WorldWideScience

Sample records for bias supply system

  1. Energy-aware Supply Voltage and Body Biasing Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Real-time Distributed Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUYajuan; WEIShaojun

    2005-01-01

    Technique of energy minimization by combining Dynamic voltage scheduling (DVS) and Adaptive body biasing voltage (ABB) method for distributed realtime system at design level is proposed. First, a simplified energy optimizing model is illustrated where the supply voltage or body biasing voltage is kept as constant according to each separated frequency region, thus calculation of exceeding equation is avoided. Divergence of simplified and analytic model within 5% indicates the accuracy of this model. Based on it, the proposed approach named LEVVS (Low energy supply voltage and body biasing voltage scheduling algorithm) explores space of minimizing energy consumption by finding optimal trade-off between dynamic and static energy. The corresponding optimal supply voltage and body biasing voltage are determined by an iterative method in which the supply voltage and body biasing voltage of tasks are adjusted according to the value of energy latency differential coefficient of each task and slack time distribution of the system. Experiments show that using LEVVS approach, 51% more average energy reduction can be obtained than employing DVS method alone. Furthermore the effects of switch capacitance and global slack on the energy saving efficiency of LEVVS are investigated. The smaller the global slack or average switch capacitance is, the more the energy saving of LEVVS compared with DVS is.

  2. Spallation neutron source RF cavity bias system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source r.f. cavity bias system is described under the topic headings: bias system, r.f. cavity, cables, d.c. bias power supply, transistor regulator and control system. Calculation of 4 core 300 mm solid aluminium cable inductance, coaxial shunt frequency response and transistor regulator computed frequency response, are discussed in appendices 1-3. (U.K.)

  3. Gender Bias in Tax Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Gale Stotsky

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of gender bias in tax systems. Gender bias takes both explicit and implicit forms. Explicit gender bias is found in many personal income tax systems. Several countries, especially those in Western Europe, have undertaken to eliminate explicit gender bias in recent years. It is more difficult to identify implicit gender bias, since this depends in large part on value judgments as to desirable social and economic behavior. Implicit gender bias has also been a targ...

  4. Tetrode bias power supply for Indus-1, synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AC regulator based 7 kV, 3 A high voltage DC power supply is designed, fabricated and tested on dummy load for BEL make Tetrode type 15000CX, used in the high power RF amplifier at 31.613 MHz employed with INDUS-1, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS). Various protections features like over voltage, under voltage, over current, phase failure and phase reversal are incorporated in this power supply and presented in this paper. As Tetrode amplifier requires various other power supplies in addition to this bias power supply and they are operated in a particular sequence for its healthy operation, suitable interlock arrangements have been incorporated and also presented in this paper. The reliable operation of protection and interlock features incorporated in this power supply has been checked with dummy load under simulated conditions. Three numbers of series limiting inductors, one in each phase, have been incorporated in this power supply to limit fault currents under unfavourable conditions and there by increasing the overall life of this power supply. It will replace existing 7 kV, 3 A HVDC power supply, which is in operation for more than fifteen years with Indus-1 SRS and is likely to be helpful in reducing the down time of Indus-1 SRS. It has better performance features than the existing power supply. The long term voltage stability better than 0.3 % and output ripple less than 0.3 % have been achieved for this Tetrode bias power supply. This power supply is likely to be integrated with INDUS-1 SRS soon. (author)

  5. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  6. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  7. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which

  8. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  9. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which the engagement of all stakeholders plays an important role, as does distributed ICT. This approach has been applied to an industrial case to explore new opportunities enabled by distributed ICT fo...

  10. Floating Power Supply for Specimen Bias in Scanning Electron Microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav; Zobač, Martin; Vlček, Ivan

    Brno: Tribun EU, 2009. s. 24. ISBN 978-80-7399-739-7. [Mikroskopia 2009. 25.03.2009-26.03.2009, Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : floating power supply * scanning electron microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. The anaesthesia gas supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply.

  12. Multilayer piezoelectric energy harvesting using single supply pre-biasing for maximum power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, A.D.T.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S.P.; Mitcheson, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the method of increasing output power of multilayer piezoelectric energy harvesters using Single Supply Pre-biasing (SSPB). In SSPB, it is important that the pre-biasing voltage be applied at the right moment. Multilayer piezoelectric energy harvesters are well suited SSPB as there is no phase lag between piezoelectric charge displacement on each layer and one layer can therefore be used for switch timing control. Compared to previously reported SSPB circuits, the power con...

  13. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  14. Are Real Effects of Credit Supply Overestimated? Bias from Firms' Current Situation and Future Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemann, Michael; Wiegand, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates for incorporating timely measures of firms' current situation and future expectations when disentangling real effects of credit supply from demand-side factors. Identification of supply-side effects in firm-level analyses often relies on balance sheet variables to control for firm heterogeneity. While balance sheets mirror past business, bias from contemporaneous and forward-looking firm-side factors may persist.Using German firm-level survey data from 2003 to 2011, we sh...

  15. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  16. Efficiency Enhancement of an Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier Combining Supply Shaping and Dynamic Biasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Sira, Daniel; Jensen, Ole Kiel; Larsen, Torben

    a dynamic minimization of the current consumption while imposing simultaneously a constant gain condition. In such a way we maximize the efficiency of the ET transmitter maintaining a considerable linearity. Bias and supply voltages are modulated applying specific waveforms obtained as a function of...... vector magnitude (EVM) of 1.2% and an adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -39.4/-43.5 dBc. The presented transmitter architecture allowed an improvement of 12% PAE compared to a classical ET transmitter where the measured PA was biased in class-AB, maintaining the linearity indicators....

  17. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  18. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist@s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year@s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  19. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drozd, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Nolan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Orsatti, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Heppener, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Di Lieto, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schultheiss, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Zapasek, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Sandberg, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  20. Expert system for space power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and evaluation of space power supplies involves many qualitative, uncertain and heuristic factors that cannot be handled by conventional algorithmic computer programs. The authors are applying Artificial Intelligence/Expert Systems techniques to provide tools for designers and managers for the synthesis and analysis of space power supplies. The authors have evaluated the feasibility of an Expert System for the identification and selection of supplies for a wide range of NASA missions of various power levels (P) and durations

  1. Progress of Power Supply System in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoDaqing; ZhouZhongzu; WuRong; ChenYouxin

    2003-01-01

    CSR power supply system made a great progress in 2003. All power supplies for CSRm E-cooler have been accepted and put into operation since Feb. 2003. And we are preparing to test power supplies of CSRe cooler 31 sets pulsed convertor for CSRm quadruple magnet arrived in IMP. But their output current must be increased from 590 A to 700 A, because of higher beam energy. 12 of them can fit the new request, but the others have to be redesigned and reproduced. The dipole power supply was assembled in plant and by using the power supply was some experiment made. The first test results was excited. Now this device has been installed in IMP and connected with the dipole magnet. We invited a public bidding for RIBLL2 and CSRe power supplies last September. Two companies provided 128 power supplies, which will be delivered to IMP before June 2004.

  2. Computer controlled multichannel high voltage supply system for GRACE instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high energy gamma ray telescopes being set up by NRL, BARC as part of the GRACE project, require a very large number of (∼ 1000 nos.) programmable high voltage power supplies for biasing photomultiplier tubes for the detection and characterization of the atmospheric Cerenkov events. These H.V. supplies need to be very compact and lightweight, as they will be mounted on moving telescopes. This paper describes the design aspects of the overall HV system and some preliminary results of the prototype HV modules being developed for such applications. In the new design, the switching frequency of the converters in the H.V. supplies has been increased by a factor of three times as compared to the earlier design, and surface mounted devices has been used to achieve size and weight reductions. The HV system that is designed for modular construction consists of multiple HV modules, each containing 16 independently adjustable HV supplies. All the HV modules in the system are interconnected via a serial I2C bus. Each HV supply has built in over voltage/current, thermal overload protections with output voltage read back and adjustable slew rate control facilities. (author)

  3. ACCOUNTING FOR AGGREGATION BIAS IN ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Shi, Hongqi; Wahl, Thomas I.

    1996-01-01

    This study revisits the consistent aggregation (over households) property of almost ideal demand system (AIDS) models and presents a method to explicitly account for expenditure aggregation bias when estimating the aggregate AIDS model with time-series data. Ignoring aggregation bias can lead to biased and inconsistent parameter estimates and can cause aggregate demand functions to be inconsistent with the demand functions at the individual household level. Recognizing the general limited inf...

  4. The SSRF power supply control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSRF power supply control system is a fully distributed control system based on the EPICS system. About 65K runtime database records run in the 27 VME/IOC controllers to make physics access more than 600 sets of power' supplies distributed in the SSRF facility. In this paper, the layered system architecture and its working principles are introduced. The EPICS-based control solutions for the PSI-designed and SINAP-designed digital controllers are described. The hardware and software, together with the communication technology applied in the system, are presented. (authors)

  5. Exchange bias in nearly perpendicularly coupled ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange bias phenomena appear not only in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic systems but also in ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic systems in which two layers are nearly perpendicularly coupled. We investigated the origin of the symmetry-breaking mechanism and the relationship between the exchange bias and the system's energy parameters. We compared the results of computational Monte Carlo simulations with those of theoretical model calculation. We found that the exchange bias exhibited nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes depending on the interlayer coupling strength. The exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes. - Highlights: ► Exchange bias phenomena are found in perpendicularly coupled F/F systems. ► Exchange bias exhibits nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. ► These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes. ► Exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes. ► We established an equation to maximize the exchange bias in perpendicularly coupled F/F system.

  6. Modeling Temporal Bias of Uplift Events in Recommender Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Basmah

    2013-05-08

    Today, commercial industry spends huge amount of resources in advertisement campaigns, new marketing strategies, and promotional deals to introduce their product to public and attract a large number of customers. These massive investments by a company are worthwhile because marketing tactics greatly influence the consumer behavior. Alternatively, these advertising campaigns have a discernible impact on recommendation systems which tend to promote popular items by ranking them at the top, resulting in biased and unfair decision making and loss of customers’ trust. The biasing impact of popularity of items on recommendations, however, is not fixed, and varies with time. Therefore, it is important to build a bias-aware recommendation system that can rank or predict items based on their true merit at given time frame. This thesis proposes a framework that can model the temporal bias of individual items defined by their characteristic contents, and provides a simple process for bias correction. Bias correction is done either by cleaning the bias from historical training data that is used for building predictive model, or by ignoring the estimated bias from the predictions of a standard predictor. Evaluated on two real world datasets, NetFlix and MovieLens, our framework is shown to be able to estimate and remove the bias as a result of adopted marketing techniques from the predicted popularity of items at a given time.

  7. Monitoring System for Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A.Z. Murad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In industrial process today, reliability of equipment is very important. Power supply must be able to cater the need of industrial process. In case of power failure, backup power supply system must be able to support the main process plant. This is to ensure smooth operation and product quality. In order to do this, uninterruptible power supply (UPS system can be used to ensure the reliability, stability and consistency of the entire system. This UPS system must be monitored in order to enable them to react accordingly in response to a fault or power failure. In this project, monitoring system for UPS was designed by using visual basic (VB to provide a safe and constant 12V DC supply in the case of power disruption. The main power supply, 240V AC was converted to 12V DC as output voltage and a battery will be used as part of the backup system. This system will be able to control the source of power which offers power from LIVE line or power from BATTERY line. The main output voltage was 12V DC and the battery level will be monitored using GUI software created using VB.

  8. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations...

  9. Safety Problems of Small Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents issues related to risks associated with the operation of small water supply systems on the background of water consumer safety assessment made on the basis of risk analysis. Definition of water consumer safety loss as a risk associated with the water consumption of poor quality or water lack was proposed. For this purpose, a three-parameter matrix is implemented with the parameters of the probability of a representative accident scenario, the losses of the water consumers and their protection. Risk management, together with the implementation of protective barriers of small water supply system against threats is a fundamental condition for the continued operation of the system.

  10. An integrated mine development and supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, T. [Brambles Coal Services, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    In the face of intense global competition and other business pressures on coal miners, ongoing quality initiatives and continuous process improvements are needed to enhance business performance. By viewing a minesite interms of key processes, rather than departments, and employing innovative technologies and better applying organisational resources, there exists enormous potential to achieve reductions in process cost and time. The paper identifies and selects one critical coal mining process, namely the supply system, to think about how productivity improvements might occur and what changes might be employed to enhance overall system performance. While the supply system is one of few processes existing at a minesite, the paper addresses only the supply process, but includes interaction across traditional interdepartmental boundaries. The paper has been prepared for a wide audience and is based on experience and observation at several underground mines however some of the concepts are a result of dreaming in the face of global competition. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Tree Seed and Seedling Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyoka, Betserai I.; Roshetko, James M.; Jamnadass, Ramni;

    2015-01-01

    provide land and labour in return. Overall, tree germplasm markets are large in Asia, due in part to large afforestation programs, intermediate in Latin America and small in Africa where smallholder farmers constitute the market. In countries where germplasm quality control is practiced, it is either......The paper reviews tree seed and seedling supply systems in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Across these regions, the review found that some of the germplasm supply systems do not efficiently meet farmers’ demands and environmental expectations in terms of productivity, species and...

  12. The ELETTRA power supply control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the magnet power supplies is one of the most important tasks within the ELETTRA control system. The equipment interface units (EIU) have been integrated in the power supply cabinets, providing local and remote control functions. Each EIU consists of a VMEbus based crate containing the digital-to-analog converter (DAC), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital input/output modules together with a microprocessor module. Exploiting the same communication interface, an integrated development system has been implemented which has been used for the tests of the embedded EIUs. The detailed EIU hardware and software design is given. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. AUTOMATIC DESIGNING OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kirspou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of automatic designing system for power supply of industrial enterprises is considered in the paper. Its complete structure and principle of operation are determined and established. Modern graphical interface and data scheme are developed, software is completely realized. Methodology and software correspond to the requirements of the up-to-date designing, describe a general algorithm of program process and also reveals properties of automatic designing system objects. Automatic designing system is based on module principle while using object-orientated programming. Automatic designing system makes it possible to carry out consistently designing calculations of power supply system and select the required equipment with subsequent output of all calculations in the form of explanatory note. Automatic designing system can be applied by designing organizations under conditions of actual designing.

  14. Vulnerability of Water Supply Systems to Droughts

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, David S.; Hughes, Trevor C.; James, W. Robert; Jensen, Donald T.; Haws, Frank W.

    1980-01-01

    This summary completion report describes the project work completed in three areas: 1) the development and preliminary testing of drought severity and vulnerability indices, 2) the impacts of Utah's 1977 drought, and 3) an operation comparison of stochastic streamflow models. The drought indices were evaluated for three municipal and three irrigation water supply systems in Utah. It was concluded that a continuous...

  15. Control System for Electromagnet Power Supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Ermolov, E. Y.; Kozak, V. R.; Kuper, E. A.; Medvedko, A. S.; Petrov, S. P.; Veremeenko, V. F.

    2001-01-01

    A set of power supplies (PS) with output power rated from 100 W up to 10 kW for electromagnets powering was developed. These PS have range of current tuning of 60-80 db with high accuracy (error should be less than 0,01%). Some types of power supplies have bipolar output current. The report will describe a set of unified embedded devices for control and measurements of PS incorporated into distributed control systems. These embedded devices includes DAC, ADC with multiplexers and status Input...

  16. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW)

  17. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply......This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations in the...... chain....

  18. Variance and bias computation for enhanced system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Martin; Longman, Richard W.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1989-01-01

    A study is made of the use of a series of variance and bias confidence criteria recently developed for the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) identification technique. The criteria are shown to be very effective, not only for indicating the accuracy of the identification results (especially in terms of confidence intervals), but also for helping the ERA user to obtain better results. They help determine the best sample interval, the true system order, how much data to use and whether to introduce gaps in the data used, what dimension Hankel matrix to use, and how to limit the bias or correct for bias in the estimates.

  19. BIASED BEARINGS-ONIKY PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR BISTATIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Benlian; Wang Zhiquan

    2007-01-01

    According to the biased angles provided by the bistatic sensors,the necessary condition of observability and Cramer-Rao low bounds for the bistatic system are derived and analyzed,respectively.Additionally,a dual Kalman filter method is presented with the purpose of eliminating the effect of biased angles on the state variable estimation.Finally,Monte-Carlo simulations are conducted in the observable scenario.Simulation results show that the proposed theory holds true,and the dual Kalman filter method can estimate state variable and biased angles simultaneously.Furthermore,the estimated results can achieve their Cramer-Rao low bounds.

  20. Optimal Tax-Transfer Policies, Life-Cycle Labour Supply and Present-Biased Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnersen, Lasse Frisgaard; Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann

    Using a two-period model with two types of agents that are characterized by present-biased preferences second-best optimal tax-transfer policies are considered. The paternalistic optimal tax-transfer policy has two main concerns: Income redistribution from high to low ability households and corre...

  1. Slutsky Equation and Negative Elasticity of Labor Supply: Behavioral Bias or Optimal Consumption-Leisure Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey MALAKHOV

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of the prospect theory is the behavioral phenomenon of the negative elasticity of the individual labor supply. This paper argues that the negative elasticity of labor supply can be understood better with the help of the interpretation of the Slutsky equation with regard to the common consumption-leisure choice. The interpretation of the Slutsky equation corresponds to the empirical evidence that leisure is a net complement for an important part of consumption.

  2. Tuning Exchange Anisotropy of Exchange-Biased System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan; HU Jing-Guo; R.L.Stamps

    2008-01-01

    Exchange anisotropy in FM/AFM bilayers has given a lot of static magnetization properties such as enhanced coercivity and magnetization loop shifts.These phenomena are primarily from the effective anisotropies intro-duced into a ferromagnet by exchange coupling with a strongly anisotropic antiferromagnet.These effective anisotropies can also be used to explain the dynamic consequences of exchange-biased bilayers.In this article,the dynamic con-sequences such as exchange-induced susceptibility,exchange-induced permeability,and the corresponding domain wall characteristics in the exchange-biased structures of ferromagnet/antiferromagnetl/antiferromagnet2 are studied.The results show that the second antiferromagnetic layer can largely affect the dynamic consequences of exchange-biased bilayers.Especially in the ease of critical temperature,the effects become more obvious.Practically,the exchange anisotropy of biased bilayer system can be tuned by exchange coupling with the second antiferromagnetic layer.

  3. Development of materials supply system requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Brynning, Nicklas; Kihlström, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    In industry today, the need for excellent product development and realization in many different aspects is increasing. This calls for excellent quality, while at the same time time-to-market is increasingly important. A concurrent engineering (CE) approach is directed towards simultaneously developing different aspects of product realization in order to enhance both quality and speed. This thesis deals with the internal materials supply system (MSS) from a CE approach. Logistics aspects are o...

  4. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K G; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun, E-mail: agrajit@ipr.res.i [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat - 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density {approx}5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, from which {approx} 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage ({approx}15 to 35kV), and high current ({approx} 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< {+-}1%), low ripple (< {+-}2%), isolation ({approx}50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100{mu}s). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically ({approx} 50k

  5. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  6. Ultracapacitor-Based Uninterrupted Power Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    The ultracapacitor-based uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system enhances system reliability; reduces life-of-system, maintenance, and downtime costs; and greatly reduces environmental impact when compared to conventional UPS energy storage systems. This design provides power when required and absorbs power when required to smooth the system load and also has excellent low-temperature performance. The UPS used during hardware tests at Glenn is an efficient, compact, maintenance-free, rack-mount, pure sine-wave inverter unit. The UPS provides a continuous output power up to 1,700 W with a surge rating of 1,870 W for up to one minute at a nominal output voltage of 115 VAC. The ultracapacitor energy storage system tested in conjunction with the UPS is rated at 5.8 F. This is a bank of ten symmetric ultracapacitor modules. Each module is actively balanced using a linear voltage balancing technique in which the cell-to-cell leakage is dependent upon the imbalance of the individual cells. The ultracapacitors are charged by a DC power supply, which can provide up to 300 VDC at 4 A. A constant-voltage, constant-current power supply was selected for this application. The long life of ultracapacitors greatly enhances system reliability, which is significant in critical applications such as medical power systems and space power systems. The energy storage system can usually last longer than the application, given its 20-year life span. This means that the ultracapacitors will probably never need to be replaced and disposed of, whereas batteries require frequent replacement and disposal. The charge-discharge efficiency of rechargeable batteries is approximately 50 percent, and after some hundreds of charges and discharges, they must be replaced. The charge-discharge efficiency of ultracapacitors exceeds 90 percent, and can accept more than a million charges and discharges. Thus, there is a significant energy savings through the efficiency improvement, and there is far less

  7. Instrumented hip implants: electric supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

    2013-10-18

    Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

  8. Construction and qualification of the Power Supply system of the AMS-02 Tracker detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichelli, M.; Accardo, L.; Ambrosi, G.; Battiston, R.; Bizzarri, M.; Blasko, S.; Cosson, D.; Fiori, E.M.; Maris, O.; Papi, A.; Scolieri, G. [INFN, Sez. Di Perugia, via Pascoli, 06100 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The AMS-02 Tracker power supply system, described in this paper, has been designed optimizing noise performances, modularity and efficiency. The power is distributed starting from a 28V line coming from the power distribution system is converted into the needed voltages by means of DC-DC converters, and for bias supply and front-end voltages is post-regulated by means of linear regulators. Components Off The Shelf (COTS) have been extensively used in the construction of this power supply, however various radiation test campaigns have been performed in order to verify the reliability of these components. The power supply architecture developed for the tracker detector has been used as a guideline for the development of the power supplies for the other detectors in the experiment.

  9. Locating Gender Bias and Systemic Discrimination in Public Schooling Bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    The current bureaucratic model used in administering public education in Canada displays a systemic gender bias that results from sociopolitical-cultural assumptions concerning gender roles, capitalism, hierarchy, and patriarchy. A proposed neo-bureaucracy would replace individual ownership of success with an accent on teamwork and group…

  10. Precision, 32 channel power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular, multichannel current regulator system has been developed to power the low current correction and focusing magnets used for beam transport. The basic module consists of a relay rack housing four card crates with eight regulators per crate. The rack also contains a utility chassis and common power supplies. Each regulator card includes a communications microprocessor and a temperature controlled analog circuit block containing precision reference, serial DAC, shunt resistor and error amplifier. The regulators are linear, bipolar units capable of furnishing up to 10 amps at 20 volts with less than 0.01% ripple and drift

  11. Lyapunov Criteria for Structural Stability of Supply Chain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying-jin; TANG Xiao-wo; ZHOU Zong-fang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, based on Cobb-Douglas production function, the structural stability of the supply chain system are analyzed by employing Lyapunov criteria. That the supply chain system structure,with the variance of the rate of re-production input funding, becomes unstable is proved. Noticeably, the solutions shows that when the optimal combination of input parameter element, the qualitative properties of supply chain system change and the supply chain system becomes unstable.

  12. Exchange bias of patterned systems: Model and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude of the exchange bias field of patterned systems exhibits a notable increase in relation to the usual bilayer systems, where a continuous ferromagnetic film is deposited on an antiferromagnet insulator. Here we develop a model, and implement a Monte Carlo calculation, to interpret the experimental observations which is consistent with experimental results, on the basis of assuming a small fraction of spins pinned ferromagnetically in the antiferromagnetic interface layer.

  13. Exchange bias of patterned systems: Model and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Griselda [Facultad de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: mkiwi@puc.c [Facultad de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Mejia-Lopez, Jose; Ramirez, Ricardo [Facultad de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    The magnitude of the exchange bias field of patterned systems exhibits a notable increase in relation to the usual bilayer systems, where a continuous ferromagnetic film is deposited on an antiferromagnet insulator. Here we develop a model, and implement a Monte Carlo calculation, to interpret the experimental observations which is consistent with experimental results, on the basis of assuming a small fraction of spins pinned ferromagnetically in the antiferromagnetic interface layer.

  14. Marginalization and Exclusion: Unraveling Systemic Bias in Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the knowledge organization landscape in which Hope Olson’s numerous contri- butions to the field are situated. The paper first explores some of the foundational conceptual notions within knowledge organization that today are well-accepted. The paper then reviews Hope Olson’s c...... large library classification has unraveled the systemic bias found in all classifications. The paper calls for stronger engagement between scholarship and practice to ad- dress marginalization and exclusion in further work on classification systems....

  15. Hot weather stresses system : more supply needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signs of stress in Ontario's electric system were revealed this summer, mainly as a result of the hot and humid weather experienced in the Toronto region in particular. A question was raised by the Executive Director of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) as to whether there are enough incentives for new supply or any unnecessary barriers, in light of the tight reserve margins and little new construction. No major failures or breakdowns were experienced, which proved to be a real test of the newly created market system. However, significant spikes in hourly prices and uplift charges were felt in July. At times, power had to be purchased from outside the province, and the prices paid for this power were much higher than the prices paid to in-province producers. There was proof that consumers were not adjusting their consumption in response to fluctuations in the prices, as had been expected by the system's designers. Pre-dispatch and real-time prices were disconnected, and large consumers did not benefit from reliable day-ahead price projections. Another major issue raised was that of finding new power supplies. The situation is not yet desperate as Ontario can trade electricity with other regions, but it is felt that the situation should be examined sooner rather than later. Import pricing is an issue that needs to be addressed now. The IPPSO is concerned that no new generating capacity plans are in the works at this time. The barriers to new investment in Ontario's generation must be identified, and a meeting between market participants and government should be scheduled for that purpose. A review of the presentation of price-related information is being conducted to allow consumers to adjust their consumption, cutting back when prices soar and saving money by the same token. It is felt that a more comfortable surplus of supply would either reduce or eliminate these problems. Some of the reasons believed to affect the level of investment in

  16. Precision power supply system of the LEPTA group magnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An individual power supply source is usually used for each group of the identical magnetic elements in the accelerators of charged particles. We discuss the power supply and control system on the basis of additional current shunts applied for simultaneous supply of several groups of magnets in the positron storage ring LEPTA. Data on the use of the shunt of the linear and key converter are provided. The option of the device of a power supply system with transformation of the recuperated energy in the storage battery and supply from it of the precision power supply sources of the correcting magnets of LEPTA is considered. The channel of individual digital transformation of power supply system elements is given which allows one to build together with a reverse precision converter effective intellectual balanced power supply systems

  17. Supply Chain as Complex Adaptive System and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingmingWang

    2004-01-01

    Supply chain is a complex, hierarchical, integrated, open and dynamic network.Every node in the network is an independent business unit that unites other organizations to develop its value, the competition and cooperation between these units are basic impetus of the development and evolution of the supply chain system. The characteristics of supply chain as a complex adaptive system and its modeling are discussed in this paper, and use an example demonstrating the feasibility of CAS modeling in supply chain management study.

  18. Managing risks in next generation supply chains: a systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadge, Abhijeet; Dani, Samir; Kalawsky, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain risk management follows three basic processes to manage supply chain risks: Identify, Assess and Mitigate. This paper considers a systems perspective towards managing these risks. It presents variables that may affect Next Generation Supply Chains and applies a System dynamics modelling approach (Oehmen, et. al. 2009) towards depicting the causal linkages of these variables with future supply disruptions. To understand the interdependencies within these factors and the risk propa...

  19. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE Energy System - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation; however, the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE Energy System consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low-enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 qnd 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability

  20. Optimization of the Nuclear Steam Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem addressed in this study was the minimization of the cost of the Nuclear Steam Supply System for the lifetime of a Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant. Three major constraints which affected the problem were: (1) maximum fuel discharge burnup limit of 45,000 MWd/MTU; (2) maximum hot leg temperature of 6350F; and (3) a 15% increased margin in critical heat flux. In addition to these constraints, all safety levels of the new design had to equal or exceed those of the reference plant, the McGuire Nuclear Station of Duke Power Company. An analysis of the plant resulted in a set of interrelated equations with corresponding constraints which described the components of the NSSS, operating parameters, and system costs. These relationships were used in a linear programming code to determine the optimum system. The results of the study indicate that the Fuel Cycle Costs are the driving force behind the minimization of costs. The results also indicate that the Fuel Cycle Costs are reduced with a reduction in core size. Therefore, the smallest core was the most economical

  1. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas. PMID:25694215

  2. R and D and system for KEKB magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several demands for magnet power supplies of KEKB accelerator. First is high current stability for year and low current ripple. Second is high efficiency and compact. Third is high speed current control for correction magnet power supplies. Fourth is reducing a cost of whole power supply system. After carrying out many R and D, we have solved these problems. (author)

  3. Power supply control system of SDUV-FEL test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The power supply control system of Shanghai Deep Ultra-Violet Free Electron Laser (SDUV-FEL) test facility is an Ethernet-based distributed control system developed and integrated using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. Purpose: The SDUV-FEL test facility has been integrated to test new FEL principles. Methods: The power supply control system provides control scheme for direct I/O controlled analog power supply, full digital-controlled power supply and Agilent commercial power supply with GPIB interface. Embedded I/O controller, runtime database and graphic operation interface are applied in this system. Results: The high performance of system demonstrated that the SASE and seeded FEL experiments were carried out in the past years. Conclusions: The power supply control system of the SDUV-FEL test facility has achieved long-term stable running, which is useful for future similar facility. (authors)

  4. A Study of Theory of Constraints Supply Chain Replenishment System

    OpenAIRE

    Horng-Huei Wu; Mao-Yuan Liao; Chih-Hung Tsai; Shih-Chieh Tsai; Min-Jer Lu; Tai-Ping Tsai

    2013-01-01

    An effective inventory replenishment method implemented in the supply chain is one of the key success factors to achieve low inventory while maintaining high customer delivery performance. The Theory of Constraints (TOC) Supply Chain Replenishment System (TOC-SCRS) is one of the solutions to get this improvement in a multi-echelon supply chain. The TOC-SCRS is a replenishment method of the TOC supply chain solution. The TOC is a global managerial methodology that helps the manager to concentr...

  5. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  6. Geothermal heat-pump systems of heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the multilayer operation of the objects, located in the climatic conditions of the central area of Russia and equipped with the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply are presented. The results of the analytical studies on evaluating the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply integration efficiency into the structure of the energy supply system, prevailing in the country, are presented

  7. Energy efficiency and energy saving in heat supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiia Dmitrievna Avsiukevich

    2013-01-01

    The issue of necessity of clear reasoning behind the indicators of efficiency operation of heat supply systems is discussed in the research. The issue of finding out the main methods of improvement of efficiency operation of heat supply systems was also discussed in the work. The analysis of definition of theory of efficiency was carried out. The main indicators of energy saving are introduced. The methods of improvement of efficiency operation of heat supply systems are discussed...

  8. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  9. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  10. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  11. Power supply devices and systems of relay protection

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Power Supply Devices and Systems of Relay Protection brings relay protection and electrical power engineers a single, concentrated source of information on auxiliary power supply systems and devices. The book also tackles specific problems and solutions of relay protection power supply systems and devices, which are often not dealt with in the literature. The author, an experienced engineer with more than 100 patents, draws on his own experience to offer practical, tested advice to readers. A Guide to Relay Protection Power Supply for Engineers and Technicians The first chapter reviews the ele

  12. Flexible Workflow Management in Agile Supply Chain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the vehement development of global competition , Agile Supply Chain (ASC) becomes an effective approach that supports dynamic ent erprise alliance and realizes agile manufacturing, as for the enterprises to cap ture market opportunities rapidly and strengthen their anti-risk ability. As Ag ile Supply Chain System (ASCS) is dynamic and distributed, the realization of it 's processes needs to be much flexible. Often in Agile Supply Chain System (ASCS ), there are many dynamic tasks, many changes of the ...

  13. Power supply control module for magnet power supplies control system of Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optics in a circular accelerator is mainly governed by magnetic field of the magnets in the path of the electron beam. Magnet Power Supplies Control System controls and monitors the power supplies feeding the magnets required to bend, steer, and focus etc the charged particle beam. New Control System for the Magnet Power Supplies of the Indus-1 is being implemented. Based on distributed control architecture in this system, each power supply is connected to an equipment interface unit, referred to as Power Supply Control Module (PSCM). The PSCMs communicate with the user interface layer through a custom protocol over an RS-485 serial bus. The PSCMs are developed using TMS320F28335 Digital Signal Controller (DSC). These are compact 19'' rack mountable systems. The PSCM provides digital control of eight parameters, status monitoring of eight parameters, current setting, and current monitoring with accuracy better than 0.01% and stability better than ±100 ppm. It features the generation of current reference of any programmed shape particularly required for cycling profile, ramping profile etc. Other than these functions, PSCMs also incorporate some features like synchronized data reading and fast data capturing which are useful for the analysis of transient phases of ramping and cycling. The set reference for current and current read-back are sampled at 1KHz and stored in the 512K Word memories in PSCM. The paper describes the PSCM of the new magnet power supplies control system for Indus-1. (author)

  14. Digital simulation of the MFTF power supply system using EMTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power supply system for MFTF will consist of twenty-four sets of accel, arc, and filament power supplies. The system will be fed from a common source and split into sets of two for the accel supplies and sets of four for the arc and filament supplies. This paper describes the simulation of this system and the EMTP code that was used. Interactions between power supplies during turn on that are due to common system impedances are studied, and a description of Transient Analysis of Control Systems (TACS) control is presented. The system harmonic content found by EMTP is discussed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of an accel crowbar simulation

  15. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  16. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  17. Research of Agile Supply Chain Management Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Agile Supply Chain Management (ASCM) is an important topic and has received much attention recently.ASCM is a new management technology.Agile Supply Chain Management Decision Support System (ASCM-DSS) is presented.Firstly, agile supply chain management technology is introduced.Secondly a decision support system for agile supply chain management is proposed.Then, the implementation of ASCM-DSS in enterprise is discussed.Finally, a fuzzy intelligence decision-making process in Shanghai Turbine Generator Company (STGC) is described in detail.

  18. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  19. Using Soft Systems Methodology to Address Supply Chain Management Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Gulender Gencoglu; Graeme Altmann; Ross Smith; David Mackay

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of if, and how, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) might.be used to facilitate better management of industry supply chains. In two workshops involving supply chain managers from the Textile Clothing and Footwear (TCF) industry and industry facilitators, ways in which SSM techniques might supplement existing Supply Chain Management (SCM) workshop approaches have been explored. Specifically, the placement of SSM techniques within a workshop setting, reactions to ...

  20. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Sit M.L.; Juravliov A.A.; Doroshenko A.V.; Goncharenko V.A.

    2016-01-01

    The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump pr...

  1. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Mishra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.

  2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY OF RAILWAYS TRACTION SUBSTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. Domansky

    2013-01-01

    A system analysis of external power supply circuits of railways traction substations over the period of 1993 through 2011 and power supply circuits projects up to 2016 in the market economy environment and under standard requirements of the power industry of Ukraine is conducted

  3. Expedient arrangement of newly constructed systems for centralized heat supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Rotinov, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that for newly constructed combined-cycle cogeneration plants and nuclear cogeneration plants, the optimum arrangement of the centralized heat supply system is the combination of a cogeneration plant and a district heat-supply station (a boiler house).

  4. High power pulse magnetic field power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic field power supply system, control system and experiment results of the power supply of HL-2A device are presented. The total pulse capacity of this power supply is about 250 MVA. The released energy is 1300 MJ in one discharge pulse. The highest DC output voltage of these power supplies is 3510 V and the highest current is 45 kA. All these power supplies are operated in pulsed mode. The pulse duration is 5 s, and the period is 10 min. The main circuit of this power supply consists of flywheel generator set, thyristor convertor and silicon diode rectifier. Many key technologies such as output balance technology of 2 motor generators with diode rectifiers paralleled directly, current balance technology of paralleled rectifiers, constant-angle phase shift control technology which is adequate for dynamic change in large frequency range, all-turn-off detection of 6-phase rectifier with high current, advanced monitoring system and measurement of pulsed high voltage and high current are adopted in HL-2A power supply system. The experiment results show that the performance of power supplies can satisfied the requirement of experiment very well. (authors)

  5. The requirements to reliability of water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    Full Text Available The recommendations for the development of additional regulatory requirements to reliability of water supply systems in Vietnam are offered. In current construction rules for design, the reliability of water supply systems of water facilities is not standardized. Water systems are classified into three categories, for which the conditions for performing functions in the process of water supply for consumers are formulated. It is not provided to assess the quality of these functions quantitatively. Adoption of design decisions without quantitative assessment of their quality is violating a systematic approach in carrying out construction and design works, which has formed in the global practice. As a result of the research of water supply facilities’ reliability in Vietnam and Russia, the reliability of the existing water supply facilities has been estimated. On the basis of mathematical methods for assessing the reliability of technical objects, the methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities and their systems has been justified and systematized. If there is lack of reliability and security requirements to the object of capital construction for design documentation development or such requirements are not established, the development and approval in the prescribed manner of special specifications should precede the documentation development. It is proposed to systematize the statistical data gathering on the reliability of the equipment and facilities of water supply systems by uniform rules. Any designed objects of water supply must have a quantitative estimate of the level of reliability. The outlined methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities and systems can be used in the formation of regulatory requirements for reliability in the design of water supply facilities in Vietnam.

  6. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  7. Design of the HL-2M power supply control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The control system is structured by using four kinds of control networks. • The controlling of converter is based on the real time network and FPGA. • With use of PROFINET, the status of all components can be monitored easily. • The SoE distinguishes input signals clearly to detect the fault rapidly. -- Abstract: The power supply control system is one of the most important local control systems of HL-2M tokamak. The power supply system of HL-2M is composed of four flywheel generator sets with total capacity of 600 MVA, all the magnetic field coil power supplies and high voltage power supplies of auxiliary heating system. The control system of power supply should make sure the large amount of on-site equipment and facilities to operate steadily and reliably. This paper presents the architecture of HL-2M control system and four kinds of established control networks. It describes how the power supply control system is built by using the established hardware structures and software agreements. Specially, it is focused on introducing an application of real-time technology based on the reflective shared memory and the fully digital compact solution for controlling the high power converters. Otherwise, a scheme which adopts PROFINET and Sequence of Events technology to carry out the intellect interlock control system is given

  8. Design of the HL-2M power supply control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lieying, E-mail: yaoly@swip.ac.cn; Li, Weibin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Yingqiao; Bu, Mingnan; Wang, Yali; Hu, Haotian; Xuan, Weimin

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The control system is structured by using four kinds of control networks. • The controlling of converter is based on the real time network and FPGA. • With use of PROFINET, the status of all components can be monitored easily. • The SoE distinguishes input signals clearly to detect the fault rapidly. -- Abstract: The power supply control system is one of the most important local control systems of HL-2M tokamak. The power supply system of HL-2M is composed of four flywheel generator sets with total capacity of 600 MVA, all the magnetic field coil power supplies and high voltage power supplies of auxiliary heating system. The control system of power supply should make sure the large amount of on-site equipment and facilities to operate steadily and reliably. This paper presents the architecture of HL-2M control system and four kinds of established control networks. It describes how the power supply control system is built by using the established hardware structures and software agreements. Specially, it is focused on introducing an application of real-time technology based on the reflective shared memory and the fully digital compact solution for controlling the high power converters. Otherwise, a scheme which adopts PROFINET and Sequence of Events technology to carry out the intellect interlock control system is given.

  9. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  10. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  11. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  12. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sednin; A. V. Sednin; M. L. Bogdanovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 

  13. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 

  14. Study on the Oil Supply System for Rotary Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Makoto; Murata, Nobuo

    Research has been undertaken to clarify the shaft oil pump mechanisms and oil supply network systems for rotary compressors. Numerical expressions were developed for each part of the rotary compressor,(such as drive shaft,oil pump and journal bearing grooves)in order to confirm that the calculated values agree with the experimental results. Finally,a computer program has been developed to evaluate the oil supply system performance under steady conditions for rotary compressors.

  15. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  16. Failure Monitoring and Asset Condition Assessment in Water Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Misiunas, Dalius

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, different aspects of failure management in urban water supply systems are discussed. As assets are getting older, the number of pipe failures is increasing and an efficient failure management strategy becomes important. Two types of failure management strategies can be applied: proactive asset condition assessment and reactive failure detection and location. Currently available condition assessment techniques cannot be extensively applied in water supply systems due to high co...

  17. Training effect of exchange biased iron - oxide/ferromagnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial training effect in hysteresis loops was observed in ferromagnet (F) - antiferromagnet (AF) exchange coupled systems of the structure, Si(100)/iron - oxide(tAF)/F layer (5 nm)/Ta(10 nm), prepared by magnetron sputtering. The exchange bias field and the coercivity decrease with increasing number of loop cycles. The initially asymmetric hysteresis loop becomes more symmetric as the number of loop cycles increases. The effect is more prominent in the descending curve starting from the saturation in the positive (parallel to the pinned direction) direction than in the ascending curve of the hysteresis loop. The value of the ascending curve switching field vert-barHsw+vert-bar is rather unchanged while the switching field vert-barHsw-vert-bar in the descending curve decreases drastically with repeated hysteresis loop cycling as was observed in some CoO/Co and NiO/NiFe systems. Those phenomena can be interpreted by a modification of the extended model of Fulcomer and Charap's: the essential modification being the introduction of positive and negative exchange coupling between AF grains. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  18. Engineered magnetic domain textures in exchange bias bilayer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Alexander; Hankemeier, Sebastian; Holzinger, Dennis; Müglich, Nicolas David; Staeck, Philipp; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Ehresmann, Arno

    2016-07-01

    A magnetic domain texture has been deterministically engineered in a topographically flat exchange-biased (EB) thin film system. The texture consists of long-range periodically arranged unit cells of four individual domains, characterized by individual anisotropies, individual geometry, and with non-collinear remanent magnetizations. The texture has been engineered by a sequence of light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning of the EB layer system. The magnetic texture's in-plane spatial magnetization distribution and the corresponding domain walls have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). The influence of magnetic stray fields emerging from neighboring domain walls and the influence of the different anisotropies of the adjacent domains on the Néel type domain wall core's magnetization rotation sense and widths were investigated. It is shown that the usual energy degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise rotating magnetization through the walls is revoked, suppressing Bloch lines along the domain wall. Estimates of the domain wall widths for different domain configurations based on material parameters determined by vibrating sample magnetometry were quantitatively compared to the SEMPA data.

  19. FPGA based control system for -100 kV, 25 A Crowbarless DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FPGA based digital control system has been developed for -100 kV, 25 A solid state modular crowbarless DC klystron bias power supply of 1 MW, 352.2 MHz RF test stand. The control system has capability to operate this power supply either in CW or pulse mode. Central controller, PSM controller and graphical user interface are key parts of this control system. Central controller monitors the status of various subsystems of this power supply like 11 kV step start unit, four numbers of main transformers each having 44 numbers of secondary windings and 176 numbers of switch power modules for deciding the number of power modules to be put ON and their duty cycles depending on the set output voltage and current. PSM controller sends appropriate control signal to the switch power modules through fibre optic lines and communicates it to the central controller. Linux based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to set the operating parameters along with their trip limits and displays the information of critical parameters of this power supply on a local touch screen panel. Provision for remote control and supervision is also provided through a separate PC connected to the main control system via Ethernet. The control system has capability to trip the power supply within 5 μsec in case any parameter exceeds its set limit. Suitable data logging feature is incorporated for offline fault analysis. The control system architecture along with its software protection interlocks are presented in this paper. The performance of the control system has been verified during operation of -100 kV, 25 A DC power supply with 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier. (author)

  20. Power supply system for electron gun of 500 keV DC industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated power supply for a 500 keV/20 mA industrial accelerator has been developed and commissioned at BRIT Vashi, Navi-Mumbai. 500 kV DC supply for this accelerator is based on a 10 stage, balanced Cockcroft-Walton multiplier operating with an input source of 30 kVp-0- 30 kV p at 10 kHz. Electron beam generation at the high voltage terminal is by an indirectly heated LaB6 cathode type electron gun. The electron gun requires 12 V/20 A power for filament, +5 kV/20 mA DC for anode and variable -2 kV/ 5mA DC for the grid bias. A reliable power supply scheme has been adopted in the system, in which power source for the gun supplies has been derived from the AC component present in the multiplier column. This feature eliminates the requirement of a separate power source having 500 kV isolation from ground, like a motor-generator set and the associated problems. Two sets of stepper-motor drive systems controls the accelerator beam parameters. The design details of these supplies and its control scheme are described

  1. Web Based Information System for Heat Supply Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Strahilov, Strahil

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents web based information system for heat supply monitoring. The proposed model  and information system for gathering data from heating station heat-flow meters and regulators is software realized. The novel system with proved functionality can be commercialized at the cost of minimal investments, finding wildly use on Bulgarian market as cheap and quality alternative of the western systems.

  2. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aley, N. P.; Bowes, M.; Kröger, R.; O'Grady, K.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (KAF) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of KAF of 1.2×107 ergs/cc.

  3. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (KAF) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of KAF of 1.2x107 ergs/cc.

  4. Effect of supply voltage and body-biasing on single-event transient pulse quenching in bulk fin field-effect-transistor process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Ting, Yu; Shu-Ming, Chen; Jian-Jun, Chen; Peng-Cheng, Huang; Rui-Qiang, Song

    2016-04-01

    Charge sharing is becoming an important topic as the feature size scales down in fin field-effect-transistor (FinFET) technology. However, the studies of charge sharing induced single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching with bulk FinFET are reported seldomly. Using three-dimensional technology computer aided design (3DTCAD) mixed-mode simulations, the effects of supply voltage and body-biasing on SET pulse quenching are investigated for the first time in bulk FinFET process. Research results indicate that due to an enhanced charge sharing effect, the propagating SET pulse width decreases with reducing supply voltage. Moreover, compared with reverse body-biasing (RBB), the circuit with forward body-biasing (FBB) is vulnerable to charge sharing and can effectively mitigate the propagating SET pulse width up to 53% at least. This can provide guidance for radiation-hardened bulk FinFET technology especially in low power and high performance applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376109, 61434007, and 61176030).

  5. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, jr., David J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Argo, Andrew [Sundrop Fuels, Golden, CO (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  6. Using Soft Systems Methodology to Address Supply Chain Management Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulender Gencoglu

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of if, and how, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM might.be used to facilitate better management of industry supply chains. In two workshops involving supply chain managers from the Textile Clothing and Footwear (TCF industry and industry facilitators, ways in which SSM techniques might supplement existing Supply Chain Management (SCM workshop approaches have been explored. Specifically, the placement of SSM techniques within a workshop setting, reactions to the techniques, perceived reasons for using SSM, together with strengths and difficulties encountered, have been examined.

  7. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; Daniel Stevens; Allison Ray; Debor

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  8. A statistical characterization of the Galileo-to-GPS inter-system bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Ciro; Borio, Daniele

    2016-06-01

    Global navigation satellite system operates using independent time scales and thus inter-system time offsets have to be determined to enable multi-constellation navigation solutions. GPS/Galileo inter-system bias and drift are evaluated here using different types of receivers: two mass market and two professional receivers. Moreover, three different approaches are considered for the inter-system bias determination: in the first one, the broadcast Galileo to GPS time offset is used to align GPS and Galileo time scales. In the second, the inter-system bias is included in the multi-constellation navigation solution and is estimated using the measurements available. Finally, an enhanced algorithm using constraints on the inter-system bias time evolution is proposed. The inter-system bias estimates obtained with the different approaches are analysed and their stability is experimentally evaluated using the Allan deviation. The impact of the inter-system bias on the position velocity time solution is also considered and the performance of the approaches analysed is evaluated in terms of standard deviation and mean errors for both horizontal and vertical components. From the experiments, it emerges that the inter-system bias is very stable and that the use of constraints, modelling the GPS/Galileo inter-system bias behaviour, significantly improves the performance of multi-constellation navigation.

  9. The Power Supply System of Ion Source for NBI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhimin; Liu Xiaoning; Hu Chundong; Hu Liqun; Liu Sheng; Song Shihua; Li Jun; Han Xiaopu; Wang Yongjun

    2005-01-01

    The power supply system of ion source for the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak is based on a single injector with one ion source that can deliver 700 kW of neutral beam power. Experiments and a discharges test on the ion source were successfully performed. In this paper, the circuit structures and features of every power supply are described and the results of the discharges test are presented.

  10. Supply temperature control concepts in heat pump heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huchtemann, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, electrically driven compression heat pumps have come to be widely used for the heating of buildings. Their efficiency strongly depends on the temperature lift which is influenced by the supply temperature of the heat sink. When used with radiator heating systems it is challenging to operate heat pumps efficiently because high supply temperatures are required. Therefore, in order to efficiently operate heat pumps, this work analyses advanced control concepts for heatpump heati...

  11. Gas supply system for the ''Electron'' installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation results are described on a system for purifying and controlling the working gas of a helium streamer chamber operating on a bean of a electron linear accelerator. Maximum pressure in the system is 2 atm, and productivity at continuous helium circulation is 0.2 m2/hr. A chromatograph is used for determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the gas. A gas-discharge cell is used for remote continuous control. Under operating conditions, the air impurity in the streamer chamber does not exceed 0.05%

  12. Method of Distinguishing Hydrologic Drought for Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to design water supply system to adjust runoff. Thus it will not meet the practical needs if only the hydrologic drought in natural basin is studied. In practice the natural water balance and water deficits must be researched, i. e., the adjusting effects of the water supply system such as a reservoir should be considered, and the drought event be distinguished according to the special system. The problem of drought identification under adjusted runoff was investigated in this study. By considering water transfer during different periods, a method to distinguish hydrologic drought for the water supply system was developed, and a standard drought severity index SWDSI was proposed. The method has been applied in Pan Jiakou water supply system in China. From 1953 to 1997, a total of 14 hydrologic droughts were identified in the water supply system, among which there were 3 severe droughts, 6 moderate droughts and 5 light droughts. The results are in good agreement with the historic drought records.

  13. Numerical study on oil supply system of a rotary compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil supply system is a crucial reliability issue for rotary compressors. This paper provides a general method for analyzing the oil supply system of a rotary compressor by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The process includes establishing the physical model, dividing computational grid, setting boundary conditions, calculating leakage rates through the roller end clearances, translating the dynamic issue into the static issue and so on. Validation of the rationality of the oil supply system model has been made by the measurement of the main bearing oil flow rates. The effects of operating conditions of the compressor, the oil level height of the oil sump and the main design parameters of the oil supply system on the oil supply characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulation. It is found that the main bearing oil flow rate varies circularly along with the rotation of the shaft. The shape and inclination angle of the spiral groove also influence the main bearing oil flow rate. The oil leakage rates through the roller end clearances depend largely on the operating conditions. In addition, the oil level height of the oil sump has a huge effect on the total oil flow rate. -- Highlights: • A CFD method for analyzing the oil supply system of rotary compressor is presented. • Leakage through the roller end clearances depends on the operating condition. • Groove shape and inclination angle are the main design parameters of spiral grooves. • A parabolic interface of oil and gas can be formed in the gallery of the shaft. • Single-flow model and steady solver can be applied to the oil supply system

  14. Decision Support Systems in Supply Chain Management : A Cse Study of the Supply Chain At MAFC (Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad)

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhammed, Abdussamat

    2010-01-01

    This research project identified issues related to cold supply chain and implemented a case study research at a consolidated food supply chain company named Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad, which produces fresh fruits and vegetebales. It endeavored to evaluate the practical application of Decision Support System (DSS) in managing the supply chain. Afterwards, based on the results this research provides possible recommendations on application.

  15. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  16. Calculating the cost of heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of whether or not a cogeneration unit will be economically successful when realized is decided early on in the planning stage. Indispensable prerequisites are the exact knowledge of the cold, heat, or electricity demand of consumers on an hourly basis and a detailed analysis of the hydraulic and electrical connection possibilites for such systems. Aspects now increasingly considered when deciding on investments are not only which is the most economical form of energy generation but also comparisons regarding emissions of CO2, NOx, and ozone-depleting substances (refrigerants). (orig.)

  17. System design of toroidal field power supply of CDD tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng Zhi

    1996-12-01

    This report deals with system design of Toroidal Field Power Supply of CDD tokamak (CDD-TFPS). The general design philosophy and design variations are introduced. After the outline of CDD-TFPS, the short-circuit calculation, the evaluation of converter parameters, the compatibility of converter and line are carried out. the specifications of major components, semi-conductor devices and accessories are given. High attention is paid to protection system. The design of sub-control and grounding system are described too. Some more general material for power supply design are attached in appendices for reference. (author). 30 tabs., 21 figs.

  18. Instrumentation architecture for ITER diagnostic neutral beam power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Neutral Beam (NB) Injection system is used for heating or diagnostics of the plasma in a Tokamak. The Diagnostics Neutral Beam (DNB) system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) based on acceleration of negative ions; injects a neutral (H0) beam at 100 KeV with specified modulation into the plasma for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. DNB Power Supply (DNBPS) system consists of various high voltage power supplies, high current power supplies and RF Generators. The system operates in a given operating sequence; very high electromagnetic transients are intrinsically generated during frequent short circuit at the accelerator grid (breakdowns) and sudden loss of load (Beam off). Instrumentation is to be provided to operate the DNBPS system remotely with required control and protection in synchronisation with ITER operation as directed by CODAC (COntrol Data Access and Communication); the central control system for ITER. Instrumentation functionality includes 1. Operation and control of DNBPS subsystems and associated auxiliaries 2. Protection of DNB components and power supplies using interlock system, 3. To ensure safe operation of high voltage hazardous systems 4. Acquisition of injector performance parameters and 5. To facilitate test and maintenance of individual subsystem. This paper discusses about proposed DNBPS instrumentation architecture. The design generally follows the protocols from the ITER- Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH). (author)

  19. SYNTHESIS OF MODULAR UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS WITH INCREASED RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of technical development today requires the creation of highly effective, including reliable, uninter-rupted power supply systems. We have shown modern requirements and design features of modern systems of uninterruptible power supply, which should be built on a modular principle. It is shown that the problem of synthesis of systems in a modular approach is addressing three issues: development of the structure of the system subject to the requirements of consumers to quality of power and the allowable time of power outage; determining the required level redundancy of major functional units (blocks, elements to ensure the required reliability of the system; - ensuring the most effective interconnection of modules, including electromagnetic compatibility, and the rational use during normal and emergency operation of the system. We have proposed new structural solution of the main functional units and uninterrupted power supply systems in modular design. To reduce EMI and improve efficiency uninterruptible power supply systems in the design of static converters we need to use a transformer with a rotating magnetic field. In addition, the prospective current is to be used as a source of renewable energy. Another promising approach is the use of direct frequency converters as voltage stabilizers and frequency of the current

  20. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  1. For a socially compatible power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of social compatibility is an outcome of continuous analysis and assessment of impact on the society, also covering probable effects in future. In a democracy, this leads to political decisions of the government based on consideration of all relevant criteria. This is why in modern, highly industrialized societies with their complex structures, basis-democracy procedures which involve strong emotionalisation have been replaced by a system of decision-making powers given to authorities for a defined period of time. Applying these principles to the power industry, the author's analysis of the role of nuclear power in the electricity market, and later on in the heat market, is said to remain significant for many decades to come, at least for a time horizon not to be defined as yet. Nuclear power generation will increase. Should there be realistic chances in the power market one day for alternative energy sources, the process of nuclear power substitution will take many years, and will proceed in a way justifiable by responsible energy policy. (orig./HSCH)

  2. Magnetostatic bias in Kagome artificial spin ice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetostatic bias in elongated nanomagnetic elements arranged in artificial Kagome spin ice arrays is studied by micromagnetic simulations. Using the Nmag package the reversal of a given element has been simulated under the influence of its four nearest neighbors with their magnetic states fixed in all possible configurations, which amount to 24=16 states that can be classified under five distinct cases. The hysteresis loop of each element is greatly influenced by the magnetic state of the nearest neighbors, not only by the expected shift due to dipolar interaction bias, but as it regards the loop shape and width itself. This presents a correction to the usual macrospin calculation based on the assumption that the loop is shifted by a biasing field (equal to the local dipole field) but the loop width (and shape in general) does not change. Although coercive and biasing fields depend strongly on the dimensions their relative strength has only weak thickness dependence for a fixed length to width aspect ratio. Therefore the behavior of such arrays is expected to be to a large degree size invariant apart from an appropriate maximum external applied field scaling.

  3. Switching behaviour of coupled antiferro- and ferromagnetic systems: exchange bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2009-01-01

    in NiO nanoparticles (Kodama and Berkowitz 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 6321 and Lindgård 2003 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 266 88)) in a field severely limits the exchange biasing potential. The interface between the different magnets is found to be that originally assumed by Meiklejohn and Bean (1956 Phys. Rev...

  4. Flexibility of Supply Chain in Industrialised Building System (IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is irrefutable that the construction industry is in need of a highly technological construction method or system for the simple aim of giving it a push it deserves. In Malaysia this technologically enhanced method is known as the Indutrialised Building System (IBS. Concerted efforts have been made for the past decade by various responsible parties especially by the government. Therefore, the IBS ‘Road Map’ 2003–2010 was introduced and now continues with the IBS ‘road map’ 2011-2015. However, its performance is still at its infancy, which target is only at an initial stage. This study seeks to identify and analyse the factor of the IBS’ system’s supply chain flexibility as a factor on the success of the system itself. It has been a suspicion that there exists a condition and situation where the supply chain is too rigid and is not flexible in fulfilling the needs and demands of the IBS development in Malaysia. This inflexible situation has brought about a broad range of problems and has stood in the way of the development of the industrialised building system, despite it being introduced since 1964, or 49 years ago. Flexibility in the IBS supply chain is very important and is associated with other industries like transportation, manufacturing industry, and others. Up until now, we have yet to discover any special studies related to the flexibility in the IBS supply chain in this country. Responding to this challenge, this research is hoped to be able to provide sufficient feedback to the solution to the IBS supply chain flexibility issue. The researcher is confident that the poor system flow of supply chain has impeded the advancement of the Industrialised Building System that has long been open to debate.

  5. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  6. Logistic Task of Fuel Supply for the Regional Distributed Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan RUSYAK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique for solving the logistic task of fuel supply in the region, including the interconnected tasks of routing, clustering, optimal distribution of resources and stock control is proposed. The complex algorithm for solving the routing task contains Astar method, Yen method, as well as the genetic algorithm adapted for the task being solved. To identify the location of facilities for fuel preparation the two-stage algorithm of cluster analysis applying the hierarchical cluster analysis and method of k-averages has been worked out. The effective algorithm for solving the task of optimal resource distribution on district and regional has been proposed. To solve the task of optimal stock control the hybrid algorithm consisting of genetic algorithm and Hooke-Jeeves method has been applied. The calculations have been carried out on the example of fuel supply system of the Udmurt Republic.

  7. Emergency electric power supply systems for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety guide is one of a series of guides, already prepared or are under preparation as a follow-up of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety in Pressurised Heavy Water Based Nuclear Power Plants. The guide is based on the current design of 220 MWe and 500 MWe PHWRs. This safety guide specifically provides guidance on all aspects of safety in designing an emergency electric power supply system and about the basic requirements of other types of power supply systems in NPPs

  8. Intelligent System for Customer Oriented Design and Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Sun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intensely increasing individualized and rapidly changing demand in global market, customer oriented design has been the top priority for modern enterprises to quickly respond to the volatile personalized requirements. This leads to the great change of mass customization in supply chain management, in which the agility, efficiency and cost have become the main impediment to improve supply chain’s performance. In this paper, we first propose a new method of adaptive clustering for the orientation and analysis of target customers that is originally inspired from the swarm intelligence of ant colony, then the recommendation system for the design of LCD-TV is illustrated that applied by this method to test the validity of the algorithm. After that, we present a supply chain management based on mobile agents to satisfy the customization, especially, detailed description of the agent-based supply chain process is also expounded. Finally, an integrated intelligent system to support the customer oriented design as well as its supply chain management is discussed.

  9. Emergency water supply systems for fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of emergency water acceptable to the NRC staff are described and bases for the design of systems that furnish emergency water to the fuel storage pool, high-level radioactive waste storage, fire protection system, certain process vessels, and any other safety-related equipment or system requiring a supply of water to perform the design safety function, directly or indirectly, are presented. (LK)

  10. Estimation and correction of model bias in the NASA/GMAO GEOS5 data assimilation system: Sequential implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Banglin; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Sippel, Jason; Ma, Zaizhong

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a simplified multivariate bias correction scheme that is sequentially implemented in the GEOS5 data assimilation system and compared against a control experiment without model bias correction. The results show considerable improvement in terms of the mean biases of rawinsonde observation-minus-background (OmB) residuals for observed water vapor, wind and temperature variables. The time series spectral analysis shows whitening of bias-corrected OmB residuals, and mean biases for rawinsonde observation-minus-analysis (OmA) are also improved. Some wind and temperature biases in the control experiment near the equatorial tropopause nearly vanish from the bias-corrected experiment. Despite the analysis improvement, the bias correction scheme has only a moderate impact on forecast skill. Significant interaction is also found among quality-control, satellite observation bias correction, and background bias correction, and the latter positively impacts satellite bias correction.

  11. Development of Low-Carbon Energy Supply System in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda; Jorgensen, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Despite the declining trends in total energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, energy intensity, and emission intensity over the past two decades, Romania still emits more greenhouse gas per unit of output than many other members of the European Union. The country is looking for further greening of its energy supply system to achieve the clean energy and climate change mitigation goal...

  12. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains). The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher) who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastru...

  13. Non standard pallet series designing problem in ammunition supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangchun; Guo Min; Wang Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    According to the compound packing problem in ammunition supply system in our army, the non-standard pallet series design model is proposed, and the original problem that can be solved as a set cover problem with a nested bin-packing problem, is analyzed, then two heuristic algorithms are applied to solve the problem.

  14. A regulated power supply for accelerator driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a regulated high voltage power supply (RHVPS) developed for accelerator driven systems to drive a klystron. The RHVPS uses a large no. of small voltage choppers. These choppers are switched in tandem by a novel technique to regulate output voltage. Various parts of the system are novel. The front end is a pair of transformer with 40 secondaries each. Each secondary feeds a switched power module (SPM) which has a rectifier-filter unit followed by an IGBT switch to get 1.3 kV. All 80 SPMs are connected in series. The final output is taken from the two end SPMs. A central controller uses voltage sample from each SPM and generates switching pulses for each IGBT switch. IGBTs of all SPMs are switched with a fixed phase lag from each other, resulting in purely constant voltage with ripple limited to one SPM voltage. The frequency of ripple is high and can be filtered out with a simpler filter. The system can turn off for protection of the load in less than 2 microseconds, the essential attribute for a power supply to be used with klystrons. The results of wire burn tests measure the low stored energy at fault turn off (less than10 J). The power supply (rated for 100 kV at 2.5 MW) will be used for a continuous duty with the klystron for accelerator driven system at BARC (India). A power supply giving 80 kV, 75A is being used with an accelerator system for extraction of beam along with a Neutral Beam Injector. This paper discusses the technology and experimental results of the system. It also discusses various other options with similar power supply. (author)

  15. A number of upgrades on RHIC power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drozd, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Nolan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Orsatti, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Heppener, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Di Lieto, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schultheiss, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Zapasek, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Sandberg, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Operation of a reliable superconducting magnet power supply system is a key factor of an accelerator’s performance. Over the past 15 years, the RHIC power supply group has made many improvements to increase the machine availability and reduce failures. During these past 15 years of operating RHIC a lot of problems have been solved or addressed. In this paper some of the essential upgrades/improvements are discussed.

  16. The power supply system of the CLEO III silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CLEO III detector has recently commenced data taking at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). One important component of this detector is a four layer double-sided silicon tracker with 93% solid angle coverage. This detector ranges in size and number of readout channels between the LEP and LHC silicon detectors. In order to reach the detector performance goals of signal-to-noise ratios greater than 15 : 1 low noise front-end electronics together with highly regulated low noise power supplies were used. In this paper, we describe the low-noise power supply system and associated monitoring and safety features used by the CLEO III silicon tracker

  17. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per;

    2010-01-01

    four different situations are provided. We suggest that the technology mix with the installation of natural gas or coal power plant is applied as the marginal capacity. Conclusions The environmental consequences of marginal changes in electricity supply cannot always be represented solely by long.......e. often the marginal technology. The present ‘state-of the-art’ method is to identify the long-term change in power plant capacity, known as the long-term marginal technology, and assume that the marginal supply will be fully produced at such capacity. However, the marginal change in capacity will have to...... the development of future sustainable energy systems in general. A strict distinction is made between, on the one hand, marginal capacities, i.e. the long-term change in power plant capacities, and on the other, marginal supply, i.e. the changes in production given the combination of power plants and...

  18. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2010-01-01

    , Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading to...... an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...

  19. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  20. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  1. High-Voltage Power Supply System for Laser Isotope Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents several concepts for Laser High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Systems for a Laser Isotope Separation facility. Selection of equipments and their arrangement into operational systems is based on proven designs and on application concepts now being developed. This report has identified a number of alternative system arrangements and has provided preliminary cost estimates for each. The report includes a recommendation for follow-on studies that will further define the optimum Laser HVPS Systems. Brief descriptions are given of Modulator/Regulator circuit trade-offs, system control interfaces, and their impact on costs

  2. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, O P; Vikas kumar; Dixit Garg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST) developed by Yourdon (1989) [Yourdon, E. (1989). Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007) [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007). Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–32...

  3. Optimization of Developing Heat Supply System in Competitive Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Stennikov; O. V. Khamisov; A. V. Penkovsky

    2013-01-01

    The paper is aimed at working out the mathematical models and methods to solve the problems of operation of developing heat supply systems in a competitive market environment. The formation of new principles of functioning in this field is conditioned by the market mechanisms emerging due to the interaction between different owners of heat economy facilities within the single system. Today heat energy markets are represented by a great number of enterprises with different types of ownership t...

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  5. An increase in the efficiency of heat supply systems on reconstruction of energy sources and modernization of gas supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolegov, Yu. Ye.; Stennikov, N. V.; Fedyaev, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The present paper deals with technical and economic problems related to an increase in the efficiency of the use of natural gas on reconstruction of the hest supply systems in the urban-type settlement of Nogliki, with the use of combined heat and power production at the local gas-turbine-based power plant.

  6. Selected Bibliographies for Pharmaceutical Supply Systems. Volume 5: Pharmaceutical Supply Systems Bibliographies. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Leif

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 7 in the Method Series, Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning (CE 024 234), this fifth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with alternative methodologies for planning and analyzing pharmaceutical supply…

  7. A regulated high voltage power supply for accelerator driven system; A regulated high voltage power supply for accelerator driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a regulated high voltage power supply (RHVPS) developed for accelerator driven systems to drive a klystron. The RHVPS uses a large no. of small voltage choppers. These choppers are switched in tandem by a novel technique to regulate output voltage. Various parts of the system are novel. The front end is a pair of transformer with 40 secondaries each. Each secondary feeds a switched power module (SPM) which has a rectifier-filter unit followed by an IGBT switch to get 1.3 kV. All 80 SPMs are connected in series. The final output is taken from the two end SPMs. A central controller uses voltage sample from each SPM and generates switching pulses for each IGBT switch. IGBTs of all SPMs are switched with a fixed phase lag from each other, resulting in purely constant voltage with ripple limited to one SPM voltage. The frequency of ripple is high and can be filtered out with a simpler filter. The system can turn off for protection of the load in less than 2 μs, the essential attribute for a power supply to be used with klystrons. The results of wire burn tests measure the low stored energy at fault turn off (less than 10 J). The power supply (rated for 100 kV at 2.5 MW) will be used for a continuous duty with the klystron for accelerator driven system at BARC (India). A power supply giving 80 kV. 75 A is being used with an accelerator system for extraction of beam along with a Neutral Beam Injector. This paper discusses the technology and experimental results of the system. It also discusses various other options with similar power supply. (author)

  8. Nuclear steam supply system and method of installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of providing a nuclear reactor power plant at a predetermined use site accessible by predetermined navigable waterways. The method is practiced with apparatus including a nuclear reactor system. The system has a nuclear steam-supply section. The method consists of: constructing a nuclear reactor system at a manufacturing site remote from the predetermined use site but accessible to the predetermined waterways for transportation from the manufacturing site to the predetermined use site, the nuclear reactor system including a barge with the nuclear steam supply section constructed integrally with the barge. Simultaneously with the construction of the nuclear reactor system, constructing facilities at the use site to be integrated with the nuclear reactor system to form the nuclear-reactor power plant; transporting the nuclear reactor system along the waterways to the predetermined use site; at the use site joining the removal parts of the altered nuclear reactor system to the remainder of the altered nuclear reactor system to complete the nuclear reactor system; and installing the nuclear reactor system at the predetermined use site and integrating the nuclear reactor system to interact with the facilities constructed at the predetermined use site to form the nuclear-reactor power plant

  9. Design of control system for Kicker magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy ion research facility at Lanzhou cooler storage ring (HIRFL-CSR) includes several parts of extraction and injection systems. Among these parts the extraction part of CSRm and the injection part of CSRe are the most important parts and the time control precision of them affects the beam's injection and extraction efficiency directly. In this paper the advanced ARM + FPGA technology was applied to make a precise control of the Kicker control power supply system and the control accuracy reached to ns. ARM was mainly used to upload and download the control data and the timing sequence control was mainly completed by the program on FPGA. All the control signal of remote timing was transferred through optic fiber, and at the same time, the digital potentiometer was used to fix the voltage of the power supply system with the given accuracy of 0.1%. (authors)

  10. Research on assurance system of nuclear fuel supply (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assurance of supply (AOS) of nuclear fuel is a special arrangement in case of nuclear fuel supply disruption caused by political reasons other than nonproliferation. It aims to support a stable supply of nuclear fuel while avoiding spread of sensitive enrichment technology. Current discussions on AOS have been initiated by the IAEA Director-General's article published in The Economist entitled 'Towards a Safer World' Oct. 2003. Since then, various proposals on AOS have been presented. In order to facilitate international discussions on AOS, authors have conducted studies of AOS system based on Japanese Government's proposal 'IAEA Standby Arrangement System (INFCIRC/683)'. In this paper, we have been able to discuss feasibility of AOS system more specifically by including additional costs and period required for AOS, and to present a system which could work as a practical system. Issues we have tried to tackle here include definitions of AOS, and roles of consumer States, supplier States, IAEA and nuclear industries. We present some solutions including broadening coverage of AOS, declaration by supplier States on AOS, establishing advisory committee in the IAEA on the actual application of AOS, and setting up an IAEA fund for AOS. (author)

  11. Research on assurance system of nuclear fuel supply (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assurance of supply (AOS) of nuclear fuel is a special arrangement in case of nuclear fuel supply disruption caused by political reasons other than nonproliferation. It aims to support a stable supply of nuclear fuel while avoiding unnecessary spread of sensitive enrichment technology. Current discussions on AOS have been initiated by the IAEA Director-General's article published in The Economist entitled 'Towards a Safer World' Oct. 2003. Since then, various proposals on AOS have been presented. In order to facilitate international discussions on AOS, authors have conducted studies of AOS system based on Japanese Government's proposal 'IAEA Standby Arrangement System (INFCIRC/683)'. In this paper, we gave an overview of discussions on AOS since World War II, and elaborated on some of current proposals. We have been able to discuss feasibility of AOS system more specifically by including additional costs and period required for AOS, and to present a system which could work as a practical system. Issues we have tried to tackle here include definitions of AOS, and roles of consumer states, supplier states, IAEA and nuclear industries. We present some solutions including broadening coverage of AOS, declaration by supplier states on AOS, establishing advisory committee in the IAEA on the actual application of AOS, and setting up an IAEA fund for AOS. (author)

  12. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. The work was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), and was supported by the Swiss Association of Producers and Distributers of Electricity (VSE). Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels: 1) individually for each system considered, 2) comparison of systems, 3) comparison of supply

  13. Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. This paper describes the power circuits and the components used in the design

  14. Cognitive Bias in the Verification and Validation of Space Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive bias is generally recognized as playing a significant role in virtually all domains of human decision making. Insight into this role is informally built into many of the system engineering practices employed in the aerospace industry. The review process, for example, typically has features that help to counteract the effect of bias. This paper presents a discussion of how commonly recognized biases may affect the verification and validation process. Verifying and validating a system is arguably more challenging than development, both technically and cognitively. Whereas there may be a relatively limited number of options available for the design of a particular aspect of a system, there is a virtually unlimited number of potential verification scenarios that may be explored. The probability of any particular scenario occurring in operations is typically very difficult to estimate, which increases reliance on judgment that may be affected by bias. Implementing a verification activity often presents technical challenges that, if they can be overcome at all, often result in a departure from actual flight conditions (e.g., 1-g testing, simulation, time compression, artificial fault injection) that may raise additional questions about the meaningfulness of the results, and create opportunities for the introduction of additional biases. In addition to mitigating the biases it can introduce directly, the verification and validation process must also overcome the cumulative effect of biases introduced during all previous stages of development. A variety of cognitive biases will be described, with research results for illustration. A handful of case studies will be presented that show how cognitive bias may have affected the verification and validation process on recent JPL flight projects, identify areas of strength and weakness, and identify potential changes or additions to commonly used techniques that could provide a more robust verification and validation of

  15. Fault Analysis of ITER Coil Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER magnet coils are all designed using superconductors with high current carrying capability. The Toroidal Field (TF) coils operate in a steadystate mode with a current of 68 kA and discharge the stored energy in case of quench with using 9 interleaved Fast Discharge Units (FDUs). The Central Solenoid (CS) coils and Poloidal Field (PF) coils operate in a pulse mode with currents of up to 45 kA and require fast variation of currents inducing more than 10 kV during normal operation on the coil terminals using Switching Network (SN) systems (CSs, PF1 and 6) and Booster and VS converters (PF2 to 5), which are series connected to Main converters. SN and FDU systems comprise high current DC circuit breakers and resistors for generating high voltage (SN) and to dissipate magnetic energy (FDUs). High transient voltages can arise due to the switching operation of SN and FD and the characteristics of resistors and stray components of DC distribution systems. Also, faults in power supply control such as shorts or grounding faults can produce higher voltages between terminals and between terminal and ground. Therefore, the design of the coil insulation, coil terminal regions, feeders, feed throughs, pipe breaks and instrumentation must take account of these high voltages during normal and abnormal conditions. Voltage insulation level can be defined and it is necessary to test the coils at higher voltages, to be sure of reliable performance during the lifetime of operation. This paper describes the fault analysis of the TF, CS and PF coil power supply systems, taking account of the stray parameter of the power supply and switching systems and inductively coupled superconducting coil models. Resistor grounding systems are included in the simulation model and all fault conditions such as converter hardware and software faults, switching system hardware and software faults, DC short circuits and single grounding faults are simulated. The occurrence of two successive faults

  16. Overview on the power supply systems for plasma instabilities control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toigo, V., E-mail: vanni.toigo@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX - EURATOM - ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Gaio, E.; Piovan, R.; Barp, M.; Bigi, M.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Novello, L.; Recchia, M.; Zamengo, A.; Zanotto, L. [Consorzio RFX - EURATOM - ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The paper presents an overview on the power supply (PS) systems for plasma instabilities control in fusion experiments, based on active control coils. First, the MHD instabilities and the approach to their control in Tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) are described. Then, the features of MHD modes controls presently used in fusion experiments are reviewed. For the control systems based on active coils fed by fast power supplies, the typical requirements in terms of power, dynamics, accuracy and delay are summarized and discussed. Then, a survey on the technology available to design these types of PSs is given, together with the most suitable circuit topologies and guidelines for the design, on the basis of solutions adopted in existing experiments.

  17. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs) in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainabili...

  18. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  19. Development for a multi-purpose nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokkaido is one of the four largest island of Japan located in the northern, most of the area, where the atmospheric temperature goes lower than the other area in winter. Thus, an average energy consumption per capita is larger in amount during cold seasons. Nowadays this energy is supplied by fossil fuels. On the other hand, problem of the green house gas emission should be controlled as much as possible in order to avoid global warming. From this point of view, the authors have discussed with local people on the possibility to utilize nuclear clean energy in the daily life in Hokkaido district. Recently some leaders in local towns become interested to such activities and they want information about nuclear energy and related systems. It is a very good chance for us to exchange information on nuclear energy with regards to public acceptance, fears of nuclear power or radiation, the extent of satisfaction to be sure for construction of urban nuclear plants and requirements for such plants. We prepared technical presentation materials and visited a selected towns and continued discussion in various aspects. For example, proposal of a proto type design concept of a small reactor, safety, heat energy supply system. The audience was mainly representatives of the towns firstly and gradually ordinal people also attended the meetings. Based on the information, it could be expected to establish a concept for such district energy supply system. In this paper, some examples and results through these activities are presented. (author)

  20. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin, Khan; Firozkhan, Pathan; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Siju, George; Gattu, Ramesh; Hima, Bindu; Dilip, C. Raval; Prashant, Thankey; Kalpesh, Dhanani; Subrata, Pradhan

    2013-02-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here.

  1. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  2. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  3. Infrared free electron laser magnet power supply control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infrared free-electron laser (IR-FEL) is under development at Materials and Advanced Accelerator Sciences Division, RRCAT, Indore, for the investigation of materials using an electron beam. This system consists of a 90 keV electron gun as an electron source, a linear accelerator (LINAC) which accelerates the beam to energy in the range of 15-25 MeV, beam transport line and an undulator. Beam transport line consists of dipoles, quadrupoles and steering magnets for transporting beam from the LINAC exit to the entrance of the undulator. In this paper we are presenting the development of control system for these precision power supplies

  4. HEAT ACCUMULATION IN HELIUM GROUND SYSTEMS IN HEAT PUMP SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Kolosov; A. A. Sedaev

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement. The paper discusses the problem of estimation of prospects of heat accumulation in the combined systems of heat supply with the use of low potential energy of renewable sources (sun and ground) and heat pumps for increase of their potential.Results and conclusions. The use of heat accumulators in combined heating systems that utilize low-potential solar and ground energy as primary energy sources and heat pumps to boost the po-tential of the latter was discussed. A method o...

  5. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta; Raghubir Singh Anand

    2013-01-01

    Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW) than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives...

  6. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP. PMID:11804153

  7. Study on Problems and Countermeasures of Rural Public Goods Supplying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hua

    2006-01-01

    In current China, the main problem existing in the rural public goods supplying system is the unbalanced condition of public goods supply, and the chief reason for which is unitary system of supply main body.Thus the leading countermeasure for corner of public goods supply is to reform the present unitary rural public goods supplying system, to strengthen functional transfer of rural grass-roots directive organization, to adopt diversified mode and provide public goods on the base of overall planning of urban and rural areas and to implement unitary and diversified supplying strategy. In this way, supplying efficiency of the rural public goods will be improved.

  8. Power supply for wireless sensor or actuator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portable wireless sensor or actuator systems, like portable phones, remote control, or ID cards play an ever growing role in our industrialized environment. Those systems and many more were enabled due to the steady decreasing power consumption of high integrated ICs. Most such systems are powered by batteries or inductive coupling. In this presentation several concepts for an alternative power supply of wireless sensor or actuator systems are discussed in detail. Batteries, although today mostly used, suffer from a limited storage capacity, which induce a labour and sometimes cost-intensive periodic maintenance, and a problematic ecological impact. The operating range of inductive coupling systems is due to the near ?eld limited to the aperture of the coupling coil. UHF systems operate in the far field and reach higher distances. Their operating range is limited by the distance where the voltage at the feeding point of the antenna becomes too low to drive the rectifier circuit. Larger read out ranges become feasible by omitting the rectifier stage. In this case we need either a passive frequency modulating device to shift the read out signal to a side band, or a resonator with a high quality factor, like a SAW or BAW device, to store the energy until all environmental echoes are feed away. For many applications, both indoor and outdoor, energy harvesting system become feasible which convert ambient power densities like light, RF fields, special or temporal thermal gradients, or mechanical vibrations into electrical supply power of the wireless system. All those systems strongly suffer from a lack of energy. Thus new concepts for low-ering the power consumption of a wireless sensor or actuator system by keeping their features remain extreme important. Herby, a new wake up receiver is presented which operates on a current requirement as low as 3 micro A.

  9. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  10. Nuclear steam supply system KLT-40 enhanced safety as independent power supply source. Employment prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High quality of KLT-40 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) providing enhanced safety is attained owing to the development and operation experience of equipments and systems in Soviet nuclear icebreakers. First of all they are the operating nuclear-powered icebreakers open-quotes Arktikaclose quotes, open-quotes Sibirclose quotes, open-quotes Rossiyaclose quotes, open-quotes Sovetsky Soyuzclose quotes, the limited draught icebreakers of joint Soviet-Finnish manufacturing open-quotes Taimyrclose quotes open-quotes Vaigachclose quotes. 30-years trouble-free operation of icebreaker open-quotes Leninclose quotes, the ancestor of nuclear powered fleet, is unprecedented. Operation life of individual equipment items amounts to 107000 hours, that testifies to high reliability and life characteristics of NSSS. Trouble-free operation of the nuclear-powered icebreakers' reactor plants (RPs) exceeded 130 reactor years, that proves high quality of design decisions being underlain in the basis of the KLT-40 NSSS for the lighter-cargo carrier open-quotes Sevmorputclose quotes, which was put into operation into 1988. Besides it testifies to the expediency of KLT-40 NSSS employment as a power source in different power installations. The KLT-40 is a reactor plant with a pwr type reactor. The design is described in detail with diagrams

  11. Filament power supply improvement of the TRIUMF RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIUMF rf system, operating at a fixed frequency of 23.06 MHz, employs four push-poll power amplifiers using eight EIMAC 4CW250,000 tetrodes. The filament power supplies for the above tetrodes use simplified 3 phase SCR control circuits to slowly ramp up the output voltage. Failure of SCR's during ramping and also during power bumps has been a source of rf downtime. A new SCR control scheme has been developed and tested which relies on the fact that the secondary output voltage from a 3 phase transformer will be 57.7% of it's rated output voltage if only two phases of the primary are connected. In this scheme, one phase is connected directly and the second phase is connected through two SCR's of which the conduction angle is controlled by a slow ramp. The third phase is initially blocked by two SCR's which are turned on fully after a fixed delay thereby limiting the surge current of the filament during start up. A greatly simplified firing circuit and smaller number of components has improved the reliability and the performance of such a power supply. Also, an alternate scheme of a power supply with series resistors in the primary of the transformer is described

  12. Operational experience with -20 kV, 5 A DC power supply in Indus-2 RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AC regulator based -20 kV, 5 A DC power supply is employed to bias 60 kW, 505.8 MHz klystron amplifier in Indus-2 RF system. A three terminal triggered spark gap based crowbar along with suitable limiting elements is incorporated at the output of the power supply for protection of sensitive klystron amplifier during load arcing conditions. Wire burn test is carried out on this power supply along with crowbar to ensure that the stored energy dumped into klystron during its arcing is less than 20 Joule. Various protection circuits like over voltage, over current, under voltage, phase failure, thermal overload and transformer oil over temperature protection have been incorporated in this power supply. Preventive maintenance of the power supply is carried out at regular intervals to ensure that it operates satisfactorily during actual operation.This includes checking the breakdown strength of transformer oil, drying of Silica gels in transformer breathers, checking of all electrical connections and cleaning of all high voltage components. The calibration of various meters, checking the setting of various protection-interlock cards and checking the healthiness of crowbar system are also done at regular intervals. During operation, crucial performance parameters of this power supply along with various interlock signals are continuously monitored. Suitable arrangement has been made to operate this supply either in local mode as well as in remote mode. This power supply is operating satisfactorily with klystron amplifier in Indus-2 RF system in round the clock mode for last 15 years and its operational experience are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  14. Considerations on Risk in Supply Chain Management Information Systems Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Petru Măzăreanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in information and communication technologies resulted in the digital revolution. This kind of revolution is changing the way people work, learn, communicate and manage their businesses. Due to the need to achieve the competitive advantage and to meet the business requirements, we are witnessing an increasing shift from business to e-business and mobile business. In this kind of world solutions like Supply Chain Management (SCM are increasingly appearing. The business success depends on how effective the information system works. Any interruption of the information system will inevitably lead to business loss. To ensure the successful implementation of a SCM project it is necessary to study even from the early stages which are the possible actions / risks / obstacles which might damage in one way or another the execution of the project. The role of the literature and case studies review in the field of interest is undeniable because it provides us with access to the so-called lessons-learned. By using this approach, in this paper, we present the most common risks and risk sources encountered in the implementation projects of SCM type information systems. We also propose a risk identification framework that can be used in the early stages of the implementation project of a Supply Chain Management information system.

  15. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  16. A Novel Evaluation Indicator System and Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Performance of Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai Xiyao; Ye Hankun

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain performance evaluation is a research hotspot and lies in the core status in supply chain management. The study presents a new evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm for supply chain performance. First, the balanced score card is used to construct an evaluation indicator system for supply chain performance evaluation through analyzing the basic principle and connotation characteristics of supply chain management; Second analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehens...

  17. Bilateral negotiation in a multi-agent supply chain system

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Fernando; Coelho, Helder

    2010-01-01

    A supply chain is a set of organizations directly linked by flows of services from suppliers to customers. Supply chain activities range from the ordering and receipt of raw materials to the production and distribution of finished goods. Supply chain management is the integration of key activities across a supply chain for the purposes of building competitive infrastructures, synchronizing supply with demand, and leveraging worldwide logistics. This paper addresses the challenges created by s...

  18. Development of a Portfolio Simulation System for Apparel Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ai-hua; WONG Wai-keung; YEUNG Kwok-wing; CHAN Sek-foo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a generic retailer-oriented portfolio simulation system linking manufacturer, retailer, and customer in apparel supply chain is presented. The purpose of the simulator is to generate a portfolio consisting of replenishment strategy and performance index under different sales forecasting errors to satisfy the retailerdefined customer service level in apparel industry. After analyzing the main parameters in the portfolio simulator,the procedure and detailed structure of the simulator are then described. With the use of data from the industry, one case study of the portfolio simulator is achieved and the process of the simulation is validated.

  19. Motivation System of Crowdsourcing Community from a Supply Chain Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses principal-agent theory to study the issue of incentivizing crowdsourcing communities. It proves that enterprises can generate innovation plans of high quality and expected utility using the crowdsourcing community. Outsourcers can encourage high-quality people to join by adopting a linear variable compensation scheme and make the low-quality people quit by requiring them to supply more effort. The paper also shows that enterprises’ participation in crowdsourcing community innovation can effectively improve their innovative ability and that it is necessary for enterprises to construct an effective and cooperative innovative system combining crowdsourcing community innovation and their own internal innovation.

  20. A hybrid decision support system for iron ore supply

    OpenAIRE

    A. Samolejová; J. Feliks; R. Lenort; P. Besta

    2012-01-01

    Many European metallurgical companies are forced to import iron ore from remote destinations. For these companies it is necessary to determine the amount of iron ore that will have to be ordered and to create such a delivery schedule so that the continuous operation of blast-furnace plant is not disrupted and there is no exceedingly large stock of this raw material. The objective of this article is to design the decision support system for iron ore supply which would effi ciently reduce uncer...

  1. Fuel Costs, Propulsion Systems and Interplanetary Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    A perspective on the economics of space logistics in a future state where there are continuous supply routes between Earth and outlying bodies in the solar system is discussed. In particular, the dependence of the cost of transport on specific impulse and % of non-fuel mass as cargo is discussed. Also, a simple way to calculate the optimal cargo mass of a transport ship carrying a commodity with constant demand is proposed as well as qualitative issues regarding backhaul and inventory that space logistics planners will have to one day confront.

  2. The Implementation of the power supply system of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Paoletti, S

    2007-01-01

    The power supply system of the silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment provides HV bias and LV power to the 15000 modules of the detector, arranged into 1944 “power groups” and 256 “control rings”. Around 1200 power supply modules, disposed on 29 racks, operate in a “hostile” radiation and magnetic field environment, 10 m away from the beam crossing region. They power the detector through≃ 50 m long custom-designed “Low Impedance” cables, adopting the sensing wire technique to compensate voltage drops. Detector “power groups” and “control groups” are powered bymodules of different architecture,which are fed by 48 V sources, provided by AC-DC converters installed in the racks. This paper reports the experience acquired in the implementation of the system, the rack layout, the grounding scheme, the power budget, the heat dissipation on racks. A comprehensive Quality Assurance program ensured the performance, using a well defined protocol, shared with the board’s manufacturer, for...

  3. Systems analysis of wood fuel supply for generation of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spread-sheet-based model has been developed through the IEA Bioenergy Agreement that allows easy evaluation of integrated biomass to electricity systems. Technical and economic parameters can be assessed for a variety of feedstocks, conversion technologies and generating cycles. The model was used to investigate supply strategies for a short rotation coppice to electricity system. Attention was paid to harvesting technology, dry matter loss and moisture content change during storage in relation to the amount of feedstock required per year, area of short rotation to be grown and delivered costs. Under the scenarios used greater areas of land need to be given over to growing short rotation coppice using cut and chip harvesting technology than for cut and bundle harvesting technology although this has minimal impact on delivered costs. This is a result to the much lower harvesting costs for cut and chip harvesting which compensates for the higher levels of dry matter loss experienced when there is no drying of the chip pile. The advantage of the model is its flexibility and its ability to determine an optimal supply strategy for a given conversion technology, scale of operation and concomitant system cost constraints. 6 figs, 9 tabs

  4. The population dynamical implications of male-biased parasitism in different mating systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Miller

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established 'two-sex' model and investigate how increased susceptibility to infection in males affects the dynamics, under different mating systems. We investigate the effect of pathogenic disease at different case mortalities, under both monogamous and polygynous mating systems. If the case mortality is low, then male-biased parasitism appears similar to unbiased parasitism in terms of its effect on the population dynamics. At higher case mortalities, we identified significant differences between male-biased and unbiased parasitism. A host population may therefore be differentially affected by male-biased and unbiased parasitism. The dynamical outcome is likely to depend on a complex interaction between the host's mating system and demography, and the parasite virulence.

  5. HEAT ACCUMULATION IN HELIUM GROUND SYSTEMS IN HEAT PUMP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kolosov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The paper discusses the problem of estimation of prospects of heat accumulation in the combined systems of heat supply with the use of low potential energy of renewable sources (sun and ground and heat pumps for increase of their potential.Results and conclusions. The use of heat accumulators in combined heating systems that utilize low-potential solar and ground energy as primary energy sources and heat pumps to boost the po-tential of the latter was discussed. A method of calculating ground heat exchangers that use the heat pump cycle to increase a thermal potential of renewable energy sources was set forth. An at-tempt was made at addressing the problem of heat and mass transfer in ground when ground ac-cumulators like “a Field’s tube” are used: a geothermal circulation system comprises two wells (pumping and operational.

  6. Study on intermediate frequency power supply automatic monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design project of the automatic monitor system for the intermediate frequency power supply system by using the communication server is put for- ward and the realizing principle method and the key technique are clarified in detail. This system made use of the conversion function with the series communication server's control, realized the data collecting function by the double machine backup and redundancy. The new network system adopted the photoelectric-insulated-communication connect device and the diagnosis technique, increased the anti-interference ability, the communication adopted the technique by the alarm information sending out in first and circularly repeating, the slowly speed is overcame in the original monitor network system, and strengthened the celerity of the monitor system and the reliability of the alarm report. After the new monitor system running, the result shows that the functions is more perfect than the original monitor system, the usage is more convenient, have the higher and dependable stability, the report of alarm is more quickly, and is convenient for the analysis after the trouble, at the same time, the system still have the strong ability and value to expand. (authors)

  7. 40 CFR 75.24 - Out-of-control periods and adjustment for system bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in linearity at any of three gas concentrations (low, mid-range, and high) exceeds the applicable... part. (d) When the bias test indicates that an SO2 monitor, a flow monitor, a NOX-diluent continuous emission monitoring system, a NOX concentration monitoring system used to determine NOX mass emissions,...

  8. On System-Dependent Sources of Uncertainty and Bias in Ultrasonic Quantitative Shear-Wave Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufeng; Rouze, Ned C; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonic quantitative shear-wave imaging methods have been developed over the last decade to estimate tissue elasticity by measuring the speed of propagating shear waves following acoustic radiation force excitation. This work discusses eight sources of uncertainty and bias arising from ultrasound system-dependent parameters in ultrasound shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements. Each of the eight sources of error is discussed in the context of a linear, isotropic, elastic, homogeneous medium, combining previously reported analyses with Field II simulations, full-wave 2-D acoustic propagation simulations, and experimental studies. Errors arising from both spatial and temporal sources lead to errors in SWS measurements. Arrival time estimation noise, speckle bias, hardware fluctuations, and phase aberration cause uncertainties (variance) in SWS measurements, while pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and beamforming errors, as well as coupling medium sound speed mismatch, cause biases in SWS measurements (accuracy errors). Calibration of the sources of bias is an important step in the development of shear-wave imaging systems. In a well-calibrated system, where the sources of bias are minimized, and averaging over a region of interest (ROI) is employed to reduce the sources of uncertainty, an SWS error can be expected. PMID:26886980

  9. OVERVIEW OF THE RHIC INSERTION REGION, SEXTUPOLE, AND SNAKE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was commissioned in 1999 and 2000. RHIC requires power supplies to supply currents to highly inductive superconducting magnets. The RHIC Insertion Region (IR) contains many shunt power supplies to trim the current of different magnet elements in a large superconducting magnet circuit. There are a total of 237 Insertion Region power supplies in both RHIC rings. RHIC also requires sextupole power supplies. One sextupole power supply is connected across 12 sextupole magnets. There are a total of 24 sextupole power supplies in both rings. Snake magnets are also a part of the RHIC ring, and these snake magnets also require power supplies. There shall be a total of 24 snake power supplies in both rings. Power supply technology, connections, control systems and interfacing with the Quench Protection System will be presented

  10. External costs and taxes in heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost-efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost-efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included

  11. Non-equilibrium two-level system dynamics probed with a biased bridge resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Moe; Gladchenko, Sergiy; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, K. D.

    2013-03-01

    We have designed a biased bridge resonator (BBR), which allows us to probe amorphous dielectric films by simultaneously applying a quasi-static electric bias field in addition to a microwave electric field. The BBR is made with a bridge arrangement of capacitors using superconducting aluminum electrodes and operated at millikelvin temperatures. Measurements of a universal amorphous dielectric film at high microwave amplitudes and a sufficiently fast bias field ramp reveals a non-equilibrium dielectric loss equal to its intrinsic steady state value. This phenomenon is explained by a theory which uses the dynamics of charged two-level systems undergoing Landau-Zener transitions to remain in their ground state. We will compare the experimental data to Monte Carlo simulations of the theory which allow for the separate extraction of the dipole moment and the spectral density of two-level systems.

  12. Radon removal from water supplies by diffused bubble aeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of moderate levels of radon from groundwater supplies was evaluated using the diffused bubble aeration technique. An aeration system was designed, constructed and operated for that purpose. The effect of air-to-water ratio and detention time on radon removal were evaluated through 32 runs. The possibility to reduce the radon activity in the influent stream to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL) was verified through many alternative combined values of both air-to-water ratios and detention times. The results showed that at detention time of 19 minutes and air-to-water ratio of 12, the average radon removal is about 97%. The stripping constant characterizing this system was calculated and the removal efficiency at extended values of detention time was predicted. The data obtained are site specific, being dependent on container size, type of diffusers, temperature, and influent radon radioactivity. (author)

  13. A hybrid decision support system for iron ore supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samolejová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European metallurgical companies are forced to import iron ore from remote destinations. For these companies it is necessary to determine the amount of iron ore that will have to be ordered and to create such a delivery schedule so that the continuous operation of blast-furnace plant is not disrupted and there is no exceedingly large stock of this raw material. The objective of this article is to design the decision support system for iron ore supply which would effi ciently reduce uncertainty and risk of that decision-making. The article proposes a hybrid intelligent system which represents a combination of diff erent artifi cial intelligence methods with dynamic simulation technique for that purpose.

  14. System Model Bias Processing Approach for Regional Coordinated States Information Involved Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Kalman filtering applications, the conventional dynamic model which connects the states information of two consecutive epochs by state transition matrix is usually predefined and assumed to be invariant. Aiming to improve the adaptability and accuracy of dynamic model, we propose multiple historical states involved filtering algorithm. An autoregressive model is used as the dynamic model which is subsequently combined with observation model for deriving the optimal window-recursive filter formulae in the sense of minimum mean square error principle. The corresponding test statistics characteristics of system residuals are discussed in details. The test statistics of regional predicted residuals are then constructed in a time-window for model bias testing with two hypotheses, that is, the null and alternative hypotheses. Based on the innovations test statistics, we develop a model bias processing procedure including bias detection, location identification, and state correction. Finally, the minimum detectable bias and bias-to-noise ratio are both computed for evaluating the internal and external reliability of overall system, respectively.

  15. Forecast-Based Operations Support Tool for the New York City Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, G.; Porter, J.

    2012-12-01

    USGS and ensemble inflow forecasts from the National Weather Service (NWS). Incoming data passes through an automated flagging/filling process, and data is presented to operators for approval prior to use as model input. OST allows the user to drive operational runs with two types of ensemble inflow forecasts. Statistical forecasts are based on historical inflows that are conditioned on antecedent hydrology. The statistical algorithm is relatively simple and versatile and is useful for longer-term projections. For improved short-term skill, OST will rely on NWS meteorologically-based ensemble forecasts. A post-processor within OST will provide bias correction for the NWS ensembles. OST applications to date have included routine short-term operational projections to support release decisions, analysis of tradeoffs between water supply and water quality during turbidity events, facility outage planning, development of operating rules and release policies, long-term water supply planning, and climate change assessment. The structure and capabilities of OST are expected to be a useful template for drinking water utilities and water system managers seeking to integrate forecasts into system operations and balance tradeoffs between competing objectives in both near-term operations and long-term planning.

  16. Sustainability of community water supply system managed by water user committee : a case study of rural water supply system in Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Kalyani

    2015-01-01

    Many Nepalese rural communities are suffering from lack of safe drinking water. One of the reasons is that approximately one third to one half of all drinking water supply systems fail shortly after the construction. The main purpose of this thesis project was to analyze sustainability of rural water supply project managed by water user committee implemented by DWSS in Dhulikhel, Bhakundebesi, kavre and Panchdhara, Kathmandu. In addition, the thesis also reviewed water supply system and i...

  17. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  18. Critical success factors for implementing supply chain information systems : insights from the pork industry

    OpenAIRE

    Denolf, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical success factors for implementing supply chain information systems – Janne M. Denolf Due to intensified competition, companies realize that they should closely collaborate with their supply-chain partners to further cut costs and stay competitive. To do so, supply-chain partners should intensify information sharing, which is often facilitated through supply chain information systems (SCIS). Implementation of such a system is a complex undertaking due to the umpteen technical and...

  19. Structure optimization of energy supply systems in tertiary sector buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Miguel A.; Ramos, Jose C.; Carvalho, Monica; Serra, Luis M. [Grupo GITSE - I3A, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Trigeneration systems, also known as Combined Heat, Cooling and Power (CHCP) systems, are interesting alternatives to supply different energy services in urban districts and in large buildings, particularly in warm areas such as Mediterranean countries. These systems can provide substantial benefits from economic, energetic, and environmental viewpoints, since the cogenerated heat can be used for heating in winter as well as cooling in summer with an absorption refrigerator. This paper develops an optimization model using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) to determine the type, number and capacity of equipment in CHCP systems installed in the tertiary sector as well as to establish the optimal operation mode for the different plant components on an hour-by-hour basis throughout the year. The objective function to be minimized is the annual total cost. The optimization model considers the legal constraints imposed to feed the surplus autogenerated electricity into the grid at a regulated feed-in tariff. The optimization model is applied to design a system providing energy services for a hospital located in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). The effects of the financial market conditions and energy prices in the optimal structure of the system are analyzed. (author)

  20. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  1. Reactive power compensation in ITER power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER power supply system supplies the heating and current driving facilities and the magnetic coils which will typically produce the reactive power up to 930Mvar in full load operation of 500MW active power. The high voltage grid allows about 200Mvar and the reactive power compensator (RPC) of 795Mvar is planned. The control strategy of RPC is important because of the over voltages from abrupt changes of the load. Some or whole units of the load could be cut off in normal operations as well as in accidents. ITER RPC consists of TCR (thyristor controlled reactor) and capacitors with fixed values. The control, in strategy, calculates the susceptance of the load from the load current and drives TCR to keep the total susceptance at the given level. The control circuit is simulated using a commercial software, PSIM, and the over voltages are tested for typical cases of load loses. In order to respond as fast as possible and thereby reduce the peak values of transient over voltages, a scheme is suggested in which the signals of the susceptance change and the timing are provided by the load controllers. The improvements are also simulated by PSIM

  2. Switching devices for the ITER magnet power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of creation of a new generation of switches was set forth in the ITER research and development programme. The set of switches consists of circuit breakers and making switches both for normal and protective mode of operation. In addition, there may arise a demand for a polarity reverser to change the output current polarity of the supply converter. All of these switches are to operate with steady state currents of about 40kA and voltages of up to 20kV.The required response time is not more than several milliseconds. In this paper the results of development and investigation of several multiaction mechanical switches for the ITER power supply and protection systems are described. An extensive test programme was carried out to check the design concepts of the switches and determine their real parameters. The results of the experimental study indicated that all of these switches can be used as the basis for the design of the ITER switches. ((orig.))

  3. Impact of dither-based Electro-Optic Modulator bias control on distributed Brillouin sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Hu, Xiaoyang; Meng, Zhou

    2015-10-01

    In most distributed Brillouin sensing systems, it is crucial to keep the long-term stability of the electro-optic modulator (EOM) operating point. The dither-tone based bias control methods are widely adopted in this kind of systems for its robustness and reliability, but the low frequency dither tone (a few kilohertz) added into the dc bias port of the EOM may have a detrimental impact on the sensing performance of the Brillouin sensing system. Experimental results show that the dither frequency should not be set around quarter of the pulse repetition rate or its multiples, and the employed dither amplitude should be in the range of 0.003Vπ to 0.015Vπ (Vπ is the RF half-wave voltage of the EOM), in order to overcome the limitation of dither tone based bias control techniques in BOTDA systems. These results will provide guidelines to improve the performance of the Brillouin sensing systems using dither-based EOM bias control method.

  4. System Description of the Electrical Power Supply System for the ATLAS Integral Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. S.; Song, C. H.; Baek, W. P

    2007-02-15

    An integral effect test loop for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is constructed by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. This report describes the design and technical specifications of the electrical power supply system which supplies the electrical powers to core heater rods, other heaters, various pumps and other systems. The electrical power supply system had acquired the final approval on the operation from the Korea Electrical Safety Corporation. During performance tests for the operation and control, the electrical power supply system showed completely acceptable operation and control performance.

  5. Racial Bias in the Juvenile Justice System in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Menah A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Examines research on racial bias, focusing on the discretionary decision-making junctures of the juvenile court system. Research and statistics continue to suggest that the public, the police, the prosecution, and the jury all treat blacks more unfairly based to a large extent on race. (SLD)

  6. The upgraded PSI application in the BEPCⅡ power supply control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 460 magnet power supplies in the two rings and the transport lines of the BEPCⅡ which are controlled by the power supply controller and the power supply interface. An upgraded Power Supply Interface (PSI-Ⅱ) was developed for replacing the old one in the power supply control system of the BEPCⅡ. It will firstly describe feature of the PSI-Ⅱ and difference from the PSI. Then, discuss performance test of the PSI-Ⅱ well as its application in the power supply control system. (authors)

  7. Accounting experimental analysis method of functioning regimes of electrical power supply systems at the industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Problems of analysis and control of electric power supply in corelation with requirements of the new interstate standards to the quality of energy supply are investigated. The methodology of analyzing the state of electric power supply system and sampling procedures in increasing efficiency of system functioning on the basis of using experimental and accountable methods of research is performed

  8. Modern approach to power supply of systems important to NPP safety under in-house blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers preconditions to revise a strategy of Ukrainian NPP in-house power supply and new approaches to arrangement of power supply of safety system loads from on-site power sources and mobile diesel generators. In addition, the paper shows a new scheme of power supply to safety system loads in case of blackout.

  9. Bias optimal admission control policies for a multiclass nonstationary queueing system

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark E.; Ayhan, Hayriye; Foley, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a finite-capacity queueing system where arriving customers offer rewards which are paid upon acceptance into the system. The gatekeeper, whose objective is to `maximize' rewards, decides if the reward offered is sufficient to accept or reject the arriving customer. Suppose the arrival rates, service rates, and system capacity are changing over time in a known manner. We show that all bias optimal (a refinement of long-run average reward optimal) policies are o...

  10. Statistical Characterization and Mitigation of NLOS Bias in UWB Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montorsi, Francesco; Vitetta, Giorgio M

    2012-01-01

    Propagation in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions is one of the major impairments in ultrawideband (UWB) wireless localization systems based on time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements. In this paper the problem of the joint statistical characterization of the NLOS bias and of the most representative features of LOS/NLOS UWB waveforms is investigated. In addition, the performance of various maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators for joint localization and NLOS bias mitigation is assessed. Our numerical results evidence that the accuracy of all the considered estimators is appreciably influenced by the LOS/NLOS conditions of the propagation environment and that a statistical knowledge of multiple signal features can be exploited to mitigate the NLOS bias, reducing the overall localization error.

  11. Use of radio frequency bias in the large area plasma processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the large-area plasma processing system (LAPPS) scheme, rf bias can be used for either of two purposes: to provide energetic ion bombardment of a substrate, or to controllably raise the electron temperature (which is intrinsically very cool) to a desired value. The physics of rf bias in the LAPPS differs from the situation in conventional processing reactors for several reasons: (1) The plasma density adjacent to the substrate can be so high that the ion plasma frequency exceeds the microwave frequency. (2) Plasma transport to the substrate is across a magnetic field. (3) Ionization occurs only in a thin, well-defined planar sheet, and thus the volume occupied by plasma is very broad in two dimensions but thin in the third dimension. (4) The surface area of the substrate is comparable to that of the containment vessel. We discuss the modifications to the theory of rf bias that are needed to account for these factors in a LAPPS plasma

  12. Recall bias in a case-control surveillance system on the use of medicine during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, A.E.;

    2001-01-01

    It is important to study possible teratogenic effects of drugs used during pregnancy. Many studies of this type rely upon case-control designs in which drug intake is recalled by the mothers after having given birth. Recall bias in this situation may lead to spurious associations. We looked for...... indicators of recall bias by comparing self-reported drug intake with medically notified intake for specific diseases in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, which includes 22,865 cases with congenital abnormalities and 39,151 controls. Recall error was present......, especially for drugs used for a short time period. Furthermore, the timing of drug intake was reported slightly closer to the time of interview for cases compared than for controls. Severe or visible congenital abnormalities did not appear to be more conducive to recall bias than other abnormalities under...

  13. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  14. Impact of Integration of Manufacturaing Planning and Control Systems on Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Ayako; Sato, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing planning and control systems (MPCSs, for short) are an essentialelement for supply chain processes today. However, there are few researches whichinclude planning information systems in supply chain models and optimize the wholestructure holistically in spite of the social importance of MPCSs for supply chainmanagement. At present, we do not have any ideas even about process behaviorwhen organizations which have MPCSs are linked in a supply chain. To clarifyfundamental properties...

  15. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shujin; Yang, Qiangxian

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed, showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain. 3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain. Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PL...

  16. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  17. Logistic Task of Fuel Supply for the Regional Distributed Heat Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan RUSYAK; Karolina KETOVA; Ekaterina TRUSHKOVA

    2011-01-01

    The technique for solving the logistic task of fuel supply in the region, including the interconnected tasks of routing, clustering, optimal distribution of resources and stock control is proposed. The complex algorithm for solving the routing task contains Astar method, Yen method, as well as the genetic algorithm adapted for the task being solved. To identify the location of facilities for fuel preparation the two-stage algorithm of cluster analysis applying the hierarchical cluster analysi...

  18. Distributed Networked Control System for Power Supply System of the Accelerator Based on Canopen Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network based control system for a power supply unit of the linear accelerator was developed. Front-end level of the system is based on CAN fieldbus with CANopen and CANEX application level protocols. Both local and remote control foe each CANopen node is provided. Level 2 control stations of the system are ARM9 CPU based machines, operating under Linux OS

  19. Study on the Stability of Supply Chain System Under Perturbations of Dynamic Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingjinLu; XiaowoTang; ZongfangZhou

    2004-01-01

    The stability of supply chain system is key to implement efficiently inventory policies and improve quality of service in the supply chain. If the supply chain system were unstable, the lead-time would be uncertain. As a result, directly affects the process of manufacture, and the service level. In this paper, we analyze the stability of the supply chain system under perturbations of dynamic parameters based on the Cobb-Douglas production function and study influences on supply chain performance. We prove that the supply chain system, with the increases of the re-production input funding, becomes unstable. Further, when the optimal combination of input parameter elements, the supply chain system becomes unstable.

  20. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  1. System Dynamics Model for VMI&TPL Integrated Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes VMI-APIOBPCS II model by extending VMI-APIOBPCS model from serial supply chain to distribution supply chain. Then TPL is introduced to this VMI distribution supply chain, and operational framework and process of VMI&TPL integrated supply chain are analyzed deeply. On this basis VMI-APIOBPCS II model is then changed to VMI&TPL-APIOBPCS model and VMI&TPL integrated operation mode is simulated. Finally, compared with VMI-APIOBPCS model, the TPL’s important role of goods consolidation and risk sharing in VMI&TPL integrated supply chain is analyzed in detail from the aspects of bullwhip effect, inventory level, service level, and so on.

  2. Research on Corporate Social Responsibility of Supply Chain System Based on the Self-organization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baoying Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of supply chain system are analyzed based on the Self-organization theory from the angle of view of supply chain system. The mathematical models when the system fulfilling social responsibility including self-organization evolution model and self-organization function model are developed to discuss the formation and function of self-organization in supply chain system and coordination. Some basic conditions and tactics about self-organization establishment a...

  3. Simulation of Inventory Control System in a Supply Chain Using RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Al Kattan; Taha Al Khudairi

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a simulation model in a Supply Chain Management (SCM) system. This study is one of the first to present simulation model of inventory control system in supply chain management using barcode and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). The main objective of this model is to compare two inventory systems in a supply chain, one using RFID, versus the barcode. The model will help company to consider moving from a barcode system to the RFID application. A quantitative analysis bas...

  4. A Multi-Agent Based System with Big Data Processing for Enhanced Supply Chain Agility

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakis, Mihalis; Louis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    International audience Purpose: Decision support systems have become an indispensable tool for managing complex supply chains. This paper develops a multi-agent based supply chain management system that incorporates big data analytics that can exert autonomous corrective control actions. The effects of the system on supply chain agility are explored. Design/methodology/approach: For the development of the architecture of the system, a sequential approach is adopted. First three fundamental...

  5. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  6. Critical success factors for implementing supply chain information systems : insights from the pork industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denolf, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical success factors for implementing supply chain information systems – Janne M. Denolf Due to intensified competition, companies realize that they should closely collaborate with their supply-chain partners to further cut costs and stay competitive. To do so, supply-chai

  7. A Study on Rational Pricing System for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    are important for systematizing pricing mechanism and reasonable use of water resource. The study recommends the institutional structure for efficient water management/use include an integrated river basin management system and establishment of an independent agency for executive function (separation of policy making function and executive function). A corporatized organization for actual water supply function is also recommended (separation of regulation function and supply function). (author). 46 refs., 18 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Research on Knowledge-Oriented Supply ChainRisk Management System Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yingchun Guo

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of supply chain risk management under the influences of knowledge, in this paper integrates basic theories and methods of knowledge management into the process of risk management, builds a knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management system model, and proposes relevant strategies, presenting references for practical application of knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management. By means of acquiring, storing, sharing, and transferring supply chain ri...

  9. Research on Supply Chain Simulation System Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Zhu; Binbin Fu

    2014-01-01

    As one of the top ten core industries in China, Internet of things, has gradually changed our life, by influencing enterprise production, storage and transportation, express, supermarket shopping, etc. By using Internet of things technology in the supply chain, enterprise can optimize the structure and process of supply chain management system, improve the information transmission speed and things matching accuracy, and improve the operation mode of supply chain. The paper constructs a supply...

  10. On Construction of Supply Chain System for China’s Modern Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    In view of drawbacks in supply chain of China’s traditional agricultural products,this paper proposed building supply chain system for modern agricultural products: taking informationization as basis,channel system as core,organization system as support,and service system and safety system as guarantee,to promote high efficient operation of the supply chain system. The channel system stresses alliance and integration of channel system,informationization of channel management,and terminalization of channel operation; the organization system stresses organization,large scale,group,and brand of participant entities; service system stresses construction of service means,service platform,and operation mechanism; safety system stresses building quality safety based agricultural product supply chain management mode. In order to ensure high efficient operation of supply chain for modern agricultural products,it is required to straighten out supply chain management system,actively cultivate core enterprises of supply chain,strengthen information construction of supply chain,select suitable supply chain mode,and improve benefit allocation mechanism.

  11. Cascaded Position-Flux Controller for an AMB System Operating at Zero Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal P. Jastrzebski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the implementation and the design of a controller for a fuel cell blower (FCB with active magnetic bearings (AMBs. The cascaded position-fluxcentralized controller is comprised of a centralized position control loop and an inner flux control loop. The last one is based on state estimation without explicit flux measurements. As the position control is not dependent on the magnetic field nonlinearities, such a control structure enables operation under a zero bias. The practical working implementation of a flux control for the industrial levitated rotor is shown for the first time. The flux control gives better results than current control for both normal and zero bias operation. The system is analyzed fully, combining rotor dynamics and power amplifier analyses simultaneously. The importance of using the coil voltage in addition to current and practical treatment of the flux control is revealed. The centralized position-flux controller is compared with a state-of-the-art cascaded position-current control, which has inner current control loops. The proposed control solution with a zero bias can achieve a dynamic performance comparable that of a controller with the classical bias current.

  12. Piezoelectric manipulation of Co/CoO exchange-bias bilayer system at low-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Syed; Ali, S. I.; Zhang, Q. T.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, Y. G.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Tufail, Muhammad; Han, X. F.

    2013-09-01

    The spintronics devices based on electric field is a key challenge today and the exchange bias effect is the basic structure used in these devices. We have studied the electric field control of annealed Co/CoO exchange bias system fabricated on the (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric substrate. The Co/CoO heterostructure was cooled down from above the Neel temperature (TN = 291 K) down to 15 K in the presence of electric and magnetic fields; the sample was cooled every time for each electric field measurement in order to avoid the training effect. The exchange bias effect was found to increase by 44% at the highest electric field value of 8 kV/cm measured at 15 K. The electric field tuning of exchange bias is attributed to the different magnetization reversal processes for left and right branches of magnetic hysteresis loop. Our results reinforce the possibility for the use of electric field as a tool to control the future spintronics devices.

  13. Supply strategy configuration in fragmented production systems: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chackelson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Companies survive in saturated markets trying to be more productive and more efficient. In this context, it becomes critical for companies to manage the entire supply network to optimize overall performance.  Hence, the supply strategy plays an important role because it influences the way in which production and logistics network has to be configured and managed. This paper explores the benefits obtained configuring different supply strategies adapted to customer needs.Design/methodology/approach: For this purpose a case research from a Tier 2 point of view of the supply chain has been conducted. Findings and Originality/value: The case research demonstrates that a higher service level, less holding costs and increase turnovers can be obtained implementing the adequate supply strategy. Originality/value: There is a scarcity of research specifically focused on applied Supply Chain Principles within network configuration processes. Moreover, there are few empirical studies of global Tier 2 with multiple decoupling points into its supply chain network.

  14. Development of Discrete Power Supply with Charge Pump Method for High Powered Sonar System

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Ismail; Syamsu Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Power supply is one of the electronic devices that can provide electric energy for electronic systems or other systems. There are several types of power supplies that can be applied depend on the requirement and functions. One example is the use of power supply for sonar systems. Sonar system is a device which can be used to detect a target under water. The sonar system is an electronic circuit that requires a power supply with specific characteristics when the sonar functions as a transmitte...

  15. Fiber nonlinearity mitigation by PAPR reduction in coherent optical OFDM systems via biased clipping OFDM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaohong Hao; Yuquan Li; Rong Wang; Weiwei Huang

    2012-01-01

    A new method incorporating biased clipping orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is presented,which mitigates fiber nonlinear effects in a long-haul coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) system.Under the scheme of the method,the wanted signal carried by odd subcarriers is orthogonal to clipping noise and a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) performs the optimal OFDM signal up-converter from the radio frequency (RF) domain to the optical domain.Analysis and simulation results show that fiber nonlinear effects can be effectively mitigated by reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in biased clipping CO-OFDM system.The nonlinearity threshold (NLT) is improved by 5 dB with a reach of 240km.With a fiber length up to 800 km,system Q value is improved by approximately 2.3,1.2,and 0.6 dB at a chromatic dispersion of 6,12,and 16 ps/(nm.km),respectively.Additionally,system Q reaches the maximum when direct currect (DC) bias is equal to the mean value of the OFDM waveform.

  16. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  17. Design of power supply control system for DNB system on HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components and structure of a power supply for diagnostic neutral beam source on the HT-7 Tokamak as well as the compositions and functions of its control system were introduced in this paper. The experimental results show that the system is easy to operate and its performance is reliable. (authors)

  18. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

  19. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  20. Stochastic resonance in a bias linear system with multiplicative and additive noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Feng; Zhou Yu-Rong; Jiang Shi-Qi; Gu Tian-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic resonance in a bias linear system subjected multiplicative and additive dichotomous noise is investigated. Using the linear-response theory and the properties of the dichotomous noise, this paper finds the exact expressions for the first two moments and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is shown that the SNR is a non-monotonic function of the correlation time of the multiplicative and additive noise, and it varies non-monotonously with the intensity and asymmetry of the multiplicative noise as well as the external field frequency. Moreover, the SNR depends on the system bias, the intensity of the cross noise between the multiplicative and additive noise, and the strength and asymmetry of the additive noise.

  1. Exchange bias through a Cu interlayer in an IrMn/Co system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshev, J.; Nicolodi, S.; Pereira, L. G.; Nagamine, L. C. C. M.; Schmidt, J. E.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.

    2007-06-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetization (MAG) measurements were used to study the exchange interaction between the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers in an IrMn/Cu/Co system as a function of the Cu spacer thickness. Although the experimental angular variations of the exchange-bias fields HebFMR and HebMAG coincide, the coupling strengths J and the Co layers’ anisotropy fields HU , obtained via numerical simulations, are different. For all Cu thicknesses JFMR>JMAG and HUFMRbiased system.

  2. Evaluation of security of supplies for the Danish energy system up to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Security of energy supplies is one of the criteria which ought to enter into the future extension possibilities for the Danish energy system. But security of supply is a difficult concept to quantify involving as it does both technical and political aspects. The report attempts to encircle the problems relating to security of supply, partly by describing and evaluating the supply structure and the amount of the resource which could be thought of as entering into the future Danish pattern of energy supply, and partly by analyzing the consequences for the Danish consumer of a break in the supply of a specific fuel. It is noted that a supply breakdown in the electric system is not treated in the report except insofar as the fuel entering into the electric system is covered in the study. (author)

  3. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-yong; Ahn, Il-kun; Seo, Tae-won; Lee, Seung-kyo; Bae, Young-soon; Joung, Jin-Hyun; Joung, Mi

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A) Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS), Anode Power Supply(APS) and Body Power Supply(BPS). The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz modulation operation. The BPS is combined the commercial power supply and special high voltage switches. It is very simple topology but 5kHz modulation was accomplished easily. Theses power supply system were installed and commissioned successfully in 2011. This paper presents the topology of the each power supply and test result for 170 GHz gyrotron in KSTAR.

  4. Minimizing Intra-Campaign Biases in Airborne Laser Altimetry By Thorough Calibration of Lidar System Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, J. G.; Chibisov, A.; Krabill, K. A.; Linkswiler, M. A.; Swenson, C.; Yungel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day airborne lidar surveys of polar ice, NASA's Operation IceBridge foremost among them, cover large geographical areas. They are often compared with previous surveys over the same flight lines to yield mass balance estimates. Systematic biases in the lidar system, especially those which vary from campaign to campaign, can introduce significant error into these mass balance estimates and must be minimized before the data is released by the instrument team to the larger scientific community. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) team designed a thorough and novel approach in order to minimize these biases, and here we describe two major aspects of this approach. First, we conduct regular ground vehicle-based surveys of lidar calibration targets, and overfly these targets on a near-daily basis during field campaigns. We discuss our technique for conducting these surveys, in particular the measures we take specifically to minimize systematic height biases in the surveys, since these can in turn bias entire campaigns of lidar data and the mass balance estimates based on them. Second, we calibrate our GPS antennas specifically for each instrument installation in a remote-sensing aircraft. We do this because we recognize that the metallic fuselage of the aircraft can alter the electromagnetic properties of the GPS antenna mounted to it, potentially displacing its phase center by several centimeters and biasing lidar results accordingly. We describe our technique for measuring the phase centers of a GPS antenna installed atop an aircraft, and show results which demonstrate that different installations can indeed alter the phase centers significantly.

  5. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies (2012 update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  6. Hierarchical sales forecasting system for apparel companies and supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Lenort, Radim; Besta, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The typical problems facing with apparel companies and supply chains are forecasting errors, because fashion markets are volatile and difficult to predict. For that reason, the ability to develop accurate sales forecasts is critical in the industry. There are several research studies related to forecasting apparel goods, but very often only for one level. However, apparel companies and supply chains deal with a number of levels at which the forecasts could exist and require con...

  7. The Power Supply System for the J-TEXT Poloidal Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; ZHUANG Ge; YU Kexun; QiU Shengshun; PAN Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Joint-TEXT(J-TEXT)is a medium-sized tokamak constructed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology.At present,the poloidal field power supply consists of three subsystem sets,namely Ohmic heating field power supply,vertical field power supply,and horizontal field power supply.The structure and function of the poloidal field(PF)power supply aus well as the updated control system of the power supply is described.The new scheme uses the realtime feedback control method for the poloidal field power supply.The experimental results show that the poloidal field energized by poloidal field power supply meets the J-TEXT operational requirement perfectly.

  8. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  9. Adiabatically switched-on electrical bias in continuous systems, and the Landauer-Büttiker formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Nenciu, Gheorghe;

    Consider a three dimensional system which looks like a cross-connected pipe system, i.e. a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads. We investigate the current running through this system, in the linear response regime, when we adiabatically turn on an electrical bias between leads....... The main technical tool is the use of a finite volume regularization, which allows us to define the current coming out of a lead as the time derivative of its charge. We finally prove that in virtually all physically interesting situations, the conductivity tensor is given by a Landauer-Büttiker type...

  10. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  11. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  12. Design and commissioning of emergency power supply system of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using excellent inherent safety features of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, created a new-type, passive, and static emergency power supply system. This perfect design shows a lot of advantages that the system is simplified, investment is cut down, safety and reliability of the system are greatly increased. System function, system components and main design principles of the emergency power supply system are comprehensively presented. Additionally, operation modes and safety features of the key system equipment are specially introduced. Finally, various commissioning of the emergency power supply system are summarized for presentation systematically

  13. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  14. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  15. A DU bed system for storing and supplying hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongchul; Ahn, Do-Hee; Chung, Hongsuk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been extensively proposed for the storage, supply, and recovery of hydrogen isotopes. SDS is used for storing hydrogen isotopes as a metal hydride form. To control the SDS, it is necessary to monitor the tritium amount in a bed. In this study, a full-sized DU bed was designed and fabricated including cylindrical-type copper foam of nine layers to study the characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding and simulate the tritium amount in a bed. The integrity and leak inspection on the welding of a primary vessel was performed using a penetration test, helium leak test, and pressure test. Auto tuning on the cable heaters of two pairs in the DU bed was also be performed. In our next study, the hydriding/dehydriding on a DU bed will be performed. A simulation on the depleted uranium hydriding will be carried out. A DU bed was designed and fabricated including cylindrical-type copper foam of nine layers to study the characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding and simulate the tritium amount in a bed. Through a penetration test, it was confirmed that the welding of the primary vessel has a good integrity. It was confirmed that the two helium tubes is sound by inspecting a helium leak test on the welding of the primary vessel. It was also confirmed that the primary vessel has a good integrity by inspecting a helium leak and conducting a pressure test on it. Vacuuming of the DU bed system was carried out. Vacuuming of the in-bed calorimetric equipment was also carried out.

  16. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do not...... adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...

  17. Cluster-Event Biasing in Monte Carlo Applications to Systems Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of the probabilities of rare events with significant consequences, e.g., disasters, is one of the most difficult problems in Monte Carlo applications to systems engineering and reliability. The Bernoulli-type estimator used in analog Monte Carlo is characterized by extremely high variance when applied to the estimation of rare events. Variance reduction methods are, therefore, of importance in this field.The present work suggests a parametric nonanalog probability measure based on the superposition of transition biasing and forced events biasing. The cluster-event model is developed providing an effective and reliable approximation for the second moment and the benefit along with a methodology of selecting near-optimal biasing parameters. Numerical examples show a considerable benefit when the method is applied to problems of particular difficulty for the analog Monte Carlo method.The suggested model is applicable for reliability assessment of stochastic networks of complicated topology and high redundancy with component-level repair (i.e., repair applied to an individual failed component while the system is operational)

  18. A Novel Evaluation Indicator System and Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Performance of Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xiyao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain performance evaluation is a research hotspot and lies in the core status in supply chain management. The study presents a new evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm for supply chain performance. First, the balanced score card is used to construct an evaluation indicator system for supply chain performance evaluation through analyzing the basic principle and connotation characteristics of supply chain management; Second analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithms are combined to satisfy the dynamic, subjective and transitional characteristics of evaluation indicators and improve evaluation accuracy. Thirdly the evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm are used in supply chain performance evaluation of fresh food products and the experimental results shows that the presented evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm has satisfied validity and feasibility.

  19. Sex-biased predation by polecats influences the mating system of frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, Thierry; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Lesbarrères, David; Pagano, Alain

    2004-12-01

    In agile frogs, Rana dalmatina, an increase in male-biased operational sex ratio and in male abundance results in the emergence of alternative male mating behaviour in the form of searching. As a consequence, females are coerced into mating with multiple males, which in turn increases the level of conflict between the sexes. Selective predation on males by the European polecat, Mustela putorius, decreases the occurrence of polyandry. In ponds visited by polecats, the sex ratio is less male biased than in ponds where polecats are absent. As a result most males call to attract females and fewer males actively search for females. Females are able to choose between calling males and mate with a single male. Thus, predation by polecats is found to influence sex ratio, male abundance and sexual conflict in a frog mating system, restricting the opportunity for multiple mating. PMID:15801586

  20. Operating Rule Classification System of Water Supply Reservoir Based on Learning Classifier System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-feng; WANG Xiao-lin; YIN Zheng-jie; LI Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    An operating rule classification system based on lesrning classifier system (LCS), which learns through credit assignment (bucket brigade algorithm, BBA) and rule discovery (genetic algorithm, GA), is established to extract water-supply reservoir operating rules. The proposed system acquires an online identification rate of 95% for training samples and an offline rate of 85% for testing samples in a case study. The performances of the rule classification system are discussed from the rationality of the obtained rules, the impact of training samples on rule extraction, and a comparison between the rule classification system and the artificial neural network (ANN). The results indicate that the LCS is feasible and effective for the system to obtain the reservoir supply operating rules.

  1. System for selecting a postponement strategy portfolio for supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Simão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stagnation of the economy has increased competition and uncertainty in the industrial sector. Trends such as the increase in the proliferation of the variety of products and the requirement for customization of products has contributed to difficulties in forecasting demand, due to increased uncertainty of demand for final products. In this new competitive environment, it is no longer possible to use the traditional “one size fits all” supply chain process, with unique policies for all products because this practice can lead to significant profitability losses due to the increase in stock levels and lost sales. However, research on supply chains has given relatively little attention to the need to use different, segmented supply chain strategies as well as to develop and manage these multiple supply chains strategies simultaneously. Thus, this paper aims to present an approach for selecting a portfolio of postponement strategies based on segmentation of supply chain, based on analysis of the demand profile (volume-variety analysis and a tool to assist in the selection of postponement strategies driven by the customer-product sector and their respective propositions of value.

  2. Control and communication system for plasma heating unit and power supply system of large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the control and communication system for the plasma heating unit and DC power supply of Large Helical Device (LHD: an experimental machine for fusion science) has been continued. The system is composed of a distributed and concurrent client/server system by the use of several UNIX / OS-9 / Windows-NT workstations, and its sub-systems are controlled by PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), VME (Versa Module Europe) and own device. Almost all of its control systems are linked via Ethernet with IEEE802.3. and FDDI. Man-machine interface system and hardware / software of the control systems have been completed. (author)

  3. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Joung Jin-Hyun; Bae Young-soon; Lee Seung-kyo; Seo Tae-won; Ahn Il-kun; Shim Eun-yong; Joung Mi

    2012-01-01

    A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A) Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS), Anode Power Supply(APS) and Body Power Supply(BPS). The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz ...

  4. Systems analysis of small-scale systems for food supply and organic waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsson, Olof

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, systems for recycling of household organic waste (easily degradable food waste and sewage water) and small-scale systems for food supply were evaluated to see if they could be environment and energy-conserving options. They were evaluated using simulation of static substance-flow models (SFA) combined with life cycle assessment methodology (LCA) for aggregation and interpretation of the results. Three systems were modelled and simulated: i) organic waste management (including ...

  5. Using Enterprise Architecture for the Alignment of Information Systems in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Using information systems in supply chain management (SCM) has become commonplace, and therefore architectural issue are part of the agenda for this domain. This article uses three perspectives on enterprise architecture (EA) in the supply chain: The "correlation view," the "remote view" and the...... supply chain using a bespoke ERP system for the supply chain support is presented and discussed. The case outlines potentials for an enhanced alignment and coherence between management, business processes and underlying information system; innovation is led by tighter integration with business partners...

  6. Design and development of the power supply system for HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HL-2A tokamak operation needs several pulse DC power supplies with peak power of 300 MVA and the energy content of 1200 MJ per shot. To meet this requirement, three flywheel motor-generators (MG) are used, and the diode and thyristor AC/DC converters are developed to power the HL-2A toroidal and poloidal field coils. A new control system of the power supply is implemented. The power supply system is put into operation. The design and development of this power supply system are presented

  7. DC power supplies power management and surge protection for power electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kularatna, Nihal

    2011-01-01

    Modern electronic systems, particularly portable consumer electronic systems and processor based systems, are power hungry, compact, and feature packed. This book presents the most essential summaries of the theory behind DC-DC converter topologies of both linear and switching types. The text discusses power supply characteristics and design specifications based on new developments in power management techniques and modern semiconductors entering into the portable electronics market. The author also addresses off-the-line power supplies, digital control of power supply, power supply protection

  8. A Multi-Agent System Using JADE for Simulation of Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AHN Hyungjun; PARK Sungjoo

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a prototype system for modeling and simulation of supply chains using a widely accepted agent platform Java agent development platform (JADE). A simple but practical coordination mechanism agent-based dynamic information network for supply chains (ADINS) is employed for the illustration of the suggested system and a simulation experiment is performed using a supply chain model of a Korean LCD manufacturing company. The result shows that the suggested mechanism is successful in reducing bullwhip effects and increasing service rates.

  9. Environmental Sustainability of Water Supply Systems Implemented at RWSSP-WN

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Many Nepalese rural communities are suffering from lack of safe drinking water. One of the reasons is that approximately one third to one half of all drinking water supply systems fail shortly after the construction. The main purpose of this thesis project was to analyze the environmental sustainability of rural water supply systems implemented by the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Western Nepal(RWSSP-WN).In addition, the thesis project In addition, the thesis project also...

  10. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  11. Agricultural Supply Chain Traceability System Based on Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome defects in existing ASCTS(Agricultural Supply Chain Traceability System,a new traceability system based on Multi-Agent System(MAS) is put forward.By qualitative method,I analyze problems of application of Agent technology in tracing quality of agricultural products.Physical model is built for this system and structure of traceability system is determined.Finally,algorithm is presented for major entities.From analysis of algorithm,it is proved that this system has some reference value in improving breadth and depth of product traceability.

  12. CITON solutions for introducing distributed control system in nuclear steam supply systems at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernavoda NPP - Unit 2 Project implemented the Distributed Control System (DCS) into a series of systems where the Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS) were not included. Hence, in this paper, CITON designers place a particular emphasis on developing a methodology to introduce DCS preserving the nuclear safety basis. This approach consists of two applications implying instrumentation hardware and software upgrade. The first application is a way to transfer into modern technology the functions of the Main Moderator System (MMS) human-machine interface (HMI), while the second one introduces an on-line control, diagnosis and monitoring system, for Primary Heat Transportation System (PHTS). (authors)

  13. Supply Chain Collaboration Roles of Interorganizational Systems, Trust, and Collaborative Culture

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Mei

    2013-01-01

    To survive and thrive in the competition, firms have strived to achieve greater supply chain collaboration to leverage the resources and knowledge of suppliers and customers.  Internet based technologies, particularly interorganizational systems, further extend the firms’ opportunities to strengthen their supply chain partnerships and share real-time information to optimize their operations.  Supply Chain Collaboration: Roles of Interorganizational Systems, Trust, and Collaborative Culture explores the nature and characteristics, antecedents, and consequences of supply chain collaboration from multiple theoretical perspectives.  Supply Chain Collaboration: Roles of Interorganizational Systems, Trust, and Collaborative Culture conceptualizes supply chain collaboration as seven interconnecting elements including information sharing, incentive alignment, goal congruence, decision synchronization, resource sharing, as well as communication and joint knowledge creation. These seven components define the occur...

  14. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V. Goncalves, Helena M. Ramos, Luisa Fernanda R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator – CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator – HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  15. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  16. Information technology and systems in transport supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Olga ZHURAVLEVA

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the logistics processes in supply chain management,information technology in management and prospects for the use of informationtechnology in the transportation logistics segment, with particular attention paid to thekey factors in information technology that affects the efficiency of transport logisticssegment, as well as conclusions are reached regarding the importance of active use ofinformation technology in logistics.

  17. Information technology and systems in transport supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga ZHURAVLEVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the logistics processes in supply chain management,information technology in management and prospects for the use of informationtechnology in the transportation logistics segment, with particular attention paid to thekey factors in information technology that affects the efficiency of transport logisticssegment, as well as conclusions are reached regarding the importance of active use ofinformation technology in logistics.

  18. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  19. MODELLING OF HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM ON THE BASIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Сацик, Віктор Олександрович; Дідай, Борис Миколайович

    2010-01-01

    There are presented the heat supply system on the basis of renewable energy with possible connection of a reserve (traditional) energy source that gives the chance to provide requirement for the heat supply, and also reliability and stability work of systems.

  20. Developing Supply Chain Management System Evaluation Attributes Based on the Supply Chain Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chun-Chin; Chen, Liang-Tu

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we proposed a framework to select an adequate SCM system based on the decision-analysis process. By the proposed procedures, the company can identify the elements of SCM project selection problem and formulate the fundamental objectives hierarchy and means objectives network, which are aligned with the goals and strategies of the company. The pertinent attributes for evaluating a variety of SCM systems and vendors can be derived according to these objectives structures. Some ...

  1. Biased relevance filtering in the auditory system: A test of confidence-weighted first-impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, D; Winkler, I; Damaso, K; Heathcote, A; Whitson, L; Provost, A; Todd, J

    2016-03-01

    Although first-impressions are known to impact decision-making and to have prolonged effects on reasoning, it is less well known that the same type of rapidly formed assumptions can explain biases in automatic relevance filtering outside of deliberate behavior. This paper features two studies in which participants have been asked to ignore sequences of sound while focusing attention on a silent movie. The sequences consisted of blocks, each with a high-probability repetition interrupted by rare acoustic deviations (i.e., a sound of different pitch or duration). The probabilities of the two different sounds alternated across the concatenated blocks within the sequence (i.e., short-to-long and long-to-short). The sound probabilities are rapidly and automatically learned for each block and a perceptual inference is formed predicting the most likely characteristics of the upcoming sound. Deviations elicit a prediction-error signal known as mismatch negativity (MMN). Computational models of MMN generally assume that its elicitation is governed by transition statistics that define what sound attributes are most likely to follow the current sound. MMN amplitude reflects prediction confidence, which is derived from the stability of the current transition statistics. However, our prior research showed that MMN amplitude is modulated by a strong first-impression bias that outweighs transition statistics. Here we test the hypothesis that this bias can be attributed to assumptions about predictable vs. unpredictable nature of each tone within the first encountered context, which is weighted by the stability of that context. The results of Study 1 show that this bias is initially prevented if there is no 1:1 mapping between sound attributes and probability, but it returns once the auditory system determines which properties provide the highest predictive value. The results of Study 2 show that confidence in the first-impression bias drops if assumptions about the temporal

  2. Structures and Opportunities to Supply the Telecommunication Systems in Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojaczek, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Telecommunication systems in underground mines require reliable power supply both of stationary and underground devices. Special problems connected with power supply occur in a case when subscriber devices are located in explosion hazard areas. The paper presents the basic problems connected with power supply of stationary elements of safety systems as well as subscriber devices located in explosion hazard areas that are significantly distant from stationary elements. Acceptable methods of supplying the subscribers devices under technical environment conditions of mine undergrounds have been determined.

  3. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  4. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  5. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  6. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  7. The Role of Information Security Management Systems in Supply Chain Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Taghva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the researchers have emphasized on positive effect of information system on supply chain performance such as organizational processes integration, information sharing, information technology, etc. In other hand, information security management system is one of the subjects that researches considered its effects on increase accuracy and effective information exchange, access to accurate and timely information and reduce errors of information system. Since, any research has not been done on this ground (the importance of ISMS on supply chain performance. Therefore, it was felt that a research should have done on these approaches on supply chain. In this respect, current research was seeking that how ISMS had impact on supply chain performance in automotive industry and this was the innovative aspect of this paper. So first of all, after the review of the information security management system literature, supply chain performance was considered by the balanced scorecard approach then the most important factors of these two subjects was extracted by correlation analysis. In this way, it was considered that how ISMS had impact on supply chain performance by correlation analysis. The results showed that different dimensions of ISMS (information uniformity, prevent the human and machine mistake, information be accuracy, and rectitude and instruction for users had impact on four dimensions of supply chain performance (customers, financial, internal processes and learning and growth in three levels (strategic, technical, and operational in supply chain. At the end, it was showed that ISMS lays the ground for increase supply chain performance.

  8. A Supply Chain Architecture Based on Multi-agent Systems to Support Decentralized Collaborative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jorge E.; Poler, Raúl; Mula, Josefa

    In a supply chain management context, the enterprise architecture concept to efficiently support the collaborative processes among the supply chain members involved has been evolving. Each supply chain has an organizational structure that describes the hierarchical relationships among its members, ranging from centralized to decentralized organizations. From a decentralized perspective, each supply chain member is able to identify collaborative and non collaborative partners and the kind of information to be exchanged to support negotiation processes. The same concepts of organizational structure and negotiation rules can be applied to a multi-agent system. This paper proposes a novel supply chain architecture to support decentralized collaborative processes in supply chains by considering a multi-agent-based system modeling approach.

  9. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  10. Power supply monitoring system for high-voltage supply to an ionisation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionization chamber is used for control of particle accelerators and consequently loaded with high dose-rates during radiation pulses. The measuring equipment consists of a transmitter- and receiver-system with opto-coupler, hallgenerators, field plates or isolating transformer and controls a relais which allows to block the direct current components. (DG)

  11. Applying Electronic Supply Chain Management Using Multi-Agent System: A Managerial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haitham Al-zu’bi

    2010-01-01

    In the electronic business environment, supply chain management must deal with globalization, proliferating productvariety, organizational barriers, and quick information sharing. Consequently, appropriate tools are needed to support supply chainmanagement. We believe that software agents are good candidates to overcome these challenges. In this paper, I propose MAS+SCM,which is a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to support Electronic Supply Chain Management (E-SCM). The proposed model consists of as...

  12. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, obser...

  13. Reusable Component Technology in the Development of Agile Supply Chain Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Agile Supply Chain Management (ASCM) is one of the ke y techniques, which support dynamic enterprise alliance and realize agile manufa cturing. But the optimal run of ASCS depends on a good-constructed Agile Supply Chain Management System (ASCMS), so that the materials flow, information flow a nd funding flow in the supply chain are used with high efficiency. The requireme nts of ASCMS are constantly changeable, which requires that ASCMS has dynamical reuse, integration and open interface. Reusable compo...

  14. Improving Potable Water Accessibility And Sustainability Through Efficient Management Of Pipe Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Nakabugo, Stella Mirembe

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how to improve potable water accessibility and sustainability through efficient management of pipe water supply system a case study of Uganda, Kampala region. Kampala the capital city of Uganda still faces a challenge to access clean potable water. Water supply coverage is 77.5 % showing at least 22.5 % of the total population has limited access to potable drinking water causing a gap between water supply and water demand. Hypotheses of the paper were that the city's popu...

  15. The water-supply system in Roman Pompeii

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the urban infrastructure for water supply in Roman Pompeii. The water distribution network of lead pipes was constructed inside the city walls, at the time when the city was connected to an aqueduct. Life for the Pompeiians changed considerably when aqueduct water started running continuously in street fountains all around the city. The study is based on previous research and on my own investigations and measurements on site in connection with the Swedish Pompeii Projec...

  16. Nuclear power, a foundation of future energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy supply is still an urgent problem throughout the world. After the alarm caused by the Chernobyl accident, the author proposes to make nuclear power 'non-catastrophic' by making it intrinsically safe. Particular interest is taken in the HTR technology. HTR heat can be utilized for processing fossil energy sources and thus, together with the utilisation of hydrogen carriers, will help to solve the CO2 problem. The development work has now reached the pilot phase. (orig.)

  17. Tuning an rf-SQUID flux qubit system's potential with magnetic flux bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At an extremely low temperature of 20 mK, we measured the loop current in a tunable rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with a dc-SQUID. By adjusting the magnetic flux applied to the rf-SQUID loop (Φf) and the small dc-SQUID (Φfcjj), respectively, the potential shape of the system can be fully controlled in situ. Variation in the transition step and overlap size in the switching current with a barrier flux bias are analyzed, from which we can obtain some relevant device parameters and build a model to explain the experimental phenomenon

  18. EFFECT OF HALO BIAS AND LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS ON THE HISTORY OF COSMIC REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the existing analytical model of reionization by Furlanetto et al. to include the biasing of reionization sources and additional absorption by Lyman limit systems. Both effects enhance the original model in non-trivial ways, but do not change its qualitative features. Our model is, by construction, consistent with the observed evolution of the galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 6 galaxies, the inadequacy of simulations and/or some of the observational constraints, or indicates an additional source of ionizing radiation at z > 8 remains to be seen.

  19. RI Mapping System for Identification of Radiological Contamination in Environmental Water Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of radiation protection has risen due to accidents of the Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear terrorism, and the radiological contamination in the city, In this respect, the development of environmental radiation monitoring for the radiological contaminants has been studied. In this study, the experiment for the radiological contamination in the water supply pipe line system has been simulated and preliminarily tested. The CsI(Tl)-PIN diode detectors were used and the preliminary test of radiation monitoring system was performed as multi detection system. The 2D image reconstruction algorithm was also developed for feasibility of the constructed multi-detection system

  20. TO THE SUBJECT OF DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SUPPLY PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL HEAT TECHNOLOGIES AND HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khrоustalev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considers the current key energy problem – the rational and efficient use of energy resources, and the possibility of its solution, based on the concept of intensive energy conservation. As a result, the way of primary energy consumption reduction in Belarus is provided. The initial situation in the frame of program of further improvement of energy consumption until 2030 is estimated. It is shown, that for Belarus the first place in energy saving measures takes the efficiency improvement of natural gas consumption, what allows reducing the investment and saving energy resources.The possibility of usage of waste energy flows of medium-and low-temperature from industrial and municipal enterprises are discussed. To realize the described possibilities, some changes of heat supply system of enterprises and plants are required. Changes in heat supply system of the industrial enterprises, related with usage of low-temperature waste energy flows in a thermal energy generation process for heating, require the installation of additional equipment in existing heat energy supply system, such as absorption heat pumps, which are easily joint and successfully work at boiler Houses as well as at CHP. The numerous examples of fuel consumption reduction via heat industrial waste and sewage usage are shown in this article. It must be emphasized, that such an expansion of energy-saving framework not only reduce the primary energy consumption by heat generating sources, but also significantly improves the conditions of the Belarusian electrical grid operation under the conditions of nuclear power plant commissioning. The existing technical framework, that ensured the proposed changes, is also taking into account.

  1. Study on design of supervision and control system in DNB supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supervision and control system of power supply is one of the important components in DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) installation. It plays a critical role in running of DNB installation. The principium and structure of DNB installation, especially power supply system, are described in this paper. Meanwhile, system design, architecture and function of supervision and control system are discussed in detail. In the last of this paper, several anti-interference methods are introduced. (authors)

  2. Application of thyristor circuit breaker to ohmic heating coil power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New ohmic heating coil power supply systems which can generate high voltage are studied to insure their effective and economical use in nuclear fusion devices. Several systems are conceived by using normal, module, and multi-stage repetition types of thyristor circuit breakers. The operation of these systems are analyzed by digital simulation. It is seen that these thyristor circuit breakers are practical and applicable in ohmic heating coil power supply systems. (author)

  3. Effect of biased feedback on motor imagery learning in BCI-teleoperation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eAlimardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedback design is an important issue in motor imagery BCI systems. Regardless, to date it has not been reported how feedback presentation can optimize co-adaptation between a human brain and such systems. This paper assesses the effect of realistic visual feedback on users’ BC performance and motor imagery skills. We previously developed a tele-operation system for a pair of humanlike robotic hands and showed that BCI control of such hands along with first-person perspective visual feedback of movements can arouse a sense of embodiment in the operators. In the first stage of this study, we found that the intensity of this ownership illusion was associated with feedback presentation and subjects’ performance during BCI motion control. In the second stage, we probed the effect of positive and negative feedback bias on subjects’ BCI performance and motor imagery skills. Although the subject specific classifier, which was set up at the beginning of experiment, detected no significant change in the subjects’ online performance, evaluation of brain activity patterns revealed that subjects’ self-regulation of motor imagery features improved due to a positive bias of feedback and a possible occurrence of ownership illusion. Our findings suggest that in general training protocols for BCIs, manipulation of feedback can play an important role in the optimization of subjects’ motor imagery skills.

  4. Research on Corporate Social Responsibility of Supply Chain System Based on the Self-organization Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoying Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the characteristics of supply chain system are analyzed based on the Self-organization theory from the angle of view of supply chain system. The mathematical models when the system fulfilling social responsibility including self-organization evolution model and self-organization function model are developed to discuss the formation and function of self-organization in supply chain system and coordination. Some basic conditions and tactics about self-organization establishment and good function in fulfilling social responsibility are put forward in order to promote the system’s social responsibility performance

  5. Implementing OLAP Technology to Leverage Value of Supply Chain Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekananta Ekananta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain refers to the flow of materials, information, money, and services from rawmaterial suppliers, through factories and warehouses, to the end users. The successful of company inthe business competition is highly depend on how well the company capability to optimize andmanage their supply chain process. ERP is an information technology solution that play the mainrole in the supply chain management with the aim to plan, organize, and optimize one or more of thesupply chain’s activities which is concentrate on supply chain efficiency.The recent development of Supply Chain Performance Management (SCPM Application, theOLAP based information technology solutions, will help supply chain managers to be more effectivein managing supply chain activities due to its capability to provide the planning and controllingfunction to achieve a better operation performance.This paper will describe the role of OLAP technology to leverage value of supply chainmanagement system by complement the ERP functions and also provide the descriptions of thetechnology framework and development methodology for Supply Chain Performance Management(SCPM Application.Keywords: Supply Chain Management, OLAP, Performance Management

  6. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  7. Thermal Comfort Evaluation of a Heat Pump System using Induced-air Supply Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jiazhen; Xu, Jian; Aute, Vikrant; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Traditional heat pump systems supply conditioned air to space at certain temperatures such as, in summer, about 16°C. When the supply-air temperature drops too low, most occupants tend to feel uncomfortable. On the other hand, a certain amount of dehumidification has to be carried out and sometimes, the velocity of supply-air has to be high which in turn creates a draught. This paper introduces a new air supply method to reduce fan power consumption as well as to improve thermal comfort of oc...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF CALCULATION OF TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS FEEDING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domanskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the cause deterioration of quality rating of electricity on tire traction substations AC can be either how mode of operation of power systems, industrial loads so and the impact of electric traction. The experience of energy surveys show that the loss from flow potential equalization currents in each the third plot between traction substations AC is amount to not less than 250 thousand kW∙h per year. To select the optimum power and places location of the device longitudinal capacitive of compensation and decision other tasks it is necessary methodology of systems of calculation that takes into account the complex nature of the mutual influence of the quality of the electricity coming from the energy system of and the transportation process. In the paper proposed three options for calculation algorithms modes work of existing and perspective systems, traction power supply AC jointly with power supply their by energy systems, including the algorithm for calculating networks of different nominal voltages using the transformations; decomposition and synthesis of networks with different voltage levels; the iterations and probabilistic assessment of the impact of power mains. Developed the schemes formalization of graphs and the matrices of portions of the outer and traction power supply and method of selecting parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation, which are based on direct methods solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a dense banded and profile-sparse the matrix. Are generalized ways of formation and transformation of graphs of schemes traction power supply and feeding them energy systems and proposed the method of calculation the complex the moment of schemes, which increases the accuracy of calculating of flows power on traction networks to 1-2 % and allows you to select the optimal parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation

  9. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko, Valentina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.

  10. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  11. Restructure and modernisation of the national energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of cost efficient strategies to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions, their application in middle and eastern Europe and their influence on the national energy supply structure. Hungary, Lithuania and the European part of the Russian Federation serve as representative examples of the varying energy industry structures, and of the likely future developments in Eastern Europe. Hungry is a wuntry in which the transformation from a planned to a market economy is already well underway. Lithuania represents a Balkan State striving for economic autonomy. The Russian Federation is of particular interest because of it's indigenous raw material deposits. (orig./UA)

  12. ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; Korznikov, A.; A. Sednin; I. Shkliar

    2014-01-01

     The paper presents algorithms for structure optimization of centralized heat-supply systems in large cities due to higher heat loads and necessity for equipment change. The algorithms can be applied for elaboration of plans for development of heat supply in cities and human settlements.

  13. ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  The paper presents algorithms for structure optimization of centralized heat-supply systems in large cities due to higher heat loads and necessity for equipment change. The algorithms can be applied for elaboration of plans for development of heat supply in cities and human settlements.

  14. Selecting main technical solutions for heat supply systems equipped with nuclear cogeneration stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Svetlov, K. S.; Khrilev, L. S.

    2008-11-01

    Methodical principles for determining the yearly quantities of heat supplied from a nuclear cogeneration station are described, results from an analysis for selecting the optimal design cogeneration ratio and the parameters of heat carrier are presented, and matters pertinent to the operational reliability and safety of heat supply systems equipped with nuclear cogeneration stations are considered.

  15. Control system of magnetic optical element power supplies for some beam channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system of the magnetic optical element power supplies for some beam channels of the IHEP accelerator, based on the micro-computer ''Elektronika-60'' and its software are described. The remote control is supplied with three Multidrop Serial Busses (31 consumer per bus). The number of controlled elements can be increased by adding one or more serial busses

  16. DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR PIGNON, HAITI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In conducting a survey of the population we found that Pignon is in need of a sustainable water supply and distribution system. We had no prior available data on the town, so we collected elevation data, figured water demand and modeled it against the supply, mapped the entire...

  17. Influence of reverse bias on the LEDs properties used as photo-detectors in VLC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Continuous increasing share of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a lighting market, which we observe during the last couple years, opens new possibilities. Especially, when we talk about practical realization the concept of visible light communications (VLC), which gains on popularity recently. The VLC concept presupposes utilization of illumination systems for a purpose of data transmission. It means, the emitters, in this case the LEDs, will not of a light source only, but also the data transmitters. Currently, most of the conducted researches in this area is concentrated on achievement of effective transmission methods. It means a transmission only in one direction. This is not enough, when we talk about the fully functional transmission system. Ensuring of feedback transmission channel is a necessary also. One of the ideas, which was postulated by authors of this article, is using for this purpose the LEDs in a double role. A utilization of LEDs as photo-detectors requires a reverse polarization, in contrast to a forward bias, which has a place when they work as light emitters. Ensuring of proper polarization get significant meaning. The article presents the investigations results on the influence of reverse bias on photo-receiving properties of LEDs used as light detectors. The conducted research proved that an improvement of sensitivity and bandwidth parameters are possible by application of appropriate value of the reverse voltage in a receiver.

  18. Decentralized biased dual mode controllers for load frequency control of interconnected power systems considering GDB and GRC non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design of decentralized biased proportional and integral dual mode controllers for load frequency control of interconnected power systems considering governor deadband (GDB) and generation rate constraint (GRC) non-linearities is presented in this paper. Any optimum controller selected for load frequency control of interconnected power systems should not only stabilize the power system but also reduce the system frequency and tie line power oscillations and settling time of the output responses. Hence, a simple design of biased controllers with proportional and integral modes using an integral square error (ISE) criterion and maximum stability margin (MSM) criterion based on minimum settling time for interconnected power systems are discussed. These controllers are designed and implemented in a two area interconnected thermal power system with GDB and GRC non-linearities. The proposed controller is found to be simple in structure and easy for implementation. The closed loop system was simulated, and the frequency and tie line power deviations resulting from a step load disturbance are presented. Comparison of the performances of the proportional plus integral biased controller and the proposed proportional (P) and integral (I) biased dual mode controllers shows that the system performance is improved significantly with the proposed controllers. Further, it is also shown that the biased dual mode controllers are found to be less sensitive to changes in system parameters

  19. Automated Detection of Heuristics and Biases among Pathologists in a Computer-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Reitmeyer, Kayse; Tseytlin, Eugene; Castine, Melissa; Jukic, Drazen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to develop an automated, computer-based method to detect heuristics and biases as pathologists examine virtual slide cases, (2) to measure the frequency and distribution of heuristics and errors across three levels of training, and (3) to examine relationships of heuristics to biases, and biases to…

  20. Development of Discrete Power Supply with Charge Pump Method for High Powered Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Power supply is one of the electronic devices that can provide electric energy for electronic systems or other systems. There are several types of power supplies that can be applied depend on the requirement and functions. One example is the use of power supply for sonar systems. Sonar system is a device which can be used to detect a target under water. The sonar system is an electronic circuit that requires a power supply with specific characteristics when the sonar functions as a transmitter and a receiver in the specific span time (when on and the specific lag time (when off. This paper discusses the design of power supply for high-powered sonar systems with discrete methods in which high power supply is only applied when the acoustic waves radiated under water. Charge pump was used to get the appropriate output voltage from lower input voltage. Charge pump utilized a combination of series and parallel connections of capacitors. The working mode of this power supply used the lag time as the calculation of time to charge charge pump capacitors in parallel while the span time was used for the calculation of discharging the charge pump capacitors in series.

  1. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhann Florian; Waiswa Peter; Windisch Ricarda; Scheibe Florian; de Savigny Don

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to stren...

  2. Supply Chain Management System Model of Virtual Enterprises Based on Multi-Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen; ZHANG Pei-pei

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a virtual enterprise and the development of supply chain management, their integration is proposed. Then, the difference between multi-agent system modeling method and the traditional modeling method is analyzed, and a method based on Java agent framework for multi-agent systems(JAFMAS) is proposed. By using this method the virtual enterprise's supply chain management system model is established.

  3. DEVELOPMENT, PROSPECTS AND CONDITION OF DECENTRALIZED HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Khavanov Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2012-01-01

    Reform of the Russian housing sector contemplates power-saving actions. At the same time, new heat supply systems must be reliable and safe. Technical advantages of decentralized heat supply systems may launch a trend to independent heating systems if backed by substantial financial inflows. The authors provide statistic data and research findings of CNIIEP "Engineering Utilities" in the article. The analysis of peculiarities of the housing stock is made. The analysis of exi...

  4. An integrated approach for optimizing the operation of modern heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, M. S.; Batukhtin, A. G.

    2011-08-01

    We discuss matters concerned with applying an integrated approach for optimizing the operation of modern heat supply systems on the basis of constructing interconnected models of heat consumers, heat networks, and heat supply sources together with carrying out experimental field studies of the real state of a system, and with correcting the distribution of flows and the set of equipment used at stations distributing heat to consumers. Two examples of using the method for closed- and open-circuit systems are given.

  5. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-eco...

  6. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  7. FUEL SUPPLY IN ACCUMULATOR DIESEL SYSTEMS WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROL AT STARTING REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains review and analysis of fuel supply process in accumulator diesel systems with electronic control at starting regime. The necessity has been shown to  develop and use programs of mathematic simulation pertaining to fuel supply processes with the purpose to decrease number of bench tests and time period required for a fuel system adaptation. The paper cites results of practical investigations on starting engines  equipped with the mentioned-above systems.

  8. High efficiency electrolyser power supply for household hydrogen production and storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Nielsen, C.K.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Romer, C.; Flindt, P.

    The paper presents a three-phase prototype power supply operated electrolyser system for household hydrogen production and storage systems. The purpose of the work was to increase the overall efficiency of an electrolyser system by improving the performance of the power supply. The new prototype...... according to the measurements and the literature about the previous work does not affect the H2 production. The resulting efficiency of the power supply is 94.3 % at nominal power and does not drop under 90 % even at light loads (>1 kW)....

  9. Methods for analyzing operational controllability and their application for estimating the quality of heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents methods for quantitatively estimating indicators characterizing the performance of heat supply systems with the use of a dynamic thermal-hydraulic model of a heat supply system. Formulas for calculating average shortage (excess) of thermal energy for each consumer with a specified scenario of disturbing inputs and control outputs, as well as mathematical expectation and variance of average shortage (excess) with different scenarios are proposed. A method for calculating the coefficient characterizing useful utilization of energy at consumers and in the heat supply system as a whole for estimating the economic efficiency of an operating mode is presented.

  10. Magnet power supply system for the ALS storage ring and booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magnet Power Supply System is described by specification, design, hardware, and operating experience. A unique system for the one Hz, 1.5 GeV Booster, where the wideband QF and QD power supplies track the dipole current to within 0.1% at injection will be detailed. AC distribution system considerations related to inverting the stored energy of the booster magnet back into power grid will be discussed. The rational for linear correctors and individual quad supplies (225 total units) will be placed within the context of the storage-ring requirements

  11. ENHANCING ORGANISATIONAL INFORMATION FLOW AND KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN RE-ENGINEERING SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEMS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. AUTOMOTIVE PARTS AND SUPPLIES MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    STEPHAN KUDYBA

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing initiative of business process re-engineering in organisations has largely been attributed to innovations in information technologies that have enabled firms to increase productivity in their operations. The following paper addresses essential concepts in supply chain networks and describes the systems approach the U.S. automotive industry has implemented to augment their supply chain management initiatives. The focus of re-engineering the supply chain is enhanced data capture and...

  12. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  13. Measurement system for high voltage pulse power supply on HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement system for the high voltage pulse power supply on HL-2A has been developed. It adopts the voltage divider based on high-frequency inductance-free glaze film resistor along with the fiber isolation technology based on voltage-frequency conversion. Moreover, a DSP chip is used in the fiber transmission, to realize A/D conversion, simplifying the circuit, enhancing the data transmission speed and anti-jamming ability of the system. The system has been applied to long-pulse (5 s) discharge experiments on HL-2A. The experimental results show that, the system realizes the potential isolation for power supply, and the measured voltage waveforms reflect the supply output faithfully, providing real-time voltage data for the feedback and protection system of the supply. (authors)

  14. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in

  15. Optimal synthesis and operation of advanced energy supply systems for standard and domotic home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Definition of an optimization model for a home energy supply system. ► Optimization of the energy supply system for standard and domotic home. ► Strong improvement can be achieved adopting the optimal system in standard and domotic home. ► The improvements are consistent if supply side and demand side strategies are applied together. ► Solutions with internal combustion engines are less sensible to market price of electricity and gas. - Abstract: The paper deals with the optimization of an advanced energy supply systems for two dwellings: a standard home and an advanced domotic home, where some demand side energy saving strategies have been implemented. In both cases the optimal synthesis, design and operation of the whole energy supply system have been obtained and a sensitivity analysis has been performed, by introducing different economic constraints. The optimization model is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and includes different kinds of small-scale cogenerators, geothermal heat pumps, boilers, heat storages, solar thermal and photovoltaic panels. In addition, absorption machines, supplied with cogenerated heat, can be used instead of conventional electrical chiller to face the cooling demand. The aim of the analysis is to address the question if advanced demand strategies and supply strategies have to be regarded as alternatives, or if they have to be simultaneously applied, in order to obtain the maximum energy and economic benefit.

  16. Electrostatic accelerometer with bias rejection for Gravitation and Solar System physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lenoir, Benjamin; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Lamine, Brahim; Reynaud, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Radio tracking of interplanetary probes is an important tool for navigation purposes as well as for testing the laws of physics or exploring planetary environments. The addition of an accelerometer on board a spacecraft provides orbit determination specialists and physicists with an additional observable of great interest: it measures the value of the non-gravitational acceleration acting on the spacecraft, i.e. the departure of the probe from geodesic motion. This technology is now routinely used for geodesy missions in Earth orbits with electrostatic accelerometers. This article proposes a technological evolution which consists in adding a subsystem to remove the bias of an electrostatic accelerometer. It aims at enhancing the scientific return of interplanetary missions in the Solar System, from the point of view of fundamental physics as well as Solar System physics. The main part of the instrument is an electrostatic accelerometer called MicroSTAR, which inherits mature technologies based on ONERA's expe...

  17. Strategic fast supply demand-chains in a network context: opportunistic practices that can destroy supply chain systems

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo de Carvalho, J.; Martins, A; Ramos, T.; E. B. Dias

    2014-01-01

    This paper has a conceptual character and explores an approach between transaction cost analysis theory and network theory when applied to supply chains in a broader context: industrial management research. This approach raises the assumptions that fast supply chains, i.e., supply chains made of short time relationships and multiple partners can contribute to destroying trust and collaboration between companies, ending up by stressing actual systems’ arrangements in somehow stable supply chai...

  18. Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Belbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid, extraction distances (50–550 m and transport distances (10–70 km using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck, at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%. Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1 occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

  19. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed,showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain.3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain.Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is constructed,including the four layers (the network communication layer,the hardware and software environment layer,the database layer,and the application layer) and 7 function modules (centralized control,transportation process management,material and vehicle scheduling,customer relationship,storage management,customer inquiry,and financial management).Framework for the network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is put forward.The management of 3PLs mainly includes purchasing management,supplier relationship management,planning management,customer relationship management,storage management and distribution management.Thus,a management system of internal and external integrated agricultural enterprises is obtained.The network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs has realized the effective sharing of enterprise information of agricultural products supply chain at different nodes,establishing a long-term partnership revolving around the 3PLs core enterprise,as well as a supply chain with stable relationship based on the supply chain network system,so as to improve the circulation efficiency of agricultural products,and to explore the sales market for agricultural products.

  20. Guidelines for Analysis of Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 7: Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Leif; And Others

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this seventh of ten manuals in the Interational Health Planning Methods Series deals with pharmaceutical supply systems planning in developing countries. Following an…

  1. Power supply system of J-PARC main ring main magnets for high repetition rate operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) aims at achieving a MW-class proton accelerator facility. One of the promising solutions for increasing the beam power is to fasten the repetition rate of Main Ring (MR) from current rating of 2.5 sec to 1 sec in the future. However, in this scheme, the increase of output voltage and the power variation on the electric system are serious concerns for main magnets. At the same time, current ripple reduction is required in order to increase the beam quality for the hadron experiments. We have been developing power supplies which have potentials to solve these problems and plan to replace the current power supplies with them. The new power supply system has following features. The number of power supply is twice so that one power supply drives half number of loads compared with the current system. The power supply is consists of some choppers which are wired in series. The energy recovery scheme based on the capacitive energy storage is introduced. Parallel connected choppers increase the equivalent switching frequency so that the switching ripple is possible to be reduced by the filter. This paper introduces the power supply system of J-PARC MR main magnets for high repetition rate operation. (author)

  2. Heating Transfer Investigation of Heater in Heat Supply System of Field Hospital Operating in Emergency

    OpenAIRE

    I. L. Kachar

    2014-01-01

    Criteria dependences for assessment of heat transfer value under conditions natural convection (a horizontal slot) have been obtained in the paper. The dependences are applicable for heaters in heat supply systems.

  3. Heating Transfer Investigation of Heater in Heat Supply System of Field Hospital Operating in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Kachar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Criteria dependences for assessment of heat transfer value under conditions natural convection (a horizontal slot have been obtained in the paper. The dependences are applicable for heaters in heat supply systems.

  4. Computed Tomography Demonstration of Systemic Arterial Supply to Lung Without Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two cases of systemic arterial supply to lung without sequestration diagnosed confidently based on imaging findings on computed tomography scan, thereby obviating the need for invasive diagnostic procedures

  5. Peculiar Operational Features of Quarter-Wave Power Supply in Electric System

    OpenAIRE

    G. E. Pospelov

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the operational conditions of a quarter-wave power supply in an electric system. Its applicability for the operation in electric mains and electric power transportation is shown in the paper. 

  6. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  7. Control system for magnet power supplies for Novosibirsk free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-power free electron laser (FEL) based on the accelerator-recuperator principle is being built in Budker Institute (Russia). The magnetic system of the FEL is an important part of the installation. It consists of many magnetic elements of different types: bending magnets, quadrupole lenses and correctors. The windings of all these elements are fed from DC current power supplies. The power supply control system based on embedded intelligent controllers with the CAN-BUS interface is considered in detail. The control software structure and capabilities are described. Besides, the software tools for power supply diagnostics are described

  8. A cost optimization model for 100% renewable residential energy supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2012-01-01

    interdependencies between the different supply technologies as well as the construction energy of the installations, consumption profiles and on-site energy resource availability. This paper aims at developing such a model for the optimal sizing of renewable energy supply systems (RES) for residential Net ZEB......The concept of net zero energy buildings (Net ZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of these buildings. To achieve this, a holistic approach is needed which accounts for the...

  9. Inter-system biases estimation in multi-GNSS relative positioning with GPS and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Cecile; Warnant, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The recent increase in the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) opens new perspectives in the field of high precision positioning. Particularly, the European Galileo program has experienced major progress in 2015 with the launch of 6 satellites belonging to the new Full Operational Capability (FOC) generation. Associated with the ongoing GPS modernization, many more frequencies and satellites are now available. Therefore, multi-GNSS relative positioning based on GPS and Galileo overlapping frequencies should entail better accuracy and reliability in position estimations. However, the differences between satellite systems induce inter-system biases (ISBs) inside the multi-GNSS equations of observation. Once these biases estimated and removed from the model, a solution involving a unique pivot satellite for the two considered constellations can be obtained. Such an approach implies that the addition of even one single Galileo satellite to the GPS-only model will strengthen it. The combined use of L1 and L5 from GPS with E1 and E5a from Galileo in zero baseline double differences (ZB DD) based on a unique pivot satellite is employed to resolve ISBs. This model removes all the satellite- and receiver-dependant error sources by differentiating and the zero baseline configuration allows atmospheric and multipath effects elimination. An analysis of the long-term stability of ISBs is conducted on various pairs of receivers over large time spans. The possible influence of temperature variations inside the receivers over ISB values is also investigated. Our study is based on the 5 multi-GNSS receivers (2 Septentrio PolaRx4, 1 Septentrio PolaRxS and 2 Trimble NetR9) installed on the roof of our building in Liege. The estimated ISBs are then used as corrections in the multi-GNSS observation model and the resulting accuracy of multi-GNSS positioning is compared to GPS and Galileo standalone solutions.

  10. The Planning and Scheduling of Business Process in Agile Supply Chain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The rapidly developing global competition is leadin g to the worldwide enterprise alliance, with which the geographical dispersion of production, assembly and distribution operations comes into being. Supply chain system is such a kind of enterprise alliance, managing the material and informat ion flows both in and between enterprises, such as vendors, manufacturing and assembly plants and distribution centers. In the present research work, we can see that supply chain system can quickly respond to c...

  11. Efficiency Growth of Combined-cycle Cogeneration Plant with the Heat Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Denysova Alla; Mazurenko A.S.; Denysova Anastasiia

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency of modern technologies of the combined production of heat and electricity and ways of energy saving on base of recycling secondary energy sources has been estimated. It is shown that the most effective for cogeneration are combined-cycle plants. The rational scheme of interaction of combined-cycle cogeneration plant with heat supply system has been offered. Theoretical bases of interaction of main installation with a contour of heat and hot water supply system has been devel...

  12. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    OpenAIRE

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.; Dragutinović Nataša G.

    2016-01-01

    Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES) for electricity and heat supply of a typical household i...

  13. The construction of earthquake damage estimation system for city gas supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, M.; Furuta, H. [Toho Gas Co. Ltd., Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The regular occurrence of large-scale earthquakes in Japan necessitates the use of earthquake disaster prevention systems that focus on gathering damage information on gas supply facilities immediately after an earthquake strikes and minimizing the damage. This paper discussed the development of an earthquake damage estimation system for city gas pipelines that can show damage information in real-time by using earthquake records obtained from densely deployed earthquake observation networks and the most advanced telecommunication and information technologies. The paper summarized the earthquake damage estimation system (EDES) and Toho Gas disaster prevention measures. Specific topics that were discussed included the Toho Gas supply method; earthquake countermeasures; construction of computer systems; normal and emergency operation of EDES; and verification of functions in actual earthquakes. It was concluded that when there is an emergency, the EDES functions as an online system using seismograph observation data and hypocenter information to estimate the earthquake motion distribution, liquefaction distribution, and the damage to low-pressure gas pipes, service pipes, and wooden buildings. During normal operation, earthquake motion is estimated taking into account historical earthquakes and active faults. Since any desired earthquake data could be inputted, a wide variety of damage estimation simulations can be run. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  15. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  16. Control for N4 nuclear steam supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, J.F.; Tetreau, F.; Colling, J.M.

    1987-11-01

    New designs have been used in the instrumentation and control systems for the Framatome N4 1400 MWe nuclear power plants. The design philosophy of the reactor protection system, nuclear instrumentation and rod control systems are described. Programmable control techniques and distributed intelligence via a communications system based on dedicated local networks are used in the design for other instrumentation and control functions. The 1400 MWe, Chooz B1 unit will be the first PWR to use the new design. The integrated protection system, reactor protection, nuclear control and instrumentation functions and the control rod drive control systems are illustrated and described. The way in which the reactor control systems interconnect is illustrated and explained. (U.K.).

  17. Demand-Supply Balancing Capability Analysis for a Future Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ikegami, Takashi; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Azuma, Hitoshi; Fukutome, Suguru

    Under the anticipated high penetration of variable renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics and higher share of nuclear generation, the issue of supply-demand balancing capability should be evaluated and fixed in a future power system. Improvement of existing balancing measures and new technologies such as demand activation and energy storage are expected to solve the issue. Under the situation, a long-range power system supply-demand analysis should have the capability to evaluate the balancing capability and balancing counter measures. This paper presents a new analysis methodology of activated demand model and evaluation of supply-demand balancing capability for a long-range power system demand-supply analysis model, ESPRIT. Model analysis was made to verify the new methodology of the tool including day-ahead scheduling of a heat pump water heater, an EV/PHEV and a battery.

  18. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  19. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO2. ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  20. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung Jin-Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS, Anode Power Supply(APS and Body Power Supply(BPS. The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz modulation operation. The BPS is combined the commercial power supply and special high voltage switches. It is very simple topology but 5kHz modulation was accomplished easily. Theses power supply system were installed and commissioned successfully in 2011. This paper presents the topology of the each power supply and test result for 170 GHz gyrotron in KSTAR.

  1. Chinese plasma-derived products supply under the lot release management system in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Ye, Shengliang; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Chaoming; Li, Changqing

    2013-11-01

    In 2007, the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) implemented a management system for lot release of all plasma-derived products. Since then, there have been only a few systematic studies of the blood supply, which is a concern when considering the small amount of plasma collected per capita (approximately 3 L/1000 people). As a result, there may be a threat to the safety of the available blood supply. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the supply of Chinese plasma-derived products. We investigated the reports of lot-released biological products derived from all 8 national or regional regulatory authorities in China from 2007 to 2011. The market supply characteristics of Chinese plasma-derived products were analyzed by reviewing the changes in supply varieties, the batches of lot-released plasma-derived products and the actual supply. As a result, the national regulatory authorities can more accurately develop a specific understanding of the production and quality management information provided by Chinese plasma product manufacturers. The implementation of the lot release system further ensures the clinical validity of the plasma-derived products in China and improves the safety of using plasma-derived products. This work provides an assessment of the future Chinese market supply of plasma-derived products and can function as a theoretical basis for the establishment of hemovigilance. PMID:23856276

  2. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  3. Impact of innovation programs on development of energy system: Case of Iranian electricity-supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents further experiments with an extended version of a comprehensive model for assessment of energy technologies and research and development (R and D) planning to evaluate the impact of innovation programs on development of Iranian electricity-supply system. This analytical instrument is a model of energy R and D resource allocation with an explicit perspective of developing countries which has been linked to a bottom-up energy-systems model. Three emerging electricity generation technologies of solar PV, wind turbine and gas fuel cell are considered in the model and the impact of innovation programs on cost-reducing innovation for them is examined. The main results provided by the modeling approach include optimal allocation of R and D resources, induced capacity expansion policies to guarantee the effectiveness of R and D activities, competitive cost of emerging technologies, impact of innovation programs on optimal structure of electricity-supply system and benefits of innovation programs in the long-run.

  4. Isolated Wind Power Supply System using Double-fed Induction Generator for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new isolated/remote area wind power/energy supply is presented. • Double-fed Induction Generator is used in the supply system. • Proposed supply is capable of supplying balanced, unbalanced & non-linear loads. • New and very simple control method for rotor-front converter is proposed. • An improved control technique for load/stator-front converter is presented. - Abstract: This paper examines the application of the Double-fed Induction Generator for an isolated wind power system to supply the remote area. The isolated wind energy system using Double-fed Induction Generator is capable of supplying different loads such as balanced, unbalanced and nonlinear loads. The isolated wind energy supply is designed by using wound rotor induction generator and partial scale back to back connected voltage source converters at rotor side. The voltage source converters are called rotor-front voltage source converter and load/stator-front voltage source converter having the common capacitive direct current link. The presented study investigates the application stator/load side converter for load harmonics mitigation in isolated Double-fed Induction Generator based Wind Power Supply System. The shunt active power filter function is added in the convention control scheme of the load/stator-front voltage source converter to improve load harmonics. The control scheme proposed for stator/load side converter is based on the instantaneous active and reactive component of the load current method. Also a new and simple technique for rotor side converter is presented to regulate Voltage and Frequency at stator/load terminals. Different possible case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of both techniques proposed. Simulation results obtained from a 2 MVA Double-fed Induction Generator based wind power system, prototype in MATLab/Simulink, are given and discussed in this paper

  5. Remote monitoring of gas supply systems; Fernueberwachung von Gasversorgungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubeck, K. [WIKA Alexander Wiegand GmbH und Co., Klingenberg (Germany). Bereich Marketing; Weber, H. [Weber Engineering, Planungsbuero fuer Automatisierungstechnik, Friedberg (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    The data transmission service `Modacom` is suited for the establishment of permanent remote monitoring systems with reliable full-scale data communication. The contribution presents the example of a fuelling system, but many other applications are possible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Datenfunkdienst `Modacom` laesst sich ein permanentes Fernueberwachungssystem aufbauen - und das mit flaechendeckender und uebertragungssicherer Datenkommunikation. Am Beispiel einer universell einsetzbaren Fernwirkunterstation mit dem dazugehoerigen Prozessleitsystem lassen sich Tankanlagen effizient managen. Doch sind der Anwendung keine Grenzen gesetzt, denn das System ist an viele Applikationen anpassbar. (orig.)

  6. Replacement of heavy water supply controllers in fuel handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Both automatic analog controllers and both analog manual controllers (63526-PC no. 11 A and 63526-PC11 no. 1 C) (63526-PC11 no. 2 A and 63526-PC11 no. 2 C) were replaced by three Digital Controllers as follow: 63526-PC11A, 63526-PC11C and 63526-PC11 because of the aging of old analog controller. In the new System, there is a separate controllers for each one in both side, (Side A and Side C) and other to control the common bleed valve. The reasons more important for this replace. The analog pressure control system: - Is a design from the early 1980s; - Analog control principle used; - Custom-built instrument control system; - System control by electronic hardware. No programming involved; - There is not more commercial support for hardware. (electronic printed circuit board). The digital pressure control system: - Programmable; - Commercial full support; - Easy calibration and maintenance; - Easy operation. Because of the above keys, Embalse NPP decided to change the control system together with AECL, without shutdown the Plant. The last one was the challenge, to install and commissioning the new controllers without affect the electrical production. (author)

  7. Coverage versus supply cost in facility location: Physics of frustrated spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Li, Bo

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive coverage is crucial for communication, supply, and transportation networks, yet it is limited by the requirement of extensive infrastructure and heavy energy consumption. Here, we draw an analogy between spins in antiferromagnet and outlets in supply networks, and apply techniques from the studies of disordered systems to elucidate the effects of balancing the coverage and supply costs on the network behavior. A readily applicable, coverage optimization algorithm is derived. Simulation results show that magnetized and antiferromagnetic domains emerge and coexist to balance the need for coverage and energy saving. The scaling of parameters with system size agrees with the continuum approximation in two dimensions and the tree approximation in random graphs. Due to frustration caused by the competition between coverage and supply cost, a transition between easy and hard computation regimes is observed. We further suggest a local expansion approach to greatly simplify the message updates which shed light on simplifications in other problems.

  8. Directed influence on anaerobic energy supply systems of qualified free style wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil M.G.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally prove effectiveness of directed influence on anaerobic energy supply systems of free style wrestlers, considering individual characteristics of their bio energetic. Material: in this article the data of laboratory bicycle stress test «Vita maxima» and results of special control testing have been presented. 40 sportsmen participated in the experiment. Results: individual characteristics of dominating type of anaerobic energy supply have been determined. Statistically confident difference between development of lactate and a-lactate anaerobic energetic components were found. By the data of bio-chemical indicators’ changes the authors observed increase of adenosine triphosphate (glycolytic or creatine-phosphate in some, weaker developed mechanisms of anaerobic re-synthesis. Ways of influence on anaerobic energy supply systems, considering individual characteristics of dominating of different components (lactate or a-lactate have been found. Conclusions: it is recommended to take in consideration individual dominating type of energy supply.

  9. Optimal operation of water supply systems with tanks based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ting-chao; ZHANG Tu-qiao; LI Xun

    2005-01-01

    In view of the poor water supply system's network properties, the system's complicated network hydraulic equations were replaced by macroscopic nodal pressure model and the model of relationship between supply flow and water source head. By using pump-station pressure head and initial tank water levels as decision variables, the model of optimal allocation of water supply between pump-sources was developed. Genetic algorithm was introduced to deal with the model of optimal allocation of water supply. Methods for handling each constraint condition were put forward, and overcome the shortcoming such as premature convergence of genetic algorithm;a solving method was brought forward in which genetic algorithm was combined with simulated annealing technology and self-adaptive crossover and mutation probabilities were adopted. An application example showed the feasibility of this algorithm.

  10. Coverage versus Supply Cost in Facility Location: Physics of Frustrated Spin Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive coverage is crucial for communication, supply and transportation networks, yet it is limited by the requirement of extensive infrastructure and heavy energy consumption. Here we draw an analogy between spins in antiferromagnet and outlets in supply networks, and apply techniques from the studies of disordered systems to elucidate the effects of balancing the coverage and supply costs on the network behavior. A readily applicable, coverage optimization algorithm is derived. Simulation results show that magnetized and antiferromagnetic domains emerge and coexist to balance the need for coverage and energy saving. The scaling of parameters with system size agrees with the continuum approximation in two dimensions and the tree approximation in random graphs. Due to frustration caused by the competition between coverage and supply cost, a transition between easy and hard computation regimes is observed. We further suggest a local expansion approach to greatly simplify the message updates which shed...

  11. Equipment for controlling test benches charged particle accelerator pulse power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of the off-line and manual control device system designed for experimental testing the pulse supply systems of charged particle accelereators is considered. The system includes following devices: a manual remote control desk, a sysnchronization device with fibre-optical commutation programmed pulse shape generator digital sources of reference voltage. Performances of all these devices are presented. 1 ref

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HEAT SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Pichugin, I.; Lukinov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of the present local methods of efficiency evaluation of management systems in heat supply. It suggests the method of definition of evaluation complex identifier of the system in whole and its separate blocks. The usage of complex method to evaluate the energy management system efficiency and to adjust the vector of its development is motivated.

  13. Decision support system for a reactive management of disaster-caused supply chain disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Schätter, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This research contribution presents the Reactive Disaster and supply chain Risk decision Support System ReDRiSS which supports decision-makers of logistical disaster management in the immediate aftermath of a supply chain disturbance. ReDRiSS suggests a methodology which combines approaches from scenario techniques, operations research and decision theory. Two case studies are provided which focus on decision situations of humanitarian logistics and of business continuity management.

  14. Optimum Operation Management of the İstanbul Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    DURANYILDIZ, İsmail; BAYAZIT, Mehmetçik

    2000-01-01

    Water for cities containing millions of citizens is at present being supplied mostly from surface resources. These resources are generally in different river basins, far from the city center, and are developed by means of multireservoirs planned for the single purpose of water supply. They must be investigated with the system concept both in planning and operation phases in order to provide an integrated management. This study emphasizes the operation problem of the multireservoir water suppl...

  15. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lantian Ren; Kara Cafferty; Mohammad Roni; Jacob Jacobson; Guanghui Xie; Leslie Ovard; Christopher Wright

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner M...

  16. GHG emissions of supply chains from different retail systems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rizet, Christophe; Cornelis, Eric; Browne, Michael; LEONARDI, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    An approach has been developed to collect data and measure energy use and GHG emissions from logistics activities for product supply chains. This approach has been used to assess the GHG efficiency of several supply chains of the same product marketed through different types of retail systems in Europe. The retail types considered are hyper and supermarkets, corner shops, openair markets, producer's basket direct sale, farm shops and e-commerce; Their GHG efficiencies are quantified and compa...

  17. Opportunities for an Online GIS-Based Wood Supply Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Brandon Todd

    2009-01-01

    The forest industry has become more complex due in part to increasing global competition. The highly fragmented nature of the forest industry supply chain and lack of interaction between industry segments can cause major supply/demand inequalities. This fragmented nature can lead to unnecessary lead time and costly inefficiencies for business transactions. The objective of this research project is to develop the concept of using an Internet-based, Geographic Information System (GIS)-suppor...

  18. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  19. Flexibility of Supply Chain in Industrialised Building System (IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim U.; Abdullah S; Udin Z.

    2014-01-01

    It is irrefutable that the construction industry is in need of a highly technological construction method or system for the simple aim of giving it a push it deserves. In Malaysia this technologically enhanced method is known as the Indutrialised Building System (IBS). Concerted efforts have been made for the past decade by various responsible parties especially by the government. Therefore, the IBS ‘Road Map’ 2003–2010 was introduced and now continues with the IBS ‘road map’ 2011-2015. Howev...

  20. Evaluation of demonstration technologies: Quail creek water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. EPA is currently demonstrating central and household treatment units at several sites in the U.S. The Quail Creek System near Spicewood, Texas is one of these sites where the technology demonstration program is scheduled to be completed soon as part of the EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water demonstration initiative. The report provides a summary of the small system demonstration project and presents an evaluation of the information collected during the operation, and by the EPA in September 1992

  1. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  2. Power supplies for space systems quality assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sandia Laboratories' participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi-Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High-Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted

  3. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhann Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. Methods This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Results Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. Conclusion The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Bogdanovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  6. Optimal design of future electricity supply systems. An analysis of potential bottlenecks in NW-Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the potential bottlenecks that might emerge in the North-western European electricity supply system as a result of a number of (autonomous) long-term developments. The main long-term developments we identify are 1) a continuing increase in the demand for electricity, 2) a gradual shift from conventional electricity generation towards unconventional (green) generation, 3) a gradual shift from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and 4) a shift from national self-sufficient electricity supply systems towards a pan-European electricity system. Although it has been recognized that these developments might cause certain problems in some or more elements of the electricity supply chain, a coherent and comprehensive framework for the identification of these problems is lacking. More specific, governments and regulators seem to focus on certain parts of the electricity supply system separately, whereas certain interdependencies in the system have received relatively little attention. This paper presents such a framework and identifies some potential bottlenecks that receive relatively little attention from policy makers. These are 1) the increasing penetration of distributed generation, 2) an increasingly important role for demand response and 3) the lack of locational signals in the electricity supply system. The potential role of governments and markets in these issues is briefly explored. (Author)

  7. Strategic stockpiling of power system supplies for disaster recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coffrein, Carleton [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV

    2010-11-23

    This paper studies the Power System Stochastic Storage Problem (PSSSP), a novel application in power restoration which consists of deciding how to store power system components throughout a populated area to maximize the amount of power served after disaster restoration. The paper proposes an exact mixed-integer formulation for the linearized DC power flow model and a general column-generation approach. Both formulations were evaluated experimentally on benchmarks using the electrical power infrastructure of the United States and disaster scenarios generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. The results show that the column-generation algorithm produces near-optimal solutions quickly and produces orders of magnitude speedups over the exact formulation for large benchmarks. Moreover, both the exact and the column-generation formulations produce significant improvements over greedy approach and hence should yield significant benefits in practice.

  8. Power line monitoring system using fiber optic power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Shioda, Tatsutoshi; Kurokawa, Takashi; Oka, Junji; Ueta, Kazuyuki; Fukuoka, Toshiharu

    2009-05-01

    We propose a novel power-line-monitoring system using optical fibers for transmitting power as well as signal. The principle is experimentally confirmed with a system composed of a monitoring side with a 1.5-μm laser diode, transmission line of a single mode fiber, and a sensing side having an efficient photovoltaic (PV) cell, electrical junction sensor, and low power liquid crystal optical modulator (LCOM). The PV cell generates the electrical power in the sensing side with a conversion efficiency of 20%. The LCOM is driven with low power of less than 50 μW, modulates the laser light with a signal indicating the power line condition, and transmits the optical signal. The developed sensing unit produces an optical signal having an extinction ratio of 15 dB with low optical power of 1.8 mW. Five systems were in operation for two years, faithfully monitoring the oil pressure in electrical cables every 20 min without incident.

  9. Mechanical braking system for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Compact and innovative solution for dumping of large kinetic energy. ► Small mass of energy converter at the shaft due to circulating storage medium. ► Design of the active parts ensures flat torque/power characteristics. ► Also suitable for spending a great part of operating life in “Freewheeling” mode. -- Abstract: A few years ago, IPP reviewed the safety of the ASDEX Upgrade pulsed power supply system. Two critical sub-systems had been identified: The (electrical) braking system for the flywheel generators and the oil lubrication system for the shaft bearings. A simultaneous failure of these two systems may lead to severe damages and could have consequences for the safety of operating personnel. Therefore a second, independent braking possibility for every generator was stipulated. Especially the challenges adapting a dynamometer, originally designed for motor test benches, towards a plant safety system for generator EZ4 will be described in the paper. Further on, the paper will present the problems, implementing such a system into an existing installation, including the calculation of the required supporting structure, balancing of the extended shaft line and required water cooling and control. Finally it will report on the performance achieved during operation

  10. Mechanical braking system for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käsemann, C.-P., E-mail: c.p.kaesemann@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Huart, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Michel Huart Personal Coaching and Consulting, Georgenschwaigstraße 23 RG, 80807 München (Germany); Stobbe, F.; Goldstein, I.; Sigalov, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sachs, E. [Siemens AG, Industrial Automation Systems, Gleiwitzer Straße 555, 90475 Nürnberg (Germany); Perk, E. [Piper Test and Measurement Ltd., The Barn, Bilsington, Ashford, Kent TN25 7JT, England (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Compact and innovative solution for dumping of large kinetic energy. ► Small mass of energy converter at the shaft due to circulating storage medium. ► Design of the active parts ensures flat torque/power characteristics. ► Also suitable for spending a great part of operating life in “Freewheeling” mode. -- Abstract: A few years ago, IPP reviewed the safety of the ASDEX Upgrade pulsed power supply system. Two critical sub-systems had been identified: The (electrical) braking system for the flywheel generators and the oil lubrication system for the shaft bearings. A simultaneous failure of these two systems may lead to severe damages and could have consequences for the safety of operating personnel. Therefore a second, independent braking possibility for every generator was stipulated. Especially the challenges adapting a dynamometer, originally designed for motor test benches, towards a plant safety system for generator EZ4 will be described in the paper. Further on, the paper will present the problems, implementing such a system into an existing installation, including the calculation of the required supporting structure, balancing of the extended shaft line and required water cooling and control. Finally it will report on the performance achieved during operation.

  11. Design and test of power supply system for ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Beretta, M; Vandelli, Wainer R; Mikenberg, G; Richter, R

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the Low Voltage (LV) and High Voltage (HV) power supply distribution of the MDT (Monitored Drift Tubes) detector is addressed. Due to the high number of channels (1168 for low voltage and twice for high voltage) involved and to the dimension of the apparatus, these power supply systems are very complicated. Both system are made of three different parts: a power generator, a system controller and an active distributor. The first two parts will be localized in the cavern close to the experimental area, so they are subjected to standard environmental conditions. The third part (the active distributor) will be placed in the experimental area on the platforms just outside the detector, where the environmental conditions are more severe, due to the presence of magnetic field (about 800 Gauss) and radiations. In the following we present the design specifications and tests for the power supply systems. (3 refs).

  12. Adaptive inverse control of air supply flow for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-hua; ZHU Xin-jian; SUI Sheng; HU Wan-qi; HU Ming-ruo

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the oxygen starvation and improve the system output performance, an adaptive inverse control (AIC) strategy is developed to regulate the air supply flow of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system in this paper.The PEMFC stack and the air supply system including a compressor and a supply manifold are modeled for the purpose of performance analysis and controller design. A recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) is utilized to identify the inverse model of the controlled system and generates a suitable control input during the abrupt step change of external disturbances.Compared with the PI controller, numerical simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed AIC strategy.

  13. Efficiency and responsiveness of supply chains in the high-tech electronics industry : a system dynamics-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Organizations can design planning systems for supply chain management in different ways in order to achieve the multiple objectives of supply chain management. In this book, a System Dynamics simulation model is used to assess the performance of planning approaches for supply chains in the high-tech electronics industry on the dimensions of responsiveness and efficiency. Supply chains in this industry are subject to a number of challenges that complicate the achievement of these two objective...

  14. An Intelligent Approach for Negotiating between chains in Supply Chain Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin firouzi; Amin Nezarat

    2012-01-01

    Holding commercial negotiations and selecting the best supplier in supply chain management systems are among weaknesses of producers in production process. Therefore, applying intelligent systems may have an effective role in increased speed and improved quality in the selections .This paper introduces a system which tries to trade using multi-agents systems and holding negotiations between any agents. In this system, an intelligent agent is considered for each segment of chains which it tri...

  15. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  16. A revised method for robust optimal design of energy supply systems based on minimax regret criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Robust optimal design method of energy systems under uncertain demands is revised. • Novel efficient solution method for robust optimal design method is proposed. • Method of comparing two energy systems under uncertain demands is proposed. • Validity and effectiveness of revised robust optimal design method are clarified. • Features of robust optimal design of cogeneration system are clarified. - Abstract: A robust optimal design method of energy supply systems under uncertain energy demands is revised so that it can be applied to systems with complex configurations and large numbers of periods for variations in energy demands. First, a robust optimal design problem is described by using the minimax regret criterion and considering the hierarchical relationship among design variables, energy demands, and operation variables, which is followed by a solution method. Especially, a novel solution method is proposed for efficiently evaluating an upper bound for the optimal value of the maximum regret. Then, a method of comparing two energy supply systems under uncertain energy demands is proposed by utilizing a part of the revised robust optimal design method. Finally, through a case study on a gas turbine cogeneration system for district energy supply, the validity and effectiveness of the revised optimal design method and features of the robust optimal design are clarified. In addition, the gas turbine cogeneration system is compared with a conventional energy supply system using the proposed comparison method

  17. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  18. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

  19. Base-stock Policies Under Exogenous and Endogenous, Sequential Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhagwan Bendre, Abhijit; Thorstenson, Anders

    additional challenge for the inventory system to manage the consequences of increased supply uncertainty with ubiquitous demand uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the performance of the widely used base-stock policy for both backorder and lostsales cases under......In pursuit of globalization and specialization, companies tend to outsource more of their supply processes. This may diminish their control over supply processes and increase uncertainties in supply lead times. In order to achieve acceptable service levels at minimum total costs, it is an...... different stochastic lead-time regimes. We consider a single-item inventory model managed by a continuously reviewed base-stock policy. Demand is Poisson and lead times are stochastically dependent under the common and often reasonable assumption that they are sequential. We study this model for both...

  20. Applying Electronic Supply Chain Management Using Multi-Agent System: A Managerial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Al-zu’bi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the electronic business environment, supply chain management must deal with globalization, proliferating productvariety, organizational barriers, and quick information sharing. Consequently, appropriate tools are needed to support supply chainmanagement. We believe that software agents are good candidates to overcome these challenges. In this paper, I propose MAS+SCM,which is a Multi-Agent System (MAS to support Electronic Supply Chain Management (E-SCM. The proposed model consists of aset of agents that are working together to maintain supplying, manufacturing, inventory and distributing. The main operations of thesoftware agents include: (1 receiving information from customer orders (2 check the inventory (3 make the production schedule (4issue the order of raw materials from the suppliers (5 receive the raw materials (6 production (7 deliver products to the customer.In addition to the interface agents and communication protocols among agents.

  1. A performance measure for Markov system with stochastic supply patterns and stochastic demand patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system consisting of supply and demand is considered in this paper. Both the supply patterns and demand patterns are random. Thus, both the supply and the demand are modeled by Markov processes. The performance measure considered here is the probability that the demand is met by the supply during given time interval [0,t]. A close form expression for the performance measure is obtained by using aggregated stochastic process theory and Kronecker matrix operations. In the meanwhile, the performance measures in a general interval [a,b] and multiple intervals [a1,b1],[a2,b2],…,[am,bm] have also been given. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the results obtained in this paper

  2. Intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility. PMID:11752497

  3. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Mukta Sapkota; Meenakshi Arora; Hector Malano; Magnus Moglia; Ashok Sharma; Biju George; Francis Pamminger

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized w...

  4. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to b

  5. The Power Supply System for HL-2A Tokamak's Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN Weimin; YAO Lieying; CHEN Yuhong; SHAO Kui; WANG Yingqiao

    2007-01-01

    The highpower pulsed power supply system for the magnetic field of the HL-2A Tokamak is described in this paper.The total output power of its eight magnetic field power supply units of nearly 250 MW.Their highest DC output voltage and current are 3510 V and 45 kA,respectively. All the units are operated in a pulsed mode.The pulse duration is 5 s,and the cyclic period is 15 min.The power supply system consists mainly of pulsed flywheel motor generators,rectifying transformers,thyristor converters,diode rectifiers and switches.The system incorporates many key technologies-supply equalization with two generators and four diode bridges,constant-angle phase triggers with a wide frequency range,current equalization,a status detector for the high current 6-phase converter,and advanced monitoring based on a programmable logic computer and engineering parameter measurement.The experimental results show that the performance of the power supply system satisfies the requirements of HL-2A experiments very well.

  6. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, M. J. P.; Gilroy, K.; Williams, D.

    2015-08-01

    Droughts will likely become more frequent, greater in magnitude and longer in duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as a key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functionality. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules) on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  7. To an optimal electricity supply system. Possible bottlenecks in the development to an optimal electricity supply system in northwest Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is uncertain how the electricity system in Europe, and in particular northwest Europe and the Netherlands, will develop in the next fifteen years. The main objective of this report is to identify possible bottlenecks that may hamper the northwest European electricity system to develop into an optimal system in the long term (until 2020). Subsequently, based on the identified bottlenecks, the report attempts to indicate relevant market response and policy options. To be able to identify possible bottlenecks in the development to an optimal electricity system, an analytical framework has been set up with the aim to identify possible (future) problems in a structured way. The segments generation, network, demand, balancing, and policy and regulation are analysed, as well as the interactions between these segments. Each identified bottleneck is assessed on the criteria reliability, sustainability and affordability. Three bottlenecks are analysed in more detail: (1) The increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) and its interaction with the electricity network. Dutch policy could be aimed at: (a) Gaining more insight in the costs and benefits that result from the increasing penetration of DG; (b) Creating possibilities for DSOs to experiment with innovative (network management) concepts; (c) Introducing locational signals; and (d) Further analyse the possibility of ownership unbundling; (2) The problem of intermittency and its implications for balancing the electricity system. Dutch policy could be aimed at: (a) Creating the environment in which the market is able to respond in an efficient way; (b) Monitoring market responses; (c) Market coupling; and (d) Discussing the timing of the gate closure; and (3) Interconnection and congestion issues in combination with generation. Dutch policy could be aimed at: (a) Using the existing interconnection capacity as efficient as possible; (b) Identifying the causes behind price differences; and (c) Harmonise market

  8. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  9. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  10. Development of high voltage power supply for the KSTAR 170 GHz ECH and CD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 3.6 MW (−66 kV/55 A) gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH system in KSTAR. • The main power supply includes a total of 32 PSM based HV power supply modules. • The voltage regulation of individual HV power module and LV power module is 3 kV and 0.5 kV, respectively. • The gyrotron is protected by means of a fast solid-state switch (MOS-FET). • The HV switching system can turn off the 60 kV to the cathode within 3 μs in the event of gyrotron faults. -- Abstract: A 3.6 MW (66 kV/55 A) DC power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz EC H and CD system in KSTAR. The power supply system consists of a cathode power supply (CPS), an anode power supply (APS) and a body power supply (BPS). The cathode power supply is capable of supplying a maximum voltage of −66 kV and a current of 55 A to the cathode with respect to the collector using pulse step modulation (PSM). The high voltage switching system for the cathode is made by a fast MOS-FET solid-state switch which can turn off the high voltage to the cathode within 3 μs in the occurrence of gyrotron faults. The APS is a voltage divider system consisting of a fixed resistor and zener diode units with the capability of 60 kV stand-off voltage. The anode voltage with respect to the cathode is controlled in a range of 0–60 kV by turning the MOS-FET switches connected in parallel to each zener diode on and off. For high frequency current modulation of the gyrotron, the parallel discharge switch is introduced between the cathode and anode in order to clamp the charged voltage in the stray capacitance. The BPS is a DC power supply with the capability of 50 kV/160 mA. The nominal operation parameter of BPS was 23 kV and 10 mA, respectively, and the voltage output is regulated with a stability of 0.025% of the rated voltage. The series MOS-FET solid-state switch is used for on/off modulation in the body voltage sychronizing with anode voltage. The parallel discharge

  11. To a sustainable energy supply system in the Netherlands. Energetic, economic, and environmental boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this essay energetic, economic, and environmental boundaries are presented, for the use of the renewable energy source biomass for CHP production in the Netherlands. After a general overview of global fossil fuel demand/reserves, its resulting environmental consequences, and the substituting possibilities for renewable energy sources (section 2), the possibilities for a new technological (r)evolution are presented in section 3. In this section items such as sustainable development and industrial ecology are introduced, which result to criteria for a global sustainable energy supply system. The specific Dutch energy supply/power production system, together with the Dutch governmental policy concerning the introduction of renewable energy sources, is presented in section 4. The potential role of the most promising renewable energy source in the Netherlands, viz. biomass, in the future Dutch sustainable energy supply system, together with its energetic, economic, and environmental boundaries, is presented in section 5., closing this essay. 22 refs

  12. Enterprise System Design for RFID Enabled Supply Chains from Experience in Two National Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.T. Mo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two national demonstrator projects have been developed using global RFID standards to explore the suitability of this pervasive technology to the fast moving consumer goods supply chain. The projects show that RFID technology is still not reliable enough to produce advantages over traditional tracking technologies. This paper reviews the processes and gaps in these experiences, and assesses future research opportunities in this area. A system modelling approach is used to understand the relationships between different sub-systems in the enterprises of the supply chain and examine the enterprise processes that drive the activities in the national projects. Based on these analyses, an enterprise system model is proposed for designing future development of RFID based supply chains.

  13. THE INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF THE HEAT SUPPLY PUBLIC SERVICE BY IMPLEMENTING AN INTEGRATED CENTRALIZED HEATING SUPPLY SYSTEM (SACET) IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria-Cristina ANDREI

    2013-01-01

    Under the new European regulations, it becomes a necessity and a priority for Romania to take adequate political, legislative and administrative measures to stop the decline of the centralized heat supply systems. The energy efficiency is the most cost-effective and fastest growing method to improve security of energy supply, reduce energy loss and costs, and greenhouse gas emissions which are responsible for global warming. Cogeneration, notably high efficiency cogeneration and the improved ...

  14. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Masayasu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  15. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  16. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these 'Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)' have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  17. Improving Supply Chain Coordination by Linking Dynamic Procurement Decision to Multi-Agent System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yee Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has changed the way business is conducted in many ways. For example, in the field of procurement, the possibility to directly interact with a trading partner has given rise to new mechanisms in the supply chain management. One such interactive dynamic procurement, which lets both buyer and seller software agents bid by potential buyer agents instead of static procurement by vendors. Dynamic procurement decision could provide the buying and selling channel to buyer, to avoid occurring condition that seller could not deliver on the contract promise. Using NYOP(Name Your Own Price) to be the core of dynamic procurement negotiation algorithm sets up multi-agent dynamic supply chain system, to present the DSINs(Dynamic Supply Chain Information Networks) by JADE, and to present the dynamic supply chain logistic simulation by eM-Plant. Finally, evaluating supply chain performance with supply chain performance metrics (such as bullwhip, fill rate), to be the reference of enterprise making deciding in the...

  18. A dynamic performance evaluation of fueling machine heavy water supply system with PID controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic performance of the Fueling Machine (F/M) Heavy Water (D2O) supply system for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Init 1 was evaluated using Modular Modeling System (MMS) computer code. The analyses were performed for selected parameters to identify a dominant contributor to the dynamic behavior of common header pressure during the supply mode changes. The results show that the position change rate of series valve is one of the most dominant factors that affect a common header pressure performance. The set pressure change rates of supply and magazine also result in a dominant effect on the dynamic performance of common header pressure. The results also show that the common bleed valve goes to the full closed position regardless of the parameter variations during the supply mode changes. The introduction of a lower position limit in the common bleed valve is effective without any adverse effect on the system performance in avoiding the full closure of the valve during the supply mode changes

  19. Design study of an AC power supply system in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the initial research phase of JT-60SA, which is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) satellite Tokamak with superconducting toroidal and poloidal magnetic field coils, the plasma heating operation of 30 MW-60 s or 20 MW-100 s is planned for 5.5 MA single null divertor plasmas. To achieve this operation, AC power source of the medium voltage of 18 kV and ∼7 GJ has to be provided in total to the poloidal field coil power supplies and additional heating devices such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and electron cyclotron radio frequency (ECRF). In this paper, the proposed AC power supply system in JT-60SA was estimated from the view point of available power, and harmonic currents based on the standard plasma operation scenario during the initial research phase. This AC power supply system consists of the reused JT-60 power supply facilities including motor generators with flywheel, AC breakers, harmonic filters, etc., to make it cost effective. In addition, the conceptual design of the upgraded AC power supply system for the ultimate heating power of 41 MW-100 s in the extended research phase is also described.

  20. THE DEMAND DISRUPTION MANAGEMENT PROBLEM FOR A SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR DEMAND FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghui XU; Xiangtong QI; Gang YU; Hanqin ZHANG; Chengxiu GAO

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of handling the uncertainty of demand in aone-supplier-one-retailer supply chain system. Demand variation often makes the real productiondifferent from what is originally planned, causing a deviation cost from the production plan. Assumethe market demand is sensitive to the retail price in a nonlinear form, we show how to effectivelyhandle the demand uncertainty in a supply chain, both for the case of centralized-decision-makingsystem and the case of decentralized-decision-making system with perfect coordination.

  1. Design of power supply system in DC electrified transit railways - Influence of the high voltage network

    OpenAIRE

    Seimbille, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Urban rail systems such as subways and trams transport millions of people every day, oering a high level of service. Most of these systems are fed by direct current (DC). The design of the power supply network of DC electried transit railways is of great importance and requires the use of simulation models. The power supply network is composed of a high voltage network (fed with AC) linked to a traction network (fed with DC) by traction substations. Many simulation models ignore the high volt...

  2. Stability of the Supply Chain Using System Dynamics Simulation and the Accumulated Deviations from Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a new methodology to stabilize systems with complex dynamics like the supply chain. This method is based on the accumulated deviations from equilibrium (ADE. It is most beneficial for controlling system dynamic models characterized by multiple types of delays, many interacting variables, and feedback processes. We employ the classical version of particle swarm optimization as the optimization approach due to its performance in multidimensional space, stochastic properties, and global reach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method based on ADE using a manufacturing-supply-chain case study.

  3. Power flow and efficiency in supplying systems of arc plasma generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arc plasma generator requires a supplying system of several hundred kVA and with such operating characteristics as to ignite the discharge at a high voltage of 10 to 20 kV and then to maintain it at a voltage ten times lower. There are many various types of arc plasma generators and they differ considerably from one another depending on their application, construction and kind of discharge used for plasma generation. An arc plasma generator with a gliding arc and the supplying systems are discussed, this mainly from the point of view of power flow and efficiency. (author)

  4. Geographic information system programs for use in the water-supply-allocation permitting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Paul; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer programs designed for use in a geographic information system as an aid in the water-supply- allocation permitting process are described. These programs were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey during a project conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The programs enable a user to display proposed water-supply-allocation sites in a defined area together with present sites and important hydrologic and geographic features on a computer screen or on hardcopy plots. The programs are menu-driven and do not require familiarity with geographic information systems. Source codes for the programs are included in appendixes.

  5. Embedded system for power supply adjuster in radiotherapy with heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the requirement of exact control for scanning magnet power supply in the device for HITFiL radiotherapy with heavy ion, a kind of digital adjuster for magnet power supply system based on EDA technology is designed. This digital adjuster is completed by using ARM, FPGA and DA/AD technology. Through the test on the spot, the whole system was robust and reliable, satisfied the design requirement, and provided a reliable technique support for the construction and application of radiotherapy with heavy ion equipment. (authors)

  6. Pressure Fluctuations in the Gasostatic Bearing Supply System on Supercritical Operation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the oscillatory mode occurring in the gap between the stator and the rotor in gas-static bearing during the outflow of under expanded gas jets out of the supply system, which interacts with the surface of the rotor. The results of studies on the oscillation regimes, their causes, mechanisms and frequency characteristics of pressure fluctuations in the working fluid supply system and the lubricating layer of gas bearing. A one-dimensional model of central shock oscillations in a gas jet leaking on a perpendicular barrier is considered. Experiments were carried out. The regions, where oscillation regimes exist are revealed.

  7. A Power Supply System with ZVS and Current-Doubler Features for Hybrid Renewable Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Jye-Chau Su; Cheng-Tao Tsai; Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a power supply system for hybrid renewable energy conversion is proposed, which can process PV (photovoltaic) power and wind-turbine energy simultaneously for step-down voltage and high current applications. It is a dual-input converter and mainly contains a PV energy source, a wind turbine energy source, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) forward converter, and a current-doubler rectifier. The proposed power supply system has the following advantages: (1) PV-arrays and wind-energy...

  8. Design of monitoring circuit of PMT HV power supply control system of LASCAR scintillator array detector at RIBLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described that the monitoring circuit of PMT HV power supply control system of LASCAR in this paper, which is based on CC123 HV power supply module supplied by Beijing HAMAMATSU Phonetics Co.. The detailed design of this monitoring circuit, which has combined MCU and Personal Computer, is presented. (authors)

  9. Application of embedded database to digital power supply system in HIRFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: This paper introduces the application of embedded MySQL database in the real-time monitoring system of the digital power supply system in Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Purpose: The aim is to optimize the real-time monitoring system of the digital power supply system for better performance. Methods: The MySQL database is designed and implemented under Linux operation system running on ARM processor, together with the related functions for real-time data monitoring, such as collection, storage and query. All status parameters of digital power supply system is collected and communicated with ARM by a FPGA, whilst the user interface is realized by Qt toolkits at ARM end. Results: The actual operation indicates that digital power supply can realize the function of real-time data monitoring, collection, storage and so on. Conclusion: Through practical application, we have found some aspects we can improve and we will try to optimize them in the future. (authors)

  10. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Floridan Aquifer System Near Tampa, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Temple Terrace, Florida, northeast of Tampa. The well selected for study typically produces water at the rate of 700 gallons per minute from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents nitrate, arsenic, uranium, radon-222, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although all were detected at concentrations less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Temple Terrace: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) short-circuiting of contaminated water through sinkholes; (3) natural geochemical processes within the aquifer; and (4) pumping stress. Although the public-supply well is completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer, it produces water with concentrations of nitrate, VOCs, and the natural contaminant radon that are intermediate between the typical composition of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and that of the overlying surficial aquifer system. Mixing calculations show that the water produced by the public-supply well could consist of upwards of 50 percent water from the surficial aquifer system mixed with water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Anthropogenically affected water from the surficial aquifer system travels rapidly to depth through sinkholes that must be directly connected to the cavernous zone intersected by the public-supply well (and several other production wells in the region). Such solution features serve as fast pathways to the well and circumvent the natural attenuation of nitrate and

  11. Estimating and assessing Galileo navigation system satellite and receiver differential code biases using the ionospheric parameter and differential code bias joint estimation approach with multi-GNSS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Junchen; Song, Shuli; Liao, Xinhao; Zhu, Wenyao

    2016-04-01

    With the increased number of Galileo navigation satellites joining the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) service, there is a strong need for estimating their differential code biases (DCBs) for high-precision GNSS applications. There have been studies for estimating DCBs based on an external global ionospheric model (GIM) proposed by Montenbruck et al. (2014). In this study, we take a different approach by joining the construction of a GIM and estimating DCB together with multi-GNSS observations, including GPS, the BeiDou navigation system, and the Galileo navigation system (GAL). This approach takes full advantage of the collective strength of the individual systems while maintaining high solution consistency. Daily GAL DCBs were estimated simultaneously with ionospheric model parameters from 3 months' multi-GNSS observations. The stability of the resulting GAL DCB estimates was analyzed in detail. It was found that the standard deviations (STDs) of all satellite DCBs were less than 0.17 ns. For GAL receivers, the STDs were greater than for the satellites, with most values <2 ns. Comparison of the statistics of time-ranged stability of satellite DCBs over different time intervals revealed that the difference in STD between 28 and 7 day intervals was small, with the maximum not exceeding 0.01 ns. In almost all cases, the difference in GAL satellite DCBs between two consecutive days was <0.8 ns. The main conclusion is that based on the stability of the GAL DCBs, only occasional calibration is required. Furthermore, the 30 day-averaged satellite DCBs may satisfy the requirement of high-precision applications depending on the GAL satellite DCBs.

  12. Reconstruction of steam generators super emergency feadwater supply system (SHNC) and steam dump stations to the atmosphere system PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam Generators Super Emergency Feadwater Supply System (SHNC) and Steam Dump Stations to the Atmosphere System (PSA) are two systems which cooperate to remove residual heat from reactor core after seismic event. SHNC assure feeding of the secondary site of steam generator (Feed) where after heat removal.from primary loops, is relieved to the atmosphere by PSA (Bleed) in form of steam. (author)

  13. IMPROVEMENTS IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS BASED ON OPTIMIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. F. DINIZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems consume large amounts of energy because of the pumping processes involved. The operational strategy of using frequency converters enables the system to work with better adjusted discharge rate to meet demand. In this case, an optimization strategy can establish an optimal procedure in order to schedule the rotational speed of pumps over a period and guarantee a volume of water in the supply tank. This work presents and solves an optimization problem that provides the optimal schedule for the rotational speed of pumps in a real water supply system considering minimizing the use of electricity and the cost thereof and maintenance. The optimization problem is based on two Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models that provide the total power consumption in the pumping system and level of water in the tank. Pattern recognition techniques in univariate time series based on the real data are used to forecast the demand curve according to the season ofthe year. The results show the potential savings generated by the proposed method and show the feasibility of scheduling the rotational speed of the pumps to ensure the minimum energy cost without affecting hourly demand and the security of the supply system.

  14. Intelligent Collaborative Quality Assurance System for Wind Turbine Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. SONG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the root causes or sources of variance of bad quality in supply chains is usually more difficult because multiple parties are involved in the current global manufacturing environment. Each component within a supply chain tends to focus on its own responsibilities and ignores possibilities for interconnectivity and therefore the potential for systematic quality assurance and quality tracing. Rather than concentrating on assigning responsibility for “recall” incidents, it would be better to expend that energy on constructing a collaborative system to assure product quality by employing a systematic view for the entire supply chain. This paper presents a systematic framework for intelligent collaborative quality assurance throughout an entire supply chain based on an expert system for implementing two levels of quality assurance: system level and component level. This proposed system provides intelligent functions for quality prediction, pattern recognition and data mining. A case study for wind turbines is given to demonstrate this approach. The results show that such a system can assure product quality improved in a continuous process.

  15. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  16. MCNP5 CRITICALITY VALIDATION AND BIAS FOR INTERMEDIATE ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINFROCK SH

    2009-12-10

    The purpose of this analysis is to validate the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) code Version 1.40 (LA-UR-03-1987, 2005) and its cross-section database for k-code calculations of intermediate enriched uranium systems on INTEL{reg_sign} processor based PC's running any version of the WINDOWS operating system. Configurations with intermediate enriched uranium were modeled with the moderator range of 39 {le} H/Fissile {le} 1438. See Table 2-1 for brief descriptions of selected cases and Table 3-1 for the range of applicability for this validation. A total of 167 input cases were evaluated including bare and reflected systems in a single body or arrays. The 167 cases were taken directly from the previous (Version 4C [Lan 2005]) validation database. Section 2.0 list data used to calculate k-effective (k{sub eff}) for the 167 experimental criticality benchmark cases using the MCNP5 code v1.40 and its cross section database. Appendix B lists the MCNP cross-section database entries validated for use in evaluating the intermediate enriched uranium systems for criticality safety. The dimensions and atom densities for the intermediate enriched uranium experiments were taken from NEA/NSC/DOC(95)03, September 2005, which will be referred to as the benchmark handbook throughout the report. For these input values, the experimental benchmark k{sub eff} is approximately 1.0. The MCNP validation computer runs ran to an accuracy of approximately {+-} 0.001. For the cases where the reported benchmark k{sub eff} was not equal to 1.0000 the MCNP calculational results were normalized. The difference between the MCNP validation computer runs and the experimentally measured k{sub eff} is the MCNP5 v1.40 bias. The USLSTATS code (ORNL 1998) was utilized to perform the statistical analysis and generate an acceptable maximum k{sub eff} limit for calculations of the intermediate enriched uranium type systems.

  17. Reliability analysis of 500 MW(e) power supply system (Paper No. 1.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability analysis of two alternative Class IV power supply schemes for the 500 MW(e) project were carried out. In scheme I, the 400 KV supply acts as a backup to the 200 KV supply through the interconnecting transformer, whereas in scheme 2, the 400 KV supply acts as an alternative source to the unit transformers provided the generator is isolated through a generator breaker. The Class IV unavailability evaluations were done PSAPACK (an IAEA package for Probabilistic Safety Analysis) and the Class IV failure frequency evaluations were carried out using a Markov Model setup for the power supply system. The effect of grid-station and grid-grid interactions on the class IV failure frequency were also considered in the analysis. In scheme 2, the generator isolation breaker carries very large currents. The sensitivity of the system failure frequency, in scheme 2, to the generator breaker failure rate was also analysed. From this analysis it turns out that scheme 2 has a low Class IV unavailability as well as low failure frequency. This scheme has also been found to be less susceptible to grid station as well as grid grid interactions. (author). 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. Design of multi-way composite switching power supply for intelligent sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the work principle of double grid air counter intelligent sensor system for detecting low energy electron emission, the design specifications of the power supply is put forward. The article goes on with particular design of each part of the multi-way output power supply circuit. The high-voltage-output circuit is a single-end reverse exciting switching power supply, the middle-voltage-output circuit is a push-pull switching power supply under close-loop control and low-voltage-output circuit is realized with integrated power circuit. To design different kinds of switching transformer, varied methods are analyzed in detail. In middle-voltage-output circuit, the following functions can be realized with KA7500B; (1) push-pull output mode, (2) PWM control, (3) soft start, (4) lack-voltage protection, (5) over-current protection. Experiments indicate that the multi-way output power supply, which adopts technology of PWM, satisfies the electrical requirements of sensor system, gets a high efficiency, realizes the miniaturization and has a rather long life duration. (authors)

  19. Assessment of two-level heat pump installations’ power efficiency for heat supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlla Е. Denysova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources has essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two-level heat pump installation operating as heat source the Odessa city ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of geothermal heat supply. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption N by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a source of geothermal heat from ground waters of Odessa city allowing to estimate efficiency of two-level heat pump installations.

  20. Impact of biofilms in simulated drinking water and urban heat supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Lopes; Morin, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; L. F. Melo

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling and biocorrosion were studied in drinking water and heating water systems by forming biofilms on steel and on polymethylmetacrylate. In the drinking water system, biofilm development was more significant on corroded surfaces, suggesting that in these conditions they were largely protected from disinfection, probably because of sheltering and chlorine demand by corrosion products. In the urban heat supply system, results suggest a higher biofilm activity at lower p...

  1. System Dynamics Modeling and Simulation for Capital-constrained Supply Chain Based on Inventory Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ni-na Yan; Bao-wen Sun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we design a Capital-constrained Supply Chain (CCSC) system with a manufacturer and a capital-constrained retailer who can obtain short-term finance from the commercial bank through inventory financing according to the value of the pledged warehouse receipt. Using the system dynamics methodology, we model the stock and flow diagrams and simulate the system characteristics for non-financing scheme and inventory financing scheme, respectively. Through...

  2. Study on the Traceability System Establishment of Safety-Objective-Oriented Food Logistics Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Liu; Wen Cheng; Jianmin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL) Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, ...

  3. Architecture Design of Food Supply Chain Traceability System based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei Liu; Weipin Peng

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources of food traceability and a few basic elements of the food traceability, designs and architects the food supply chain traceability system based on Internet of things. The system structure is composed of perception layer, transport layer and application layer. System is architected from the user interface presentation layer (USL), Business Logic Layer (BLL), Data Access Layer (DAL). The transport layer adopts savant middleware ...

  4. Gyrotron and power supply development for upgrading the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Vendor completed design of 1.5 MW, 117.5 GHz gyrotron for DIII-D. ► Fabrication of gyrotron by vendor underway. ► Finalizing design of solid-state high voltage modulator for cathode power supply. ► Fabrication of solid-state high voltage modulator has begun. ► Finalizing design of high voltage linear amplifier for gyrotron body power supply. -- Abstract: An upgrade of the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D to almost 15 MW is being planned which will expand it from a system with six 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotrons to one with ten gyrotrons. A depressed collector 1.2 MW 110 GHz gyrotron is being commissioned as the seventh gyrotron. A new 117.5 GHz 1.5 MW depressed collector gyrotron has been designed, and the first article will be the eighth gyrotron. Two more are planned, increasing the system to ten total gyrotrons, and the existing 1 MW gyrotrons will subsequently be replaced with 1.5 MW gyrotrons. Communications and Power Industries completed the design of the 117.5 GHz gyrotron, and are now fabricating the first article. The design was optimized for a nominal 1.5 MW at a beam voltage of 105 kV, collector potential depression of 30 kV, and beam current of 50 A, but can achieve 1.8 MW at 60 A. The design of the collector permits modulation above 100 Hz by either the body or the cathode power supply, or both, while modulation below 100 Hz must use only the cathode power supply. General Atomics is developing solid-state power supplies for this upgrade: a solid-state modulator for the cathode power supply and a linear high voltage amplifier for the body power supply. The solid-state modulator has series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors that are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse-width modulation regulator to control the output voltage. The design of the linear high voltage amplifier has series-connected transistors to control the output voltage, which was successfully demonstrated in a proof-of-principle test at 2 kV. The

  5. Gyrotron and power supply development for upgrading the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, Joseph F., E-mail: tooker@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Huynh, Paul [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Felch, Kevin; Blank, Monica; Borchardt, Philipp; Cauffman, Steve [Communications and Power Industries, 811 Hanson Way, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Vendor completed design of 1.5 MW, 117.5 GHz gyrotron for DIII-D. ► Fabrication of gyrotron by vendor underway. ► Finalizing design of solid-state high voltage modulator for cathode power supply. ► Fabrication of solid-state high voltage modulator has begun. ► Finalizing design of high voltage linear amplifier for gyrotron body power supply. -- Abstract: An upgrade of the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D to almost 15 MW is being planned which will expand it from a system with six 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotrons to one with ten gyrotrons. A depressed collector 1.2 MW 110 GHz gyrotron is being commissioned as the seventh gyrotron. A new 117.5 GHz 1.5 MW depressed collector gyrotron has been designed, and the first article will be the eighth gyrotron. Two more are planned, increasing the system to ten total gyrotrons, and the existing 1 MW gyrotrons will subsequently be replaced with 1.5 MW gyrotrons. Communications and Power Industries completed the design of the 117.5 GHz gyrotron, and are now fabricating the first article. The design was optimized for a nominal 1.5 MW at a beam voltage of 105 kV, collector potential depression of 30 kV, and beam current of 50 A, but can achieve 1.8 MW at 60 A. The design of the collector permits modulation above 100 Hz by either the body or the cathode power supply, or both, while modulation below 100 Hz must use only the cathode power supply. General Atomics is developing solid-state power supplies for this upgrade: a solid-state modulator for the cathode power supply and a linear high voltage amplifier for the body power supply. The solid-state modulator has series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors that are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse-width modulation regulator to control the output voltage. The design of the linear high voltage amplifier has series-connected transistors to control the output voltage, which was successfully demonstrated in a proof-of-principle test at 2 kV. The

  6. Tropical Indian Ocean surface salinity bias in Climate Forecasting System coupled models and the role of upper ocean processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Sayantani, Ojha; Fousiya, T. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study sea surface salinity (SSS) biases and seasonal tendency over the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in the coupled models [Climate Forecasting System version 1 (CFSv1) and version 2 (CFSv2)] are examined with respect to observations. Both CFSv1 and CFSv2 overestimate SSS over the TIO throughout the year. CFSv1 displays improper SSS seasonal cycle over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), which is due to weaker model precipitation and improper river runoff especially during summer and fall. Over the southeastern Arabian Sea (AS) weak horizontal advection associated with East Indian coastal current during winter limits the formation of spring fresh water pool. On the other hand, weaker Somali jet during summer results for reduced positive salt tendency in the central and eastern AS. Strong positive precipitation bias in CFSv1 over the region off Somalia during winter, weaker vertical mixing and absence of horizontal salt advection lead to unrealistic barrier layer during winter and spring. The weaker stratification and improper spatial distribution of barrier layer thickness (BLT) in CFSv1 indicate that not only horizontal flux distribution but also vertical salt distribution displays large discrepancies. Absence of fall Wyrtki jet and winter equatorial currents in this model limit the advection of horizontal salt flux to the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. The associated weaker stratification in eastern equatorial Indian Ocean can lead to deeper mixed layer and negative Sea Surface Temperature (SST) bias, which in turn favor positive Indian Ocean Dipole bias in CFSv1. It is important to note that improper spatial distribution of barrier layer and stratification can alter the air-sea interaction and precipitation in the models. On the other hand CFSv2 could produce the seasonal evolution and spatial distribution of SSS, BLT and stratification better than CFSv1. However CFSv2 displays positive bias in evaporation over the whole domain and negative bias in

  7. NETWORK CENTRISM OPTIMIZATION OF EXPEDITIOUS SERVICE OF ELEMENTS OF THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.I. Sokol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of precision selection criteria of options of technical realization of effective active and adaptive system of expeditious service of elements of a power supply system in the conditions of network-centric management. Methodology. In development of power supply systems their evolution from the elementary forms using elementary network technologies and models of interactions in power to more irregular shapes within the concept of Smart Grid with elements of network-centric character is observed. This direction is based on Internet-technologies of the last generation, and realize models of power activity which couldn't be realized before. Results. The number of possible options of active and adaptive system of expeditious service of elements of a power supply system is usually rather big and it is difficult to choose the acceptable option by direct search. Elimination of admissible options of the technical realization constructed on the principles of a network centrism means application of the theory of multicriteria optimization from a position of discrete programming. The basis of procedure of elimination is made by algorithm of an assessment of system by criterion of accuracy. Originality. The case of an assessment of the precision characteristic of system at restrictions for the set accuracy is connected with need of decomposition of requirements of all system in general and on separate subsystems. For such decomposition the ratios connecting the accuracy of functioning of a separate subsystem with variations of parameters of all system, and also with precision characteristics of subsystems of the lower levels influencing this subsystem are received. Practical value. In the conditions of the network-centric organization of management of expeditious service of elements of a power supply system elimination of options of subsystems when using precision criterion allows to receive the maximum number of essentially possible

  8. EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF CAMPUS HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heat consumption for heating and hot water supply of housing and industrial facilities is an essential part of heat energy consumption. Prerequisite for development of energy saving measures in existing heating systems is their preliminary examination. The investigation results of campus heating system of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan are presented in the article. On the basis of the analysis it is proposed to take the energy saving measures and assess their effectiveness. Methodology. Analysis of the consumption structure of thermal energy for heating domestic and hot water supply was fulfilled. The real costs of heat supply during the calendar year and the normative costs were compared. Findings. The recording expenditures data of thermal energy for heating supply of residential buildings and dormitories in 2012 were analyzed. The comparison of actual performance with specific regulations was performed. This comparison revealed problems, whose solution will help the efficient use of thermal energy. Originality. For the first time the impact of climate conditions, features of schemes and designs of heating systems on the effective use of thermal energy were analyzed. It was studied the contribution of each component. Practical value. Based on the analysis of thermal energy consumption it was developed a list of possible energy saving measures that can be implemented in the system of heat and power facilities. It was evaluated the fuel and energy resources saving.

  9. A Power Supply System with ZVS and Current-Doubler Features for Hybrid Renewable Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Chau Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power supply system for hybrid renewable energy conversion is proposed, which can process PV (photovoltaic power and wind-turbine energy simultaneously for step-down voltage and high current applications. It is a dual-input converter and mainly contains a PV energy source, a wind turbine energy source, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS forward converter, and a current-doubler rectifier. The proposed power supply system has the following advantages: (1 PV-arrays and wind-energy sources can alternatively deliver power to the load during climate or season alteration; (2 maximum power point tracking (MPPT can be accomplished for both different kinds of renewable-energy sources; (3 ZVS and synchronous rectification techniques for the active switches of the forward converter are embedded so as to reduce switching and conducting losses; and (4 electricity isolation is naturally obtained. To achieve an optimally dynamic response and to increase control flexibility, a digital signal processor (DSP is investigated and presented to implement MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. Finally, a 240 W prototype power supply system with ZVS and current-doubler features to deal with PV power and wind energy is built and implemented. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed power supply system.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments...) Storage requirements. (3) Preparation and expiration dates. (4) Other pertinent information required for..., culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and other supplies, as appropriate, must...

  11. Start-up neutral-beam power supply system for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the design features and considerations of the MFTF start-up neutral-beam power supplies. In particular, we emphasize features of the system that will ensure MFTF compatibility and achieve the required reliability/availability for the MFTF to be successful

  12. A decision support system for optimization of regional drinking water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.; Schot, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Finding a strategy that allows economically efficient drinking water production in regional supply systems at minimal environmental cost is often a complex task. In order to determine the optimal spatial production configuration, a systematic trade off among costs and benefits of possible strategies

  13. System Dynamics Modeling and Simulation for Capital-constrained Supply Chain Based on Inventory Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni-na Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we design a Capital-constrained Supply Chain (CCSC system with a manufacturer and a capital-constrained retailer who can obtain short-term finance from the commercial bank through inventory financing according to the value of the pledged warehouse receipt. Using the system dynamics methodology, we model the stock and flow diagrams and simulate the system characteristics for non-financing scheme and inventory financing scheme, respectively. Through simulation experiments, we make a comparative analysis of the operational and financial decisions in the CCSC system with and without the financing scheme. Finally, combined with various loan-to-value ratios and capital-constraint degrees, we conduct sensitivity analyses to discuss the impact of different financing conditions on supply chain operations. The rationality and effectiveness of inventory financing scheme is validated. It concluded that the all-win effect of the inventory financing could be realized in the CCSC system.

  14. Design of ion-pump power supply control software system based on TCP/IP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discuss a Ion-pump Power Supply control system making use of RS232 series bus and Intranet. The system's hardware VAC800 is composed of MSP430F149 mixed-signal processors produced by TI and UA7000A network model. MSP430F149 has advantages of ultra-low-power and high-integration. The Ion-pump Power Supply control system has the characteristics of strong function, simple structure, high reliability, strong resistance of noise, no peripheral chip, etc. Visual studio 2005 is used to design the system's software. The Ion-pump Power supplier control system can remotely monitor and control Ion-pump Power Suppliers. (authors)

  15. Potential for using a six-phase alternating current power supply system for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as a potential treatment technology for stabilizing underground tanks at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. A key requirement for this application is an electrical system that can supply the power needed to vitrify a tank in a single setting. This paper describes an engineering-scale test conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assess the efficiency of a six-electrode, six-phase energy supply system in melting soil. The test was conducted with a 30-kW six-phase system. Based on the test results, a six-electrode, six-phase system shows potential for scaleup to larger systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Design of digital adjustor applied to power supply system for HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of power supply is the key point in the design of HIRFL-CSR system. Based on ARM + FPGA + AD/DA and state-space equation techniques, the design of digital adjustor applied in the power supply system for HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou is realized. The digital adjustor can accomplish an adjustment control of fifth order and lower. ARM is used as the core of the control system to deal with the multi-threaded task and the precision of power adjustment control is implemented mainly by FPGA and AD/DA techniques. The embedded gigabit fiber interface can transmit the digital signal from external DSP board and the system uses optoelectronic isolator to inhibit interference signals for 32 bit input/output digital signals. Field test has proved that this digital adjustor can meet HIRFL-CSR's control precision requirement of 10-4 and reduce the recovery time of power system devices. (authors)

  17. Study on the Traceability System Establishment of Safety-Objective-Oriented Food Logistics Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, the largest Risk Priority Number (RPN is the precision risk of information. Moreover, with fuzzy synthetic evaluation model and intensity weighted average method, this paper ranks the importance of the three factors of the food logistics supply chain traceability system and finds that the depth is the most important factor. Lastly, it uses a case of Green Pork Company to calculate economics effect to prove the feasibility of the system.

  18. Aerosol generation by blower motors as a bias in assessing aerosol penetration into cabin filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, William A; Collingwood, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In cabin filtration systems, blower motors pressurize a vehicle cabin with clean filtered air and recirculate air through an air-conditioning evaporator coil and a heater core. The exposure reduction offered by these cabins is evaluated by optical particle counters that measure size-dependent aerosol concentration inside and outside the cabin. The ratio of the inside-to-outside concentration is termed penetration. Blower motors use stationary carbon brushes to transmit an electrical current through a rotating armature that abrades the carbon brushes. This creates airborne dust that may affect experimental evaluations of aerosol penetration. To evaluate the magnitude of these dust emissions, blower motors were placed in a test chamber and operated at 12 and 13.5 volts DC. A vacuum cleaner drew 76 m3/hour (45 cfm) of air through HEPA filters, the test chamber, and through a 5 cm diameter pipe. An optical particle counter drew air through an isokinetic sampling probe and measured the size-dependent particle concentrations from 0.3 to 15 microm. The concentration of blower motor aerosol was between 2 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(6) particles/m3. Aerosol penetration into three stationary vehicles, two pesticide application vehicles and one tractor were measured at two conditions: low concentration (outside in the winter) and high concentration (inside repair shops and burning incense sticks used as a supplemental aerosol source). For particles smaller than 1 microm, the in-cabin concentrations can be explained by the blower motor emissions. For particles larger than 1 microm, other aerosol sources, such as resuspended dirt, are present. Aerosol generated by the operation of the blower motor and by other sources can bias the exposure reduction measured by optical particle counters. PMID:15764523

  19. Design of monitoring and control system of digital power supply for HIMM based on microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The touch screen control system is under development in Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. In this paper, the touch screen control system is studied in detail, which is driven by PIC24 microcontroller. According to the internal protocol of power system , control of power switch , waveform and state display, parameter setting are all implemented in this control system. The communication among microcontroller, FPGA board for power supply and state board is normal and stable during the test. Compared to analog switch control system, the local control system for HIMM is much more convenient and aesthetic, additionally the control accuracy is even higher. (authors)

  20. Strengthening Carrying Capacity of a Water Supply System under Climate Change with the Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin

    2016-04-01

    The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System

  1. PRODUCTION INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH RANDOM SUPPLY INTERRUPTIONS STATUE AND RANDOM LEAD TIMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yumei; Liu Wenyuan; Zhang Qiang; Wu Fengqing

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes a continuous-review inventory system with random supply interruptions and random lead time which may be interrupted by a random number of supplier's OFF periods. The inventory with constant demand rate is managed by a (r; q1, q2,..., qm) policy and supplies from an unreliable sole supplier. By renewal theory and matrix Geometric method, the long-run average cost function is obtained and some important properties of the function are proved. Furthermore, performance of the inventory is derived.

  2. Multi-actor organization for urban food systems : short but collaborative supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Redlingshofer, Barbara; Traversac, Jean Baptiste; Messmer, Jean Guillaume; Aubry, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of food systems in France becomes more and more diversified since CSA-like French Amap have generalized the idea of joint initiatives between food producers and consumers, others than farmers’ markets and farm shops which are deep-rooted in French society. This seems especially true for urban and periurban areas. We observe and analyze a new model of short supply chains (SSC) which are organized as multi-actor short supply chains (MASSC). By definition, in these MASSC part of th...

  3. Estimation of differential code biases for Beidou navigation system using multi-GNSS observations: How stable are the differential satellite and receiver code biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Junchen; Song, Shuli; Zhu, Wenyao

    2016-04-01

    Differential code biases (DCBs) are important parameters that must be estimated accurately and reliably for high-precision GNSS applications. For optimal operational service performance of the Beidou navigation system (BDS), continuous monitoring and constant quality assessment of the BDS satellite DCBs are crucial. In this study, a global ionospheric model was constructed based on a dual system BDS/GPS combination. Daily BDS DCBs were estimated together with the total electron content from 23 months' multi-GNSS observations. The stability of the resulting BDS DCB estimates was analyzed in detail. It was found that over a long period, the standard deviations (STDs) for all satellite B1-B2 DCBs were within 0.3 ns (average: 0.19 ns) and for all satellite B1-B3 DCBs, the STDs were within 0.36 ns (average: 0.22 ns). For BDS receivers, the STDs were greater than for the satellites, with most values <2 ns. The DCBs of different receiver families are different. Comparison of the statistics of the short-term stability of satellite DCBs over different time intervals revealed that the difference in STD between 28- and 7-day intervals was small, with a maximum not exceeding 0.06 ns. In almost all cases, the difference in BDS satellite DCBs between two consecutive days was <0.8 ns. The main conclusion is that because of the stability of the BDS DCBs, they only require occasional estimation or calibration. Furthermore, the 30-day averaged satellite DCBs can be used reliably for the most demanding BDS applications.

  4. Nanometer-size magnetic domains and coherent magnetization reversal in a giant exchange-bias system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufour, C.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Borchers, J. A.;

    2011-01-01

    The role of magnetic domains and domain walls in exchange bias has stimulated much contemporary deliberation. Here we present compelling evidence obtained with small-angle scattering of unpolarized- and polarized-neutron beams that magnetization reversal occurs via formation of 10-100s nm......-sized magnetic domains in an exchange-biased DyFe2/YFe2 superlattice. The reversal mechanism is observed to involve rotation of magnetization in and out of the sample plane. Remarkably, the domains are arranged in a quasiperiodic manner in the plane of the sample. The length scale of domain formation is similar...

  5. Study on Power Supply System by Using CT in High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhi-Min

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In online monitoring of the transmission line, its power supply is one of the key issues. This study presents a device using special transformer which can induce power to supply the high side circuitry. The front-end of the protection device includes output-power-control circuitry, which can take output-power limited to a small range. At the back side it contains rechargeable lithium batteries. By using the reasonable control strategy, it can provide a stable output-power at the transmission line current ranging from 40 to 1500A. And in the larger current the fever of transformer is not serious. Experiments show that the power supply system has the high reliability and efficiency.

  6. Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek

    District heating (DH) systems supplied by renewable energy sources are one of the main solutions for achieving a fossil-free heating sector in Denmark by 2035. To reach this goal, the medium temperature DH used until now needs to transform to a new concept reflecting the requirement for lower heat...... loss from DH networks required by the reduced heating demand of low-energy and refurbished buildings combined with the lower supply temperatures required by using renewable heat sources. Both these needs meet in the recently developed concept of low-temperature DH designed with supply....../return temperatures as low as 50°C/25°C and highly insulated pipes with reduced inner diameter. With this design, the heat loss from the DH networks can be reduced to one quarter of the value for traditional DH designed and operated for temperatures of 80°C/40°C. However, such low temperatures bring challenges...

  7. Dynamic analysis of compact helical system power supply and designs of its upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed dynamic waveforms are compared with measured ones for the power supply of the Compact Helical System (CHS) during 1.5T operation and found to be in good agreement. On the basis of these results, designs for the upgraded power supply for 2T operation are discussed in the two cases, with and without power consumption for additional heating. In the former case, the additional heating power is supplied from the ac generator that powers the CHS coils. Electric voltages and currents in the electric circuit are shown for both cases. These designs show the possibility for 2T operation by addition of some components without changing the ratings of existing components. (author)

  8. [Systemic and organ mechanisms of the organism oxygen supply in high altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykin, M V; Karkobatov, Kh D

    2012-01-01

    Organ and systemic mechanisms of organism oxygen supply in adaptation to high altitude of the Tien Shan (3200 m above sea level) were studied in the experiments on dogs. It is shown that in the first few days in the mountains (5-7th and 15th days) oxygen supply of the body is due to the increased delivery of O2 to organs and tissues; in the process of adaptation (30 days), the efficiency of tissue utilization of O2 increases. Changes of organ blood flow in visceral and somatic organs, features of compensation of the tissue hypoxia and oxygen supply of the heart, brain, skeletal muscle in different periods of adaptation to high altitude were established. PMID:22586935

  9. Application of an industrial gas supply system to a hydrogen water chemistry installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment for a hydrogen gas supply and an oxygen gas supply was adapted to meet operating safety criteria for a hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) application at a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. The oxygen and hydrogen gases are supplied by vaporizing cryogenic liquid drawn from storage tanks. Cryogenic storage tanks consist of an inner vessel supported within an outer vessel, with insulation in the space between vessels. The supports and product lines on the inner container are small and flexible for heat transfer and thermal flexibility considerations. Cryogenic storage tank systems inherently have low natural frequencies and must be analyzed for dynamic response to site seismic criteria. Equipment modifications to meet application criteria were made without compromising performance. The guidelines for HWC installations were supplemented by a comprehensive design safety review to assess the equipment safeguards required to control potential product releases

  10. Modelling Water Supply-Billing and Collection Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  11. Lean production in improving supply chain performance through hybrid model SCOR 11.0 - system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Chairul; Fatcha Mubiena, Ghaida; Immawan, Taufiq; Hassan, Azmi

    2016-02-01

    Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) is a method to measure supply chain serving the business process framework, performance indicators and unique technologies to support communication and collaboration among supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to measure Supply Chain Management performance by using SCOR version 11.0 for production typology of MTS-MTO in Indonesian Batik Industry. This research combines SCOR's model and System Dynamics in order to predict the complex activities on batik industry. The hybrid SCOR-SD could identify the interaction among five attributes with the associated variables simultaneously. The results are obtained after the performance of lean production application is increased and the targets are achieved, even exceeding the target. For reliability attributes that associated with perfect order fulfilment started from 2015 to 2019 respectively are calculated as 80.06%, 103.53%, 105.58%, 93.76%, and 72.17%. Responsiveness attributes associated with the order fulfilment cycle time, respectively 122.45%, 149.10%, 159.26%, 131.53%, and 119.36%. Attributes associated with the total cost of service charge respectively 93.46%, 93.53%, 93.45%, 93.49, and 93.49%. Attributes associated with cash management assets to cash cycle time in a row were 160%, 153%, 146.3%, 150%, and 126.7%. The latter attribute is agility attributes associated with supply chain flexibility upside respectively 100%, 87.2%, 100%, 82%, and 82%.

  12. Comparing Supply-Side Specifications in Models of Global Agriculture and the Food System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sherman; van Meijl, Hans; Willenbockel, Dirk; Valin, Hugo; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Sands, Ronald; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Havlik, Petr; Mason d' Croz, Daniel; Tabeau, Andrzej; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Schmitz, Christoph; Dietrich, Jan P.; von Lampe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical specification of production and technical change across the partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two modeling approaches have different theoretical underpinnings concerning the scope of economic activity they capture and how they represent technology and the behavior of supply and demand in markets. This paper focuses on their different specifications of technology and supply behavior, comparing their theoretical and empirical treatments. While the models differ widely in their specifications of technology, both within and between the PE and CGE classes of models, we find that the theoretical responsiveness of supply to changes in prices can be similar, depending on parameter choices that define the behavior of supply functions over the domain of applicability defined by the common scenarios used in the AgMIP comparisons. In particular, we compare the theoretical specification of supply in CGE models with neoclassical production functions and PE models that focus on land and crop yields in agriculture. In practice, however, comparability of results given parameter choices is an empirical question, and the models differ in their sensitivity to variations in specification. To illustrate the issues, sensitivity analysis is done with one global CGE model, MAGNET, to indicate how the results vary with different specification of technical change, and how they compare with the results from PE models.

  13. Removing bias due to finite measurement of dynamic systems: case study on P2P systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benamara, Lamia

    2011-01-01

    Mesurer avec pr\\'ecision la dynamique des graphes de terrain est une t\\^ache difficile, car les propri\\'et\\'es observ\\'ees peuvent \\^etre biais\\'ees pour diff\\'erentes raisons, en particulier le fait que la p\\'eriode de mesure soit finie. Dans ce papier, nous introduisons une m\\'ethodologie g\\'en\\'erale qui nous permet de savoir si la fen\\^etre d'observation est suffisamment longue pour caract\\'eriser une propri\\'et\\'e donn\\'ee dans n'importe quel syst\\`eme dynamique. Nous appliquons cette m\\'ethodologie \\`a l'\\'etude des dur\\'ees de sessions et des dur\\'ees de vie des fichiers sur deux jeux de donn\\'ees P2P. Nous montrons que le comportement des propri\\'et\\'es est diff\\'erent : pour les dur\\'ees de sessions, notre m\\'ethodologie nous permet de caract\\'eriser avec pr\\'ecision la forme de leur distribution. Par contre, pour les dur\\'ees de vie des fichiers, nous montrons que cette propri\\'et\\'e ne peut pas \\^etre caract\\'eris\\'ee, soit parce qu'elle n'est pas stationnaire, soit parce que la dur\\'ee de notre me...

  14. A Power-Efficient Wireless System With Adaptive Supply Control for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-09-01

    A power-efficient wireless stimulating system for a head-mounted deep brain stimulator (DBS) is presented. A new adaptive rectifier generates a variable DC supply voltage from a constant AC power carrier utilizing phase control feedback, while achieving high AC-DC power conversion efficiency (PCE) through active synchronous switching. A current-controlled stimulator adopts closed-loop supply control to automatically adjust the stimulation compliance voltage by detecting stimulation site potentials through a voltage readout channel, and improve the stimulation efficiency. The stimulator also utilizes closed-loop active charge balancing to maintain the residual charge at each site within a safe limit, while receiving the stimulation parameters wirelessly from the amplitude-shift-keyed power carrier. A 4-ch wireless stimulating system prototype was fabricated in a 0.5-μm 3M2P standard CMOS process, occupying 2.25 mm². With 5 V peak AC input at 2 MHz, the adaptive rectifier provides an adjustable DC output between 2.5 V and 4.6 V at 2.8 mA loading, resulting in measured PCE of 72 ~ 87%. The adaptive supply control increases the stimulation efficiency up to 30% higher than a fixed supply voltage to 58 ~ 68%. The prototype wireless stimulating system was verified in vitro. PMID:24678126

  15. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  16. Analysis of three-phase power-supply systems using computer-aided design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major concern of every designer of large, three-phase power-supply systems is the protection of system components from overvoltage transients. At present, three computer-aided circuit design programs are available in the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) National Computer Center that can be used to analyze three-phase power systems: MINI SCEPTRE, SPICE I, and SPICE II. These programs have been used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to analyze the operation of a 200-kV dc, 20-A acceleration power supply for the High Voltage Test Stand. Various overvoltage conditions are simulated and the effectiveness of system protective devices is observed. The simulated overvoltage conditions include such things as circuit breaker openings, pulsed loading, and commutation voltage surges in the rectifiers. These examples are used to illustrate the use of the computer-aided, circuit-design programs discussed in this paper

  17. Conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turski Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of reducing the demand for nonrenewable primary energy for buildings using a new conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy. Moreover, the aim of this study is to shorten the payback time of investment in the standard adsorption cooling system through its integration with the heating system. Research has been carried out for an energy-efficient medium-sized single-family building with a floor area of 140 m2 and a heat load of 4.2 kW and cold load of 4.41 kW. It has been shown that the use of an adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy decreased the demand for nonrenewable primary energy by about 66% compared to the standard building that meets the current requirements.

  18. Design of Instantaneous High Power Supply System with power distribution management for portable military devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kiho; Kwak, Dongmin; Yoon, Joohong

    2015-08-01

    A design of an Instantaneous High Power Supply System (IHPSS) with a power distribution management (PDM) for portable military devices is newly addressed. The system includes a power board and a hybrid battery that can not only supply instantaneous high power but also maintain stable operation at critical low temperature (-30 °C). The power leakage and battery overcharge are effectively prevented by the optimal PDM. The performance of the proposed system under the required pulse loads and the operating conditions of a Korean Advanced Combat Rifle employed in the battlefield is modeled with simulations and verified experimentally. The system with the IHPSS charged the fuse setter with 1.7 times higher voltage (8.6 V) than the one without (5.4 V) under the pulse discharging rate (1 A at 0.5 duty, 1 ms) for 500 ms.

  19. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Helena M. B.; Cledir Santos; Paterson, R. Russell M.; Norma B. Gusmão; Nelson Lima

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife—Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration....

  1. Optimal Expansion and Reconstruction of Heat Supply Systems: Methodology and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Stennikov; T. B. Oshchepkova; N. V. Stennikov

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of optimal expansion and reconstruction of heat supply systems, which includes a set of general and relatively specific problems. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to their solving is required to obtain a technically admissible and economically sound result. Solving the problem suggests search for effective directions in expansion of a system in terms of optimal allocation of new heat sources, their type, output, operating area; construction of new heat network...

  2. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jooyoung Park; Gyo-Bum Chung; Jungdong Lim; Dongsu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs) has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP). ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stoc...

  3. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Time-Varying OFDMA Relay Systems with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Shen, Yanyan; Han, Qiaoni; Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy efficient resource allocation for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) relay systems, where the system is supplied by the conventional utility grid and a renewable energy generator equipped with a storage device. The optimal usage of radio resource depends on the characteristics of the renewable energy generation and the mobile traffic, which exhibit both temporal and spatial diversities. Lyapunov optimization method is used to decompose the...

  4. Devices for on-site maintenance allows an increased availability of supplies of orbital welding systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now, energy supplies of orbital welding systems had to be shipped for maintenance. As described in this article, technological advances like portable calibration units allow the owners of such systems to perform themselves maintenance operations. On-site calibration results in a reduction of costs and off-site maintenance, therefore in an increased availability. The article describes the main functions of these portable calibration units which are used to calibrate welding critical variables

  5. The Systems Approach to Analysing Supply Chains and Improving their Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Edward

    1999-01-01

    One critical weakness of traditional company-wide business improvement models, which are often based on systems thinking, is that the focus is largely on a company’s internal operations and business processes. As a result of the increasingly complex global supply chains of which companies are part, improving ones own business is no guarantee of success in today’s business environment. This paper describes an extension of traditional systems approaches beyond the operations of an individual ...

  6. Characterization of components of water supply systems from GPR images and tools of intelligent data analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Cabrera, David

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Over time, due to multiple operational and maintenance activities, the networks of water supply systems (WSSs) undergo interventions, modifications or even are closed. In many cases, these activities are not properly registered. Knowledge of the paths and characteristics (status and age, etc.) of the WSS pipes is obviously necessary for efficient and dynamic management of such systems. This problem is greatly augmented by considering the detection and control of leaks. Access to reliable...

  7. Application of Hybrid-Electric Power Supply System in Fishing Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Meana D.; Gutiérrez C.

    2012-01-01

    In a clear commitment for sustainability in the fisheries sector, Regional Administration for Economy and Industry of Xunta de Galicia and EnergyLab Technology Centre signed a cooperation agreement with the goal of performing a demonstration project based on the application of hybrid power supply systems in a fishing vessel. Such a project aims to analyze the feasibility of implementing hybridelectric powertrain systems in the Galician coastal fleet. The final purpose is the implementation of...

  8. Power supply unit for the microwave system of the Microtron MT-25 electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3 x 200 V, 400 Hz power supply unit for the microwave system of the Microtron MT-25 electron accelerator was designed and built on the basis of the SGS-30B generator. An electronic circuit holds up the output voltage very accurately, independently of the load magnitude. The system has all the necessary protection and remote control features. Performance testing gave evidence that the parameters of the facility are satisfactory

  9. INCORPORATING THE RURAL AREAS’ PARTICULARITIES IN THE WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Orest Valentin TROFIN; Cristina BORCA; Alina CIOMOȘ

    2016-01-01

    The existence of the safe water supply and sewerage systems, especially in the rural areas of Romania, are mandatory for the insurance of the public health. In this context, a series of Romanian regional water and sewerage services suppliers developed Total Quality Management Systems, starting with the implementation of multiple ISO standards and in response to the need for answering to high requirements, both for constant development / modernization of the infrastructure and expansions to ne...

  10. An Incentive System for Salmonella Control in the Pork Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Ge B.C.; King, Robert P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic principal-agent analysis of an incentive system for Salmonella control in the pork supply chain. The incentive system determines quality premiums to the producer, testing frequencies for hogs delivered, as well as charges to the producer for testing and penalties. Using cost estimates and technical parameters, we evaluate the cost effectiveness of plant and farm control measures and trade-offs between prevalence reduction and related costs and gains. We also asse...

  11. Control of water supply and specific nutrient application in closed growing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gieling, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:Tichelmann layout, constant drain flow, constant drain concentration, mass-flow, diffusion flow, sensor, Isfet, Chemfet, closed growing system, robust control, loopshaping, SimulinkÒ, MIMO controller, SISO controller, simplex routine, simplex matrix.Plants in modern greenhouses receive water and nutrients from a diluter of chemical solutes. Supply lines of a trickle irrigation system dispense the nutrient solution by means of thin capillary hoses, to each individual plant. Dependent ...

  12. Management of hybrid energy supply systems in buildings using mixed-integer model predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Management of a heating supply system for buildings with storage tank is optimized. • Mixed-integer model predictive controller for hybrid energy supply is proposed. • Efficient management of a stratified storage tank is provided. • Unit commitment problem with switching heat pump is solved for heat load prediction. • Excellent and robust performance is guaranteed by extensive analysis of parameters. - Abstract: In this paper a mixed-integer model predictive controller for hybrid energy supply systems in buildings is presented. This approach is based on a hierarchical building control concept where the energy supply level is coupled to the energy consumption level only by the heat load. The supply level is characterized by non-linear dynamics due to a stratified water storage tank and a switched heat pump with minimum on/off times. The mixed-integer model predictive controller optimizes the unit commitment problem at minimum costs while satisfying the consumption level’s predicted heat load. The hybrid system is formulated as a piecewise affine model comprising continuous and discrete system inputs. Moreover, the proposed controller is able to manage the stratified storage tank including switching sequences of the heat pump with respect to energy price forecasts. The effectiveness of this approach is shown by a comparison to a model predictive controller with an a priori fixed operation mode profile, where the heat pump is only operating at night, and discussing the effect of the variation of the stratified storage tank size. The proposed concept is able to flexibly manage all sizes of stratified storage tanks with better performance than the reference control strategy, which is only effective for larger tanks. Additionally, a robustness analyses demonstrates that the mixed-integer model predictive controller can handle errors in the heat load prediction from the consumption level. Both analyses show promising results for the practical use

  13. Use of the water supply system of special purpose in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available A water supply system of a special purpose is a necessary element in hot and cold shops of the industrial enterprises, office buildings and the medical centers, and also other rooms. The water supply systems of a special purpose, which give subsalty, sparkling water and water sated with oxygen, allow people to prevent, for example, strong dehydration of an organism, which is possible at big losses of water, especially in case of the people working in hot shops. Various elements of special drinking water supply system are given in the article, their main functions are described. Different types of the water folding devices pumping water to consumers, one of which is drinking fountain, are considered. Possible systems of water filtration, which can be established for quality improvement, are transferred. Among them the great role is played by membrane technologies and the return osmosis, which is widely applied now. Today there is a possibility of construction, both the centralized water supply system of a special purpose, and local. Besides, the least is a more preferable option taking into account capital expenditure for construction and operation, and also it can lead to solid resource-saving as a result of the electric energy saving going for water heating in heaters. Automatic machines of drinking water for a local water supply system of a special purpose have indisputable advantages. They are capable to carry out several functions at the same time, and also to distribute water to consumers. It allows placing all the necessary equipment, which will be well in harmony with the environment in their small and compact case, and will fit into any difficult interior of the room. Also they are very easily connected to the systems of an internal water supply system by means of a propylene tube that allows to change their sposition in space and to transfer to any place of the room with fast installation of equipment. Also the ecological effect was

  14. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  15. Optimal air-supply mode of hybrid system with radiant cooling and dedicated outdoor air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁研; 田喆; 朱能

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid system with radiant cooling and dedicated outdoor air not only possesses high energy efficiency, but also creates a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. Indoor air quality will be improved by the dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and indoor thermal comfort can be enhanced by the radiant cooling system (RCS). The optimal air-supply mode of the hybrid system and the corresponding design approach were investigated. A full-scale experimental chamber with various air outlets and the ceiling radiant cooling panels (CRCP) was designed and established. The performances of different air-supply modes along with CRCPs were analyzed by multi-index evaluations. Preliminary investigations were also conducted on the humidity stratification and the control effect of different airflow modes to prevent condensation on CRCP. The overhead supply air is recommended as the best combination mode for the hybrid system after comprehensive comparison of the experiment results. The optimal proportion of CRCP accounting for the total cooling capacities in accord with specific cooling loads is found, which may provide valuable reference for the design and operation of the hybrid system.

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT-PUMPS APPLICATION IN LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chepurnoy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The  article  considers  comparative  operation-efficiency  of  the  low-temperature  heatsupply systems with heat pumping plants (HPP and with hot-water boilers. The paper shows that for energy evaluation of the alternative heat-supply systems effectiveness one cannot employ the transformation ratio (heating coefficient and the fuel heat-utilization factor in the HPP. Nonetheless the transformation ratio enters the formulae designating the efficiency of HPP operation. The authors obtain a generalized formula for ascertainment of transformation ratio and suggest evaluating the operation efficiency of the heat-supply systems by means of indicators specifying relative gain in the exergy-efficiency factor, fuel savings and saving expenditures connected with fuel and utilities. They attain formulae and build nomographic charts for those indicators ascertainment. The operation-efficiency comparative analysis of the low-temperature heat supply systems with HPP and with hot-water boilers shows that the HPP systems increase their effectiveness with transformation ratio, fuel price increase as well as with low electric-energy prices. The article specifies that with fuel low prices, the transformation-ratios limiting values with which the HPP operation-efficacy gains, grow. Energy-efficiency increase in the HPP does not always guaranty their economic effectiveness. These findings are true only for the heating systems. The hot water-supply systems will require the HPP condenser water additional heating to the assumed temperature from another thermal source, which reduces the effectiveness of the heat pump plants utilizing.

  17. Europe's oil defences. An analysis of Europe's oil supply vulnerability and its emergency oil stockholding systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The circumstances of world oil markets at the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2003 could be characterised by two words: uncertainty and turmoil. The general strike in Venezuela lasting until January 2003 and the prospect of yet another armed conflict in the Persian Gulf region made market participants nervous about adequate physical availability of oil supplies. These events also amplified already existing concerns about economic vulnerability with respect to crude oil among European policy-makers. Concerns include fears of structurally higher price levels as well as of stronger price volatility in oil markets. Against this backdrop the paper reviews the EU's vulnerability to supply disruptions and price shocks for crude oil and oil products, as well as the attempts to address this concern. Building upon an analysis of the two frameworks for responding to oil supply disruptions that apply to the 15 EU Member States, that is the International Energy Agency (IEA) framework, including two different mechanisms; and the system designed by the European Community, the paper examines the proposals of the European Commission to amend and strengthen the current EU system. The analysis provided highlights the advantages of broad international cooperation in this field and leads to some doubts whether the proposed increases in stock levels and use of stocks to influence price levels are effective and efficient measures to increase the EU's security of oil supplies

  18. An RFID-Based Tracing and Tracking System for the Fresh Vegetables Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mainetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative gapless traceability system able to improve the main business processes of the fresh vegetables supply chain. The performed analysis highlighted some critical aspects in the management of the whole supply chain, from the land to the table of the end consumer, and allowed us to reengineer the most important processes. In particular, the first steps of the supply chain, which include cultivation in greenhouses and manufacturing of packaged vegetables, were analyzed. The re-engineered model was designed by exploiting the potentialities derived from the combined use of innovative Radio Frequency technologies, such as RFID and NFC, and important international standards, such as EPCglobal. The proposed tracing and tracking system allows the end consumer to know the complete history of the purchased product. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the potential benefits of the reengineered processes in a real supply chain, a pilot project was implemented in an Italian food company, which produces ready-to-eat vegetables, known as IV gamma products. Finally, some important metrics have been chosen to carry out the analysis of the potential benefits derived from the use of the re-engineered model.

  19. A design of electric power supply system for gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability of electrical power system in Irradiator system is absolutely necessary during the life cycle. Electrical energy is used as the main supporting element for both Irradiator operation of mechanical system, lighting, as well as for instrumentation and control systems. The reliability of electrical power system in the system can be achieved by paying attention Irradiator safety, simplicity of operation, ease of maintenance and possible future development. Distribution network of the most commonly used is the Radial network system, for the simple and in accordance with the criteria demanded by a distribution system. In addition to the network system, to get the reliability of electric power supply system is the selection of equipment/materials that meet the standards, and the installation of which provide facilities for maintenance and repairs. (author)

  20. Method for calculating optimal parameters of long-distance heat supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, R.Z.; Dolgina, V.D.

    1985-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the optimal parameters of long-distance twin-pipe heat supply systems. The optimal water temperature for long-distance twin-pipe heat supply systems is found to be less than 126/sup 0/C when the distance to the user is in the 10-30 km range, and 200/sup 0/C for distances of 50 km or more. The findings indicate that the ratio of the calculated heat output of the plant and the heat load of the region in which the heat is consumed is 0.8 for systems in which the water is stored daily in order to cover electrical load peaks.