bias analysis. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe what we view as good practices for applying quantitative bias analysis to epidemiological data, directed towards those familiar with the methods. We focus on answering questions often posed to those of us who advocate incorporation of bias analysis methods into teaching and research. These include the following. When is bias analysis practical and productive? How does one select the biases that ought to be addressed? How does one select a method to model biases? How does one assign values to the parameters of a bias model? How does one present and interpret a bias analysis?. We hope that our guide to good practices for conducting and presenting bias analyses will encourage

  1. Nonlinear Parasitic Capacitance Modelling of High Voltage Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    : off-state, sub-threshold region, and on-state in the linear region. A high voltage power MOSFET is designed in a partial Silicon on Insulator (SOI) process, with the bulk as a separate terminal. 3D plots and contour plots of the capacitances versus bias voltages for the transistor summarize...

  2. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  3. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  4. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  5. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  6. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  7. Application of a substrate bias to control the droplet density on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Pattini, F., E-mail: rampino@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Malagù, C.; Pozzetti, L. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Stefancich, M. [LENS Laboratory, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Masdar City, PO Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    One of the main shortcomings in the fabrication of thin-film solar cells by pulsed high-energy deposition techniques (i.e. Pulsed Laser Deposition or Pulsed Electron Deposition — PED), is the presence of a significant number of particulates on the film surface. This affects the morphological properties of the cell active layers and, ultimately, the performance of the final device. To reduce the density of these defects, we deposited a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film by PED and studied the effect on the film morphology when a DC bias was applied between the substrate and the target. Our results show that a negative substrate voltage, comprised between 0 and − 300 V, can not only reduce the droplet density on the CIGS film surface of about one order of magnitude with respect to the standard unbiased case (from 6 × 10{sup 5} to 5 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −2}), but also lower the maximum particulate size and the surface smoothness. When a positive voltage is applied, we observed that a significant increase in the droplet surface density (up to 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}) occurs. The abrupt change in the preferred crystal orientation (switching from (112) to (220)/(204) by applying negative and positive biases, respectively) is also a direct consequence of the applied DC voltage. These results confirm that the external DC bias could be used as an additional parameter to control the physical properties of thin films grown by PED. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films were grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED). • Positive and negative DC biases were applied between the target and the substrate. • The droplet density can be reduced by one order of magnitude by DC negative bias. • Chemical composition and grain orientation of CIGS are influenced by the DC bias. • The DC bias can be an additional parameter of PED for controlling the film properties.

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS OF INTRACELLULAR IONS TO Kv CHANNEL VOLTAGE SENSOR DYNAMICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel eGoodchild

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sensing domains of Kv channels control ionic conductance through coupling of the movement of charged residues in the S4 segment to conformational changes at the cytoplasmic region of the pore domain, that allow K+ ions to flow. Conformational transitions within the voltage sensing domain caused by changes in the applied voltage across the membrane field are coupled to the conducting pore region and the gating of ionic conductance. However, several other factors not directly linked to the voltage dependent movement of charged residues within the voltage sensor impact the dynamics of the voltage sensor, such as inactivation, ionic conductance, intracellular ion identity and block of the channel by intracellular ligands. The effect of intracellular ions on voltage sensor dynamics is of importance in the interpretation of gating current measurements and the physiology of pore/voltage sensor coupling. There is a significant amount of variability in the reported kinetics of voltage sensor deactivation kinetics of Kv channels attributed to different mechanisms such as open state stabilization, immobilization and relaxation processes of the voltage sensor. Here we separate these factors and focus on the causal role that intracellular ions can play in allosterically modulating the dynamics of Kv voltage sensor deactivation kinetics. These considerations are of critical importance in understanding the molecular determinants of the complete channel gating cycle from activation to deactivation.

  9. Oscillation of Critical Current by Gate Voltage in Cooper Pair Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.; Cheong, Y.; Song, W.

    2010-01-01

    We measured the critical current of a Cooper pair transistor consisting of two Josephson junctions and a gate electrode. The Cooper pair transistors were fabricated by using electron-beam lithography and double-angle evaporation technique. The Gate voltage dependence of critical current was measured by observing voltage jumps at various gate voltages while sweeping bias current. The observed oscillation was 2e-periodic, which shows the Cooper pair transistor had low level of quasiparticle poisoning.

  10. Particle flows to shape and voltage surface discontinuities in the electron sheath surrounding a high voltage solar array in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Roger N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the numerical modeling of electron flows from the sheath surrounding high positively biased objects in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to regions of voltage or shape discontinuity on the biased surfaces. The sheath equations are derived from the Two-fluid, Warm Plasma Model. An equipotential corner and a plane containing strips of alternating voltage bias are treated in two dimensions. A self-consistent field solution of the sheath equations is outlined and is pursued through one cycle. The electron density field is determined by numerical solution of Poisson's equation for the electrostatic potential in the sheath using the NASCAP-LEO relation between electrostatic potential and charge density. Electron flows are calculated numerically from the electron continuity equation. Magnetic field effects are not treated.

  11. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...

  12. Bio-Inspired Carbon Monoxide Sensors with Voltage-Activated Sensitivity

    KAUST Repository

    Savagatrup, Suchol; Schroeder, Vera; He, Xin; Lin, Sibo; He, Maggie; Yassine, Omar; Salama, Khaled N.; Zhang, Xixiang; Swager, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    voltage offers a predicted extra dimension for sensing. Specifically, the sensors show a significant increase in sensitivity toward CO when negative gate voltage is applied. The dosimetric sensors are selective to ppm levels of CO and functional in air. UV

  13. Linear variable voltage diode capacitor and adaptive matching networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, L.E.; De Vreede, L.C.N.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated variable voltage diode capacitor topology applied to a circuit providing a variable voltage load for controlling variable capacitance. The topology includes a first pair of anti-series varactor diodes, wherein the diode power-law exponent n for the first pair of anti-series varactor

  14. Technical feasibility study of Voltage Optimization Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Marinelli, Mattia; Coppo, Massimiliano

    This report provides an analysis on the benefits of a transformer with on load tap chang-ers on each phase that can be applied in the distribution system to accommodate more renewable generations such as photovoltaic power. The main purpose of this research is to verify whether power distribution...... are used as load basics for the analysis. In term of PV genera-tion profiles, a realistic PV output power is assumed. Four relevant indicies such as phase neutral voltage, netural potential voltage, unbalanced factor (VUF), and power losses are evaluated in the present study. The simulation tests include...

  15. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  16. Ultra-Low Voltage Class AB Switched Current Memory Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical basis for the design of class AB switched current memory cells employing floating-gate MOS transistors, suitable for ultra-low-voltage applications. To support the theoretical assumptions circuits based on these cells were designed using a CMOS process with thr......This paper presents the theoretical basis for the design of class AB switched current memory cells employing floating-gate MOS transistors, suitable for ultra-low-voltage applications. To support the theoretical assumptions circuits based on these cells were designed using a CMOS process...... with threshold voltages of 0.9V. Both hand calculations and PSPICE simulations showed that the cells designed allowed a maximum signal range better than +/-13 micoamp, with a supply voltage down to 1V and a quiescent bias current of 1 microamp, resulting in a very high current efficiency and effective power...

  17. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias

  18. Photovoltaic Bias Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an... Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing wrapped-wire side of circuit board...3 Fig. 4 Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing component side of circuit board

  19. Biases in categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    On what grounds can we conclude that an act of categorization is biased? In this chapter, it is contended that in the absence of objective norms of what categories actually are, biases in categorization can only be specified in relation to theoretical understandings of categorization. Therefore, the

  20. Low voltage excess noise and shot noise in YBCO bicrystal junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The spectral density of background noise emitted by symmetric bicrystal YBaCuO Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates have been measured by a low noise cooled HEMT amplifier for bias voltages up to V approximate to 50 mV. At relatively low voltages V noise rise has been...... registered. At large bias voltages V > 30 mV a clear dependence of noise power. exactly coinciding to the asymptote of the Schottky shot noise function, has been observed for the first time. Experimental results are discussed in terms of multiple Andreev reflections which may take place in d...

  1. Mitigation of Voltage Swells by Static Series Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Swells and overvoltages can cause overheating, tripping or even destruction of industrial equipment such as motor drives and control relays. This paper investigates the possibility of employing the Static Series Compensator (SSC) to mitigate voltage swells/overvoltages. In the case of voltage...... is lower than a predetermined voltage level, the active power is employed to charge the ESC to this voltage level; 2) otherwise, the overvoltage protection of the SSC must operate. This paper also applies an overvoltage protection scheme based on a combination of a dc resistor with a chopper and the valves...

  2. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  3. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  4. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  5. Approximate Bias Correction in Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    James G. MacKinnon; Anthony A. Smith Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses ways to reduce the bias of consistent estimators that are biased in finite samples. It is necessary that the bias function, which relates parameter values to bias, should be estimable by computer simulation or by some other method. If so, bias can be reduced or, in some cases that may not be unrealistic, even eliminated. In general, several evaluations of the bias function will be required to do this. Unfortunately, reducing bias may increase the variance, or even the mea...

  6. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B; Kliem, H

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depen...

  7. Semisupervised Community Detection by Voltage Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications show that semisupervised community detection is one of the important topics and has attracted considerable attention in the study of complex network. In this paper, based on notion of voltage drops and discrete potential theory, a simple and fast semisupervised community detection algorithm is proposed. The label propagation through discrete potential transmission is accomplished by using voltage drops. The complexity of the proposal is OV+E for the sparse network with V vertices and E edges. The obtained voltage value of a vertex can be reflected clearly in the relationship between the vertex and community. The experimental results on four real networks and three benchmarks indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective and flexible. Furthermore, this algorithm is easily applied to graph-based machine learning methods.

  8. PLZT light transmittance memory driven with an asymmetric voltage pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    PLZT is a ferroelectric electro-optic material, which has been operated with a constant voltage supply to keep a certain optical property. In this study, we propose an optical transmittance memory effect by controlling the domain conditions. The keypoint is to use an asymmetric voltage pulse. In the positive direction, a sufficiently-large voltage is applied to align the polarization directions. After this operation, a relatively small light transmittance is memorized even after removing the electric field. On the other hand, in the negative direction, the amplitude of the voltage is adjusted to the coercive electric field. In this condition, the domain structure is almost the same as the depolarization state. With this voltage supply, the maximum light transmittance can be kept after removing the electric field. Using these voltage operations, the PLZT can obtain two light transmittance states depending on the domain structure. This memory effect should be useful for innovative optical scanners or shutters in the future.

  9. New Insights into the Operating Voltage of Aqueous Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Lu, Yongzhuang; Zheng, Haibing; Lu, Xihong

    2018-03-12

    The main limitation of aqueous supercapacitors (SCs) lies in their narrow operating voltages, especially when compared with organic SCs. Fundamental understanding of factors relevant to the operating voltage helps providing guidance for the assembly of high-voltage aqueous SCs. In this regard, this concept analyzes the deciding factors for the operating voltage of aqueous SCs. Strategies applied to expand the operating voltage are summarized and discussed from the aspects of electrolyte, electrode, and asymmetric structure. Dynamic factors associated with water electrolysis and maximally using the available potential ranges of electrodes are particularly emphasized. Finally, other promising approaches that have not been explored and their challenges are also elaborated, hoping to provide more insights for the design of high-voltage aqueous SCs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Advances in high voltage power switching with GTOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlesak, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The control of high voltage at high power, particularly opening switches, has been difficult in the past. Using gate turnoff thyristors (GTOs) arranged in series enables large currents to be switched at high voltage. The authors report a high voltage opening switch has been successfully demonstrated. This switch uses GTOs in series and successfully operates at voltages higher than the rated voltage of the individual devices. It is believed that this is the first time this has been successfully demonstrated, in that GTOs have been operated in series before, but always in a manner as to not exceed the voltage capability of the individual devices. In short, the devices have not worked together, sharing the voltage, but one device has been operated using several backup devices. Of particular interest is how well the individual devices share the voltage applied to them. Equal voltage sharing between devices is absolutely essential, in order to not exceed the voltage rating of any of the devices in the series chain. This is accomplished at high (microsecond) switching speeds. Thus, the system is useful for high frequency applications as well as high power, making for a flexible circuit system element. This demonstration system is rated at 5 KV and uses 1 KV devices. A larger 24 KV system is under design and will use 4.5 KV devices. In order to design the 24 KV switch, the safe operating area of the large devices must be known thoroughly

  11. Optical properties of bias-induced CH sub 4 -H sub 2 plasma for diamond film deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, X D; Zhou, H Y; Wen, X H; Li, D

    2002-01-01

    Methane (CH sub 4) and hydrogen (H sub 2) reactive gas mixture has been in situ investigated in a hot filament diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor with a negatively variable biasing voltage applied to the hot filament with respect to the substrate using infrared absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. It is found that CH sub 4 converts increasingly to C sub 2 H sub 2 upon raising the filament temperature in a pure thermal activation state, no optical emission of species is observed. Upon bias application, both CH sub 4 and C sub 2 H sub 2 in infrared (IR) absorption intensity decrease with increasing bias current, even the IR absorption intensity of C sub 2 H sub 2 decreases more rapidly than that of CH sub 4. Meanwhile, the clear emission lines indexed to H, CH, and CH sup + appear in the optical emission spectrum obtained, showing that a large amount of excited radicals are produced in the gas phase after applying bias. It is believed that the further generation of activated radical...

  12. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  13. Dispersion of breakdown voltage of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Itaru; Noguchi, Takuya

    1978-01-01

    As for the electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium, the discrepancy among the measured values by each person is very large even in the fundamental DC breakdown voltage in uniform electric field. The dispersion of experimental values obtained in the experiments by the same person is also large. Hereafter, the difference among the mean values obtained by each experimenter will be referred to as ''deviation of mean values'', and the dispersion of measured values around the mean value obtained by the same person as ''deviation around the man value''. The authors have mainly investigated on the latter experimentally. The cryostat was made of stainless steel, and the innermost helium chamber was of 500 mm I.D. and approximately 1200 mm deep. The high voltage electrode was of brass sphere of 25 mm diameter, and the low voltage electrode was of brass plate. The experiment was conducted for liquid helium boiling at 4.2 K and 1 atm, and the breakdown voltage and time lag were measured by applying the approximately square wave impulses of fast rise and long tail, ramp and DC voltages. The cause of the deviation of mean values may be the presence of impurity particles or the effect of electrode shape. As for the deviation around the mean value, the dispersion is large, and its standard deviation may amount to 10 to 20% of the man value. The dispersion is not due to the statistical time lag, but is due to parameters that vary with breakdown. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  15. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  16. Coordinated Voltage Control of Distributed PV Inverters for Voltage Regulation in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the existing voltage control methods of distributed solar PV inverters to improve the voltage regulation and thereby the hosting capacity of a low-voltage distribution network. A novel coordinated voltage control method is proposed based on voltage sensitivity...... optimization. The proposed method is used to calculate the voltage bands and droop settings of PV inverters at each node by the supervisory controller. The local controller of each PV inverter implements the volt/var control and if necessary, the active power curtailment as per the received settings and based...... on measured local voltages. The advantage of the proposed method is that the calculated reactive power and active power droop settings enable fair contribution of the PV inverters at each node to the voltage regulation. Simulation studies are conducted using DigSilent Power factory software on a simplified...

  17. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  18. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingzhong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Tian, Xiubo, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Muqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Gong, Chunzhi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Ronghua [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition is proposed. • The deposited Si-DLC films possess denser structures and high deposition rate. • It is attributed to ion bombardment of the deposited films. • The ion energy can be independently controlled by an additional bias (novel set up). - Abstract: Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at −1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to −500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this

  19. A 60 GOPS/W, -1.8 V to 0.9 V body bias ULP cluster in 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Davide; Pullini, Antonio; Loi, Igor; Gautschi, Michael; Gürkaynak, Frank K.; Bartolini, Andrea; Flatresse, Philippe; Benini, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-low power operation and extreme energy efficiency are strong requirements for a number of high-growth application areas, such as E-health, Internet of Things, and wearable Human-Computer Interfaces. A promising approach to achieve up to one order of magnitude of improvement in energy efficiency over current generation of integrated circuits is near-threshold computing. However, frequency degradation due to aggressive voltage scaling may not be acceptable across all performance-constrained applications. Thread-level parallelism over multiple cores can be used to overcome the performance degradation at low voltage. Moreover, enabling the processors to operate on-demand and over a wide supply voltage and body bias ranges allows to achieve the best possible energy efficiency while satisfying a large spectrum of computational demands. In this work we present the first ever implementation of a 4-core cluster fabricated using conventional-well 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI technology. The multi-core architecture we present in this work is able to operate on a wide range of supply voltages starting from 0.44 V to 1.2 V. In addition, the architecture allows a wide range of body bias to be applied from -1.8 V to 0.9 V. The peak energy efficiency 60 GOPS/W is achieved at 0.5 V supply voltage and 0.5 V forward body bias. Thanks to the extended body bias range of conventional-well FD-SOI technology, high energy efficiency can be guaranteed for a wide range of process and environmental conditions. We demonstrate the ability to compensate for up to 99.7% of chips for process variation with only ±0.2 V of body biasing, and compensate temperature variation in the range -40 °C to 120 °C exploiting -1.1 V to 0.8 V body biasing. When compared to leading-edge near-threshold RISC processors optimized for extremely low power applications, the multi-core architecture we propose has 144× more performance at comparable energy efficiency levels. Even when compared to other low-power processors

  20. Method of observation of low density interface states by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under bias and passivation by cyanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Sakurai, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Kubota, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements under bias can observe low density interface states for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diodes with low densities. This method can give energy distribution of interface states for ultrathin insulating layers for which electrical measurements cannot be performed due to a high density leakage current. During the XPS measurements, a bias voltage is applied to the rear semiconductor surface with respect to the ∼3 nm-thick front platinum layer connected to the ground, and the bias voltage changes the occupation of interface states. Charges accumulated in the interface states shift semiconductor core levels at the interface, and thus the analysis of the bias-induced shifts of the semiconductor core levels measured as a function of the bias voltage gives energy distribution of interface states. In the case of Si-based MOS diodes, the energy distribution and density of interface states strongly depend on the atomic density of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) layers and the interfacial roughness, respectively. All the observed interface state spectra possess peaked-structures, indicating that they are due to defect states. An interface state peak near the Si midgap is attributable to isolated Si dangling bonds at the interface, while those above and below the midgap to Si dangling bonds interacting weakly with Si or oxygen atoms in the SiO 2 layers. A method of the elimination of interface states and defect states in Si using cyanide solutions has been developed. The cyanide method simply involves the immersion of Si in KCN solutions. Due to the high Si-CN bond energy of ∼4.5 eV, the bonds are not ruptured at 800 deg. C and upon irradiation. The cyanide treatment results in the improvement of the electrical characteristics of MOS diodes and solar cells

  1. AC bias operation of the perpendicular biased ferrite tuned cavity for the TRIUMF KAON Factory booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, R.L.; Enegren, T.A.; Enchevich, I.B.

    1991-05-01

    The RF cavity for the booster synchrotron requires a frequency swing from 46 MHz at a repetition rate of 50 Hz and a maximum accelerating gap voltage of 65 kV. A DC biased prototype cavity built at LANL using perpendicular-biased yttrium-garnet ferrites, rather than the more conventional parallel-biased NiZn ferrites, has now undergone major reconstruction at TRIUMF for AC bias operation. RF signal level measurements have shown that the frequency swing at a repetition rate of 50 Hz can be accomplished and still handle the eddy current losses in the cavity structures with minimal effect on the magnetizing field. The prototype cavity is now undergoing high power RF tests with full power AC bias operation. The results of these tests and operational experience is reported. (Author) ref., 6 figs

  2. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  3. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Biases in casino betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sundali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the field are consistent with biased beliefs, although we observe significant individual heterogeneity in the population. A second contribution is to separately identify these biases within a given individual, then to examine their within-person correlation. We find a positive and significant correlation across individuals between hot hand and gambler's fallacy biases, suggesting a common (root cause of the two related errors. We speculate as to the source of this correlation (locus of control, and suggest future research which could test this speculation.

  5. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  6. Investigation of the LAPPS Ion Flux to a Surface Biased with an Arbitrary High Frequency Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, David; Walton, Scott; Leonhardt, Darrin; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Materials etching using accelerated ions has become a widely used procedure in the semiconductor industry. Typically the substrate is biased with high frequency voltage waveforms, which cause the substrate to acquire a negative DC voltage to accelerate the ions. However, the ions do not reach the substrate as a monoenergetic beam. The ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is profoundly influenced by the frequency and shape of the applied waveform. At NRL, we have been experimenting with electron-beam produced plasmas as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) driven discharges. The most promising of these sources is the hollow cathode driven \\underlineLarge \\underlineArea \\underlinePlasma \\underlineProcessing \\underlineSystem. This source is designed to produce large area (> 1 m^2), high density, uniform sheets of plasma. In this presentation we will show measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) from continuous and pulsed electron beam plasmas produced in 20-30 cm wide × 1 cm thick sheets by a 2 kV hollow cathode. The IEDF is obtained using a gridded energy analyzer incorporated into a biasable stage. The surface flux and IEDF as a function of the waveform input to the stage will be investigated by using various types of pulse functions and variable frequency RF voltages. Typical operating conditions are 15-20 millitorr of argon, oxygen, or nitrogen, and 150-200 Gauss magnetic field.

  7. The effect of dust on electron heating and dc self-bias in hydrogen diluted silane discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüngel, E; Mohr, S; Iwashita, S; Schulze, J; Czarnetzki, U

    2013-01-01

    In capacitive hydrogen diluted silane discharges the formation of dust affects plasma processes used, e.g. for thin film solar cell manufacturing. Thus, a basic understanding of the interaction between plasma and dust is required to optimize such processes. We investigate a highly diluted silane discharge experimentally using phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy to study the electron dynamics, laser light scattering on the dust particles to relate the electron dynamics with the spatial distribution of dust, and current and voltage measurements to characterize the electrical symmetry of the discharge via the dc self-bias. The measurements are performed in single and dual frequency discharges. A mode transition from the α-mode to a bulk drift mode (Ω-mode) is found, if the amount of silane and, thereby, the amount of dust and negative ions is increased. By controlling the electrode temperatures, the dust can be distributed asymmetrically between the electrodes via the thermophoretic force. This affects both the electron heating and the discharge symmetry, i.e. a dc self-bias develops in a single frequency discharge. Using the Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE), the dc self-bias can be controlled in dual frequency discharges via the phase angle between the two applied frequencies. The Ω-mode is observed for all phase angles and is explained by a simple model of the electron power dissipation. The model shows that the mode transition is characterized by a phase shift between the applied voltage and the electron conduction current, and that the plasma density profile can be estimated using the measured phase shift. The control interval of the dc self-bias obtained using the EAE will be shifted, if an asymmetric dust distribution is present. However, the width of the interval remains unchanged, because the dust distribution is hardly affected by the phase angle. (paper)

  8. Silicon photomultiplier's gain stabilization by bias correction for compensation of the temperature fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosz, P., E-mail: pdorosz@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Baszczyk, M.; Glab, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kucewicz, W., E-mail: kucewicz@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mik, L.; Sapor, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-08-01

    Gain of the silicon photomultiplier is strongly dependent on the value of bias voltage and temperature. This paper proposes a method for gain stabilization just by compensation of temperature fluctuations by bias correction. It has been confirmed that this approach gives good results and the gain can be kept very stable.

  9. Silicon photomultiplier's gain stabilization by bias correction for compensation of the temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorosz, P.; Baszczyk, M.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gain of the silicon photomultiplier is strongly dependent on the value of bias voltage and temperature. This paper proposes a method for gain stabilization just by compensation of temperature fluctuations by bias correction. It has been confirmed that this approach gives good results and the gain can be kept very stable

  10. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  11. Large time-dependent coercivity and resistivity modification under sustained voltage application in a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.; van der Heijden, M.A.J.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Koopmans, B.

    2015-01-01

    The coercivity and resistivity of a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction are measured under sustained voltage application. High bias voltages of either polarity are determined to cause a strongly enhanced, reversible coercivity modification compared to low voltages. Time-resolved measurements show a logarithmic

  12. Conduction channels at finite bias in single-atom gold contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Tsukada, Masaru

    1999-01-01

    We consider the effect of a finite voltage bias on the conductance of single-atom gold contacts. We employ a nonorthogonal spn-tight-binding Hamiltonian combined with a local charge neutrality assumption. The conductance and charge distributions for finite bias are calculated using the nonequilib......We consider the effect of a finite voltage bias on the conductance of single-atom gold contacts. We employ a nonorthogonal spn-tight-binding Hamiltonian combined with a local charge neutrality assumption. The conductance and charge distributions for finite bias are calculated using...... of the eigenchannels projected onto tight-binding orbitals. We find a single almost fully transmitting channel with mainly s character for low bias while for high bias this channel becomes less transmitting and additional channels involving only d orbitals start to conduct....

  13. Breakdown voltage mapping through voltage dependent ReBEL intensity imaging of multi-crystalline Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix-Peek, RM.; van Dyk, EE.; Vorster, FJ.; Pretorius, CJ.

    2018-04-01

    Device material quality affects both the efficiency and the longevity of photovoltaic (PV) cells. Therefore, identifying these defects can be beneficial in the development of more efficient and longer lasting PV cells. In this study, a combination of spatially-resolved, electroluminescence (EL), and light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements, were used to identify specific defects and features of a multi-crystalline Si PV cells. In this study, a novel approach is used to map the breakdown voltage of a PV cell through voltage dependent Reverse Bias EL (ReBEL) intensity imaging.

  14. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  15. Monte Carlo shielding analyses using an automated biasing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.S.; Hoffman, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    A systematic and automated approach for biasing Monte Carlo shielding calculations is described. In particular, adjoint fluxes from a one-dimensional discrete ordinates calculation are used to generate biasing parameters for a Monte Carlo calculation. The entire procedure of adjoint calculation, biasing parameters generation, and Monte Carlo calculation has been automated. The automated biasing procedure has been applied to several realistic deep-penetration shipping cask problems. The results obtained for neutron and gamma-ray transport indicate that with the automated biasing procedure Monte Carlo shielding calculations of spent-fuel casks can be easily performed with minimum effort and that accurate results can be obtained at reasonable computing cost

  16. Analysis of bias effects on the total ionizing dose response in a 180 nm technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhangli; Hu Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan; Shao Hua; Chen Ming; Bi Dawei; Ning Bingxu; Zou Shichang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the shallow trench isolation (STI) leakage current in a 180 nm technology are investigated. The radiation response is strongly influenced by the bias modes, gate bias during irradiation, substrate bias during irradiation and operating substrate bias after irradiation. We found that the worst case occurs under the ON bias condition for the ON, OFF and PASS bias mode. A positive gate bias during irradiation significantly enhances the STI leakage current, indicating the electric field influence on the charge buildup process during radiation. Also, a negative substrate bias during irradiation enhances the STI leakage current. However a negative operating substrate bias effectively suppresses the STI leakage current, and can be used to eliminate the leakage current produced by the charge trapped in the deep STI oxide. Appropriate substrate bias should be introduced to alleviate the total ionizing dose (TID) response, and lead to acceptable threshold voltage shift and subthreshold hump effect. Depending on the simulation results, we believe that the electric field distribution in the STI oxide is the key parameter influencing bias effects on the radiation response of transistor. - Highlights: → ON bias is the worst bias condition for the ON, PASS and OFF bias modes. → Larger gate bias during irradiation leads to more pronounced characteristic degradation. → TID induced STI leakage can be suppressed by negative operating substrate bias voltage. → Negative substrate bias during irradiation leads to larger increase of off-state leakage. → Electric field in the STI oxide greatly influences the device's radiation effect.

  17. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, D; Aanesland, A

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N 2 . The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam. (paper)

  18. Radiation effects on residual voltage of polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyokane, Jun; Park, Dae-Hee; Yoshino, Katsumi.

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that diagnosis of deterioration in insulating materials for electric cables used in nuclear power plants and outer space (communications satellite in particular) can be effectively performed based on measurements of residual voltage. In the present study, polyethylene films are irradiated with γ-rays or electron beam to examine the changes in residual voltage characteristics. Irradiation of electron beam and γ-rays are carried out to a dose of 0 - 90 Mrad and 0 - 100 Mrad, respectively. Measurements are made of the dependence of residual voltage on applied voltage, electron beam and γ-ray irradiation, annealing temperature and annealing time. Results show that carriers, which are once trapped after being released from the electrode, move within the material after the opening of the circuit to produce resiual voltage. The residual voltage increases with increasing dose of electron beam or γ-ray and levels off at high dose. Residual voltage is increased about several times by either electron beam or γ-rays, but electron beam tends to cause greater residual voltage than γ-ray. Polyethylene films irradiated with electron beam can recover upon annealing. It is concluded from observations made that residual voltage has close relations with defects in molecular structures caused by radiations, particularly the breaking of backbone chains and alteration in superstructures. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Current-voltage characteristics of the semiconductor nanowires under the metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhang, Xitian; Gao, Hong; Wang, Mingjiao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to calculate the I-V characteristics of semiconductor nanowires under the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. The carrier concentration as an important parameter is introduced into the expression of the current. The subband structure of the nanowire has been considered for associating it with the position of the Fermi level and circumventing the uncertainties of the contact areas in the contacts. The tunneling and thermionic emission currents in the two Schottky barriers at the two metal-semiconductor contacts are discussed. We find that the two barriers have different influences on the I-V characteristics of the MSM structure, one of which under the forward bias plays the role of threshold voltage if its barrier height is large and the applied voltage is small, and the other under the reverse bias controls the shapes of I-V curves. Our calculations show that the shapes of the I-V curves for the MSM structure are mainly determined by the barrier heights of the contacts and the carrier concentration. The nearly identical I-V characteristics can be obtained by using different values of the barrier heights and carrier concentration, which means that the contact type conversion can be ascribed not only to the changes of the barrier heights but also that of the carrier concentration. We also discuss the mechanisms of the ohmic-Schottky conversions and clarify the ambiguity in the literature. The possibility about the variation of the carrier concentration under the applied fields has been confirmed by experimental results.

  20. A scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with continuous bias modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Edward; Yin, Xing; Waldeck, David H; Wierzbinski, Emil

    2015-09-28

    Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule.

  1. Module Seven: Combination Circuits and Voltage Dividers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…

  2. Simulating publication bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    is censoring: selection by the size of estimate; SR3 selects the optimal combination of fit and size; and SR4 selects the first satisficing result. The last four SRs are steered by priors and result in bias. The MST and the FAT-PET have been developed for detection and correction of such bias. The simulations......Economic research typically runs J regressions for each selected for publication – it is often selected as the ‘best’ of the regressions. The paper examines five possible meanings of the word ‘best’: SR0 is ideal selection with no bias; SR1 is polishing: selection by statistical fit; SR2...... are made by data variation, while the model is the same. It appears that SR0 generates narrow funnels much at odds with observed funnels, while the other four funnels look more realistic. SR1 to SR4 give the mean a substantial bias that confirms the prior causing the bias. The FAT-PET MRA works well...

  3. Contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, C. T. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Barjatya, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida 32114 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Langmuir probes are standard instruments for plasma density measurements on many sounding rockets. These probes can be operated in swept-bias as well as in fixed-bias modes. In swept-bias Langmuir probes, contamination effects are frequently visible as a hysteresis between consecutive up and down voltage ramps. This hysteresis, if not corrected, leads to poorly determined plasma densities and temperatures. With a properly chosen sweep function, the contamination parameters can be determined from the measurements and correct plasma parameters can then be determined. In this paper, we study the contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes, where no hysteresis type effect is seen in the data. Even though the contamination is not evident from the measurements, it does affect the plasma density fluctuation spectrum as measured by the fixed-bias Langmuir probe. We model the contamination as a simple resistor-capacitor circuit between the probe surface and the plasma. We find that measurements of small scale plasma fluctuations (meter to sub-meter scale) along a rocket trajectory are not affected, but the measured amplitude of large scale plasma density variation (tens of meters or larger) is attenuated. From the model calculations, we determine amplitude and cross-over frequency of the contamination effect on fixed-bias probes for different contamination parameters. The model results also show that a fixed bias probe operating in the ion-saturation region is affected less by contamination as compared to a fixed bias probe operating in the electron saturation region.

  4. Metodología para determinar la respuesta de los descargadores gaseosos tripolares ante una tensión de impulso dinámico; Test Methodology for Determining the Tripolar Gaseous Discharges Response when a Dynamic Impulse Voltage Is Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Á Martínez Barbado

    2011-02-01

    dynamicimpulse voltages are applied. The comparative analysis is carried out by means of the statistic techniqueof the detection of significative statistically differences between the disruptive mean values obtained.

  5. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  6. Bias induced transition from an ohmic to a non-ohmic interface in supramolecular tunneling junctions with Ga2O3/EGaIn top electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimbush, Kim S; Fratila, Raluca M; Wang, Dandan; Qi, Dongchen; Liang, Cao; Yuan, Li; Yakovlev, Nikolai; Loh, Kian Ping; Reinhoudt, David N; Velders, Aldrik H; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2014-10-07

    This study describes that the current rectification ratio, R ≡ |J|(-2.0 V)/|J|(+2.0 V) for supramolecular tunneling junctions with a top-electrode of eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) that contains a conductive thin (0.7 nm) supporting outer oxide layer (Ga2O3), increases by up to four orders of magnitude under an applied bias of >+1.0 V up to +2.5 V; these junctions did not change their electrical characteristics when biased in the voltage range of ±1.0 V. The increase in R is caused by the presence of water and ions in the supramolecular assemblies which react with the Ga2O3/EGaIn layer and increase the thickness of the Ga2O3 layer. This increase in the oxide thickness from 0.7 nm to ∼2.0 nm changed the nature of the monolayer-top-electrode contact from an ohmic to a non-ohmic contact. These results unambiguously expose the experimental conditions that allow for a safe bias window of ±1.0 V (the range of biases studies of charge transport using this technique are normally conducted) to investigate molecular effects in molecular electronic junctions with Ga2O3/EGaIn top-electrodes where electrochemical reactions are not significant. Our findings also show that the interpretation of data in studies involving applied biases of >1.0 V may be complicated by electrochemical side reactions which can be recognized by changes of the electrical characteristics as a function voltage cycling or in current retention experiments.

  7. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  8. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  9. Influence of Substrate Biasing on (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Niino, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Misawa, Tatsuya; Yonesu, Akira; Fujita, Hiroharu; Miyake, Shoji

    2004-03-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering with mirror confinement. DC bias voltage was applied to Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates during deposition to vary the intensity of bombardment of energetic ions and to modify film properties. BST films deposited on the substrates at floating potential (approximately +20 V) were found to be amorphous, while films deposited on +40 V-biased substrates were crystalline in spite of a low substrate temperature below 648 K. In addition, atomic diffusion, which causes deterioration in the electrical properties of the films, was hardly observed in the crystallized films deposited with +40 V bias perhaps due to the low substrate temperature. Plasma diagnoses revealed that application of a positive bias to the substrate reduced the energy of ion bombardment and increased the density of excited neutral particles, which was assumed to result in the promotion of chemical reactions during deposition and the crystallization of BST films at a low temperature.

  10. Modifications of plasma edge electric field and confinement properties by limiter biasing on the KT-5C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Gao; Kan Zhai; Yizhi Wen; Shude Wan; Guiding Wang; Changxun Yu

    1995-01-01

    Experiments using a biased multiblock limiter in the KT-5C tokamak show that positive biasing is more effective than negative biasing in modifying the edge electric field, suppressing fluctuations and improving plasma confinement. The biasing effect varies with the limiter area, the toroidal magnetic field and the biasing voltage. By positive biasing, the edge profiles of the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density become steeper, resulting in a reduced edge particle flux, an increased global particle confinement time and lower fluctuation levels of the edge plasma. (author)

  11. Voltage- and Light-Controlled Spin Properties of a Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in p-Type GaAs/AlAs Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeti, H. V. A.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the spin properties of a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at the contact layer of a p-type GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD). We have measured the polarized-resolved photoluminescence of the RTD as a function of bias voltage, laser intensity and external magnetic field up to 15T. By tuning the voltage and the laser intensity, we are able to change the spin-splitting from the 2DHG from almost 0 meV to 5 meV and its polarization degree from - 40% to + 50% at 15T. These results are attributed to changes of the local electric field applied to the two-dimensional gas which affects the valence band and the hole Rashba spin-orbit effect.

  12. Determining the mode of high voltage breakdowns in vacuum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.; Sturtz, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Devices were constructed which were essentially vacuum diodes equipped with windows allowing observation of high voltage breakdowns. The waveform of the applied voltage was photographed, and the x-ray output was monitored to investigate electrical breakdown in these vacuum diodes. Results indicate that breakdowns may be divided into two types: (1) vacuum (interelectrode) breakdown - characterized by a diffuse moderately bright discharge, a relative slow and smooth voltage collapse, and a large burst of x-rays, and (2) surface (insulator) flashover - characterized by a bright discharge with a very bright filamentary core, a relatively fast and noisy voltage collapse and no x-ray burst. Useful information concerning the type of breakdown in a vacuum device can be obtained by monitoring the voltage (current) waveform and the x-ray output

  13. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.; Linardakis, Peter; Tsifakis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed

  14. Novel composite resonance DC-DC converter with voltage doubler rectifier

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Hisatsugu; Matsuo, Hirohumi; Eguchi, Masaki; Sakamoto, Yukitaka; Nakaishi, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a novel composite resonance DC-DC converter with the voltage doubler rectifier, which is developed to be applied to the power conditioner of the photovoltaic generation system. The proposed DC-DC converter has the current and voltage resonance functions. Therefore, the output voltage regulation can be achieved for the large variations of the input voltage and load. Also, this converter has the high power efficiency. The maximum power efficiency 96.1% can be realized.

  15. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  16. Output voltage calculations in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with asymmetric voltage behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-10-22

    In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR-V curves, output voltages and I-V characteristics for negative and positive values of applied voltages were carried out using MTJs with CoFeB/MgO interfaces as an example. Asymmetry of the experimental TMR-V curves is explained by different values of the minority and majority Fermi wave vectors for the left and right sides of the tunnel barrier, which arises due to different annealing regimes. Electron tunneling in DMTJs was simulated in two ways: (i) Coherent tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled as one tunnel system and (ii) consecutive tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled by two single barrier junctions connected in series. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Separating inverse spin Hall voltage and spin rectification voltage by inverting spin injection direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxu, E-mail: xwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Peng, Bin; Han, Fangbin; Wang, Qiuru; Zhang, Wanli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, Chong Kim [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-03-07

    We develop a method for universally resolving the important issue of separating the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) from the spin rectification effect (SRE) signal. This method is based on the consideration that the two effects depend on the spin injection direction: The ISHE is an odd function of the spin injection direction while the SRE is independent on it. Thus, the inversion of the spin injection direction changes the ISHE voltage signal, while the SRE voltage remains. It applies generally to analyzing the different voltage contributions without fitting them to special line shapes. This fast and simple method can be used in a wide frequency range and has the flexibility of sample preparation.

  18. Group rationale, collective sense : Beyond intergroup bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, Russell

    In this paper, I contest the view of the group as a source of bias and irrationality, especially prevalent within social psychology. I argue that this negative evaluation often arises by applying inappropriate standards, relating to the wrong level of analysis (often the individual level). Second,

  19. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  20. Optimum biasing of integral equations in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In solving integral equations and estimating average values with the Monte Carlo method, biasing functions may be used to reduce the variancee of the estimates. A simple derivation was used to prove the existence of a zero-variance collision estimator if a specific biasing function and survival probability are applied. This optimum biasing function is the same as that used for the well known zero-variance last-event estimator

  1. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  2. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  3. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of Voltage Control Approaches for Future Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates meta-heuristic and deterministic approaches for distribution network voltage control. As part of this evaluation, a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, Cuckoo Search, is applied for distribution network voltage control and compared with a deterministic voltage control algorithm, the oriented discrete coordinate decent method (ODCDM. ODCDM has been adopted in a state-of-the-art industrial product and applied in real distribution networks. These two algorithms have been evaluated under a set of test cases, which were generated to represent the voltage control problems in current and future distribution networks. Sampled test results have been presented, and findings have been discussed regarding the adoption of different optimization algorithms for current and future distribution networks.

  5. Emissive limiter bias experiment for improved confinement of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Pribyl, P.A.; Liberati, J.R.; Taylor, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in Ohmic discharges of the UCLA CCT tokamak with a LaB 6 biased limiter, capable of emitting energetic electrons as a technique to improve confinement in tokamaks. To study the effects of emitted electrons, the limiter position, bias voltage, and plasma position were varied. The results have shown that the plasma positioning with respect to the emissive limiter plays an important role in obtaining H-mode plasmas. The emissive cathode must be located close to the last closed flux surface in order to charge up the plasma. As the cathode is moved closer to the wall, the positioning of the plasma becomes more critical since the plasma can easily detach from the cathode and reattach to the wall, resulting in the termination of H-mode. The emissive capability appears to be important for operating at lower bias voltage and reducing impurity levels in the plasma. With a heated cathode, transition to H-mode was observed for V bias ≤ 50 V and I inj ≥ 30 A. At a lower cathode heater current, a higher bias voltage is required for the transition. Moreover, with a lower cathode heater current, the time delay for inducing H-mode becomes longer, which can be attributed to the required time for the self-heating of the cathode to reach the emissive temperature. From this result, we conclude that the capacity for emission can significantly improve the performance of limiter biasing for inducing H-mode transition. With L-mode plasmas, the injection current flowing out of the cathode was generally higher than 100 A

  6. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  7. Voltage quantization by ballistic vortices in two-dimensional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.P.; Delin, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The voltage generated by moving ballistic vortices with a mass m ν in a two-dimensional superconducting ring is quantized, and this quantization depends on the amount of charge enclosed by the ring. The quantization of the voltage is the dual to flux quantization in a superconductor, and is a manifestation of the Aharonov-Casher effect. The quantization is obtained by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld criterion to the canonical momentum of the ballistic vortices. The results of this quantization condition can also be used to understand the persistent voltage predicted by van Wees for an array of Josephson junctions

  8. Direct harmonic voltage control strategy for shunt active power filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munir, Hafiz Mudassir; Zou, JianXiao; Xie, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    generation system (DPGS) where the nonlinear loads are highly dispersed. Local harmonic voltage detection based Resistive-APF (R-APF) seems more suitable to be applied in the DPGS, however, R-APF suffers from poor compensation performance and difficulty of parameter tuning. In this paper, a direct harmonic...... voltage control strategy for the S-APF is proposed with local point of common coupling (PCC) voltage detection only. The control strategy design procedure is given in detail. Simulation is conducted in Matlab/Simulink to compare the performance between the R-APF and the proposed method. The results...

  9. Secondary control for voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of secondary control is applied for voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid. The aim of the proposed control approach is to enhance the voltage quality at the point of common coupling (PCC). Unbalance compensation is achieved by proper control...... of distributed generators (DGs). The DGs control structure mainly consists of active and reactive power controllers, virtual impedance loop and voltage and current proportional-resonant controllers. Simulation results are presented for different cases. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach...

  10. Device and methods for writing and erasing analog information in small memory units via voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Talin, Albert Alec

    2018-04-17

    Devices and methods for non-volatile analog data storage are described herein. In an exemplary embodiment, an analog memory device comprises a potential-carrier source layer, a barrier layer deposited on the source layer, and at least two storage layers deposited on the barrier layer. The memory device can be prepared to write and read data via application of a biasing voltage between the source layer and the storage layers, wherein the biasing voltage causes potential-carriers to migrate into the storage layers. After initialization, data can be written to the memory device by application of a voltage pulse between two storage layers that causes potential-carriers to migrate from one storage layer to another. A difference in concentration of potential carriers caused by migration of potential-carriers between the storage layers results in a voltage that can be measured in order to read the written data.

  11. Organic dielectrics in high voltage cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeer, J

    1962-03-01

    It appears that the limit has been reached in the applicability of oil-impregnated paper as the dielectric for ehv cables, as with rising voltages the prevention of conductor losses becomes increasingly difficult, while the dielectric losses of the insulation, increasing as the square of the voltage, contribute to a greater extent to the temperature rise of the conductor. The power transmitting capacity of ehv cables reaches a maximum at 500 to 600 kV for these reasons. Apart from artificial cooling, a substantial improvement can be obtained only with the use of insulating materials with much lower dielectric losses; these can moreover be applied with a smaller wall thickness, but this means higher field strengths. Synthetic polymer materials meet these requirements but can be used successfully only in the form of lapped film tapes impregnated with suitable liquids. The electrical properties of these heterogeneous dielectrics, in particular, their impulse breakdown strengths are studied in detail.

  12. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases affect them can be expected to yield important results. In this theoretical article, we consider the ethical debate about cognitive enhancement (CE and suggest a number of cognitive biases that are likely to affect moral intuitions and judgments about CE: status quo bias, loss aversion, risk aversion, omission bias, scope insensitivity, nature bias, and optimistic bias. We find that there are more well-documented biases that are likely to cause irrational aversion to CE than biases in the opposite direction. This suggests that common attitudes about CE are predominantly negatively biased. Within this new perspective, we hope that subsequent research will be able to elaborate this hypothesis and develop effective de-biasing techniques that can help increase the rationality of the public CE debate and thus improve our ethical decision-making.

  13. Characteristics of voltage regulators with serial NPN transistor in the fields of medium and high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukic, V.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    Variation of collector - emitter dropout voltage on serial transistors of voltage regulators LM2990T-5 and LT1086CT5 were used as the parameter for detection of examined devices' radiation hardness in X and ? radiation fields. Biased voltage regulators with serial super-β transistor in the medium dose rate X radiation field had significantly different response from devices with conventional serial NPN transistor. Although unbiased components suffered greater damage in most cases, complete device failure happened only among the biased components with serial super-β transistor in Bremsstrahlung field. Mechanisms of transistors degradation in ionizing radiation fields were analysed [sr

  14. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caviola, L.; Mannino, A.; Savulescu, J.; Faulmüller, N.

    2014-01-01

    Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases

  15. Battling bias : Effects of training and training context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poos, J.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Janssen, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether cognitive bias in judgment and decision making can be reduced by training, and whether the effects are affected by the nature of the training environment. Theory suggests that biases can be overcome by training in critical reflective thinking. In addition, applied

  16. Battling Bias: Effects of Training and Training Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poos, Jackie; van den Bosch, Karel; Janssen, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether cognitive bias in judgment and decision making can be reduced by training, and whether the effects are affected by the nature of the training environment. Theory suggests that biases can be overcome by training in critical reflective thinking. In addition, applied

  17. Results of the 2015 testbeam of a 180 nm AMS High-Voltage CMOS sensor prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, M.

    2016-07-21

    Active pixel sensors based on the High-Voltage CMOS technology are being investigated as a viable option for the future pixel tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC. This paper reports on the testbeam measurements performed at the H8 beamline of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron on a High-Voltage CMOS sensor prototype produced in 180 nm AMS technology. Results in terms of tracking efficiency and timing performance, for different threshold and bias conditions, are shown.

  18. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage-sensing lipid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sasha S; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-04-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We found that the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), has not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Using fast fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage-clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we found that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage-sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This two-step allosteric control over a dual-specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility, endocytosis and exocytosis.

  19. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage sensing lipid phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sasha S.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2016-01-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We find the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), to have not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage sensing domain (VSD). Using fast FRET reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we find that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This novel 2-step allosteric control over a dual specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility and endo/exocytosis. PMID:26878552

  20. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/λ_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, λ_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  1. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  2. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  3. Estimation bias and bias correction in reduced rank autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2017-01-01

    This paper characterizes the finite-sample bias of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in a reduced rank vector autoregression and suggests two simulation-based bias corrections. One is a simple bootstrap implementation that approximates the bias at the MLE. The other is an iterative root...

  4. Study on quench detection of the KSTAR CS coil with CDA+MIK compensation of inductive voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seok Chan; Kim, Jin Sub [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Yong [National Fusion Research Institute(NFRI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Quench Detection System (QDS) is essential to guarantee the stable operation of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system because the stored energy in the magnet system is very large. For the fast response, voltage-based QDS has been used. Co-wound voltage sensors and balanced bridge circuits were applied to eliminate the inductive voltages generated during the plasma operation. However, as the inductive voltages are hundreds times higher than the quench detection voltage during the pulse-current operation, Central Difference Averaging (CDA) and MIK, where I and K stand for mutual coupling indexes of different circuits, which is an active cancellation of mutually generated voltages have been suggested and studied. In this paper, the CDA and MIK technique were applied to the KSTAR magnet for PF magnet quench detection. The calculated inductive voltages from the MIK and measured voltages from the CDA circuits were compared to eliminate the inductive voltages at result signals.

  5. Study on quench detection of the KSTAR CS coil with CDA+MIK compensation of inductive voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Seok Chan; Kim, Jin Sub; Chu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Quench Detection System (QDS) is essential to guarantee the stable operation of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system because the stored energy in the magnet system is very large. For the fast response, voltage-based QDS has been used. Co-wound voltage sensors and balanced bridge circuits were applied to eliminate the inductive voltages generated during the plasma operation. However, as the inductive voltages are hundreds times higher than the quench detection voltage during the pulse-current operation, Central Difference Averaging (CDA) and MIK, where I and K stand for mutual coupling indexes of different circuits, which is an active cancellation of mutually generated voltages have been suggested and studied. In this paper, the CDA and MIK technique were applied to the KSTAR magnet for PF magnet quench detection. The calculated inductive voltages from the MIK and measured voltages from the CDA circuits were compared to eliminate the inductive voltages at result signals

  6. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.

  7. Awareness and minimisation of systematic bias in research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Helen

    2014-03-01

    A major goal of nursing and midwifery is the delivery of evidence-based practice. Consequently, it is essential for the quality and safety of patient\\/client care that policy makers, educators and practitioners are aware of the presence of potential systematic bias in research practice and research publications so that only sound evidence translates into practice. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the need for ongoing awareness of the potential presence of systematic bias in research practice, to explore commonly reported types of systematic bias and to report some methods that can be applied to minimise systematic bias in research.

  8. Seed sexing revealed female bias in two Rumex species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kwolek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.

  9. Systematic approach to establishing criticality biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to determine benchmark biases and apply those biases to code results to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24 regarding documenting criticality safety margins. Previously, validation of the code against experimental benchmarks to prove reasonable agreement was sufficient. However, DOE Order 5480.24 requires contractors to adhere to the requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 and establish subcritical margins. A method was developed to incorporate biases and uncertainties from benchmark calculations into a k eff value with quantifiable uncertainty. The method produces a 95% confidence level in both the k eff value of the scenario modeled and the distribution of the k eff S calculated by the Monte Carlo code. Application of the method to a group of benchmarks modeled using the KENO-Va code and the SCALE 27 group cross sections is also presented

  10. High sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures with FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Chen, Hengjia

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a high sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures consisting of FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D (Tb1-xDyxFe2)/PZT (Pb(Zr1-x,Tix)O3)/Terfenol-D/PZT/Ternol-D/FeCuNbSiB (FMPMPMF) is presented, whose ME coupling characteristics and sensing performances have been investigated. Compared to traditional Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPM) and Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPMPM) sensors, the zero-biased ME coupling characteristics of FMPMPMF sensor were significantly improved, owing to a build-in magnetic field in FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D layers. The optimum zero-biased resonant ME voltage coefficient of 3.02 V/Oe is achieved, which is 1.65 times as great as that of MPMPM and 2.51 times of MPM sensors. The mean value of low-frequency ME field coefficient of FMPMPMF reaches 122.53 mV/cm Oe, which is 2.39 times as great as that of MPMPM and 1.79 times of MPM sensors. Meanwhile, the induced zero-biased ME voltage of FMPMPMF sensor shows an excellent linear relationship to ac magnetic field both at the low frequency (1 kHz) and the resonant frequency (106.6 kHz). Remarkably, it indicates that the proposed zero-biased magnetic field sensor give the prospect of being able to applied to the field of highly sensitive ac magnetic field sensing.

  11. Pixel detector bias supply and control using embedded multicore processors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099144; Akram Alomainy

    The aim of the project is to create a software controlled, open source, low footprint and low power high voltage bias supply and current monitor for a pixelated radiation sensor. The solution is based on the LT3905 integrated circuit and the multi-core XMOS xCore 200 microcontroller and it is intended to be used in a battery powered, mobile platform for educational settings.

  12. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, C J, E-mail: khour@gaec.gr [Ionizing Radiation Calibration Laboratory-Greek Atomic Energy Commission, PO Box 60092, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Attiki (Greece)

    2011-04-07

    The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, U-bar{sub P}, the average, U-bar, the effective, U{sub eff} or the maximum peak, U{sub P} tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average U-bar or the average peak, U-bar{sub p} voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak k{sub PPV,kVp} and the average k{sub PPV,Uav} conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated - according to the proposed method - PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from U-bar{sub p} and U-bar measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements.

  13. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  14. Mechanism for and method of biasing magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, David R.

    2007-12-04

    A magnetic sensor package having a biasing mechanism involving a coil-generated, resistor-controlled magnetic field for providing a desired biasing effect. In a preferred illustrated embodiment, the package broadly comprises a substrate; a magnetic sensor element; a biasing mechanism, including a coil and a first resistance element; an amplification mechanism; a filter capacitor element; and an encapsulant. The sensor is positioned within the coil. A current applied to the coil produces a biasing magnetic field. The biasing magnetic field is controlled by selecting a resistance value for the first resistance element which achieves the desired biasing effect. The first resistance element preferably includes a plurality of selectable resistors, the selection of one or more of which sets the resistance value.

  15. Operation voltage of the counting system of nuclear traces in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Quirino, L.L.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Lugo, J.F.; Vadillo, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    The semi-automatic counting system based on electric spark and used for traces reading in solid state detectors is evaluated for obtaining its counting voltage and also the breaking voltage of material. In the treatment of the solid state detectors it is continued the NTD methodology for concluding with the individual counting of the films, whose graphics offer the existing relationship among the applied voltage and the traces number. From each film a counting and breaking voltages are obtained. Finally, an average voltage of all them is estimated. (Author)

  16. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W; Silverstein, Brian L [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  17. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  18. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  19. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  20. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Bjoern; Wagner, Achim; Kliem, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depends on the energy-barrier heights in the multi-well potential

  1. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  2. Synthesis of sheath voltage drops in asymmetric radio-frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Shigeru; Nanbu, Kenichi; Iwata, Naoaki

    2004-01-01

    A sheath voltage drop in asymmetric discharges is one of the most important parameters of radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas because it determines the kinetic energy of the ions incident on the target or substrate. In this study, we developed a numerical simulation code to estimate the sheath voltage drops and, consequently, the self-bias voltage. We roughly approximated general asymmetric rf discharges to one-dimensional spherical ones. The results obtained by using our simulation code are consistent with measurements and Lieberman's theory

  3. The False Consensus Bias as Applied to Psychologically Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve adolescents who described themselves as depressed or suicidal and 43 nondisturbed adolescents read article about child's suicidal or viral illness death. Both groups viewed suicidal child and family more negatively than family and child with viral illness. Consistent with false consensus hypothesis, psychologically disturbed adolescents…

  4. Low voltage stress-induced leakage current and traps in ultrathin oxide (1.2 2.5 nm) after constant voltage stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Zander, D.

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown that the low voltage gate current in ultrathin oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor devices is very sensitive to electrical stresses. Therefore, it can be used as a reliability monitor when the oxide thickness becomes too small for traditional electrical measurements to be used. In this work, we present a study on n-MOSCAP devices at negative gate bias in the direct tunneling (DT) regime. If the low voltage stress-induced leakage current (LVSILC) depends strongly on the low sense voltages, it also depends strongly on the stress voltage magnitude. We show that two LVSILC peaks appear as a function of the sense voltage in the LVSILC region and that their magnitude, one compared to the other, depends strongly on the stress voltage magnitude. One is larger than the other at low stress voltage and smaller at high stress voltage. From our experimental results, different conduction mechanisms are analyzed. To explain LVSILC variations, we propose a model of the conduction through the ultrathin gate oxide based on two distinctly different trap-assisted tunneling mechanisms: inelastic of gate electron (INE) and trap-assisted electron (ETAT).

  5. Macroeconomic Assessment of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Küfeoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.

  6. A matter of quantum voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M., E-mail: Shawn.Kathmann@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  7. A New Method for Negative Bias Temperature Instability Assessment in P-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djezzar, Boualem; Tahi, Hakim; Benabdelmoumene, Abdelmadjid; Chenouf, Amel; Kribes, Youcef

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method, named on the fly oxide trap (OTFOT), to extract the bias temperature instability (BTI) in MOS transistors. The OTFOT method is based on charge pumping technique (CP) at low and high frequencies. We emphasize on the theoretical-based concept, giving a clear insight on the easy-use of the OTFOT methodology and demonstrating its viability to characterize the negative BTI (NBTI). Using alternatively high and low frequencies, OTFOT method separates the interface-traps (ΔNit) and border-trap (ΔNbt) (switching oxide-trap) densities independently and also their contributions to the threshold voltage shift (ΔVth), without needing additional methods. The experimental results, from two experimental scenarios, showing the extraction of NBTI-induced shifts caused by interface- and oxide-trap increases are also presented. In the first scenario, all stresses are performed on the same transistor. It exhibits an artifact value of exponent n. In the second scenario, each voltage stress is applied only on one transistor. Its results show an average n of 0.16, 0.05, and 0.11 for NBTI-induced ΔNit, ΔNbt, ΔVth, respectively. Therefore, OTFOT method can contribute to further understand the behavior of the NBTI degradation, especially through the threshold voltage shift components such as ΔVit and ΔVot caused by interface-trap and border-trap, respectively.

  8. Frequency and voltage dependent profile of dielectric properties, electric modulus and ac electrical conductivity in the PrBaCoO nanofiber capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Demirezen

    Full Text Available In this study, praseodymium barium cobalt oxide nanofiber interfacial layer was sandwiched between Au and n-Si. Frequency and voltage dependence of ε′, ε′, tanδ, electric modulus (M′ and M″ and σac of PrBaCoO nanofiber capacitor have been investigated by using impedance spectroscopy method. The obtained experimental results show that the values of ε′, ε′, tanδ, M′, M″ and σac of the PrBaCoO nanofiber capacitor are strongly dependent on frequency of applied bias voltage. The values of ε′, ε″ and tanδ show a steep decrease with increasing frequency for each forward bias voltage, whereas the values of σac and the electric modulus increase with increasing frequency. The high dispersion in ε′ and ε″ values at low frequencies may be attributed to the Maxwell–Wagner and space charge polarization. The high values of ε′ may be due to the interfacial effects within the material, PrBaCoO nanofibers interfacial layer and electron effect. The values of M′ and M″ reach a maximum constant value corresponding to M∞ ≈ 1/ε∞ due to the relaxation process at high frequencies, but both the values of M′ and M″ approach almost to zero at low frequencies. The changes in the dielectric and electrical properties with frequency can be also attributed to the existence of Nss and Rs of the capacitors. As a result, the change in the ε′, ε″, tanδ, M′, M″ and ac electric conductivity (σac is a result of restructuring and reordering of charges at the PrBaCoO/n-Si interface under an external electric field or voltage and interface polarization. Keywords: Thin films, Electrical properties, Interface/interphase

  9. Proposed Use of Zero Bias Diode Arrays as Thermal Electric Noise Rectifiers and Non-Thermal Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2009-03-01

    The well known built-in voltage potential for some select semiconductor p-n junctions and various rectifying devices is proposed to be favorable for generating DC electricity at "zero bias" (with no DC bias voltage applied) in the presence of Johnson noise or 1/f noise which originates from the quantum vacuum (Koch et al., 1982). The 1982 Koch discovery that certain solid state devices exhibit measurable quantum noise has also recently been labeled a finding of dark energy in the lab (Beck and Mackey, 2004). Tunnel diodes are a class of rectifiers that are qualified and some have been credited with conducting only because of quantum fluctuations. Microwave diodes are also good choices since many are designed for zero bias operation. A completely passive, unamplified zero bias diode converter/detector for millimeter (GHz) waves was developed by HRL Labs in 2006 under a DARPA contract, utilizing a Sb-based "backward tunnel diode" (BTD). It is reported to be a "true zero-bias diode." It was developed for a "field radiometer" to "collect thermally radiated power" (in other words, 'night vision'). The diode array mounting allows a feed from horn antenna, which functions as a passive concentrating amplifier. An important clue is the "noise equivalent power" of 1.1 pW per root hertz and the "noise equivalent temperature difference" of 10° K, which indicate sensitivity to Johnson noise (Lynch, et al., 2006). There also have been other inventions such as "single electron transistors" that also have "the highest signal to noise ratio" near zero bias. Furthermore, "ultrasensitive" devices that convert radio frequencies have been invented that operate at outer space temperatures (3 degrees above zero point: 3° K). These devices are tiny nanotech devices which are suitable for assembly in parallel circuits (such as a 2-D array) to possibly produce zero point energy direct current electricity with significant power density (Brenning et al., 2006). Photovoltaic p-n junction

  10. High voltage power supplies for INDUS-2 RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The RF system of Indus-2 employs klystron amplifiers operating at 505.812 MHz. A precession controlled high voltage DC supply of appropriate rating is needed for each klystron amplifier, as its bias supply. Since internal flashover and arcing are common with the operation of these klystrons and stored energies beyond particular limit inside its bias power supply is detrimental to this device, a properly designed crowbar is incorporated between each klystron and its power supply. This crowbar bypass these stored energies and helps protecting klystron under any of these unfavorable conditions. In either case, power supply sees a near short circuit across its load. So, its power circuit is designed to reduce the fault current level and its various components are also designed to withstand these fault currents, as and when it appears. Finally, operation of these high voltage power supplies (HVPS) generates lot of harmonics on the source side, which distort the input waveform substantially and reduces the input power factor also. Source multiplication between two power supplies are planned to improve upon above parameters and suitable detuned line filters are incorporated to keep the input voltage total harmonics distortion (THD) below 5 % and input power factor (IFF) near unity. (author)

  11. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.I. Jr.

    2000-06-20

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  12. Mammalian cortical astrocytes align themselves in a physiological voltage gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgens, R B; Shi, R; Mohr, T J; Jaeger, C B

    1994-07-01

    Astrocytes obtained from primary cultures of newborn rat cerebral cortex show a marked structural rearrangement to weak (50-500 mV/mm) applied voltage gradients. Astrocytes reorient their processes so that the cells are aligned perpendicular to the voltage gradient. At field strengths of 100 mV/mm or greater, this realignment occurs in over 90% of the cell population. Furthermore, these magnitudes of electric fields completely eliminate any parallel alignments originally observed prior to application of the voltage. Realignment usually occurs by a withdrawal, followed by an extension, of cell processes. These responses occur at voltage gradients within the physiological range that naturally exist across the neural tube during early development. We suggest the possibility that architectural arrangements of developing glia and, subsequently, neurons may be regulated by endogenous transepithelial potentials that exist across embryonic neuroepithelium.

  13. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  14. Loss characteristics of FLTD magnetic cores under fast pulsed voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguo; Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Jiang Xiaofeng; Liang Tianxue; Yin Jiahui; Liu Peng; Wei Hao; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The test platform has been developed to generate exciting pulsed voltages with the rise time less than 30 ns. The loss characteristics of cores of 25 μm 2605TCA Metglas and 50 μm DG6 electrical steel were then studied. A characteristic parameter, the gradient of the voltage pulse applied per unit core area, is proposed to describe the exciting condition applied on magnetic cores. The loss of the DG6 core is about 4 times that of the 2605TCA core. Most loss of the DG6 core, about 75%, is due to eddy current. For the 2605TCA core, the percentage is about 28%. (authors)

  15. Assessing the extent of non-stationary biases in GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jannatun; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-06-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the main tools for estimating changes in the climate for the future. The imperfect representation of climate models introduces biases in the simulations that need to be corrected prior to their use for impact assessments. Bias correction methods generally assume that the bias calculated over the historical period does not change and can be applied to the future. This study investigates this assumption by considering the extent and nature of bias non-stationarity using 20th century precipitation and temperature simulations from six CMIP5 GCMs across Australia. Four statistics (mean, standard deviation, 10th and 90th quantiles) in monthly and seasonal biases are obtained for three different time window lengths (10, 25 and 33 years) to examine the properties of bias over time. This approach is repeated for two different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which is known to have strong influences on the Australian climate. It is found that bias non-stationarity at decadal timescales is indeed an issue over some of Australia for some GCMs. When considering interdecadal variability there are significant difference in the bias between positive and negative phases of the IPO. Regional analyses confirmed these findings with the largest differences seen on the east coast of Australia, where IPO impacts tend to be the strongest. The nature of the bias non-stationarity found in this study suggests that it will be difficult to modify existing bias correction approaches to account for non-stationary biases. A more practical approach for impact assessments that use bias correction maybe to use a selection of GCMs where the assumption of bias non-stationarity holds.

  16. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, Varsha

    Common Mode Voltage (CMV) in any power converter has been the major contributor to premature motor failures, bearing deterioration, shaft voltage build up and electromagnetic interference. Intelligent control methods like Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) techniques provide immense potential and flexibility to reduce CMV, thereby targeting all the afore mentioned problems. Other solutions like passive filters, shielded cables and EMI filters add to the volume and cost metrics of the entire system. Smart SVPWM techniques therefore, come with a very important advantage of being an economical solution. This thesis discusses a modified space vector technique applied to an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC) which results in the reduction of common mode voltages and other advanced features. The conventional indirect space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) method of controlling matrix converters involves the usage of two adjacent active vectors and one zero vector for both rectifying and inverting stages of the converter. By suitable selection of space vectors, the rectifying stage of the matrix converter can generate different levels of virtual DC-link voltage. This capability can be exploited for operation of the converter in different ranges of modulation indices for varying machine speeds. This results in lower common mode voltage and improves the harmonic spectrum of the output voltage, without increasing the number of switching transitions as compared to conventional modulation. To summarize it can be said that the responsibility of formulating output voltages with a particular magnitude and frequency has been transferred solely to the rectifying stage of the IMC. Estimation of degree of distortion in the three phase output voltage is another facet discussed in this thesis. An understanding of the SVPWM technique and the switching sequence of the space vectors in detail gives the potential to estimate the RMS value of the switched output voltage of any

  17. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  18. An auto-biased 0.5 um CMOS transconductor for very high frequency applications

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Nuno; Franca, José E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a CMOS transconductance cell for the implementation of very high frequency current-mode gm-C filters. It features simple pseudo-differential circuitry employing small device size transistors and yielding a power dissipation of less than 1 mW/pole at nominal 3.0 V supply voltage. Self-biased common-mode voltage designed to minimize mismatch errors, improves noise and stability behavior. Short channel effects are analyzed and simulation results are presented.

  19. Role of AlGaN/GaN interface traps on negative threshold voltage shift in AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amit; Sharma, Chandan; Laishram, Robert; Bag, Rajesh Kumar; Rawal, Dipendra Singh; Vinayak, Seema; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    This article reports negative shift in the threshold-voltage in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with application of reverse gate bias stress. The device is biased in strong pinch-off and low drain to source voltage condition for a fixed time duration (reverse gate bias stress), followed by measurement of transfer characteristics. Negative threshold voltage shift after application of reverse gate bias stress indicates the presence of more carriers in channel as compared to the unstressed condition. We propose the presence of AlGaN/GaN interface states to be the reason of negative threshold voltage shift, and developed a process to electrically characterize AlGaN/GaN interface states. We verified the results with Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) ATLAS simulation and got a good match with experimental measurements.

  20. Nonequilibrium Kondo effect by the equilibrium numerical renormalization group method: The hybrid Anderson model subject to a finite spin bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tie-Feng; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2018-06-01

    We investigate Kondo correlations in a quantum dot with normal and superconducting electrodes, where a spin bias voltage is applied across the device and the local interaction U is either attractive or repulsive. When the spin current is blockaded in the large-gap regime, this nonequilibrium strongly correlated problem maps into an equilibrium model solvable by the numerical renormalization group method. The Kondo spectra with characteristic splitting due to the nonequilibrium spin accumulation are thus obtained at high precision. It is shown that while the bias-induced decoherence of the spin Kondo effect is partially compensated by the superconductivity, the charge Kondo effect is enhanced out of equilibrium and undergoes an additional splitting by the superconducting proximity effect, yielding four Kondo peaks in the local spectral density. In the charge Kondo regime, we find a universal scaling of charge conductance in this hybrid device under different spin biases. The universal conductance as a function of the coupling to the superconducting lead is peaked at and hence directly measures the Kondo temperature. Our results are of direct relevance to recent experiments realizing a negative-U charge Kondo effect in hybrid oxide quantum dots [Nat. Commun. 8, 395 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00495-7].

  1. Investigation of silicon heterojunction solar cells by photoluminescence under DC-bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtois Guillaume

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence measurements on solar cells are usually carried out under open-circuit conditions. We report here on an innovative approach, in which the samples are simultaneously illuminated and DC-biased, so that the luminescence can be monitored under several operating points, that is to say several injection levels, ranging from short-circuit conditions to the light-emitting regime of the device. The experiments were performed on in-house made c-Si/a-Si:H heterojunction solar cells illuminated by a continuous green laser diode and positively biased. The luminescence spectra obtained this way were compared to those obtained with no light excitation source, which corresponds to usual electroluminescence mode and dark J(V. Firstly, the obtained luminescence spectra have shown the expected exponential dependence on the applied voltage. Furthermore, given that the amplitude of the emitted luminescence is proportional to the radiative recombination rate, this approach enables to indirectly characterise the non-radiative recombination phenomena. In the case of HJ solar cells with intrinsic thin layers processed on high quality FZ-wafers, non-radiative recombination is dominated by the defects at the c-Si/a-Si:H interface. The luminescence measurements presented here therefore give information on the quality of the surface passivation. An estimation of the interface defect density was achieved by comparing our experimental results with modelling.

  2. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; You, Shin-Jae; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7–5.5 nm and 6–13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84. (paper)

  3. Operator Bias in the Estimation of Arc Efficiency in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sikström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operator bias in the measurement process of arc efficiency in stationary direct current electrode negative gas tungsten arc welding is discussed. An experimental study involving 15 operators (enough to reach statistical significance has been carried out with the purpose to estimate the arc efficiency from a specific procedure for calorimetric experiments. The measurement procedure consists of three manual operations which introduces operator bias in the measurement process. An additional relevant experiment highlights the consequences of estimating the arc voltage by measuring the potential between the terminals of the welding power source instead of measuring the potential between the electrode contact tube and the workpiece. The result of the study is a statistical evaluation of the operator bias influence on the estimate, showing that operator bias is negligible in the estimate considered here. On the contrary the consequences of neglecting welding leads voltage drop results in a significant under estimation of the arc efficiency.

  4. Impacts of gate bias and its variation on gamma-ray irradiation resistance of SiC MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Koichi; Mitomo, Satoshi; Matsuda, Takuma; Yokoseki, Takashi [Saitama University, Sakuraku (Japan); National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Takasaki (Japan); Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Takeyama, Akinori; Ohshima, Takeshi [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Takasaki (Japan); Okubo, Shuichi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kandori, Mikio; Yoshie, Toru [Sanken Electric Co., Ltd., Niiza, Saitama (Japan); Hijikata, Yasuto [Saitama University, Sakuraku (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Gamma-ray irradiation into vertical type n-channel hexagonal (4H)-silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) was performed under various gate biases. The threshold voltage for the MOSFETs irradiated with a constant positive gate bias showed a large negative shift, and the shift slightly recovered above 100 kGy. For MOSFETs with non- and a negative constant biases, no significant change in threshold voltage, V{sub th}, was observed up to 400 kGy. By changing the gate bias from positive bias to either negative or non-bias, the V{sub th} significantly recovered from the large negative voltage shift induced by 50 kGy irradiation with positive gate bias after only 10 kGy irradiation with either negative or zero bias. It indicates that the positive charges generated in the gate oxide near the oxide-SiC interface due to irradiation were removed or recombined instantly by the irradiation under zero or negative biases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  6. Low-Energy Real-Time OS Using Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Variable Voltage Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Takanori; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time OS based on $ mu $ITRON using proposed voltage scheduling algorithm for variable voltage processors which can vary supply voltage dynamically. The proposed voltage scheduling algorithms assign voltage level for each task dynamically in order to minimize energy consumption under timing constraints. Using the presented real-time OS, running tasks with low supply voltage leads to drastic energy reduction. In addition, the presented voltage scheduling algorithm is ...

  7. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Toudeshki, Arash; Mariun, Norman; Hizam, Hashim; Abdul Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  8. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  9. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of GaAs ion-implanted structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privalov E. N.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A noniterative numerical method is proposed to calculate the barrier capacitance of GaAs ion-implanted structures as a function of the Schottky barrier bias. The features of the low- and high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures which are due to the presence of deep traps are elucidated.

  10. Current-voltage-temperature characteristics of DNA origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Edson P; Bobadilla, Alfredo D; Rangel, Norma L; Seminario, Jorge M [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zhong Hong; Norton, Michael L [Department of Chemistry, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Sinitskii, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-04-29

    The temperature dependences of the current-voltage characteristics of a sample of triangular DNA origami deposited in a 100 nm gap between platinum electrodes are measured using a probe station. Below 240 K, the sample shows high impedance, similar to that of the substrate. Near room temperature the current shows exponential behavior with respect to the inverse of temperature. Sweep times of 1 s do not yield a steady state; however sweep times of 450 s for the bias voltage secure a steady state. The thermionic emission and hopping conduction models yield similar barriers of {approx}0.7 eV at low voltages. For high voltages, the hopping conduction mechanism yields a barrier of 0.9 eV and the thermionic emission yields 1.1 eV. The experimental data set suggests that the dominant conduction mechanism is hopping in the range 280-320 K. The results are consistent with theoretical and experimental estimates of the barrier for related molecules.

  11. Current-voltage-temperature characteristics of DNA origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, Edson P; Bobadilla, Alfredo D; Rangel, Norma L; Seminario, Jorge M; Zhong Hong; Norton, Michael L; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the current-voltage characteristics of a sample of triangular DNA origami deposited in a 100 nm gap between platinum electrodes are measured using a probe station. Below 240 K, the sample shows high impedance, similar to that of the substrate. Near room temperature the current shows exponential behavior with respect to the inverse of temperature. Sweep times of 1 s do not yield a steady state; however sweep times of 450 s for the bias voltage secure a steady state. The thermionic emission and hopping conduction models yield similar barriers of ∼0.7 eV at low voltages. For high voltages, the hopping conduction mechanism yields a barrier of 0.9 eV and the thermionic emission yields 1.1 eV. The experimental data set suggests that the dominant conduction mechanism is hopping in the range 280-320 K. The results are consistent with theoretical and experimental estimates of the barrier for related molecules.

  12. Using a Voltage Domain Programmable Technique for Low-Power Management Cell-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Cheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-voltage technique is an effective way to reduce power consumption. In the proposed cell-based voltage domain programmable (VDP technique, the high and low voltages applied to logic gates are programmable. The flexible voltage domain reassignment allows the chip performance and power consumption to be dynamically adjusted. In the proposed technique, the power switches possess the feature of flexible programming after chip manufacturing. This VDP method does not use an external voltage regulator to regulate the supply voltage level from outside of the chip but can be easily integrated within the design. This novel technique is proven by use of a video decoder test chip, which shows 55% and 61% power reductions compared to conventional single-Vdd and low-voltage designs, respectively. This power-aware performance adjusting mechanism shows great power reduction with a good power-performance management mechanism.

  13. Quantum phase slips and voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Andrew G. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikin, Andrei D. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We argue that quantum phase slips (QPS) may generate non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. In the low frequency limit we evaluate all cumulants of the voltage operator which obey Poisson statistics and show a power law dependence on the external bias. We specifically address quantum shot noise which power spectrum S{sub Ω} may depend non-monotonously on temperature. In the long wire limit S{sub Ω} decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T → 0. Our predictions can be directly tested in future experiments with superconducting nanowires. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagbas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-mode (CM and voltage-mode (VM multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

  15. Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-10-01

    Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact on current-driven magnetization dynamics and on devices performances. After a brief overview of the progress made to date in the theoretical description of the spin torque in tunnel junctions, I present different ways to alter and control the bias dependence of both components of the spin torque. Engineering the junction (barrier and electrodes) structural asymmetries or controlling the spin accumulation profile in the free layer offer promising tools to design effcient spin devices.

  16. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  17. Assessing atmospheric bias correction for dynamical consistency using potential vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocheta, Eytan; Sharma, Ashish; Evans, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    Correcting biases in atmospheric variables prior to impact studies or dynamical downscaling can lead to new biases as dynamical consistency between the ‘corrected’ fields is not maintained. Use of these bias corrected fields for subsequent impact studies and dynamical downscaling provides input conditions that do not appropriately represent intervariable relationships in atmospheric fields. Here we investigate the consequences of the lack of dynamical consistency in bias correction using a measure of model consistency—the potential vorticity (PV). This paper presents an assessment of the biases present in PV using two alternative correction techniques—an approach where bias correction is performed individually on each atmospheric variable, thereby ignoring the physical relationships that exists between the multiple variables that are corrected, and a second approach where bias correction is performed directly on the PV field, thereby keeping the system dynamically coherent throughout the correction process. In this paper we show that bias correcting variables independently results in increased errors above the tropopause in the mean and standard deviation of the PV field, which are improved when using the alternative proposed. Furthermore, patterns of spatial variability are improved over nearly all vertical levels when applying the alternative approach. Results point to a need for a dynamically consistent atmospheric bias correction technique which results in fields that can be used as dynamically consistent lateral boundaries in follow-up downscaling applications. (letter)

  18. Characterization of chaotic electroconvection near flat electrodes under oscillatory voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonglae; Davidson, Scott; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Onset of hydrodynamic instability and chaotic electroconvection in aqueous systems are studied by directly solving the two-dimensional coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations. An aqueous binary electrolyte is bounded by two planar electrodes where time-harmonic voltage is applied at a constant oscillation frequency. The governing equations are solved using a fully-conservative second-order-accurate finite volume discretization and a second-order implicit Euler time advancement. At a sufficiently high amplitude of applied voltage, the system exhibits chaotic behaviors involving strong hydrodynamic mixing and enhanced electroconvection. The system responses are characterized as a function of oscillation frequency, voltage magnitude, and the ratio of diffusivities of two ion species. Our results indicate that electroconvection is most enhanced for frequencies on the order of inverse system RC time scale. We will discuss the dependence of this optimal frequency on the asymmetry of the diffusion coefficients of ionic species. Supported by the Stanford's Precourt Institute.

  19. Power MOSFET Linearizer of a High-Voltage Power Amplifier for High-Frequency Pulse-Echo Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Woo, Park Chul; Yeom, Jung-Yeol; Yoon, Changhan

    2017-04-04

    A power MOSFET linearizer is proposed for a high-voltage power amplifier (HVPA) used in high-frequency pulse-echo instrumentation. The power MOSFET linearizer is composed of a DC bias-controlled series power MOSFET shunt with parallel inductors and capacitors. The proposed scheme is designed to improve the gain deviation characteristics of the HVPA at higher input powers. By controlling the MOSFET bias voltage in the linearizer, the gain reduction into the HVPA was compensated, thereby reducing the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers. In order to verify the performance improvement of the HVPA implementing the power MOSFET linearizer, we measured and found that the gain deviation of the power MOSFET linearizer integrated with HVPA under 10 V DC bias voltage was reduced (-1.8 and -0.96 dB, respectively) compared to that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-2.95 and -3.0 dB, respectively) when 70 and 80 MHz, three-cycle, and 26 dB m input pulse waveforms are applied, respectively. The input 1-dB compression point (an index of linearity) of the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (24.17 and 26.19 dB m at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively) at 10 V DC bias voltage was increased compared to that of HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (22.03 and 22.13 dB m at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively). To further verify the reduction of the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers, the pulse-echo responses in the pulse-echo instrumentation were compared when using HVPA with and without the power MOSFET linearizer. When three-cycle 26 dB m input power was applied, the second, third, fourth, and fifth harmonic distortion components of a 75 MHz transducer driven by the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (-48.34, -44.21, -48.34, and -46.56 dB, respectively) were lower than that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-45.61, -41.57, -45.01, and -45.51 dB, respectively). When five-cycle 20 dB m input

  20. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling...