WorldWideScience

Sample records for bi-directional relay network

  1. On Training Bi-directional Neural Network Language Model with Noise Contrastive Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    He, Tianxing; Zhang, Yu; Droppo, Jasha; Yu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We propose to train bi-directional neural network language model(NNLM) with noise contrastive estimation(NCE). Experiments are conducted on a rescore task on the PTB data set. It is shown that NCE-trained bi-directional NNLM outperformed the one trained by conventional maximum likelihood training. But still(regretfully), it did not out-perform the baseline uni-directional NNLM.

  2. Automatic Detection of Cortical Arousals in Sleep using Bi-direction LSTM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Kjaer, A.; Olesen, Alexander Neergaard; Jespersen, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    ) and chin electromyography (EMG) to compute a probability of arousals through a bi-directional long short-term memory neural network. The study used a dataset of 233 nocturnal PSGs of population-based samples from Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) and 30 nocturnal PSGs of clinical samples from the Stanford Sleep...

  3. Bi-directional LSTM Recurrent Neural Network for Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yushi; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural network(RNN) has been broadly applied to natural language processing(NLP) problems. This kind of neural network is designed for modeling sequential data and has been testified to be quite efficient in sequential tagging tasks. In this paper, we propose to use bi-directional RNN with long short-term memory(LSTM) units for Chinese word segmentation, which is a crucial preprocess task for modeling Chinese sentences and articles. Classical methods focus on designing and combining...

  4. Learning to Monitor Machine Health with Convolutional Bi-Directional LSTM Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Yan, Ruqiang; Wang, Jinjiang; Mao, Kezhi

    2017-01-30

    In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression models directly. Therefore, previous work focuses on feature extraction/fusion methods requiring expensive human labor and high quality expert knowledge. With the development of deep learning methods in the last few years, which redefine representation learning from raw data, a deep neural network structure named Convolutional Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory networks (CBLSTM) has been designed here to address raw sensory data. CBLSTM firstly uses CNN to extract local features that are robust and informative from the sequential input. Then, bi-directional LSTM is introduced to encode temporal information. Long Short-Term Memory networks(LSTMs) are able to capture long-term dependencies and model sequential data, and the bi-directional structure enables the capture of past and future contexts. Stacked, fully-connected layers and the linear regression layer are built on top of bi-directional LSTMs to predict the target value. Here, a real-life tool wear test is introduced, and our proposed CBLSTM is able to predict the actual tool wear based on raw sensory data. The experimental results have shown that our model is able to outperform several state-of-the-art baseline methods.

  5. Learning to Monitor Machine Health with Convolutional Bi-Directional LSTM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression models directly. Therefore, previous work focuses on feature extraction/fusion methods requiring expensive human labor and high quality expert knowledge. With the development of deep learning methods in the last few years, which redefine representation learning from raw data, a deep neural network structure named Convolutional Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory networks (CBLSTM has been designed here to address raw sensory data. CBLSTM firstly uses CNN to extract local features that are robust and informative from the sequential input. Then, bi-directional LSTM is introduced to encode temporal information. Long Short-Term Memory networks(LSTMs are able to capture long-term dependencies and model sequential data, and the bi-directional structure enables the capture of past and future contexts. Stacked, fully-connected layers and the linear regression layer are built on top of bi-directional LSTMs to predict the target value. Here, a real-life tool wear test is introduced, and our proposed CBLSTM is able to predict the actual tool wear based on raw sensory data. The experimental results have shown that our model is able to outperform several state-of-the-art baseline methods.

  6. Myths on Bi-direction Communication of Web 2.0 Based Social Networks: Is Social Network Truly Interactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    more and more social interactions are happening on the on-line. Especially recent uptake of the social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook (http...Smart phones • Live updates within social networks • Facebook & Twitters Solution: WebMon for Risk Management Need for New WebMon for Social Networks ...Title: Myths on bi-direction communication of Web 2.0 based social networks : Is social network truly interactive

  7. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  8. Relay Selection for Cooperative Relaying in Wireless Energy Harvesting Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiyan; Wang, Fei; Li, Songsong; Jiang, Fengjiao; Cao, Lijie

    2018-01-01

    Energy harvesting from the surroundings is a promising solution to provide energy supply and extend the life of wireless sensor networks. Recently, energy harvesting has been shown as an attractive solution to prolong the operation of cooperative networks. In this paper, we propose a relay selection scheme to optimize the amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative transmission in wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. The harvesting energy and channel conditions are considered to select the optimal relay as cooperative relay to minimize the outage probability of the system. Simulation results show that our proposed relay selection scheme achieves better outage performance than other strategies.

  9. Opportunistic Relay Selection in Multicast Relay Networks using Compressive Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. However, for relay selection algorithms to make a selection decision, channel state information (CSI) from all cooperating relays is usually required at a central node. This requirement poses two important challenges. Firstly, CSI acquisition generates a great deal of feedback overhead (air-time) that could result in significant transmission delays. Secondly, the fed back channel information is usually corrupted by additive noise. This could lead to transmission outages if the central node selects the set of cooperating relays based on inaccurate feedback information. In this paper, we introduce a limited feedback relay selection algorithm for a multicast relay network. The proposed algorithm exploits the theory of compressive sensing to first obtain the identity of the “strong” relays with limited feedback. Following that, the CSI of the selected relays is estimated using linear minimum mean square error estimation. To minimize the effect of noise on the fed back CSI, we introduce a back-off strategy that optimally backs-off on the noisy estimated CSI. For a fixed group size, we provide closed form expressions for the scaling law of the maximum equivalent SNR for both Decode and Forward (DF) and Amplify and Forward (AF) cases. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm drastically reduces the feedback air-time and achieves a rate close to that obtained by selection algorithms with dedicated error-free feedback channels.

  10. Handover Framework for Relay Enhanced LTE Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Raaf, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for future releases of UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Introducing relaying is expected to increase the coverage and capacity of LTE networks. In order to enable relaying, the architecture, protocol and radio resource management procedures...... of LTE, such as handover, have to be modified. A user can be handed over not only between two base stations, but also between relays and base stations, and between two relays. With the introduction of relaying, there is a need for a new procedure to hand over a relay and all its associated users...... to another base station, allowing a flexible and dynamic relay deployment. In this paper, we extend the LTE release 8 handover mechanisms so that it can accommodate these new handover functionalities in a flexible manner....

  11. An analysis of periodic solutions of bi-directional associative memory networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Jiang Qiuhao

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, several sufficient conditions are derived for the existence and uniqueness of periodic oscillatory solution for bi-directional associative memory (BAM) networks with time-varying delays by employing a new Lyapunov functional and an elementary inequality, and all other solutions of the BAM networks converge exponentially to the unique periodic solution. These criteria are presented in terms of system parameters and have important leading significance in the design and applications of periodic neural circuits for delayed BAM. As an illustration, two numerical examples are worked out using the results obtained

  12. Dynamics of a minimal consumer network with bi-directional influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaterinchuk, Ekaterina; Jungeilges, Jochen; Ryazanova, Tatyana; Sushko, Iryna

    2018-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a model of interdependent consumer behavior defined by a family of two-dimensional noninvertible maps. This family belongs to a class of coupled logistic maps with different nonlinearity parameters and coupling terms that depend on one variable only. In our companion paper we considered the case of independent consumers as well as the case of uni-directionally connected consumers. The present paper aims at describing the dynamics in the case of a bi-directional connection. In particular, we investigate the bifurcation structure of the parameter plane associated with the strength of coupling between the consumers, focusing on the mechanisms of qualitative transformations of coexisting attractors and their basins of attraction.

  13. A genetic algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks where primary users and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. More specifically, cooperative relays using Amplifyand- Forward

  14. Reactive relay selection in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Hasna, Mazen Omar

    2012-01-01

    Best relay selection is a bandwidth efficient technique for multiple relay environments without compromising the system performance. The problem of relay selection is more challenging in underlay cognitive networks due to strict interference

  15. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single

  16. Delay-dependent exponential stability analysis of bi-directional associative memory neural networks with time delay: an LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Rong

    2005-01-01

    For bi-directional associative memory (BAM) neural networks (NNs) with different constant or time-varying delays, the problems of determining the exponential stability and estimating the exponential convergence rate are investigated in this paper. An approach combining the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) is taken to study the problems, which provide bounds on the interconnection matrix and the activation functions, so as to guarantee the system's exponential stability. Some criteria for the exponential stability, which give information on the delay-dependent property, are derived. The results obtained in this paper provide one more set of easily verified guidelines for determining the exponential stability of delayed BAM (DBAM) neural networks, which are less conservative and less restrictive than the ones reported so far in the literature. Some typical examples are presented to show the application of the criteria obtained in this paper

  17. An RSS based location estimation technique for cognitive relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based location estimation method is proposed for a cooperative wireless relay network where the relay is a cognitive radio. We propose a method for the considered cognitive relay network to determine

  18. Asymmetric Modulation Gains in Network Coded Relay Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Wireless relays have usually been considered in two ways. On the one hand, a physical layer approach focused on per-packet reliability and involving the relay on each packet transmission. On the other, recent approaches have relied on the judicious activation of the relay at the network level to ...

  19. Full-Duplex Relay Selection in Cognitive Underlay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the performance of full-duplex relay selection (FDRS) in spectrum-sharing networks. Contrary to half-duplex relaying, full-duplex relaying (FDR) enables simultaneous listening/forwarding at the secondary relay(s), thereby

  20. Relay Precoder Optimization in MIMO-Relay Networks With Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Chockalingam, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider robust joint designs of relay precoder and destination receive filters in a nonregenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay network. The network consists of multiple source-destination node pairs assisted by a

  1. Bi-directional astrocytic regulation of neuronal activity within a network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Yu Gordleeva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a tripartite synapse holds that astrocytes can affect both the pre- and postsynaptic compartments through the Ca2+-dependent release of gliotransmitters. Because astrocytic Ca2+ transients usually last for a few seconds, we assumed that astrocytic regulation of synaptic transmission may also occur on the scale of seconds. Here, we considered the basic physiological functions of tripartite synapses and investigated astrocytic regulation at the level of neural network activity. The firing dynamics of individual neurons in a spontaneous firing network was described by the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The neurons received excitatory synaptic input driven by the Poisson spike train with variable frequency. The mean field concentration of the released neurotransmitter was used to describe the presynaptic dynamics. The amplitudes of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (PSCs obeyed the gamma distribution law. In our model, astrocytes depressed the presynaptic release and enhanced the postsynaptic currents. As a result, low frequency synaptic input was suppressed while high frequency input was amplified. The analysis of the neuron spiking frequency as an indicator of network activity revealed that tripartite synaptic transmission dramatically changed the local network operation compared to bipartite synapses. Specifically, the astrocytes supported homeostatic regulation of the network activity by increasing or decreasing firing of the neurons. Thus, the astrocyte activation may modulate a transition of neural network into bistable regime of activity with two stable firing levels and spontaneous transitions between them.

  2. Cognitive Relay Networks: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is an emerging technology to deal with the scarcity and requirement of radio spectrum by dynamically assigning spectrum to unlicensed user . This revolutionary technology shifts the paradigm in the wireless system design by all owing unlicensed user the ability to sense, adapt and share the dynamic spectrum. Cognitive radio technology have been applied to different networks and applications ranging from wireless to public saf ety, smart grid, medical, rela y and cellular applications to increase the throughput and spectrum efficiency of the network. Among these applications, cognitive relay networks is one of the application where cognitive radio technology has been applied. Cognitiv e rela y network increases the network throughput by reducing the complete pa th loss and also by ensuring cooper ation among secondary users and cooperation among primary and secondary users. In this paper , our aim is to provide a survey on cognitive relay network. We also provide a detailed review on existing schemes in cognitive relay networks on the basis of relaying protocol, relay cooperation and channel model.

  3. Upgrade of hybrid fibre coax networks towards bi-directional access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoe, G.D.; Wolters, R.P.C.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Prati, G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe an upgrade scenario for Hybrid Fibre Coax (HFC) CATV Networks towards hi-directional access. The communication system described has been newly designed, and is based on the use of Direct Sequence- Code Division Multiple-Access (DS-CDMA). Due to its spread-spectrum

  4. Threshold-Based Relay Selection for Detect-and-Forward Relaying in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yijia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies two-hop cooperative demodulate-and-forward relaying using multiple relays in wireless networks. A threshold based relay selection scheme is considered, in which the reliable relays are determined by comparing source-relay SNR to a threshold, and one of the reliable relays is selected by the destination based on relay-destination SNR. The exact bit error rate of this scheme is derived, and a simple threshold function is proposed. It is shown that the network achieves full diversity order ( under the proposed threshold, where is the number of relays in the network. Unlike some other full diversity achieving protocols in the literature, the requirement that the instantaneous/average SNRs of the source-relay links be known at the destination is eliminated using the appropriate SNR threshold.

  5. Generalized instantly decodable network coding for relay-assisted networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elmahdy, Adel M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of minimizing the frame completion delay for Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) in relay-assisted wireless multicast networks. We first propose a packet recovery algorithm in the single relay topology which employs generalized IDNC instead of strict IDNC previously proposed in the literature for the same relay-assisted topology. This use of generalized IDNC is supported by showing that it is a super-set of the strict IDNC scheme, and thus can generate coding combinations that are at least as efficient as strict IDNC in reducing the average completion delay. We then extend our study to the multiple relay topology and propose a joint generalized IDNC and relay selection algorithm. This proposed algorithm benefits from the reception diversity of the multiple relays to further reduce the average completion delay in the network. Simulation results show that our proposed solutions achieve much better performance compared to previous solutions in the literature. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Çelebi, Hasari Burak

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  7. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  8. Counterfactual quantum cryptography network with untrusted relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Jiang, Dong; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Counterfactual quantum cryptography allows two remote parties to share a secret key even though a physical particle is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. In order to extend the scope of counterfactual quantum cryptography, we use an untrusted relay to construct a multi-user network. The implementation issues are discussed to show that the scheme can be realized with current technologies. We also prove the practical security advantages of the scheme by eliminating the probability that an eavesdropper can directly access the signal or an untrusted relay can perform false operations.

  9. Joint source and relay optimization for interference MIMO relay networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Muhammad R. A.; Wong, Kai-Kit

    2017-12-01

    This paper considers multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication in multi-cellular (interference) systems in which MIMO source-destination pairs communicate simultaneously. It is assumed that due to severe attenuation and/or shadowing effects, communication links can be established only with the aid of a relay node. The aim is to minimize the maximal mean-square-error (MSE) among all the receiving nodes under constrained source and relay transmit powers. Both one- and two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying mechanisms are considered. Since the exactly optimal solution for this practically appealing problem is intractable, we first propose optimizing the source, relay, and receiver matrices in an alternating fashion. Then we contrive a simplified semidefinite programming (SDP) solution based on the error covariance matrix decomposition technique, avoiding the high complexity of the iterative process. Numerical results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  10. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-05-08

    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection that maximize the sum rate of the secondary network without degrading the quality of service of the primary network by respecting a tolerated interference threshold were formulated. Single relay selection and optimal power allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using decode-and-forward and amplify-and-forward protocols were studied. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods were used to find the optimal power allocation. The transmission process to exchange two different messages between two transceivers for two-way relaying technique takes place in two time slots. In the first slot, the transceivers transmit their signals simultaneously to the relay. Then, during the second slot the relay broadcasts its signal to the terminals. Moreover, improvement of both spectral and energy efficiency can be achieved compared with the one-way relaying technique. As an extension, a multiple relay selection for both one-way and two-way relaying under cognitive radio scenario using amplify-and-forward were discussed. A strong optimization tool based on genetic and iterative algorithms was employed to solve the 
formulated optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection, where discrete relay power levels were considered. Simulation results show that the practical and low-complexity heuristic approaches achieve almost the same performance of the optimal relay selection schemes either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity.

  11. Dynamic Relaying in 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Phan Vinh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for LTE-Advanced networks. In order to enable a flexible and reliable relaying support, the currently adopted architectural structure of LTE networks has to be modified. In this paper, we extend the LTE architecture to enable dynamic relaying, while maintaining backward compatibility with LTE Release 8 user equipments, and without limiting the flexibility and reliability expected from relaying. With dynamic relaying, relays can be associated with base stations on a need basis rather than in a fixed manner which is based only on initial radio planning. Proposals are also given on how to further improve a relay enhanced LTE network by enabling multiple interfaces between the relay nodes and their controlling base stations, which can possibly be based on technologies different from LTE, so that load balancing can be realized. This load balancing can be either between different base stations or even between different networks.

  12. Dynamic Relaying in 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Redana, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for LTE-Advanced networks. In order to enable a flexible and reliable relaying support, the currently adopted architectural structure of LTE networks has to be modified. In this paper, we extend the LTE architecture to enable dynamic relaying, while...... maintaining backward compatibility with LTE Release 8 user equipments, and without limiting the flexibility and reliability expected from relaying.With dynamic relaying, relays can be associated with base stations on a need basis rather than in a fixed manner which is based only on initial radio planning....... Proposals are also given on how to further improve a relay enhanced LTE network by enabling multiple interfaces between the relay nodes and their controlling base stations, which can possibly be based on technologies different from LTE, so that load balancing can be realized. This load balancing can...

  13. 47 CFR 11.20 - State Relay Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State Relay Network. 11.20 Section 11.20... Network. This network is composed of State Relay (SR) sources, leased common carrier communications facilities or any other available communication facilities. The network distributes State EAS messages...

  14. Partial relay selection in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Hasna, Mazen Omar; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    In a communication system with multiple cooperative relays, selecting the best relay utilizes the available spectrum more efficiently. However, selective relaying poses a different problem in underlay cognitive networks compared to the traditional cooperative networks due to interference thresholds to the primary users. In most cases, a best relay is the one which provides the maximum end-to-end signal to noise ratio (SNR). This approach needs plenty of instantaneous channel state information (CSI). The CSI burden could be reduced by partial relay selection. In this paper, a partial relay selection scheme is presented and analyzed for an underlay cognitive network with fixed gain relays operating in the vicinity of a primary user. The system model is adopted in a way that each node needs minimal CSI to perform its task. The best relay is chosen on the basis of maximum source to relay link SNR which then forwards the message to the destination. We derive closed form expressions for the received SNR distributions, system outage, probability of bit error and average channel capacity of the system. The derived results are confirmed through simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Partial relay selection in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-05-01

    In a communication system with multiple cooperative relays, selecting the best relay utilizes the available spectrum more efficiently. However, selective relaying poses a different problem in underlay cognitive networks compared to the traditional cooperative networks due to interference thresholds to the primary users. In most cases, a best relay is the one which provides the maximum end-to-end signal to noise ratio (SNR). This approach needs plenty of instantaneous channel state information (CSI). The CSI burden could be reduced by partial relay selection. In this paper, a partial relay selection scheme is presented and analyzed for an underlay cognitive network with fixed gain relays operating in the vicinity of a primary user. The system model is adopted in a way that each node needs minimal CSI to perform its task. The best relay is chosen on the basis of maximum source to relay link SNR which then forwards the message to the destination. We derive closed form expressions for the received SNR distributions, system outage, probability of bit error and average channel capacity of the system. The derived results are confirmed through simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Optimal relay selection and power allocation for cognitive two-way relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an optimal scheme for power allocation and relay selection in a cognitive radio network where a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relays

  17. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Outage analysis for underlay cognitive networks using incremental regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative relay technology has recently been introduced into cognitive radio (CR) networks to enhance the network capacity, scalability, and reliability of end-to-end communication. In this paper, we investigate an underlay cognitive network where

  19. Reactive relay selection in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-06-01

    Best relay selection is a bandwidth efficient technique for multiple relay environments without compromising the system performance. The problem of relay selection is more challenging in underlay cognitive networks due to strict interference constraints to the primary users. Generally, relay selection is done on the basis of maximum end-to-end signal to noise ratio (SNR). However, it requires large amounts of channel state information (CSI) at different network nodes. In this paper, we present and analyze a reactive relay selection scheme in underlay cognitive networks where the relays are operating with fixed gains near a primary user. The system model minimizes the amount of CSI required at different nodes and the destination selects the best relay on the basis of maximum relay to destination SNR. We derive close form expressions for the received SNR statistics, outage probability, bit error probability and average channel capacity of the system. Simulation results are also presented to confirm the validity of the derived expressions. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Optimized Power Allocation and Relay Location Selection in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An incremental selection hybrid decode-amplify forward (ISHDAF scheme for the two-hop single relay systems and a relay selection strategy based on the hybrid decode-amplify-and-forward (HDAF scheme for the multirelay systems are proposed along with an optimized power allocation for the Internet of Thing (IoT. Given total power as the constraint and outage probability as an objective function, the proposed scheme possesses good power efficiency better than the equal power allocation. By the ISHDAF scheme and HDAF relay selection strategy, an optimized power allocation for both the source and relay nodes is obtained, as well as an effective reduction of outage probability. In addition, the optimal relay location for maximizing the gain of the proposed algorithm is also investigated and designed. Simulation results show that, in both single relay and multirelay selection systems, some outage probability gains by the proposed scheme can be obtained. In the comparison of the optimized power allocation scheme with the equal power allocation one, nearly 0.1695 gains are obtained in the ISHDAF single relay network at a total power of 2 dB, and about 0.083 gains are obtained in the HDAF relay selection system with 2 relays at a total power of 2 dB.

  1. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ˜kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  2. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-19

    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ∼kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  3. Relaying Strategies and Protocols for Efficient Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-10-01

    Next generation wireless networks are expected to provide high data rate and satisfy the Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints of the users. A significant component of achieving these goals is to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks by either optimizing current architectures or exploring new technologies which achieve that. The latter includes revisiting technologies which were previously proposed, but due to a multitude of reasons were ignored at that time. One such technology is relaying which was initially proposed in the latter half of the 1960s and then was revived in the early 2000s. In this dissertation, we study relaying in conjunction with resource allocation to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks. In this regard, we differentiate between conventional relaying and relaying with buffers. Conventional relaying is traditional relaying where the relay forwards the signal it received immediately. On the other hand, in relaying with buffers or buffer-aided relaying as it is called, the relay can store received data in its buffer and forward it later on. This gives the benefit of taking advantage of good channel conditions as the relay can only transmit when the channel conditions are good. The dissertation starts with conventional relaying and considers the problem of minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining system QoS. After upper bounding the system performance, more practical algorithms which require reduced feedback overhead are explored. Buffer-aided relaying is then considered and the joint user-and-hop scheduler is introduced which exploits multi-user diversity (MUD) and 5 multi-hop diversity (MHD) gains together in dual-hop broadcast channels. Next joint user-and-hop scheduling is extended to the shared relay channel where two source-destination pairs share a single relay. The benefits of buffer-aided relaying in the bidirectional relay channel utilizing network coding are then explored. Finally, a new transmission protocol

  4. A genetic algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks where primary users and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. More specifically, cooperative relays using Amplifyand- Forward (AF) protocol are optimally selected to maximize the sum rate of the secondary users without degrading the Quality of Service (QoS) of the primary users by respecting a tolerated interference threshold. A strong optimization tool based on genetic algorithm is employed to solve our formulated optimization problem where discrete relay power levels are considered. Our simulation results show that the practical heuristic approach achieves almost the same performance of the optimal multiple relay selection scheme either with discrete or continuous power distributions. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  5. Individual Channel Estimation in a Diamond Relay Network Using Relay-Assisted Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the training design and channel estimation in the amplify-and-forward (AF diamond relay network. Our strategy is to transmit the source training in time-multiplexing (TM mode while each relay node superimposes its own relay training over the amplified received data signal without bandwidth expansion. The principal challenge is to obtain accurate channel state information (CSI of second-hop link due to the multiaccess interference (MAI and cooperative data interference (CDI. To maintain the orthogonality between data and training, a modified relay-assisted training scheme is proposed to migrate the CDI, where some of the cooperative data at the relay are discarded to accommodate relay training. Meanwhile, a couple of optimal zero-correlation zone (ZCZ relay-assisted sequences are designed to avoid MAI. At the destination node, the received signals from the two relay nodes are combined to achieve spatial diversity and enhanced data reliability. The simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed schemes.

  6. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (Qo

  7. Full-Duplex Relay Selection in Cognitive Underlay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2017-09-30

    In this work, we analyze the performance of full-duplex relay selection (FDRS) in spectrum-sharing networks. Contrary to half-duplex relaying, full-duplex relaying (FDR) enables simultaneous listening/forwarding at the secondary relay(s), thereby allowing for a higher spectral efficiency. However, since the source and relay simultaneously transmit in FDR, their superimposed signal at the primary receiver should now satisfy the existing interference constraint, which can considerably limit the secondary network throughput. In this regard, relay selection can offer an adequate solution to boost the secondary throughput while satisfying the imposed interference limit. We first analyze the performance of opportunistic FDRS with residual self-interference (RSI) by deriving the exact cumulative distribution function of its end-to-end signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio under Nakagami-m fading. We also evaluate the offered diversity gain of relay selection for different full-duplex cooperation schemes in the presence/absence of a direct source-destination link. When the adopted RSI link gain model is sublinear in the relay power, which agrees with recent research findings, we show that remarkable diversity gain can be recovered even in the presence of an interfering direct link. Second, we evaluate the end-to-end performance of FDRS with interference constraints due to the presence of a primary receiver. Finally, the presented exact theoretical findings are verified by numerical simulations.

  8. Spectral efficiency enhancement with interference cancellation for wireless relay network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yomo, Hiroyuki; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    The introduction of relaying into wireless communication system for coverage enhancement can cause severe decrease of spectral efficiency due to the requirement on extra radio resource. In this paper, we propose a method to increase spectral efficiency in such a wireless relay network by employing...... an interference cancellation technique. We focus on a typical scenario of relaying in a cellular system, where a mobile station (MS) requires the help of a relay station (RS) to communicate with the base station (BS). In such a case, interference cancellation can be used to achieve a small reuse distance...... of identical radio resource. We analyze a simple scenario with BS, single RS, and 2 MSs, and show that the proposed method has significant potential to enhance spectral efficiency in wireless relay networks....

  9. An RSS based location estimation technique for cognitive relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based location estimation method is proposed for a cooperative wireless relay network where the relay is a cognitive radio. We propose a method for the considered cognitive relay network to determine the location of the source using the direct and the relayed signal at the destination. We derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) expressions separately for x and y coordinates of the location estimate. We analyze the effects of cognitive behaviour of the relay on the performance of the proposed method. We also discuss and quantify the reliability of the location estimate using the proposed technique if the source is not stationary. The overall performance of the proposed method is presented through simulations. ©2010 IEEE.

  10. Relay Precoder Optimization in MIMO-Relay Networks With Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we consider robust joint designs of relay precoder and destination receive filters in a nonregenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay network. The network consists of multiple source-destination node pairs assisted by a MIMO-relay node. The channel state information (CSI) available at the relay node is assumed to be imperfect. We consider robust designs for two models of CSI error. The first model is a stochastic error (SE) model, where the probability distribution of the CSI error is Gaussian. This model is applicable when the imperfect CSI is mainly due to errors in channel estimation. For this model, we propose robust minimum sum mean square error (SMSE), MSE-balancing, and relay transmit power minimizing precoder designs. The next model for the CSI error is a norm-bounded error (NBE) model, where the CSI error can be specified by an uncertainty set. This model is applicable when the CSI error is dominated by quantization errors. In this case, we adopt a worst-case design approach. For this model, we propose a robust precoder design that minimizes total relay transmit power under constraints on MSEs at the destination nodes. We show that the proposed robust design problems can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently using interior-point methods. We demonstrate the robust performance of the proposed design through simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. A low complexity algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying Cognitive Radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio network is investigated. We consider a cooperative Cognitive Radio (CR) system with spectrum sharing scenario using Amplify-and-Forward (AF) protocol, where licensed users and unlicensed users operate on the same frequency band. The main objective is to maximize the sum rate of the unlicensed users allowed to share the spectrum with the licensed users by respecting a tolerated interference threshold. A practical low complexity heuristic approach is proposed to solve our formulated optimization problem. Selected numerical results show that the proposed algorithm reaches a performance close to the performance of the optimal multiple relay selection scheme either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity. In addition, these results show that our proposed scheme significantly outperforms the single relay selection scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Optimal relay selection and power allocation for cognitive two-way relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present an optimal scheme for power allocation and relay selection in a cognitive radio network where a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. We propose joint relay selection and optimal power allocation among the secondary user (SU) nodes achieving maximum throughput under transmit power and PU interference constraints. A closed-form solution for optimal allocation of transmit power among the SU transceivers and the SU relay is presented. Furthermore, numerical simulations and comparisons are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Admission Control Threshold in Cellular Relay Networks with Power Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ki-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the cellular network with relays, the mobile station can benefit from both coverage extension and capacity enhancement. However, the operation complexity increases as the number of relays grows up. Furthermore, in the cellular network with cooperative relays, it is even more complex because of an increased dimension of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs formed in the cooperative wireless transmission links. In this paper, we propose a new method for admission capacity planning in a cellular network using a cooperative relaying mechanism called decode-and-forward. We mathematically formulate the dropping ratio using the randomness of "channel gain." With this, we formulate an admission threshold planning problem as a simple optimization problem, where we maximize the accommodation capacity (in number of connections subject to two types of constraints. (1 A constraint that the sum of the transmit powers of the source node and relay node is upper-bounded where both nodes can jointly adjust the transmit power. (2 A constraint that the dropping ratio is upper-bounded by a certain threshold value. The simplicity of the problem formulation facilitates its solution in real-time. We believe that the proposed planning method can provide an attractive guideline for dimensioning a cellular relay network with cooperative relays.

  14. Spreading Sequence System for Full Connectivity Relay Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck M. (Inventor); Yang, Jie (Inventor); Pham, Khanh D. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Fully connected uplink and downlink fully connected relay network systems using pseudo-noise spreading and despreading sequences subjected to maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The relay network systems comprise one or more transmitting units, relays, and receiving units connected via a communication network. The transmitting units, relays, and receiving units each may include a computer for performing the methods and steps described herein and transceivers for transmitting and/or receiving signals. The computer encodes and/or decodes communication signals via optimum adaptive PN sequences found by employing Cholesky decompositions and singular value decompositions (SVD). The PN sequences employ channel state information (CSI) to more effectively and more securely computing the optimal sequences.

  15. Implementation of a Relay Coordination System for the Mars Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Mars network relay operations involve the coordination of lander and orbiter teams through long-term and short-term planning, tactical changes and post-pass analysis. Much of this coordination is managed through email traffic and point-to-point file data exchanges. It is often difficult to construct a complete and accurate picture of the relay situation at any given moment, as there is no centralized store of correlated relay data. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) is being implemented to address the problem of relay coordination for current and next-generation relay missions. The service is provided for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These "relay" sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This paper will discuss the relay coordination problem space, overview the architecture and design selected to meet system requirements, and describe the first phase of system implementation

  16. Selection combining for noncoherent decode-and-forward relay networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies a new decode-and-forward relaying scheme for a cooperative wireless network composed of one source, K relays, and one destination and with binary frequency-shift keying modulation. A single threshold is employed to select retransmitting relays as follows: a relay retransmits to the destination if its decision variable is larger than the threshold; otherwise, it remains silent. The destination then performs selection combining for the detection of transmitted information. The average end-to-end bit-error-rate (BER is analytically determined in a closed-form expression. Based on the derived BER, the problem of choosing an optimal threshold or jointly optimal threshold and power allocation to minimize the end-to-end BER is also investigated. Both analytical and simulation results reveal that the obtained optimal threshold scheme or jointly optimal threshold and power-allocation scheme can significantly improve the BER performance compared to a previously proposed scheme.

  17. Consistent sensor, relay, and link selection in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo Valles, M.D.R.; Simonetto, A.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, where energy is scarce, it is inefficient to have all nodes active because they consume a non-negligible amount of battery. In this paper we consider the problem of jointly selecting sensors, relays and links in a wireless sensor network where the active sensors need

  18. Relay-based information broadcast in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongyan; Han, Zeyu; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Lin, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Information broadcast (IB) is a critical process in complex network, usually accomplished by flooding mechanism. Although flooding is simple and no prior topological information is required, it consumes a lot of transmission overhead. Another extreme is the tree-based broadcast (TB), for which information is disseminated via a spanning tree. It achieves the minimal transmission overhead but the maintenance of spanning tree for every node is an obvious obstacle for implementation. Motivated by the success of scale-free network models for real-world networks, in this paper, we investigate the issues in IB by considering an alternative solution in-between these two extremes. A novel relay-based broadcast (RB) mechanism is proposed by employing a subset of nodes as relays. Information is firstly forwarded to one of these relays and then re-disseminated to others through the spanning tree whose root is the relay. This mechanism provides a trade-off solution between flooding and TB. On one hand, it saves up a lot of transmission overhead as compared to flooding; on the other hand, it costs much less resource for maintenance than TB as only a few spanning trees are needed. Based on two major criteria, namely the transmission overhead and the convergence time, the effectiveness of RB is confirmed. The impacts of relay assignment and network structures on performance are also studied in this work.

  19. Joint opportunistic scheduling and network coding for bidirectional relay channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users\\' transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Outage analysis for underlay relay-assisted cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative relay technology was recently introduced into cognitive radio networks in order to enhance network capacity, scalability, and reliability of end-to-end communication. In this paper, we investigate an underlay cognitive network where the quality of service of the secondary link is maintained by triggering an opportunistic regenerative relaying once it falls under an unacceptable level. We first provide the exact cumulative density function (CDF) of received signal-to-noise (SNR) over each hop with co-located relays. Then, the CDFs are used to determine very accurate closed-form expression for the outage probability for a transmission rate R. We validate our analysis by showing that simulation results coincide with our analytical results in Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Outage analysis for underlay relay-assisted cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2012-12-01

    Cooperative relay technology was recently introduced into cognitive radio networks in order to enhance network capacity, scalability, and reliability of end-to-end communication. In this paper, we investigate an underlay cognitive network where the quality of service of the secondary link is maintained by triggering an opportunistic regenerative relaying once it falls under an unacceptable level. We first provide the exact cumulative density function (CDF) of received signal-to-noise (SNR) over each hop with co-located relays. Then, the CDFs are used to determine very accurate closed-form expression for the outage probability for a transmission rate R. We validate our analysis by showing that simulation results coincide with our analytical results in Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation over multiple relay network

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2011-02-01

    In this letter, we propose two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation in order to improve spectral efficiency of relayed communication systems while monitoring the required error performance. We also consider a multiple relay network where only the best relay node is utilized so that the diversity order increases while maintaining a low complexity of implementation as the number of relays increases. Based on the best relay selection criterion, we offer an upper bound on the signal-to-noise ratio to keep the performance analysis tractable. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rate requirements. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation over multiple relay network

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we propose two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation in order to improve spectral efficiency of relayed communication systems while monitoring the required error performance. We also consider a multiple relay network where only the best relay node is utilized so that the diversity order increases while maintaining a low complexity of implementation as the number of relays increases. Based on the best relay selection criterion, we offer an upper bound on the signal-to-noise ratio to keep the performance analysis tractable. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rate requirements. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Energy Efficient Design for Two-Way AF Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional designs on two-way relay networks mainly focus on the spectral efficiency (SE rather than energy efficiency (EE. In this paper, we consider a system where two source nodes communicate with each other via an amplify-and-forward (AF relay node and study the power allocation schemes to maximize EE while ensuring a certain data rate. We propose an optimal energy-efficient power allocation algorithm based on iterative search technique. In addition, a closed-form suboptimal solution is derived with reduced complexity and negligible performance degradation. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can achieve considerable EE improvement compared with conventional designs.

  5. Relay Backpropagation for Effective Learning of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Li; Lin, Zhouchen; Huang, Qingming

    2015-01-01

    Learning deeper convolutional neural networks becomes a tendency in recent years. However, many empirical evidences suggest that performance improvement cannot be gained by simply stacking more layers. In this paper, we consider the issue from an information theoretical perspective, and propose a novel method Relay Backpropagation, that encourages the propagation of effective information through the network in training stage. By virtue of the method, we achieved the first place in ILSVRC 2015...

  6. A relay network of extracellular heme-binding proteins drives C. albicans iron acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, Galit; Vigonsky, Elena; Weissman, Ziva; Lalli, Daniela; Gildor, Tsvia; Kauffman, Sarah J; Turano, Paola; Becker, Jeffrey; Lewinson, Oded; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Iron scavenging constitutes a crucial challenge for survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the iron-poor host environment. Candida albicans, like many microbial pathogens, is able to utilize iron from hemoglobin, the largest iron pool in the host's body. Rbt5 is an extracellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored heme-binding protein of the CFEM family that facilitates heme-iron uptake by an unknown mechanism. Here, we characterize an additional C. albicans CFEM protein gene, PGA7, deletion of which elicits a more severe heme-iron utilization phenotype than deletion of RBT5. The virulence of the pga7-/- mutant is reduced in a mouse model of systemic infection, consistent with a requirement for heme-iron utilization for C. albicans pathogenicity. The Pga7 and Rbt5 proteins exhibit distinct cell wall attachment, and discrete localization within the cell envelope, with Rbt5 being more exposed than Pga7. Both proteins are shown here to efficiently extract heme from hemoglobin. Surprisingly, while Pga7 has a higher affinity for heme in vitro, we find that heme transfer can occur bi-directionally between Pga7 and Rbt5, supporting a model in which they cooperate in a heme-acquisition relay. Together, our data delineate the roles of Pga7 and Rbt5 in a cell surface protein network that transfers heme from extracellular hemoglobin to the endocytic pathway, and provide a paradigm for how receptors embedded in the cell wall matrix can mediate nutrient uptake across the fungal cell envelope.

  7. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal

  8. Alternate transmission with half-duplex relaying in MIMO interference relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Seongho

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we consider an alternate transmission scheme for a multiple-input multiple-output interference relay channel where multiple sources transmit their own signals to their corresponding destinations via one of two relaying groups alternately every time phase. Each of the relaying groups has arbitrary number of relays, and each relay operates in half-duplex amplify-and-forward mode. In our scheme, the received signals at the relay nodes consist of desired signals and two different interference signals such as the inter-source interferences and the inter-group interferences which are caused by the phase incoherence of relaying. As such, we propose an iterative interference alignment algorithm to mitigate the interferences. We show that our proposed scheme achieves additional degrees of freedom compared to the conventional half-duplex relaying system in the interference relay channels. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Superimposed Training-Based Channel Estimation for MIMO Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the superimposed training strategy into the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF one-way relay network (OWRN to perform the individual channel estimation at the destination. Through the superposition of a group of additional training vectors at the relay subject to power allocation, the separated estimates of the source-relay and relay-destination channels can be obtained directly at the destination, and the accordance with the two-hop AF strategy can be guaranteed at the same time. The closed-form Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB is derived for the estimation of two sets of flat-fading MIMO channel under random channel parameters and further exploited to design the optimal training vectors. A specific suboptimal channel estimation algorithm is applied in the MIMO AF OWRN using the optimal training sequences, and the normalized mean square error performance for the estimation is provided to verify the Bayesian CRLB results.

  10. Degrees of Freedom of Asymmetrical Multi-Way Relay Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an asymmetrical multi-way relay channel where a base station conveys independent symbols to K different users while receiving independent symbols from the users. In this network, user i Shas Mi antennas (i ∈ [1, ..., K]), the base station has Σi=1K Mi antennas and the ......In this paper, we introduce an asymmetrical multi-way relay channel where a base station conveys independent symbols to K different users while receiving independent symbols from the users. In this network, user i Shas Mi antennas (i ∈ [1, ..., K]), the base station has Σi=1K Mi antennas...... and the relay is equipped with NR antennas. To study the capacity of this network, the degree of freedom (DOF) is characterized to be 2 Σi=1K Mi if NR ≥ Σi=1K Mi. The DOF implies that the number of symbols any transmitter can deliver and receive is equivalent to its number of antennas. The DOF is achievable...

  11. Outage analysis for underlay cognitive networks using incremental regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-02-01

    Cooperative relay technology has recently been introduced into cognitive radio (CR) networks to enhance the network capacity, scalability, and reliability of end-to-end communication. In this paper, we investigate an underlay cognitive network where the quality of service (QoS) of the secondary link is maintained by triggering an opportunistic regenerative relaying once it falls under an unacceptable level. Analysis is conducted for two schemes, referred to as the channel-state information (CSI)-based and fault-tolerant schemes, respectively, where different amounts of CSI were considered. We first provide the exact cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over each hop with colocated relays. Then, the cdf\\'s are used to determine a very accurate closed-form expression for the outage probability for a transmission rate $R$. In a high-SNR region, a floor of the secondary outage probability occurs, and we derive its corresponding expression. We validate our analysis by showing that the simulation results coincide with our analytical results in Rayleigh fading channels. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  12. Alternate transmission with half-duplex relaying in MIMO interference relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Seongho; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an alternate transmission scheme for a multiple-input multiple-output interference relay channel where multiple sources transmit their own signals to their corresponding destinations via one of two relaying groups

  13. GSFC network operations with Tracking and Data Relay Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R.; Perreten, D. E.

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Network (TN) has been developed to provide services to all NASA User spacecraft in near-earth orbits. Three inter-relating entities will provide these services. The TN has been transformed from a network continuously changing to meet User specific requirements to a network which is flexible to meet future needs without significant changes in operational concepts. Attention is given to the evolution of the TN network, the TN capabilities-space segment, forward link services, tracking services, return link services, the three basic capabilities, single access services, multiple access services, simulation services, the White Sands Ground Terminal, the NASA communications network, and the network control center.

  14. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  15. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying

  16. Secure relay selection based on learning with negative externality in wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caidan; Xiao, Liang; Kang, Shan; Chen, Guiquan; Li, Yunzhou; Huang, Lianfen

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate relay selection into a Chinese restaurant game. A secure relay selection strategy is proposed for a wireless network, where multiple source nodes send messages to their destination nodes via several relay nodes, which have different processing and transmission capabilities as well as security properties. The relay selection utilizes a learning-based algorithm for the source nodes to reach their best responses in the Chinese restaurant game. In particular, the relay selection takes into account the negative externality of relay sharing among the source nodes, which learn the capabilities and security properties of relay nodes according to the current signals and the signal history. Simulation results show that this strategy improves the user utility and the overall security performance in wireless networks. In addition, the relay strategy is robust against the signal errors and deviations of some user from the desired actions.

  17. Frame Allocation and Scheduling for Relay Networks in the LTE Advanced Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The use of relays is seen as a promising way to extend cell coverage and increase rates in LTE Advanced networks. Instead of increasing the number of base stations (BS), relays with lower cost could provide similar gains. A relay will have a wireless link to the closest BS as only connection to the core network and will cover areas close to the cell edge or other areas with limited rates. Performing transmissions in several hops (BS-relay & relay-user) requires more radio resources than u...

  18. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2015-09-11

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. For the later type design, previous works has worked on minimizing the approximated power consumption. In this paper, exact power consumption for all relays is derived into a quadratic form by diagonalizing the minimum-square error (MSE) matrix, and the relay precoding matrix is designed by optimizing this quadratic form with the help of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation. Our simulation results show that such a design can achieve a gain of around 3 dB against the previous design, which optimized the approximated power consumption. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Generalized instantly decodable network coding for relay-assisted networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elmahdy, Adel M.; Sorour, Sameh; Seddik, Karim G.

    2013-01-01

    which employs generalized IDNC instead of strict IDNC previously proposed in the literature for the same relay-assisted topology. This use of generalized IDNC is supported by showing that it is a super-set of the strict IDNC scheme, and thus can generate

  20. Application of a proposed overcurrent relay in radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, A.; Vazquez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, A.P. 36-F, CU, CP 66450, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This paper contains the application criteria and coordination process for a proposed overcurrent relay in a radial power system with feed from one or multiple sources. This relay uses independent functions to detect faults and to calculate the operation time. Also this relay uses a time element function that allows it to reduce the time relay operation, enhancing the backup protection. Some of the proposed approaches improve the sensitivity of the relay. The selection of the best approach in the proposed relay is defined by the needs of the application. The proposed protection can be considered as an additional function protection to conventional overcurrent relays. (author)

  1. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhongwei; Ma, Junyang; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC) codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET) SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels. PMID:26131675

  2. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhongwei; Ma, Junyang; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2015-06-29

    Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC) codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET) SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels.

  3. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels.

  4. Low Complexity Transmission Scheme with Full Diversity for Two-Path Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-01-06

    In this work, we present a new low complexity scheme for two-path relay network to harvest maximum achievable diversity. We analyze the performance of the newly proposed two-path relay network by calculating the symbol error rate (SER) for arbitrary location of relays. It is shown that with this newly proposed scheme, two-path relay networks can mimic a 2x2 multiple-input mulitple-output (MIMO) system and achieve full diversity order of four. Simulations results are provided to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

  5. Low Complexity Transmission Scheme with Full Diversity for Two-Path Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a new low complexity scheme for two-path relay network to harvest maximum achievable diversity. We analyze the performance of the newly proposed two-path relay network by calculating the symbol error rate (SER) for arbitrary location of relays. It is shown that with this newly proposed scheme, two-path relay networks can mimic a 2x2 multiple-input mulitple-output (MIMO) system and achieve full diversity order of four. Simulations results are provided to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

  6. Outage Analysis and Optimization of SWIPT in Network-Coded Two-Way Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the outage performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT in network-coded two-way relay systems, where a relay first harvests energy from the signals transmitted by two sources and then uses the harvested energy to forward the received information to the two sources. We consider two transmission protocols, power splitting two-way relay (PS-TWR and time switching two-way relay (TS-TWR protocols. We present two explicit expressions for the system outage probability of the two protocols and further derive approximate expressions for them in high and low SNR cases. To explore the system performance limits, two optimization problems are formulated to minimize the system outage probability. Since the problems are nonconvex and have no known solution methods, a genetic algorithm- (GA- based algorithm is designed. Numerical and simulation results validate our theoretical analysis. It is shown that, by jointly optimizing the time assignment and SWIPT receiver parameters, a great performance gain can be achieved for both PS-TWR and TS-TWR. Moreover, the optimized PS-TWR always outperforms the optimized TS-TWR in terms of outage performance. Additionally, the effects of parameters including relay location and transmit powers are also discussed, which provide some insights for the SWIPT-enabled two-way relay networks.

  7. New resource allocation scheme for cognitive relay networks with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a new resource allocation scheme to minimize Symbol Error rate (SER) for relay assisted cognitive radio networks is studied. A cognitive relay network with amplify-and-forward (AF) fixed gain relays and opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is considered. The SER objective function and the optimization constraints are derived first. The resource allocation algorithm is then derived using the Langrangian multiplier method. Closed form expressions are derived for the source and relay powers and, symbol time. Analytical results show that the optimal power allocation follows an extended water-filling solution. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Impact of intra-flow network coding on the relay channel performance: an analytical study

    OpenAIRE

    Apavatjrut , Anya; Goursaud , Claire; Jaffrès-Runser , Katia; Gorce , Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; One of the most powerful ways to achieve trans- mission reliability over wireless links is to employ efficient coding techniques. This paper investigates the performance of a transmission over a relay channel where information is protected by two layers of coding. In the first layer, transmission reliability is ensured by fountain coding at the source. The second layer incorporates network coding at the relay node. Thus, fountain coded packets are re-encoded at the relay...

  9. Relay selection in underlay cognitive networks with fixed transmission power nodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2013-07-31

    Underlay cognitive networks operate simultaneously with primary networks satisfying stringent interference constraints, which reduces their transmission power and coverage area. To reach remote destinations, secondary sources use relaying techniques. Selecting the best relay among the available ones is a well known technique. Recently, selective cooperation is investigated in cognitive networks where the secondary nodes can adapt their transmission power to always satisfy the interference threshold. In this paper, we investigate a situation where the secondary nodes have a fixed transmission power and may violate the interference threshold. We present two relay selection schemes; the first one excludes the relays not satisfying the interference constraint and then picks up a relay from the remaining ones that can provide the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The other scheme uses a quotient of the relay link SNR and the interference from the relay to the primary user and optimizes it to maximise the relay link SNR. We derive closed form expressions for outage probability, bit error rate, channel capacity and diversity of the system for both schemes by using tight approximations. We also study mutual effects of interference. Simulation results confirm the analytical results and reveal that the relay selection is feasible at low SNRs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Performance Analysis of Space Information Networks with Backbone Satellite Relaying for Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Space Information Network (SIN with backbone satellites relaying for vehicular network (VN communications is regarded as an effective strategy to provide diverse vehicular services in a seamless, efficient, and cost-effective manner in rural areas and highways. In this paper, we investigate the performance of SIN return channel cooperative communications via an amplify-and-forward (AF backbone satellite relaying for VN communications, where we assume that both of the source-destination and relay-destination links undergo Shadowed-Rician fading and the source-relay link follows Rician fading, respectively. In this SIN-assisted VN communication scenario, we first obtain the approximate statistical distributions of the equivalent end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the system. Then, we derive the closed-form expressions to efficiently evaluate the average symbol error rate (ASER of the system. Furthermore, the ASER expressions are taking into account the effect of satellite perturbation of the backbone relaying satellite, which reveal the accumulated error of the antenna pointing error. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our theoretical analysis and show the impact of various parameters on the system performance.

  11. User Multiplexing in Relay Enhanced LTE-Advanced Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Frederiksen, Frank; Redana, Simone

    2010-01-01

    is radio relaying. This uses relay nodes that act as surrogate base stations for mobile users whose radio links with the base stations are not experiencing good enough conditions. In the downlink, the data that is destined for the relayed users may first have to be multiplexed by the base station, sent...... over the wireless backhaul link towards the relay node, and de-multiplexed and forwarded to the individual users by the relay node. The reverse process also has to be undertaken in the uplink. In this paper, we present a novel multiplexing scheme which is able to adapt the addressing and bitmapping...... of user identification to the actual number of users being served by the relay nodes, and thus greatly reduce the multiplexing overhead....

  12. A performance analysis in AF full duplex relay selection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Long Nguyen; Hong, Nhu Nguyen; Loan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Kieu, Tam Nguyen; Voznak, Miroslav; Zdralek, Jaroslav

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies on the relaying selective matter in amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperation communication with full-duplex (FD) activity. Various relay choice models supposing the present of different instant information are investigated. We examine a maximal relaying choice that optimizes the instant FD channel capacity and asks for global channel state information (CSI) as well as partial CSI learning. To make comparison easy, accurate outage probability clauses and asymptote form of these strategies that give a diversity rank are extracted. From that, we can see clearly that the number of relays, noise factor, the transmittance coefficient as well as the information transfer power had impacted on their performance. Besides, the optimal relay selection (ORS) model can promote than that of the partial relay selection (PRS) model.

  13. Received signal strength in large-scale wireless relay sensor network: a stochastic ray approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, L.; Chen, Y.; Scanlon, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors consider a point percolation lattice representation of a large-scale wireless relay sensor network (WRSN) deployed in a cluttered environment. Each relay sensor corresponds to a grid point in the random lattice and the signal sent by the source is modelled as an ensemble of photons that

  14. PPM-based relay communication schemes for wireless body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.; Willems, F.M.J.; Huang, Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates cooperative communication schemes based on a single relay with pulse-position modulation (PPM) signaling, for enhancing energy efficiency of wireless body area networks (WBANs) in noncoherent channel settings. We explore cooperation between the source and the relay such that

  15. Relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting with random network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Lu; Sun, Fan; Xiao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting system using random network codes, where the focus is on devising efficient scheduling algorithms between relay and base stations. Two scheduling algorithms are proposed based on different feedback strategies; namely, a one-step scheduling...

  16. Impact of mobility on the performance of relaying in ad hoc networks (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.; Kherani, A.A.; Groenevelt, R.; Nain, P.; Altman, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes: source, destination, and relay nodes. All the nodes are moving over a bounded region with possibly different mobility patterns. We introduce and study the notion of relay throughput, i.e. the maximum rate at which a node can

  17. Impact of Mobility on the Performance of Relaying in Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Kherani, A.A.; Groenevelt, R.; Nain, P.; Altman, E

    2006-01-01

    We consider a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes: source, destination, and relay nodes. All the nodes are moving over a bounded region with possibly different mobility patterns. We introduce and study the notion of relay throughput, i.e. the maximum rate at which a node can

  18. Impact of mobility on the performance7 of relaying in ad hoc networks – Extended version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Kherani, A.A.; Groenevelt, R.; Nain, P.; Altman, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes: source, destination, and relay nodes. All the nodes are moving over a bounded region with possibly different mobility patterns. We introduce and study the notion of relay throughput, i.e. the maximum rate at which a node can

  19. Coordination of Regenerative Relays and Direct Users in Wireless Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar

    2011-01-01

    The area of wireless cooperation/relaying has recently been significantly enriched by the ideas of wireless network coding (NC), which bring substantial gains in spectral efficiency. These gains have mainly been demonstrated in scenarios with two-way relaying. Inspired by the ideas of wireless NC......, recently we have proposed techniques for coordinated direct/relay (CDR) transmissions. These techniques embrace the interference among the communication flows to/from direct and relayed users, leveraging on the fact that the interference can be subsequently canceled. Hence, by allowing simultaneous...... transmissions, spectral efficiency is increased. In our prior work, we have considered CDR with non-regenerative relay that uses Amplify-and-Forward (AF). In this paper we consider the case of regenerative Decode-and-Forward (DF) relay. This refers also to joint decoding of the interfering flows received over...

  20. Scalable DeNoise-and-Forward in Bidirectional Relay Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a scalable relaying scheme is proposed based on an existing concept called DeNoise-and-Forward, DNF. We call it Scalable DNF, S-DNF, and it targets the scenario with multiple communication flows through a single common relay. The idea of the scheme is to combine packets at the relay...... in order to save transmissions. To ensure decodability at the end-nodes, a priori information about the content of the combined packets must be available. This is gathered during the initial transmissions to the relay. The trade-off between decodability and number of necessary transmissions is analysed...

  1. Full-Duplex opportunistic relay selection in future spectrum-sharing networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of full-duplex relay selection in primary/secondary spectrum-sharing networks. Contrary to half-duplex relaying, full-duplex relaying (FDR) enables simultaneous listening/forwarding at the secondary relay, thereby allowing for a higher spectral efficiency. However, since the source and relay simultaneously transmit in FDR, their superimposed signal at the primary receiver should now satisfy the existing interference constraint which can considerably limit the secondary network throughput. In this regard, relay selection can offer an adequate solution to boost the secondary throughput while satisfying the imposed interference limit. We first analyze the performance of opportunistic relay selection among a cluster of full-duplex decode-and-forward relays with self-interference by deriving the exact cumulative distribution function of its end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Second, we evaluate the end-to-end performance of relay selection with interference constraints due to the presence of a primary receiver. Finally, the presented exact theoretical findings are verified by numerical simulations.

  2. Full-Duplex opportunistic relay selection in future spectrum-sharing networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2015-06-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of full-duplex relay selection in primary/secondary spectrum-sharing networks. Contrary to half-duplex relaying, full-duplex relaying (FDR) enables simultaneous listening/forwarding at the secondary relay, thereby allowing for a higher spectral efficiency. However, since the source and relay simultaneously transmit in FDR, their superimposed signal at the primary receiver should now satisfy the existing interference constraint which can considerably limit the secondary network throughput. In this regard, relay selection can offer an adequate solution to boost the secondary throughput while satisfying the imposed interference limit. We first analyze the performance of opportunistic relay selection among a cluster of full-duplex decode-and-forward relays with self-interference by deriving the exact cumulative distribution function of its end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Second, we evaluate the end-to-end performance of relay selection with interference constraints due to the presence of a primary receiver. Finally, the presented exact theoretical findings are verified by numerical simulations.

  3. Uplink Capacity of 802.16j Mobile Multihop Relay Networks with Transparent Relays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Andrews, Jeffrey G.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2009-01-01

    -to-end spectral efficiency. Furthermore, the position and the number of relay stations (RSs) have a great impact on the capacity gain. These results are further verified in the evaluation of the system Erlang capacity. The study demonstrates that with proper deployment of RSs and use of MIMO transmission...

  4. Best relay selection using SNR and interference quotient for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive networks in underlay settings operate simultaneously with the primary networks satisfying stringent interference limits. This condition forces them to operate with low transmission powers and confines their area of coverage. In an effort to reach remote destinations, underlay cognitive sources make use of relaying techniques. Selecting the best relay among those who are ready to cooperate is different in underlay settings than traditional non-cognitive networks. In this paper, we present a relay selection scheme which uses the quotient of the relay link signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the interference generated from the relay to the primary user to choose the best relay. The proposed scheme optimizes this quotient in a way to maximize the relay link SNR above a certain value whereas the interference is kept below a defined threshold. We derive closed expressions for the outage probability and bit error probability of the system incorporating this scheme. Simulation results confirm the validity of the analytical results and reveal that the relay selection in cognitive environment is feasible in low SNR regions. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Resource allocation for relay assisted cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Chen, Yunfei; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2012-01-01

    transmission power and the relay transmission power. Numerical results show that the optimal sensing time is dependent on the primary user's signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that SCR increases with increase in the number of relays. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Efficient Resource Scheduling by Exploiting Relay Cache for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In relay-enhanced cellular systems, throughput of User Equipment (UE is constrained by the bottleneck of the two-hop link, backhaul link (or the first hop link, and access link (the second hop link. To maximize the throughput, resource allocation should be coordinated between these two hops. A common resource scheduling algorithm, Adaptive Distributed Proportional Fair, only ensures that the throughput of the first hop is greater than or equal to that of the second hop. But it cannot guarantee a good balance of the throughput and fairness between the two hops. In this paper, we propose a Two-Hop Balanced Distributed Scheduling (TBS algorithm by exploiting relay cache for non-real-time data traffic. The evolved Node Basestation (eNB adaptively adjusts the number of Resource Blocks (RBs allocated to the backhaul link and direct links based on the cache information of relays. Each relay allocates RBs for relay UEs based on the size of the relay UE’s Transport Block. We also design a relay UE’s ACK feedback mechanism to update the data at relay cache. Simulation results show that the proposed TBS can effectively improve resource utilization and achieve a good trade-off between system throughput and fairness by balancing the throughput of backhaul and access link.

  7. An Optimal Analysis in Wireless Powered Full-duplex Relaying Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-T. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-powered cellular networks (WPCNs are currently being investigated to exploit the reliability and improve battery lifetime of mobile users. This paper investigates the energy harvesting structure of the full-duplex relaying networks. By using the time switching based relaying (TSR protocol and Amplify-and-Forward (AF model in delay-limited transmission scheme, we propose the closed-form expression of the outage probability and then calculate the optimal throughput. An important result can be taken obviously that the time fraction in TSR, the position of relay, the noise as well as the energy conversation impacting on the outage probability as well as the optimal throughput. By Monte Carlo simulation, the numerical results indicate an effective relaying strategy in full-duplex cooperative systems. Finally, we provide fundamental design guidelines for selecting time fraction in TSR that satisfies the requirements of a practical relaying system.

  8. Optimal Coordination of Distance and Directional Overcurrent Relays Considering Different Network Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Damchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies in relay coordination have focused solely on coordination of overcurrent relays while distance relays are used as the main protection of transmission lines. Since, simultaneous coordination of these two types of relays can provide a better protection, in this paper, a new approach is proposed for simultaneous coordination of distance and directional overcurrent relays (D&DOCRs. Also, pursued by most of the previously published studies, the settings of D&DOCRs are usually determined based on a main network topology which may result in mis-coordination of relays when changes occur in the network topology. In the proposed method, in order to have a robust coordination, network topology changes are taken into account in the coordination problem. In the new formulation, coordination constraints for different network topologies are added to those of the main topology. A complex nonlinear optimization problem is derived to find the desirable relay settings. Then, the problem is solved using hybridized genetic algorithm (GA with linear programming (LP method (HGA. The proposed method is evaluated using the IEEE 14-bus test system. According to the results, a feasible and robust solution is obtained for D&DOCRs coordination while all constraints, which are due to different network topologies, are satisfied.

  9. Performance analysis of best relay selection scheme for amplify-and-forward cooperative networks in identical Nakagami-m channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Hasna, Mazen Omar

    2010-01-01

    for a cooperative network with multiple relays operating in amplify-and-forward (AF) mode over identical Nakagami-m channels using exact source-relay-destination signal to noise ratio (SNR) expression. We derive accurate closed form expressions

  10. Securing Relay Networks with Artificial Noise: An Error Performance-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply the concept of artificial and controlled interference in a two-hop relay network with an untrusted relay, aiming at enhancing the wireless communication secrecy between the source and the destination node. In order to shield the square quadrature amplitude-modulated (QAM signals transmitted from the source node to the relay, the destination node designs and transmits artificial noise (AN symbols to jam the relay reception. The objective of our considered AN design is to degrade the error probability performance at the untrusted relay, for different types of channel state information (CSI at the destination. By considering perfect knowledge of the instantaneous CSI of the source-to-relay and relay-to-destination links, we first present an analytical expression for the symbol error rate (SER performance at the relay. Based on the assumption of an average power constraint at the destination node, we then derive the optimal phase and power distribution of the AN that maximizes the SER at the relay. Furthermore, we obtain the optimal AN design for the case where only statistical CSI is available at the destination node. For both cases, our study reveals that the Gaussian distribution is generally not optimal to generate AN symbols. The presented AN design takes into account practical parameters for the communication links, such as QAM signaling and maximum likelihood decoding.

  11. On the Feedback Reduction of Relay Multiuser Networks using Compressive Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Eltayeb, Mohammed; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Bahrami, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive performance analysis of full-duplex multiuser relay networks employing opportunistic scheduling with noisy and compressive feedback. Specifically, two feedback techniques based on compressive sensing (CS) theory

  12. Multi-Destination Cognitive Radio Relay Network with SWIPT and Multiple Primary Receivers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique in a multi-destination dual-hop underlay cognitive relay network with multiple primary receivers. Information transmission from

  13. Secure amplify-and-forward untrusted relaying networks using cooperative jamming and zero-forcing cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate secure transmission in untrusted amplify-and-forward half-duplex relaying networks with the help of cooperative jamming at the destination (CJD). Under the assumption of full channel state information (CSI

  14. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency.......We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  15. On joint power allocation and multipath routing in femto-relay networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hoteit , Sahar; Duhamel , Pierre; Lasaulce , Samson

    2016-01-01

    International audience; —Transmit power allocation techniques are very important to manage interference in small-cell networks. While available power allocation algorithms in the literature rely on a predefined routing protocol, we propose in this paper a power-efficient two-step algorithm that allows power allocation and routing to be performed jointly in femto-relay networks. First, we propose an interference-based partitioning method to cluster the femto-relays, then we adopt an iterative ...

  16. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  17. Wireless Energy Harvesting Two-Way Relay Networks with Hardware Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chunling; Li, Fangwei; Liu, Huaping

    2017-11-13

    This paper considers a wireless energy harvesting two-way relay (TWR) network where the relay has energy-harvesting abilities and the effects of practical hardware impairments are taken into consideration. In particular, power splitting (PS) receiver is adopted at relay to harvests the power it needs for relaying the information between the source nodes from the signals transmitted by the source nodes, and hardware impairments is assumed suffered by each node. We analyze the effect of hardware impairments [-20]on both decode-and-forward (DF) relaying and amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. By utilizing the obtained new expressions of signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratios, the exact analytical expressions of the achievable sum rate and ergodic capacities for both DF and AF relaying protocols are derived. Additionally, the optimal power splitting (OPS) ratio that maximizes the instantaneous achievable sum rate is formulated and solved for both protocols. The performances of DF and AF protocols are evaluated via numerical results, which also show the effects of various network parameters on the system performance and on the OPS ratio design.

  18. Outage Probability Analysis in Power-Beacon Assisted Energy Harvesting Cognitive Relay Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Phuc Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the performance of the secondary relay system in a power-beacon (PB assisted energy harvesting cognitive relay wireless network. In our system model, a secondary source node and a relay node first harvest energy from distributed PBs. Then, the source node transmits its data to the destination node with the help of the relay node. Also, fading coefficients of the links from the PBs to the source node and relay node are assumed independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d Nakagami-m random variables. We derive exact expressions for the power outage probability and the channel outage probability. Based on that, we analyze the total outage probability of the secondary relay system. Asymptotic analysis is also performed, which provides insights into the system behavior. Moreover, we evaluate impacts of the primary network on the performance of the secondary network with respect to the tolerant interference threshold at the primary receiver as well as the interference introduced by the primary transmitter at the secondary source and relay nodes. Simulation results are provided to validate the analysis.

  19. On the benefits of location-based relay selection in mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    We consider infrastructure-based mobile networks that are assisted by a single relay transmission where both the downstream destination and relay nodes are mobile. Selecting the optimal transmission path for a destination node requires up-to-date link quality estimates of all relevant links....... If the relay selection is based on link quality measurements, the number of links to update grows quadratically with the number of nodes, and measurements need to be updated frequently when nodes are mobile. In this paper, we consider a location-based relay selection scheme where link qualities are estimated...... from node positions; in the scenario of a node-based location system such as GPS, the location-based approach reduces signaling overhead, which in this case only grows linearly with the number of nodes. This paper studies these two relay selection approaches and investigates how they are affected...

  20. Multiuser Radio Resource Allocation for Multiservice Transmission in OFDMA-Based Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of multiservice transmission in OFDMA-based cooperative relay networks is studied comprehensively. We propose a framework to adaptively allocate power, subcarriers, and data rate in OFDMA system to maximize spectral efficiency under the constraints of satisfying multiuser multiservices' QoS requirements. Specifically, first we concentrate on the single-user scenario which considers multiservice transmission in point-to-point cooperative relay network. Based on the analysis of single-user scenario, we extend the multiservice transmission to multiuser point-to-multipoint scenario. Next, based on the framework, we propose several suboptimal radio resource allocation algorithms for multiservice transmissions in OFDMA-based cooperative relay networks to further reduce the computational complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms yield much higher spectral efficiency and much lower outage probability, which are flexible and efficient for the OFDMA-based cooperative relay system.

  1. Optimizing Completion Time and Energy Consumption in a Bidirectional Relay Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huaping; Sun, Fan; Thai, Chan

    2012-01-01

    consumption required for multiple flows depends on the current channel realizations, transmission methods used and, notably, the relation between the data sizes of different source nodes. In this paper we investigate the shortest completion time and minimal energy consumption in a two-way relay wireless...... arises for the minimal required energy. While the requirement for minimal energy consumption is obvious, the shortest completion time is relevant when certain multi-node network needs to reserve the wireless medium in order to carry out the data exchange among its nodes. The completion time/energy...... network. The system applies optimal time multiplexing of several known transmission methods, including one-way relaying and wireless network coding (WNC). We show that when the relay applies Amplify-and-Forward (AF), both minimizations are linear optimization problems. On the other hand, when the relay...

  2. Secure amplify-and-forward untrusted relaying networks using cooperative jamming and zero-forcing cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2015-12-03

    In this paper, we investigate secure transmission in untrusted amplify-and-forward half-duplex relaying networks with the help of cooperative jamming at the destination (CJD). Under the assumption of full channel state information (CSI), conventional CJD using self-interference cancelation at the destination is efficient when the untrusted relay has no capability to suppress the jamming signal. However, if the source and destination are equipped with a single antenna and the only untrusted relay is equipped with N multiple antennas, it can remove the jamming signal from the received signal by linear filters and the full multiplexing gain of relaying cannot be achievable with the conventional CJD due to the saturation of the secrecy rate at the high transmit power regime. We propose in this paper new CJD scheme where neither destination nor relay can acquire CSI of relay-destination link. Our proposed scheme utilizes zero-forcing cancelation based on known jamming signals instead of self-interference subtraction, while the untrusted relay cannot suppress the jamming signals due to the lack of CSI. We show that the secrecy rate of the proposed scheme can enjoy a half of multiplexing gain in half-duplex relaying while that of conventional CJD is saturated at high transmit power for N ???2. The impact of channel estimation error at the destination is also investigated to show the robustness of the proposed scheme against strong estimation errors.

  3. Simultaneous Wireless Power Transfer and Secure Multicasting in Cooperative Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Sohn, Illsoo; Kim, Yong-Hwa

    2017-05-16

    In this paper, we investigate simultaneous wireless power transfer and secure multicasting via cooperative decode-and-forward (DF) relays in the presence of multiple energy receivers and eavesdroppers. Two scenarios are considered under a total power budget: maximizing the minimum harvested energy among the energy receivers under a multicast secrecy rate constraint; and maximizing the multicast secrecy rate under a minimum harvested energy constraint. For both scenarios, we solve the transmit power allocation and relay beamformer design problems by using semidefinite relaxation and bisection technique. We present numerical results to analyze the energy harvesting and secure multicasting performances in cooperative DF relay networks.

  4. Simultaneous Wireless Power Transfer and Secure Multicasting in Cooperative Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Sohn, Illsoo; Kim, Yong-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate simultaneous wireless power transfer and secure multicasting via cooperative decode-and-forward (DF) relays in the presence of multiple energy receivers and eavesdroppers. Two scenarios are considered under a total power budget: maximizing the minimum harvested energy among the energy receivers under a multicast secrecy rate constraint; and maximizing the multicast secrecy rate under a minimum harvested energy constraint. For both scenarios, we solve the transmit power allocation and relay beamformer design problems by using semidefinite relaxation and bisection technique. We present numerical results to analyze the energy harvesting and secure multicasting performances in cooperative DF relay networks. PMID:28509841

  5. Simultaneous Wireless Power Transfer and Secure Multicasting in Cooperative Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate simultaneous wireless power transfer and secure multicasting via cooperative decode-and-forward (DF relays in the presence of multiple energy receivers and eavesdroppers. Two scenarios are considered under a total power budget: maximizing the minimum harvested energy among the energy receivers under a multicast secrecy rate constraint; and maximizing the multicast secrecy rate under a minimum harvested energy constraint. For both scenarios, we solve the transmit power allocation and relay beamformer design problems by using semidefinite relaxation and bisection technique. We present numerical results to analyze the energy harvesting and secure multicasting performances in cooperative DF relay networks.

  6. On network coding and modulation mapping for three-phase bidirectional relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Ronald Y.; Lin, Sian Jheng; Chung, Wei-Ho

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we consider the network coding (NC) enabled three-phase protocol for information exchange between two users in a wireless two-way (bidirectional) relay network. Modulo-based (nonbinary) and XOR-based (binary) NC schemes are considered as information mixture schemes at the relay while all transmissions adopt pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). We first obtain the optimal constellation mapping at the relay that maximizes the decoding performance at the users for each NC scheme. Then, we compare the two NC schemes, each in conjunction with the optimal constellation mapping at the relay, in different conditions. Our results demonstrate that, in the low SNR regime, binary NC outperforms nonbinary NC with 4-PAM, while they have mixed performance with 8-PAM. This observation applies to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) composed of two parallel PAMs.

  7. On network coding and modulation mapping for three-phase bidirectional relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Ronald Y.

    2015-12-03

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we consider the network coding (NC) enabled three-phase protocol for information exchange between two users in a wireless two-way (bidirectional) relay network. Modulo-based (nonbinary) and XOR-based (binary) NC schemes are considered as information mixture schemes at the relay while all transmissions adopt pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). We first obtain the optimal constellation mapping at the relay that maximizes the decoding performance at the users for each NC scheme. Then, we compare the two NC schemes, each in conjunction with the optimal constellation mapping at the relay, in different conditions. Our results demonstrate that, in the low SNR regime, binary NC outperforms nonbinary NC with 4-PAM, while they have mixed performance with 8-PAM. This observation applies to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) composed of two parallel PAMs.

  8. Improved Iterative Decoding of Network-Channel Codes for Multiple-Access Relay Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Saikat; Verma, Shrish

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative communication using relay nodes is one of the most effective means of exploiting space diversity for low cost nodes in wireless network. In cooperative communication, users, besides communicating their own information, also relay the information of other users. In this paper we investigate a scheme where cooperation is achieved using a common relay node which performs network coding to provide space diversity for two information nodes transmitting to a base station. We propose a scheme which uses Reed-Solomon error correcting code for encoding the information bit at the user nodes and convolutional code as network code, instead of XOR based network coding. Based on this encoder, we propose iterative soft decoding of joint network-channel code by treating it as a concatenated Reed-Solomon convolutional code. Simulation results show significant improvement in performance compared to existing scheme based on compound codes.

  9. Resource allocation for relay assisted cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we present two optimal resource allocation schemes that maximize throughput and symbol correct rate (SCR). The throughput and SCR are derived. The derived throughput and SCR are optimized with respect to the sensing time, the source transmission power and the relay transmission power. Numerical results show that the optimal sensing time is dependent on the primary user\\'s signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that SCR increases with increase in the number of relays. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. A Stochastic Geometry Approach to Full-Duplex MIMO Relay Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Nour Hindia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular networks are extensively modeled by placing the base stations on a grid, with relays and destinations being placed deterministically. These networks are idealized for not considering the interferences when evaluating the coverage/outage and capacity. Realistic models that can overcome such limitation are desirable. Specifically, in a cellular downlink environment, the full-duplex (FD relaying and destination are prone to interferences from unintended sources and relays. However, this paper considered two-hop cellular network in which the mobile nodes aid the sources by relaying the signal to the dead zone. Further, we model the locations of the sources, relays, and destination nodes as a point process on the plane and analyze the performance of two different hops in the downlink. Then, we obtain the success probability and the ergodic capacity of the two-hop MIMO relay scheme, accounting for the interference from all other adjacent cells. We deploy stochastic geometry and point process theory to rigorously analyze the two-hop scheme with/without interference cancellation. These attained expressions are amenable to numerical evaluation and are corroborated by simulation results.

  11. Exploring Relay Cooperation for Secure and Reliable Transmission in Two-HopWireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Shen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the problem of secure and reliable information transmission via relay cooperation in two-hop relay wireless networks without the information of both eavesdropper channels and locations. While previous work on this problem mainly studied infinite networks and their asymptotic behavior and scaling law results, this papers focuses on a more practical network with finite number of system nodes and explores the corresponding exact result on the number of eavesdroppers one network can tolerate to ensure desired secrecy and reliability. We first study the scenario where path-loss is equal between all pairs of nodes and consider two transmission protocols there, one adopts an optimal but complex relay selection process with less load balance capacity while the other adopts a random but simple relay selection process with good load balance capacity. Theoretical analysis and numerical results are then provided to determine the maximum number of eavesdroppers one network can tolerate to ensure a desired performance in terms of the secrecy outage probability and transmission outage probability. We further extend our study to the more general scenario where path-loss between each pair of nodes also depends on the distance between them, for which a new transmission protocol with both preferable relay selection and good load balance as well as the corresponding theoretical analysis and numerical results are presented.

  12. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Nasir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs; performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ. E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment.

  13. Location-quality-aware policy optimisation for relay selection in mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2016-01-01

    for resulting performance of such network optimizations. In mobile scenarios, the required information collection and forwarding causes delays that will additionally affect the reliability of the collected information and hence will influence the performance of the relay selection method. This paper analyzes...... the joint influence of these two factors in the decision process for the example of a mobile location-based relay selection approach using a continuous time Markov chain model. Efficient algorithms are developed based on this model to obtain optimal relay policies under consideration of localization errors....... Numerical results show how information update rates, forwarding delays, and location estimation errors affect these optimal policies and allow to conclude on the required accuracy of location-based systems for such mobile relay selection scenarios. A measurement-based indoor scenario with more complex...

  14. Comparison of Beam-Forming and Relaying in Sparse Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Krebs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differences in power consumption between beam-forming and relaying data transmission methods in a sparse wireless ad-hoc network. These two methods are observed for the same parameters using an identical network topology in a simulation programme that was developed as a part of this study.

  15. Relay-assisted Network Coding Multicast in the Presence of Neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pahlevani, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the cost of packet transmission from a source to two receivers with the help of a relay and using network coding in wireless mesh networks consisting of many active neighbours sharing the same channel. The cost minimization problem is modeled as a Markov Decisio...

  16. Relay-Assisted Primary and Secondary Transmissions in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El; Khattab, Tamer; Salem, Ahmed Sultan

    2016-01-01

    We assume a set of cognitive relay nodes that assists both primary and secondary transmissions in a time-slotted cognitive radio networks. To regulate the channel access of the various nodes in the network, we propose an overlapped spectrum sensing

  17. RoCoMAR: Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Yoon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing that uses robotic nodes’ controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  18. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  19. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-05-27

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  20. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Zafar, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  1. Application of DIgSILENT POWERFACTORY software for modeling of industrial network relay protection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modeling of industrial network relay protection system using DIgSILENT PowerFactory software. The basis for the model of protection system is a model of a single substation in an industrial network. The paper presents the procedure for modeling of protective devices of 6 kV asynchronous motors, 6/0,4 kV/kV transformers as well as protection in the bus coupler and busbar protection. Protective relay system response for the simulated disturbances is shown in the paper.

  2. Application of DIgSILENT POWERFACTORY software for modeling of industrial network relay protection system

    OpenAIRE

    Sučević Nikola; Milošević Dejan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents modeling of industrial network relay protection system using DIgSILENT PowerFactory software. The basis for the model of protection system is a model of a single substation in an industrial network. The paper presents the procedure for modeling of protective devices of 6 kV asynchronous motors, 6/0,4 kV/kV transformers as well as protection in the bus coupler and busbar protection. Protective relay system response for the simulated disturbances is shown in the paper.

  3. Cache Aided Decode-and-Forward Relaying Networks: From the Spatial View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjuan Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate cache technique from the spatial view and study its impact on the relaying networks. In particular, we consider a dual-hop relaying network, where decode-and-forward (DF relays can assist the data transmission from the source to the destination. In addition to the traditional dual-hop relaying, we also consider the cache from the spatial view, where the source can prestore the data among the memories of the nodes around the destination. For the DF relaying networks without and with cache, we study the system performance by deriving the analytical expressions of outage probability and symbol error rate (SER. We also derive the asymptotic outage probability and SER in the high regime of transmit power, from which we find the system diversity order can be rapidly increased by using cache and the system performance can be significantly improved. Simulation and numerical results are demonstrated to verify the proposed studies and find that the system power resources can be efficiently saved by using cache technique.

  4. Full-diversity partial interference cancellation for multi-user wireless relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    El Astal, M. T O

    2013-12-01

    We focus on the uplink channel of multi-user wireless relaying networks in a coverage extension scenario. The network consists of two users, a single half duplex (HD) relay and a destination, all equipped with multiple antennas. Perfect channel state information (CSI) is assumed to be available exclusively at the receiving nodes (i.e., the relay and the destination) while the users are assumed to be completely blind. The communication through the considered network takes place over two phases. During the first phase, both users send their information concurrently to the relay. The second phase consists of decoding the received data and forwarding it simultaneously to the destination. A transmission scheme that achieves full-diversity under partial interference cancellation (PIC) group decoding is proposed. Unlike many existing schemes, it allows the concurrent transmission in both phases while achieving the full-diversity gain of full time division multiple access (TDMA) transmission regardless of the number of antennas at each node. Numerical comparison with existing schemes in the literature is provided to corroborate our theoretical claims. It is found that our interference cancellation (IC) scheme clearly outperforms existing schemes at the expense of an affordable increase in decoding complexity at both of the relay and destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Asymptotic Analysis of Large Cooperative Relay Networks Using Random Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Poor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative transmission is an emerging communication technology that takes advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless channels. In cooperative transmission, the use of relays can create a virtual antenna array so that multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO techniques can be employed. Most existing work in this area has focused on the situation in which there are a small number of sources and relays and a destination. In this paper, cooperative relay networks with large numbers of nodes are analyzed, and in particular the asymptotic performance improvement of cooperative transmission over direction transmission and relay transmission is analyzed using random matrix theory. The key idea is to investigate the eigenvalue distributions related to channel capacity and to analyze the moments of this distribution in large wireless networks. A performance upper bound is derived, the performance in the low signal-to-noise-ratio regime is analyzed, and two approximations are obtained for high and low relay-to-destination link qualities, respectively. Finally, simulations are provided to validate the accuracy of the analytical results. The analysis in this paper provides important tools for the understanding and the design of large cooperative wireless networks.

  6. Full-diversity partial interference cancellation for multi-user wireless relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    El Astal, M. T O; Ismail, Amr; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Olivier, Jan Corné

    2013-01-01

    We focus on the uplink channel of multi-user wireless relaying networks in a coverage extension scenario. The network consists of two users, a single half duplex (HD) relay and a destination, all equipped with multiple antennas. Perfect channel state information (CSI) is assumed to be available exclusively at the receiving nodes (i.e., the relay and the destination) while the users are assumed to be completely blind. The communication through the considered network takes place over two phases. During the first phase, both users send their information concurrently to the relay. The second phase consists of decoding the received data and forwarding it simultaneously to the destination. A transmission scheme that achieves full-diversity under partial interference cancellation (PIC) group decoding is proposed. Unlike many existing schemes, it allows the concurrent transmission in both phases while achieving the full-diversity gain of full time division multiple access (TDMA) transmission regardless of the number of antennas at each node. Numerical comparison with existing schemes in the literature is provided to corroborate our theoretical claims. It is found that our interference cancellation (IC) scheme clearly outperforms existing schemes at the expense of an affordable increase in decoding complexity at both of the relay and destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Joint Subcarrier Pairing and Resource Allocation for Cognitive Network and Adaptive Relaying Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-05-01

    Recent measurements show that the spectrum is under-utilized by licensed users in wireless communication. Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed as a suitable solution to manage the inefficient usage of the spectrum and increase coverage area of wireless networks. The concept is based on allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the unused radio spectrum originally owned by the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not cause harmful interference to the PUs. In the other hand, relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems and in particular in CR systems. In fact there are many types of cooperative communications, however the two main ones are decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. In this dissertation, we investigate the power allocation for an adaptive relaying protocol (ARP) scheme in cognitive system by maximizing the end-to-end rate and searching the best carriers pairing distribution. The optimization problem is under the interference and power budget constraints. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques, and the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy.

  8. Block compressed sensing for feedback reduction in relay-aided multiuser full duplex networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-08-11

    Opportunistic user selection is a simple technique that exploits the spatial diversity in multiuser relay-aided networks. Nonetheless, channel state information (CSI) from all users (and cooperating relays) is generally required at a central node in order to make selection decisions. Practically, CSI acquisition generates a great deal of feedback overhead that could result in significant transmission delays. In addition to this, the presence of a full-duplex cooperating relay corrupts the fed back CSI by additive noise and the relay\\'s loop (or self) interference. This could lead to transmission outages if user selection is based on inaccurate feedback information. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic full-duplex feedback algorithm that tackles the above challenges. We cast the problem of joint user signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the relay loop interference estimation at the base-station as a block sparse signal recovery problem in compressive sensing (CS). Using existing CS block recovery algorithms, the identity of the strong users is obtained and their corresponding SNRs are estimated. Numerical results show that the proposed technique drastically reduces the feedback overhead and achieves a rate close to that obtained by techniques that require dedicated error-free feedback from all users. Numerical results also show that there is a trade-off between the feedback interference and load, and for short coherence intervals, full-duplex feedback achieves higher throughput when compared to interference-free (half-duplex) feedback. © 2016 IEEE.

  9. Secure Communication for Two-Way Relay Networks with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a two-way relay network, where two legitimate users exchange messages through several cooperative relays in the presence of an eavesdropper, and the Channel State Information (CSI of the eavesdropper is imperfectly known. The Amplify-and-Forward (AF relay protocol is used. We design the relay beamforming weights to minimize the total relay transmit power, while requiring the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNRs of the legitimate users to be higher than the given thresholds and the achievable rate of the eavesdropper to be upper-bounded. Due to the imperfect CSI, a robust optimization problem is summarized. A novel iterative algorithm is proposed, where the line search technique is applied, and the feasibility is preserved during iterations. In each iteration, two Quadratically-Constrained Quadratic Programming (QCQP subproblems and a one-dimensional subproblem are optimally solved. The optimality property of the robust optimization problem is analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs very close to the non-robust model with perfect CSI, in terms of the obtained relay transmit power; it~achieves higher secrecy rate compared to the existing work. Numerically, the proposed algorithm converges very quickly, and more than 85% of the problems are solved optimally.

  10. On the Coded Packet Relay Network in the Presence of Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of optimal use of a relay for reducing the transmission time of data packets from a source to a destination using network coding. More importantly, we address an effect that is typically overlooked in previous studies: the presence of active transmitting nodes...... in the neighborhood of such devices, which is typical in wireless mesh networks. We show that in systems with a fair medium access control mechanism (MAC), the use of a relay in a crowded medium brings forth considerable and unforeseen improvements, including up to 3.5x gains in terms of throughput compared to using...... only the direct link in some of our examples, and a considerable extension of the operating region where using a relay is beneficial. The problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and numerical results are provided comparing simple, close–to–optimal heuristics to the optimal scheme....

  11. Relay-Assisted Primary and Secondary Transmissions in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El

    2016-09-27

    We assume a set of cognitive relay nodes that assists both primary and secondary transmissions in a time-slotted cognitive radio networks. To regulate the channel access of the various nodes in the network, we propose an overlapped spectrum sensing strategy for channel sensing, where the secondary source node senses the channel from the beginning of the time slot and the cognitive relay nodes sense the channel for double the sensing time used by the secondary source node to detect the activities of both the primary and secondary source nodes. Hence, the secondary source node has an intrinsic priority over the relay nodes. The relay nodes help both the primary user and the secondary user to deliver their unsuccessfully decoded packets at their destinations. In a given time slot, the scheduled relay node for data transmission starts its transmission when both the primary and secondary users are sensed to be inactive (i.e. have no data to transmit). We propose two optimization-based formulations with quality-of-service (QoS) constraints involving average queueing delay and average service rate requirements. We investigate both cases of perfect and imperfect spectrum sensing. To further enhance the users\\' QoS requirements, we propose three packet decoding strategies at the relay nodes and compare their performance. We derive an upper bound on the secondary queue average service rate to determine which decoding strategy can achieve that bound. Our numerical results show the benefits of relaying and its ability to enhance the performance of both the primary and secondary users. Moreover, the performance of the proposed schemes is close to the derived upper bound.

  12. Multi-Destination Cognitive Radio Relay Network with SWIPT and Multiple Primary Receivers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.

    2017-05-12

    In this paper, we study the performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique in a multi-destination dual-hop underlay cognitive relay network with multiple primary receivers. Information transmission from the secondary source to destinations is performed entirely via a decode- and-forward (DF) relay. The relay is assumed to have no embedded power source and to harvest energy from the source signal using a power splitting (PS) protocol and employing opportunistic scheduling to forward the information to the selected destination. We derive analytical expressions for the outage probability assuming Rayleigh fading channels and considering the energy harvesting efficiency at relay, the source maximum transmit power and primary receivers interference constraints. The system performance is also studied at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values where approximate expressions for the outage probability are provided and analyzed in terms of diversity order and coding gain. Monte-Carlo simulations and some numerical examples are provided to validate the derived expressions and to illustrate the effect of various system parameters on the system performance. In contrast to their conventional counterparts where a multi- destination diversity is usually achieved, the results show that the multi-destination cognitive radio relay networks with the SWIPT technique achieve a constant diversity order of one.

  13. Parity-Check Network Coding for Multiple Access Relay Channel in Wireless Sensor Cooperative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Bing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed theory suggests that network coding is a generalization of source coding and channel coding and thus yields a significant performance improvement in terms of throughput and spatial diversity. This paper proposes a cooperative design of a parity-check network coding scheme in the context of a two-source multiple access relay channel (MARC model, a common compact model in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The scheme uses Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC as the surrogate to build up a layered structure which encapsulates the multiple constituent LDPC codes in the source and relay nodes. Specifically, the relay node decodes the messages from two sources, which are used to generate extra parity-check bits by a random network coding procedure to fill up the rate gap between Source-Relay and Source-Destination transmissions. Then, we derived the key algebraic relationships among multidimensional LDPC constituent codes as one of the constraints for code profile optimization. These extra check bits are sent to the destination to realize a cooperative diversity as well as to approach MARC decode-and-forward (DF capacity.

  14. Analyzing the impact of relay station characteristics on uplink performance in cellular network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Heijenk, Geert

    2009-01-01

    Uplink users in cellular networks, such as UMTS/ HSPA, located at the edge of the cell generally suffer from poor channel conditions. Deploying intermediate relay nodes is seen as a promising approach towards extending cell coverage. This paper focuses on the role of packet scheduling in cellular

  15. Rate Control for Network-Coded Multipath Relaying with Time-Varying Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Armen Babikyan, Nathaniel M. Jones, Thomas H. Shake, and Andrew P. Worthen MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood Street Lexington, MA 02420 DDRE, 1777...delay U U U U SAR 11 Zach Sweet 781-981-5997 1 Rate Control for Network-Coded Multipath Relaying with Time-Varying Connectivity Brooke Shrader, Armen

  16. Protective relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Mu Ji; Jung, Hae Sang

    1974-10-01

    This book is divided into two chapters, which deals with protective relay. The first chapter deals with the basic knowledge of relay on development of relay, classification of protective relay, rating of protective relay general structure of protective relay, detecting of ground protection, about point of contact, operating relay and trip relaying. The second chapter is about structure and explanation of relay on classification by structure such as motor type and moving-coil type, explanation of other relays over current relay, over voltage relay, short voltage relay, relay for power, relay for direction, test of over voltage relay, test of short voltage relay and test of directional circuit relay.

  17. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...

  18. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Bader, Faouzi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-08-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Two Dimensional Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network with Relay Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kakitani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of non-cooperative and cooperative transmissions are investigated in a two-dimensional wireless sensor network, considering a target outage probability and the same end-to-end throughput for all transmission schemes. The impact of the relay selection method in the cooperative schemes is also analyzed. We show that under non line-of-sight conditions the relay selection method has a greater impact in the energy efficiency than the availability of a return channel. By its turn, under line-of-sight conditions a return channel is more valuable to the energy efficiency of cooperative transmission than the specific relay selection method. Finally, we demonstrate that the energy efficiency advantage of the cooperative over the non-cooperative transmission increases with the distance among nodes and with the nodes density.

  1. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  2. Secret-Key-Aided Scheme for Securing Untrusted DF Relaying Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El

    2017-06-12

    This paper proposes a new scheme to secure the transmissions in an untrusted decode-and-forward (DF) relaying network. A legitimate source node, Alice, sends her data to a legitimate destination node, Bob, with the aid of an untrusted DF relay node, Charlie. To secure the transmissions from Charlie during relaying time slots, each data codeword is secured using a secret-key codeword that has been previously shared between Alice and Bob during the perfectly secured time slots (i.e., when the channel secrecy rate is positive). The secret-key bits exchanged between Alice and Bob are stored in a finite-length buffer and are used to secure data transmission whenever needed. We model the secret-key buffer as a queueing system and analyze its Markov chain. Our numerical results show the gains of our proposed scheme relative to benchmarks. Moreover, the proposed scheme achieves an upper bound on the secure throughput.

  3. Joint Transmit Antenna Selection and Power Allocation for ISDF Relaying Mobile-to-Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingwei; Zhang, Hao; Gulliver, T Aaron

    2016-02-19

    The outage probability (OP) performance of multiple-relay incremental-selective decode-and-forward (ISDF) relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M) sensor networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS) over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. Exact closed-form OP expressions for both optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated to determine the optimal division of transmit power between the broadcast and relay phases. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated via numerical simulation to verify the analysis. These results show that the optimal TAS scheme has better OP performance than the suboptimal scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has a significant influence on the OP performance.

  4. Secret-Key-Aided Scheme for Securing Untrusted DF Relaying Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Mabrouk, Asma; Tourki, Kamel; Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new scheme to secure the transmissions in an untrusted decode-and-forward (DF) relaying network. A legitimate source node, Alice, sends her data to a legitimate destination node, Bob, with the aid of an untrusted DF relay node, Charlie. To secure the transmissions from Charlie during relaying time slots, each data codeword is secured using a secret-key codeword that has been previously shared between Alice and Bob during the perfectly secured time slots (i.e., when the channel secrecy rate is positive). The secret-key bits exchanged between Alice and Bob are stored in a finite-length buffer and are used to secure data transmission whenever needed. We model the secret-key buffer as a queueing system and analyze its Markov chain. Our numerical results show the gains of our proposed scheme relative to benchmarks. Moreover, the proposed scheme achieves an upper bound on the secure throughput.

  5. Wireless Power Transfer in Cooperative DF Relaying Networks with Log-Normal Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2017-02-07

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer in cooperative relaying networks have recently attracted a considerable amount of research attention. Most of the existing work on this topic however focuses on Rayleigh fading channels which represents outdoor environments. Unlike these studies, in this paper we analyze the performance of wireless power transfer in two-hop decode-and- forward (DF) cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Three well-known EH protocols are considered in our evaluations: a) time switching relaying (TSR), b) power splitting relaying (PSR) and c) ideal relaying receiver (IRR). The performance is evaluated in terms of the ergodic outage probability for which we derive accurate analytical expressions for the three systems under consideration. Results reveal that careful selection of the EH time and power splitting factors in the TSR- and PSR-based system are important to optimize performance. It is also presented that the optimized PSR system has near- ideal performance and that increasing the source transmit power and/or the energy harvester efficiency can further improve performance.

  6. Wireless Power Transfer in Cooperative DF Relaying Networks with Log-Normal Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.; Adebisi, Bamidele; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer in cooperative relaying networks have recently attracted a considerable amount of research attention. Most of the existing work on this topic however focuses on Rayleigh fading channels which represents outdoor environments. Unlike these studies, in this paper we analyze the performance of wireless power transfer in two-hop decode-and- forward (DF) cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Three well-known EH protocols are considered in our evaluations: a) time switching relaying (TSR), b) power splitting relaying (PSR) and c) ideal relaying receiver (IRR). The performance is evaluated in terms of the ergodic outage probability for which we derive accurate analytical expressions for the three systems under consideration. Results reveal that careful selection of the EH time and power splitting factors in the TSR- and PSR-based system are important to optimize performance. It is also presented that the optimized PSR system has near- ideal performance and that increasing the source transmit power and/or the energy harvester efficiency can further improve performance.

  7. Block compressed sensing for feedback reduction in relay-aided multiuser full duplex networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Eltayeb, Mohammed; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Bahrami, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic user selection is a simple technique that exploits the spatial diversity in multiuser relay-aided networks. Nonetheless, channel state information (CSI) from all users (and cooperating relays) is generally required at a central node in order to make selection decisions. Practically, CSI acquisition generates a great deal of feedback overhead that could result in significant transmission delays. In addition to this, the presence of a full-duplex cooperating relay corrupts the fed back CSI by additive noise and the relay's loop (or self) interference. This could lead to transmission outages if user selection is based on inaccurate feedback information. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic full-duplex feedback algorithm that tackles the above challenges. We cast the problem of joint user signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the relay loop interference estimation at the base-station as a block sparse signal recovery problem in compressive sensing (CS). Using existing CS block recovery algorithms, the identity of the strong users is obtained and their corresponding SNRs are estimated. Numerical results show that the proposed technique drastically reduces the feedback overhead and achieves a rate close to that obtained by techniques that require dedicated error-free feedback from all users. Numerical results also show that there is a trade-off between the feedback interference and load, and for short coherence intervals, full-duplex feedback achieves higher throughput when compared to interference-free (half-duplex) feedback. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. Relay Protection Coordination for Photovoltaic Power Plant Connected on Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Srete; Papuga, Vanja; Knežević, Goran

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure and computation of relay protection coordination for a PV power plant connected to the distribution network. In recent years, the growing concern for environment preservation has caused expansion of photovoltaic PV power plants in distribution networks. Numerical computer simulation is an indispensable tool for studying photovoltaic (PV) systems protection coordination. In this paper, EasyPower computer program is used with the module Power Protector. Time-curr...

  9. Continuous-variable Measurement-device-independent Quantum Relay Network with Phase-sensitive Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is now heading towards solving the practical problem of implementing scalable quantum networks. In this paper, we show that a solution can come from deploying an optical amplifier in the CV-MDI system, aiming to establish a high-rate quantum network. We suggest an improved CV-MDI protocol using the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, where the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Despite the possibility that the relay could be completely tampered with and imperfect links are subject to the powerful attacks, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Furthermore, we show that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the inherent imperfections and improve the secret key rate of the CV-MDI system.

  10. Performance analysis of best relay selection scheme for amplify-and-forward cooperative networks in identical Nakagami-m channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2010-06-01

    In cooperative communication networks, the use of multiple relays between the source and the destination was proposed to increase the diversity gain. Since the source and all the relays must transmit on orthogonal channels, multiple relay cooperation is considered inefficient in terms of channel resources and bandwidth utilization. To overcome this problem, the concept of best relay selection was recently proposed. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the best relay selection scheme for a cooperative network with multiple relays operating in amplify-and-forward (AF) mode over identical Nakagami-m channels using exact source-relay-destination signal to noise ratio (SNR) expression. We derive accurate closed form expressions for various system parameters including probability density function (pdf) of end-to-end SNR, average output SNR, average probability of bit error and average channel capacity. T he analytical results are verified through extensive simulations. It is shown that the best relay selection scheme performs better than the regular all relay cooperation.

  11. Increasing the coverage area through relay node deployment in long term evolution advanced cellular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yahya, A.; Azeez, Suzan A.

    2015-05-01

    Wireless multi-hop relay networks have become very important technologies in mobile communications. These networks ensure high throughput and coverage extension with a low cost. The poor capacity at cell edges is not enough to meet with growing demand of high capacity and throughput irrespective of user's placement in the cellular network. In this paper we propose optimal placement of relay node that provides maximum achievable rate at users and enhances the throughput and coverage at cell edge region. The proposed scheme is based on the outage probability at users and taken on account the interference between nodes. Numerical analyses along with simulation results indicated there are an improvement in capacity for users at the cell edge is 40% increment from all cell capacity.

  12. Energy-harvesting in cooperative AF relaying networks over log-normal fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.; Salem, Abdelhamid; Alsusa, Emad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer are increasingly becoming a promising source of power in future wireless networks and have recently attracted a considerable amount of research, particularly on cooperative two-hop relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast, this paper investigates the performance of wireless power transfer based two-hop cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Specifically, two EH protocols are considered here, namely, time switching relaying (TSR) and power splitting relaying (PSR). Our findings include accurate analytical expressions for the ergodic capacity and ergodic outage probability for the two aforementioned protocols. Monte Carlo simulations are used throughout to confirm the accuracy of our analysis. The results show that increasing the channel variance will always provide better ergodic capacity performance. It is also shown that a good selection of the EH time in the TSR protocol, and the power splitting factor in the PTS protocol, is the key to achieve the best system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. Energy-harvesting in cooperative AF relaying networks over log-normal fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2016-07-26

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer are increasingly becoming a promising source of power in future wireless networks and have recently attracted a considerable amount of research, particularly on cooperative two-hop relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast, this paper investigates the performance of wireless power transfer based two-hop cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Specifically, two EH protocols are considered here, namely, time switching relaying (TSR) and power splitting relaying (PSR). Our findings include accurate analytical expressions for the ergodic capacity and ergodic outage probability for the two aforementioned protocols. Monte Carlo simulations are used throughout to confirm the accuracy of our analysis. The results show that increasing the channel variance will always provide better ergodic capacity performance. It is also shown that a good selection of the EH time in the TSR protocol, and the power splitting factor in the PTS protocol, is the key to achieve the best system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  14. Resource Allocation for the Multiband Relay Channel: A Building Block for Hybrid Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghwan Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate optimal resource allocation for the multiband relay channel. We find the optimal power and bandwidth allocation strategies that maximize the bounds on the capacity, by solving the corresponding max-min optimization problem. We provide sufficient conditions under which the associated max-min problem is equivalent to a supporting plane problem, which renders the solution for an arbitrary number of bands tractable. In addition, the sufficient conditions derived are general enough so that a class of utility functions can be accommodated with this formulation. As an example, we concentrate on the case where the source has two bands and the relay has a single band available and find the optimal resource allocation. We observe that joint power and bandwidth optimization always yields higher achievable rates than power optimization alone, establishing the merit of bandwidth sharing. Motivated by our analytical results, we examine a simple scenario where new channels become available for a transmitter to communicate; that is, new source to relay bands are added to a frequency division relay network. Given the channel conditions of the network, we establish the guidelines on how to allocate resources in order to achieve higher rates, depending on the relative quality of the available links.

  15. On Coverage and Capacity for Disaster Area Wireless Networks Using Mobile Relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Wenxuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Public safety organizations increasingly rely on wireless technology to provide effective communications during emergency and disaster response operations. This paper presents a comprehensive study on dynamic placement of relay nodes (RNs in a disaster area wireless network. It is based on our prior work of mobility model that characterizes the spatial movement of the first responders as mobile nodes (MNs during their operations. We first investigate the COverage-oriented Relay Placement (CORP problem that is to maximize the total number of MNs connected with the relays. Considering the network throughput, we then study the CApacity-oriented Relay Placement (CARP problem that is to maximize the aggregated data rate of all MNs. For both coverage and capacity studies, we provide each the optimal and the greedy algorithms with computational complexity analysis. Furthermore, simulation results are presented to compare the performance between the greedy and the optimal solutions for the CORP and CARP problems, respectively. It is shown that the greedy algorithms can achieve near optimal performance but at significantly lower computational complexity.

  16. A Matrix-Based Proactive Data Relay Algorithm for Large Distributed Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Hu, Xuemei; Hu, Haixiao; Liu, Ming

    2016-08-16

    In large-scale distributed sensor networks, sensed data is required to be relayed around the network so that one or few sensors can gather adequate relative data to produce high quality information for decision-making. In regards to very high energy-constraint sensor nodes, data transmission should be extremely economical. However, traditional data delivery protocols are potentially inefficient relaying unpredictable sensor readings for data fusion in large distributed networks for either overwhelming query transmissions or unnecessary data coverage. By building sensors' local model from their previously transmitted data in three matrixes, we have developed a novel energy-saving data relay algorithm, which allows sensors to proactively make broadcast decisions by using a neat matrix computation to provide balance between transmission and energy-saving. In addition, we designed a heuristic maintenance algorithm to efficiently update these three matrices. This can easily be deployed to large-scale mobile networks in which decisions of sensors are based on their local matrix models no matter how large the network is, and the local models of these sensors are updated constantly. Compared with some traditional approaches based on our simulations, the efficiency of this approach is manifested in uncertain environment. The results show that our approach is scalable and can effectively balance aggregating data with minimizing energy consumption.

  17. A Matrix-Based Proactive Data Relay Algorithm for Large Distributed Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale distributed sensor networks, sensed data is required to be relayed around the network so that one or few sensors can gather adequate relative data to produce high quality information for decision-making. In regards to very high energy-constraint sensor nodes, data transmission should be extremely economical. However, traditional data delivery protocols are potentially inefficient relaying unpredictable sensor readings for data fusion in large distributed networks for either overwhelming query transmissions or unnecessary data coverage. By building sensors’ local model from their previously transmitted data in three matrixes, we have developed a novel energy-saving data relay algorithm, which allows sensors to proactively make broadcast decisions by using a neat matrix computation to provide balance between transmission and energy-saving. In addition, we designed a heuristic maintenance algorithm to efficiently update these three matrices. This can easily be deployed to large-scale mobile networks in which decisions of sensors are based on their local matrix models no matter how large the network is, and the local models of these sensors are updated constantly. Compared with some traditional approaches based on our simulations, the efficiency of this approach is manifested in uncertain environment. The results show that our approach is scalable and can effectively balance aggregating data with minimizing energy consumption.

  18. Joint Resource Optimization for Cognitive Sensor Networks with SWIPT-Enabled Relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weidang; Lin, Yuanrong; Peng, Hong; Nan, Tian; Liu, Xin

    2017-09-13

    Energy-constrained wireless networks, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are usually powered by fixed energy supplies (e.g., batteries), which limits the operation time of networks. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is a promising technique to prolong the lifetime of energy-constrained wireless networks. This paper investigates the performance of an underlay cognitive sensor network (CSN) with SWIPT-enabled relay node. In the CSN, the amplify-and-forward (AF) relay sensor node harvests energy from the ambient radio-frequency (RF) signals using power splitting-based relaying (PSR) protocol. Then, it helps forward the signal of source sensor node (SSN) to the destination sensor node (DSN) by using the harvested energy. We study the joint resource optimization including the transmit power and power splitting ratio to maximize CSN's achievable rate with the constraint that the interference caused by the CSN to the primary users (PUs) is within the permissible threshold. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed joint resource optimization can be significantly improved.

  19. Bi-Directional Theta Modulation between the Septo-Hippocampal System and the Mammillary Area in Free-Moving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ruan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal (HPC theta oscillations have long been linked to various functions of the brain. Many cortical and subcortical areas that also exhibit theta oscillations have been linked to functional circuits with the hippocampus on the basis of coupled activities at theta frequencies. We examine, in freely moving rats, the characteristics of diencephalic theta local field potentials (LFPs recorded in the supramammillary/mammillary (SuM/MM areas that are bi-directionally connected to the HPC through the septal complex. Using partial directed coherence (PDC, we find support for previous suggestions that SuM modulates HPC theta at higher frequencies. We find weak separation of SuM and MM by dominant theta frequency recorded locally. Contrary to oscillatory cell activities under anesthesia where SuM is insensitive, but MM is sensitive to medial septal (MS inactivation, theta LFPs persisted and became indistinguishable after MS-inactivation. However, MS-inactivation attenuated SuM/MM theta power, while increasing the frequency of SuM/MM theta. MS-inactivation also reduced root mean squared power in both HPC and SuM/MM equally, but reduced theta power differentially in the time domain. We provide converging evidence that SuM is preferentially involved in coding HPC theta at higher frequencies, and that the MS-HPC circuit normally imposes a frequency-limiting modulation over the SuM/MM area as suggested by cell-based recordings in anesthetized animals. In addition, we provide evidence that the postulated SuM-MS-HPC-MM circuit is under complex bi-directional control, rather than SuM and MM having roles as unidirectional relays in the network.

  20. Adaptive Relay Activation in the Network Coding Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art Network coding based routing protocols exploit the link quality information to compute the transmission rate in the intermediate nodes. However, the link quality discovery protocols are usually inaccurate, and introduce overhead in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we presen...

  1. Wireless Powered Relaying Networks Under Imperfect Channel State Information: System Performance and Optimal Policy for Instantaneous Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Do

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, we consider wireless powered relaying systems, where energy is scavenged by a relay via radio frequency (RF signals. We explore hybrid time switching-based and power splitting-based relaying protocol (HTPSR and compare performance of Amplify-and-Forward (AF with Decode-and-Forward (DF scheme under imperfect channel state information (CSI. Most importantly, the instantaneous rate, achievable bit error rate (BER are determined in the closed-form expressions under the impact of imperfect CSI. Through numerical analysis, we evaluate system insights via different parameters such as power splitting (PS and time switching (TS ratio of the considered HTPSR which affect outage performance and BER. It is noted that DF relaying networks outperform AF relaying networks. Besides that, the numerical results are given to prove the optimization problems of PS and TS ratio to obtain optimal instantaneous rate.

  2. Beamforming-Based Physical Layer Network Coding for Non-Regenerative Multi-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose non-regenerative multi-way relaying where a half-duplex multi-antenna relay station (RS assists multiple single-antenna nodes to communicate with each other. The required number of communication phases is equal to the number of the nodes, N. There are only one multiple-access phase, where the nodes transmit simultaneously to the RS, and broadcast (BC phases. Two transmission methods for the BC phases are proposed, namely, multiplexing transmission and analog network coded transmission. The latter is a cooperation method between the RS and the nodes to manage the interference in the network. Assuming that perfect channel state information is available, the RS performs transceive beamforming to the received signals and transmits simultaneously to all nodes in each BC phase. We address the optimum transceive beamforming maximising the sum rate of non-regenerative multi-way relaying. Due to the nonconvexity of the optimization problem, we propose suboptimum but practical signal processing schemes. For multiplexing transmission, we propose suboptimum schemes based on zero forcing, minimising the mean square error, and maximising the signal to noise ratio. For analog network coded transmission, we propose suboptimum schemes based on matched filtering and semidefinite relaxation of maximising the minimum signal to noise ratio. It is shown that analog network coded transmission outperforms multiplexing transmission.

  3. Relay Selection with Limited and Noisy Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Elkhalil, Khalil; Mas'ud, Abdullahi Abubakar; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Nonetheless, relay selection algorithms generally require error-free channel state information (CSI) from all cooperating relays. Practically, CSI

  4. Opportunistic Relay Selection With Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Elkhalil, Khalil; Bahrami, Hamid Reza; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Generally, relay selection algorithms require channel state information (CSI) feedback from all cooperating relays to make a selection decision

  5. Security-Reliability Trade-Off Analysis for Multiuser SIMO Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks With Opportunistic User Scheduling

    KAUST Repository

    El-Malek, Ahmed H. Abd; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of multiuser single-input multiple-output mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling. The considered system includes multiple users, one amplify

  6. Enhancing Physical Layer Security of Multiuser SIMO Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Multi-Eavesdroppers

    KAUST Repository

    El-Malek, Ahmed H. Abd; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the secrecy performance of multiuser (MU) single-input multiple-output (SIMO) mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling and multiple eavesdropping attacks

  7. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Chen, Yunfei; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized

  8. Improving Spectral Capacity and Wireless Network Coverage by Cognitive Radio Technology and Relay Nodes in Cellular Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge

    2008-01-01

    Methods to enhance the use of the frequency spectrum by automatical spectrum sensing plus spectrum sharing in a cognitive radio technology context have been presented and discussed in this paper. Ideas to improve the wireless transmission by orthogonal OFDM-based communication and to increase the...... the coverage of cellular systems by future wireless networks, relay channels, relay stations and collaborate radio have been presented as well. A revised hierarchical deployment of the future wireless and wired networks are shortly discussed....

  9. LTE-A cellular networks multi-hop relay for coverage, capacity and performance enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Yahya, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this book, three different methods are presented to enhance the capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular networks. The scope involves the evaluation of the effect of the RN location in terms of capacity and the determination of the optimum location of the relay that provides maximum achievable data rate for users with limited interference at the cell boundaries. This book presents a new model to enhance both capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular network by determining the optimum location for the RN with limited interference. The new model is designed to enhance the capacity of the relay link by employing two antennas in RN. This design enables the relay link to absorb more users at cell edge regions. An algorithm called the Balance Power Algorithm (BPA) is developed to reduce MR power consumption. The book pertains to postgraduate students and researchers in wireless & mobile communications. Provides a variety of methods for enhancing capacity and coverage in LTE-A cellular networks Develop...

  10. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  11. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-10-24

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  12. Boarding Team Networking on the Move: Applying Unattended Relay Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Operations MPU Man Portable Unit NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NOC Network Operations Center OSI Open Source Initiative RHIB Rigid Hull...portion of world trade, while by economic value containerized goods form the largest portion [3]. Although economical value containers are most often...back of technological and logistical obstacles to inspect all containers, it is neither feasible nor economical to inspect every container entering

  13. Cross-Layer Design for Two-Way Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhuo wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a cross-layer design for two-way relaying (TWR networks with multiple antennas, where two single antenna source nodes exchange information with the aid of one multiple antenna relay node. The proposed cross-layer design considers adaptive modulation (AM and space-time block coding (STBC at the physical layer with an automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol at the data link layer, in order to maximize the spectral efficiency under specific delay and packet error ratio (PER constraints. An MMSE-interference cancellation (IC receiver is employed at the relay node, to remove the interference in the fist phase of the TWR transmission. The transmission mode is updated for each phase of the TWR transmission on a frame-by-frame basis, to match the time-varying channel conditions and exploit the system performance and throughput gain. Simulation results show that retransmission at the data link layer could alleviate rigorous error-control requirements at the physical layer, and thereby allows higher data transmission. As a result, cross-layer design helps to achieve considerable system spectral efficiency gain for TWR networks, compared to those without cross-layer design.

  14. Robust distributed two-way relay beamforming in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present distributed beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) consisting of a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicating with each other through a set of secondary non-regenerative two-way relays. The secondary network shares the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and operates under a constraint on the maximum interference to the PU, in addition to its own resource and quality of service (QoS) constraints. We propose beamformer designs assuming that the available channel state information (CSI) is imperfect, which reflects realistic scenarios. The performance of proposed designs is robust to the CSI errors. Such robustness is critical in CRNs given the difficulty in acquiring perfect CSI due to loose cooperation between the PUs and the secondary users (SUs), and the need for strict enforcement of PU interference limit. We consider a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the improved performance of the proposed robust designs compared to non-robust designs. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. On Secrecy Outage of Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Huan; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Ren, Zhi; Pan, Gaofeng; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the secrecy outage performance of an underlay cognitive decode-and-forward relay network over independent but not necessarily identical distributed (i.n.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated, in which the secondary user transmitter communicates with the secondary destination via relays, and an eavesdropper attempts to overhear the information. Based on whether the channel state information (CSI) of the wiretap links is available or not, we analyze the secrecy outage performance with optimal relay selection (ORS) and suboptimal relay selection (SRS) schemes, and multiple relays combining scheme (MRC) scheme is considered for comparison purpose. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability with three different relay selection schemes are derived and verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results illustrate that ORS scheme always outperforms SRS and MRC schemes, and SRS scheme is better than MRC scheme in the lower fading parameters scenario. Furthermore, through asymptotic analysis, we find that these three different schemes achieve the same secrecy diversity order, which is determined by the number of the relays, and the fading parameters of the links among the relays and the destination.

  16. On Secrecy Outage of Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, the secrecy outage performance of an underlay cognitive decode-and-forward relay network over independent but not necessarily identical distributed (i.n.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated, in which the secondary user transmitter communicates with the secondary destination via relays, and an eavesdropper attempts to overhear the information. Based on whether the channel state information (CSI) of the wiretap links is available or not, we analyze the secrecy outage performance with optimal relay selection (ORS) and suboptimal relay selection (SRS) schemes, and multiple relays combining scheme (MRC) scheme is considered for comparison purpose. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability with three different relay selection schemes are derived and verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results illustrate that ORS scheme always outperforms SRS and MRC schemes, and SRS scheme is better than MRC scheme in the lower fading parameters scenario. Furthermore, through asymptotic analysis, we find that these three different schemes achieve the same secrecy diversity order, which is determined by the number of the relays, and the fading parameters of the links among the relays and the destination.

  17. Cooperative beamforming for dual-hop amplify-and-forward multi-antenna relaying cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, linear beamforming design for amplify-and-forward relaying cellular networks is considered, in which base station, relay station and mobile terminals are all equipped with multiple antennas. The design is based on minimum mean-square-error criterion, and both uplink and downlink scenarios are considered. It is found that the downlink and uplink beamforming design problems are in the same form, and iterative algorithms with the same structure can be used to solve the design problems. For the specific cases of fully loaded or overloaded uplink systems, a novel algorithm is derived and its relationships with several existing beamforming design algorithms for conventional MIMO or multiuser systems are revealed. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance advantage of the proposed design algorithms. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooperative beamforming for dual-hop amplify-and-forward multi-antenna relaying cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen; Ma, Shaodan; Xia, Minghua; Wu, Yikchung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear beamforming design for amplify-and-forward relaying cellular networks is considered, in which base station, relay station and mobile terminals are all equipped with multiple antennas. The design is based on minimum mean-square-error criterion, and both uplink and downlink scenarios are considered. It is found that the downlink and uplink beamforming design problems are in the same form, and iterative algorithms with the same structure can be used to solve the design problems. For the specific cases of fully loaded or overloaded uplink systems, a novel algorithm is derived and its relationships with several existing beamforming design algorithms for conventional MIMO or multiuser systems are revealed. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance advantage of the proposed design algorithms. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ARQ Protocols in Cognitive Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks: Opportunities Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two novel automatic-repeat-request (ARQ based protocols were proposed, which exploit coop- eration opportunity inherent in secondary retransmission to create access opportunities. If the signal was not decoded correctly in destination, another user can be acted as a relay to reduce retransmission rounds by relaying the signal. For comparison, we also propose a Direct ARQ Protocol. Specif- ically, we derive the exact closed-form outage probability of three protocols, which provides an effective means to evalu- ate the effects of several parameters. Moreover, we propose a new metric to evaluate the performance improvement for cognitive networks. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations were presented to validate the theory analysis, and a comparison is made among the three protocols.

  20. Towards Efficient Wireless Body Area Network Using Two-Way Relay Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maham Waheed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of lightweight, ultra-thin, low power and intelligent body-borne sensors leads to novel advances in wireless body area networks (WBANs. Depending on the placement of the nodes, it is characterized as in/on body WBAN; thus, the channel is largely affected by body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature and climatic conditions. The energy resources are limited and it is not feasible to replace the sensor’s battery frequently. In order to keep the sensor in working condition, the channel resources should be reserved. The lifetime of the sensor is very crucial and it highly depends on transmission among sensor nodes and energy consumption. The reliability and energy efficiency in WBAN applications play a vital role. In this paper, the analytical expressions for energy efficiency (EE and packet error rate (PER are formulated for two-way relay cooperative communication. The results depict better reliability and efficiency compared to direct and one-way relay communication. The effective performance range of direct vs. cooperative communication is separated by a threshold distance. Based on EE calculations, an optimal packet size is observed that provides maximum efficiency over a certain link length. A smart and energy efficient system is articulated that utilizes all three communication modes, namely direct, one-way relay and two-way relay, as the direct link performs better for a certain range, but the cooperative communication gives better results for increased distance in terms of EE. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid scheme is also demonstrated over a practical quasi-static channel. Furthermore, link length extension and diversity is achieved by joint network-channel (JNC coding the cooperative link.

  1. Towards Efficient Wireless Body Area Network Using Two-Way Relay Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Maham; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmed, Waqas; Drieberg, Micheal; Alam, Muhammad Mahtab

    2018-02-13

    The fabrication of lightweight, ultra-thin, low power and intelligent body-borne sensors leads to novel advances in wireless body area networks (WBANs). Depending on the placement of the nodes, it is characterized as in/on body WBAN; thus, the channel is largely affected by body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature and climatic conditions. The energy resources are limited and it is not feasible to replace the sensor's battery frequently. In order to keep the sensor in working condition, the channel resources should be reserved. The lifetime of the sensor is very crucial and it highly depends on transmission among sensor nodes and energy consumption. The reliability and energy efficiency in WBAN applications play a vital role. In this paper, the analytical expressions for energy efficiency (EE) and packet error rate (PER) are formulated for two-way relay cooperative communication. The results depict better reliability and efficiency compared to direct and one-way relay communication. The effective performance range of direct vs. cooperative communication is separated by a threshold distance. Based on EE calculations, an optimal packet size is observed that provides maximum efficiency over a certain link length. A smart and energy efficient system is articulated that utilizes all three communication modes, namely direct, one-way relay and two-way relay, as the direct link performs better for a certain range, but the cooperative communication gives better results for increased distance in terms of EE. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid scheme is also demonstrated over a practical quasi-static channel. Furthermore, link length extension and diversity is achieved by joint network-channel (JNC) coding the cooperative link.

  2. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks.

  3. Combined Rate and Power Allocation with Link Scheduling in Wireless Data Packet Relay Networks with Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Subhrakanti Dey; Minyi Huang

    2007-01-01

    We consider a joint rate and power control problem in a wireless data traffic relay network with fading channels. The optimization problem is formulated in terms of power and rate selection, and link transmission scheduling. The objective is to seek high aggregate utility of the relay node when taking into account buffer load management and power constraints. The optimal solution for a single transmitting source is computed by a two-layer dynamic programming algorithm which leads to optimal ...

  4. Performance Analysis and Optimization of Millimeter Wave Networks with Dual-Hop Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2017-11-16

    In this paper, we use dual-hop relaying to overcome the signal blockage problem that occurs for millimeter waves (mmWaves) due to obstacles located in the propagation environment. Using device-to-device communication, a device in the neighborhood of the transmitter and the receiver can play the role of a relay by amplifying the signal from the source device and forwarding it to the destination device. We consider that both the relay and the destination devices are subject to interference. We study the performance of this mmWave network and derive an exact and asymptotic expressions for the bit error probability (BEP). The exact BEP expression is validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The asymptotic BEP allows determining the diversity order and the coding gain of the communication system. Additionally, we investigate the power allocation optimization subject to a power constraint and derive an analytical expression for the optimal power. Numerical results illustrate the gain achieved in terms of BEP thanks to optimal power allocation.

  5. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  6. Optimal transmit power allocation for MIMO two-way cognitive relay networks with multiple relays using AF strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-02-01

    In this letter, we consider a multiple-input multiple-output two-way cognitive radio system under a spectrum sharing scenario, where primary and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. The secondary terminals aims to exchange different messages with each other using multiple relays where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The main objective of our work is to maximize the secondary sum rate allowed to share the spectrum with the primary users by respecting a primary user tolerated interference threshold. In this context, we derive an analytical expression of the optimal power allocated to each antenna of the terminals. We then discuss the impact of some system parameters on the performance in the numerical result section. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. On the performance of two-way multiuser mixed RF/FSO relay networks with opportunistic scheduling & asymmetric channel gains

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two-way relaying (TWR) multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. First, closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability, asymptotic (high signal-to-noise ration (SNR)) outage probability, and average ergodic channel capacity are derived assuming heterodyne detection (HD) scheme. Additionally, impacts of several system parameters including number of users, pointing errors, and atmospheric turbulence conditions on the overall network performance are investigated. All the theoretical results are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results show that the TWR scheme almost doubles the network ergodic capacity compared to that of one-way relaying (OWR) scheme with the same outage performance. Additionally, the overall diversity order of the network is shown to be affected not only by the number of users, but it is also a function of the pointing error and atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  8. On the performance of two-way multiuser mixed RF/FSO relay networks with opportunistic scheduling & asymmetric channel gains

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, the performance of two-way relaying (TWR) multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. First, closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability, asymptotic (high signal-to-noise ration (SNR)) outage probability, and average ergodic channel capacity are derived assuming heterodyne detection (HD) scheme. Additionally, impacts of several system parameters including number of users, pointing errors, and atmospheric turbulence conditions on the overall network performance are investigated. All the theoretical results are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results show that the TWR scheme almost doubles the network ergodic capacity compared to that of one-way relaying (OWR) scheme with the same outage performance. Additionally, the overall diversity order of the network is shown to be affected not only by the number of users, but it is also a function of the pointing error and atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  9. Optimal Coordination of Distance and Directional Overcurrent Relays Considering Different Network Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Damchi; J. Sadeh; H. Rajabi Mashhadi

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in relay coordination have focused solely on coordination of overcurrent relays while distance relays are used as the main protection of transmission lines. Since, simultaneous coordination of these two types of relays can provide a better protection, in this paper, a new approach is proposed for simultaneous coordination of distance and directional overcurrent relays (D&DOCRs). Also, pursued by most of the previously published studies, the settings of D&DOCRs are usually determi...

  10. Uplink capacity of multi-class IEEE 802.16j relay networks with adaptive modulation and coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Xiong, C; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2009-01-01

    The emerging IEEE 802.16j mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) network is currently being developed to increase the user throughput and extend the service coverage as an enhancement of existing 802.16e standard. In 802.16j, the intermediate relay stations (RSs) help the base station (BS) communicate...... with those mobile stations (MSs) that are either too far away from the BS or placed in an area where direct communication with BS experiences unsatisfactory level of service. In this paper, we investigate the uplink Erlang capacity of a two-hop 802.16j relay system supporting both voice and data traffics...... with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) scheme applied in the physical layer. We first develop analytical models to calculate the blocking probability in the access zone and the outage probability in the relay zone, respectively. Then a joint algorithm is proposed to determine the bandwidth distribution...

  11. Time and Energy Efficient Relay Transmission for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Barrado, José Ramón Ramos; Jeon, Dong-Keun

    2016-06-27

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely recognized as one of the most successful enabling technologies for short range low rate wireless communications and it is used in IoT applications. It covers all the details related to the MAC and PHY layers of the IoT protocol stack. Due to the nature of IoT, the wireless sensor networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. One of the issues in IoT is the network scalability. To address this issue, it is necessary to support the multi-hop topology. The IEEE 802.15.4 network can support a star, peer-to-peer, or cluster-tree topology. One of the IEEE 802.15.4 topologies suited for the high predictability of performance guarantees and energy efficient behavior is a cluster-tree topology where sensor nodes can switch off their transceivers and go into a sleep state to save energy. However, the IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree topology may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load and the additional information may not be delivered successfully. The common drawback of the existing approaches is that they do not address the poor bandwidth utilization problem in IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree networks, so it is difficult to increase the network performance. Therefore, to solve this problem in this paper we study a relay transmission protocol based on the standard protocol in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In the proposed scheme, the coordinators can relay data frames to their parent devices or their children devices without contention and can provide bandwidth for the increased traffic load or the number of devices. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the reliability, the end-to-end delay, and the energy consumption.

  12. Time and Energy Efficient Relay Transmission for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely recognized as one of the most successful enabling technologies for short range low rate wireless communications and it is used in IoT applications. It covers all the details related to the MAC and PHY layers of the IoT protocol stack. Due to the nature of IoT, the wireless sensor networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. One of the issues in IoT is the network scalability. To address this issue, it is necessary to support the multi-hop topology. The IEEE 802.15.4 network can support a star, peer-to-peer, or cluster-tree topology. One of the IEEE 802.15.4 topologies suited for the high predictability of performance guarantees and energy efficient behavior is a cluster-tree topology where sensor nodes can switch off their transceivers and go into a sleep state to save energy. However, the IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree topology may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load and the additional information may not be delivered successfully. The common drawback of the existing approaches is that they do not address the poor bandwidth utilization problem in IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree networks, so it is difficult to increase the network performance. Therefore, to solve this problem in this paper we study a relay transmission protocol based on the standard protocol in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In the proposed scheme, the coordinators can relay data frames to their parent devices or their children devices without contention and can provide bandwidth for the increased traffic load or the number of devices. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the reliability, the end-to-end delay, and the energy consumption.

  13. Low-complexity full-rate transmission scheme with full diversity for two-path relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Existing full-rate transmission schemes for two-path relay networks typically cannot achieve full diversity while demanding high decoding complexity. In this paper, we present a novel low-complexity full-rate transmission scheme for two-path relay networks to harvest maximum achievable diversity. The proposed scheme adopts block transmission with small block size of four symbols, which greatly reduces the decoding complexity at the receiver. Through the performance analysis of the resulting two-path relay network in terms of the symbol error rate (SER) and diversity order, we show the proposed scheme can achieve full diversity order of four and mimic a 2 \\times 2 multiple-input multiple-output system. Simulations results are provided to validate the mathematical formulation. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  14. Low-complexity full-rate transmission scheme with full diversity for two-path relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2015-04-01

    Existing full-rate transmission schemes for two-path relay networks typically cannot achieve full diversity while demanding high decoding complexity. In this paper, we present a novel low-complexity full-rate transmission scheme for two-path relay networks to harvest maximum achievable diversity. The proposed scheme adopts block transmission with small block size of four symbols, which greatly reduces the decoding complexity at the receiver. Through the performance analysis of the resulting two-path relay network in terms of the symbol error rate (SER) and diversity order, we show the proposed scheme can achieve full diversity order of four and mimic a 2 \\\\times 2 multiple-input multiple-output system. Simulations results are provided to validate the mathematical formulation. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  15. Joint Power Allocation and Beamforming in Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks under Per-Node Power Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Azami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-way relay networks (TWRN have been intensively investigated over the past decade due to their ability to enhance the performance assessment of networks in terms of cellular coverage and spectral efficiency. Yet, power control in such systems is a nontrivial issue, particularly in multirelay networks where relays are deployed to ensure a required Quality of Service (QoS. In this paper, we envision to address this critical issue by minimizing the sum-power with respect to per-node power consumption and acceptable users’ rates. To tackle this, we employ a variable transformation to turn the fractional quadratically constrained quadratic problem (QCQP into semidefinite programming (SDP. This algorithm is also extended to a distributed format. Simulation results of deploying 10 relay stations reveal that the total power consumption will decrease to approximately 8 dBW for 6 bps/Hz sum-rate.

  16. A Novel Design of Microstrip Arrays for Relay-Based Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Petropoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A relay station (RS is a smart transceiver used under a 4G wireless network in order to extend network's coverage and capacity. It uses an antenna system that includes an antenna for connecting the relay with the end users (access link and the RS with the base station (backhaul link. In this paper, a 7.9 dBi access and 11.4 dBi backhaul antennas are presented for the frequency range of 3.3 to 3.8 GHz. The antennas are simulated and fabricated, and relevant measured results in terms of return loss and radiation pattern are presented and analyzed. Considering that the planes of those two antennas are positioned in an angle (omega, two antenna configuration geometries are tested in terms of coupling. The experimental results of 21 for several values of the angle show that the interaction between the radiating elements is dependent on their relative position. Simulated and experimental results are in good agreement, showing coupling typically less than −40 dB. A comparison in terms of coupling between the proposed antennas and commercial ones proves that the suggested antennas provide 10 dB lower coupling.

  17. Systematic Network Coding with the Aid of a Full-Duplex Relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacaglia, Giuliano; Shi, Xiaomeng; Kim, MinJi

    2013-01-01

    is to deliver a given number of data packets to a receiver with the aid of a relay. The source broadcasts to both the receiver and the relay using one frequency, while the relay uses another frequency for transmissions to the receiver, allowing for a full-duplex operation of the relay. We analyze the decoding...... complexity and delay performance of two types of relays: one that preserves the systematic structure of the code from the source; another that does not. A systematic relay forwards uncoded packets upon reception, but transmits coded packets to the receiver after receiving the first coded packet from...

  18. On the Coded Packet Relay Network in the Presence of Neighbors:Benefits of Speaking in a Crowded Room

    OpenAIRE

    Khamfroush, Hana; Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Hundebøll, Martin; Fitzek, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of optimal use of a relay for reducing the transmission time of data packets from a source to a destination using network coding. More importantly, we address an effect that is typically overlooked in previous studies: the presence of active transmitting nodes in the neighborhood of such devices, which is typical in wireless mesh networks. We show that in systems with a fair medium access control mechanism (MAC), the use of a relay in a crowded medium brings for...

  19. Performance Analysis of Secondary Link with Cross-Layer Design and Cooperative Relay in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hao

    2012-06-01

    In this thesis, we investigate two different system infrastructures in underlay cognitive radio network, in which two popular techniques, cross-layer design and cooperative communication, are considered, respectively. In particular, we introduce the Aggressive Adaptive Modulation and Coding (A-AMC) into the cross-layer design and achieve the optimal boundary points in closed form to choose the AMC and A-AMC transmission modes by taking into account the Channel State Information (CSI) from the secondary transmitter to both the primary receiver and the secondary receiver. What’s more, for the cooperative communication design, we consider three different relay selection schemes: Partial Relay Selection, Opportunistic Relay Selection and Threshold Relay Selection. The Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) in each hop for different selection schemes are provided, and then the exact closed-form expressions for the end-to-end packet loss rate in the secondary link considering the cooperation of the Decode-and-Forward (DF) relay for different relay selection schemes are derived.

  20. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  1. Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi-directional text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Chris A; Polgreen, Linnea A; Chounramany, James; Foster, Eric D; Goerdt, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle L; Suneja, Manish; Segre, Alberto M; Carter, Barry L; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record [EMR] web portal), EMR + reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR + reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (P text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Relay Performance Web Tool for the Mars Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Edwards, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Modern Mars surface missions rely upon orbiting spacecraft to relay communications to and from Earth systems. An important component of this multi-mission relay process is the collection of relay performance statistics supporting strategic trend analysis and tactical anomaly identification and tracking.

  3. Sparse Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Two-Way Relay Network with Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate channel impulse response (CIR is required for equalization and can help improve communication service quality in next-generation wireless communication systems. An example of an advanced system is amplify-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output two-way relay network, which is modulated by orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. Linear channel estimation methods, for example, least squares and expectation conditional maximization, have been proposed previously for the system. However, these methods do not take advantage of channel sparsity, and they decrease estimation performance. We propose a sparse channel estimation scheme, which is different from linear methods, at end users under the relay channel to enable us to exploit sparsity. First, we formulate the sparse channel estimation problem as a compressed sensing problem by using sparse decomposition theory. Second, the CIR is reconstructed by CoSaMP and OMP algorithms. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to confirm the superiority of the proposed methods over traditional linear channel estimation methods.

  4. Throughput Analysis on 3-Dimensional Underwater Acoustic Network with One-Hop Mobile Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Fan, Jiasheng; Guan, Quansheng; Ji, Fei; Yu, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Underwater acoustic communication network (UACN) has been considered as an essential infrastructure for ocean exploitation. Performance analysis of UACN is important in underwater acoustic network deployment and management. In this paper, we analyze the network throughput of three-dimensional randomly deployed transmitter–receiver pairs. Due to the long delay of acoustic channels, complicated networking protocols with heavy signaling overhead may not be appropriate. In this paper, we consider only one-hop or two-hop transmission, to save the signaling cost. That is, we assume the transmitter sends the data packet to the receiver by one-hop direct transmission, or by two-hop transmission via mobile relays. We derive the closed-form formulation of packet delivery rate with respect to the transmission delay and the number of transmitter–receiver pairs. The correctness of the derivation results are verified by computer simulations. Our analysis indicates how to obtain a precise tradeoff between the delay constraint and the network capacity. PMID:29337911

  5. Throughput Analysis on 3-Dimensional Underwater Acoustic Network with One-Hop Mobile Relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Chen, Fangjiong; Fan, Jiasheng; Guan, Quansheng; Ji, Fei; Yu, Hua

    2018-01-16

    Underwater acoustic communication network (UACN) has been considered as an essential infrastructure for ocean exploitation. Performance analysis of UACN is important in underwater acoustic network deployment and management. In this paper, we analyze the network throughput of three-dimensional randomly deployed transmitter-receiver pairs. Due to the long delay of acoustic channels, complicated networking protocols with heavy signaling overhead may not be appropriate. In this paper, we consider only one-hop or two-hop transmission, to save the signaling cost. That is, we assume the transmitter sends the data packet to the receiver by one-hop direct transmission, or by two-hop transmission via mobile relays. We derive the closed-form formulation of packet delivery rate with respect to the transmission delay and the number of transmitter-receiver pairs. The correctness of the derivation results are verified by computer simulations. Our analysis indicates how to obtain a precise tradeoff between the delay constraint and the network capacity.

  6. Improved Relay Node Placement Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Application in Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    -tolerance. Each wind turbine has a potentially large number of data points needing to be monitored and collected, as farms continue to increase in scale; distances between turbines can reach several hundred meters. Optimal placement of relays in a large farm requires an efficient algorithmic solution. A relay...... node placement algorithm is proposed in this paper to approximate the optimal position for relays connecting each turbine. However, constraints are then required to prevent relay nodes being overloaded in 3-dimensions. The algorithm is extended to 3-dimensional Euclidean space for this optimal relay...

  7. Relay-assited transmission and radio resource management for wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín de Dios, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    La transmisión asistida por relay o transmisión cooperativa es una nueva técnica de diversidad espacial donde aparece un elemento nuevo (un relay o un usuario cooperativo) en la tradicional transmisión punto a punto (fuente a destino). Ahora en la comunicación intervienen tres enlaces: fuente-relay, relay-destino y fuente-destino. El relay, además de asistir a la fuente en la transmisión de un mensaje, permite combatir las degradaciones que puede sufrir el canal como el shadowing y el pathlos...

  8. Graduation Report : Directional relay coordination in ungrounded medium voltage networks using a real-time digital simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis describes a comprehensive protection relay coordination study in ungrounded 10 kV distribution networks. Until now, single phase-toground faults (also: earth-faults) were never interrupted because resulting fault currents were relatively small. Since the earth-fault current amplitude is

  9. Comparison of Channel Estimation Protocols for Coherent AF Relaying Networks in the Presence of Additive Noise and LO Phase Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation protocols for wireless two-hop networks with amplify-and-forward (AF relays are compared. We consider multiuser relaying networks, where the gain factors are chosen such that the signals from all relays add up coherently at the destinations. While the destinations require channel knowledge in order to decode, our focus lies on the channel estimates that are used to calculate the relay gains. Since knowledge of the compound two-hop channels is generally not sufficient to do this, the protocols considered here measure all single-hop coefficients in the network. We start from the observation that the direction in which the channels are measured determines (1 the number of channel uses required to estimate all coefficient and (2 the need for global carrier phase reference. Four protocols are identified that differ in the direction in which the first-hop and the second-hop channels are measured. We derive a sensible measure for the accuracy of the channel estimates in the presence of additive noise and phase noise and compare the protocols based on this measure. Finally, we provide a quantitative performance comparison for a simple single-user application example. It is important to note that the results can be used to compare the channel estimation protocols for any two-hop network configuration and gain allocation scheme.

  10. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  11. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  12. Interference Neutralization vs Clean Relaying in Cognitive Radio Networks with Secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsun Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study cognitive radio networks with secrecy constraints on the primary transmission. In particular we consider several transmission schemes for the secondary transmitter, namely interference neutralization (IN and cooperative jamming with and without clean relaying (CR. We derive and analyze the achievable secondary rate performance of the schemes. Furthermore we thoroughly investigate the advantages and shortcomings of these schemes through numerical simulations in a geometric model where we highlight the impact of the users’ locations and show the important difference in all schemes depending on the topology. Our results show that the secondary transmitter can successfully adapt its transmission scheme (and parameters, i.e., either IN or CR, depending on its location to maximize its rate while insuring perfect secrecy of the primary transmission.

  13. Security-Reliability Trade-Off Analysis for Multiuser SIMO Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks With Opportunistic User Scheduling

    KAUST Repository

    El-Malek, Ahmed H. Abd

    2016-05-24

    In this paper, we study the performance of multiuser single-input multiple-output mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling. The considered system includes multiple users, one amplify-and-forward relay, one destination, and a multiple-antenna eavesdropper. The users are connected with the relay node through RF links and the relay is connected with the destination through an FSO link. Both maximum ratio combining and selection combining schemes are used at the multiple-antenna relay to combine the signal received from the best user on different antennas. The RF/FSO channels models are assumed to follow Nakagami-m/gamma-gamma fading models with pointing errors. Closed-form expressions are derived for the outage probability, average symbol error probability, and ergodic channel capacity. Then, the power of the selected best user is determined to minimize the system asymptotic outage probability under the dominant RF or FSO link. Then, the considered system secrecy performance is investigated, where the closed-form expressions for the intercept probability are derived. Finally, we propose a new cooperative jamming model in which the worst user is selected by the authorized system to jam the existing eavesdropper. Monte-Carlo simulations are provided to validate the achieved exact and asymptotic results.

  14. Enhancing Physical Layer Security of Multiuser SIMO Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Multi-Eavesdroppers

    KAUST Repository

    El-Malek, Ahmed H. Abd

    2017-02-09

    In this paper, we investigate the secrecy performance of multiuser (MU) single-input multiple-output (SIMO) mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling and multiple eavesdropping attacks. The considered system includes multiple users, one amplify-and-froward (AF) relay, one destination and multiple eavesdroppers. The users are connected with a multi-antenna relay through RF links and the relay is connected with the destination through an FSO link. Maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme is used at the relay node to combine the received signals at its different antennas. The RF/FSO channels are assumed to follow Nakagami-m/Gamma-Gamma fading models with considering the effect of pointing errors. In particular, we derive closed- form expressions for the exact and asymptotic outage probabilities. The asymptotic outage results are then used to obtain the optimal RF transmission power based on the dominant link between the RF and FSO links. Then, the considered system secrecy performance is investigated in the presence of multi- eavesdroppers where exact closed-form expression for the intercept probability is derived. Finally, a cooperative jamming model is proposed along with power allocation to enhance the system secrecy performance. Monte-Carlo simulations are provided to validate the achieved exact and asymptotic results.

  15. On the performance of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over amplify-and-forward dual-hop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a three node relay network comprising a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits the message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears the transmitted message, amplifies it using a variable gain amplifier, and then forwards the message to the destination. This latter combines both the source and the relay message and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination sends a negative acknowledgement. A new replica of the message containing new parity bits is then transmitted in the subsequent HARQ round. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination or a maximum number M of rounds is reached. We study the performance of HARQ-IR over the considered relay channel from an information theoretic perspective. We derive for instance exact expressions and bounds for the information outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate. The derived exact expressions are validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Secure Communications in CIoT Networks with a Wireless Energy Harvesting Untrusted Relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hequn; Gao, Zhenzhen; Liao, Xuewen; Leung, Victor C M

    2017-09-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a bright prospect that a variety of common appliances can connect to one another, as well as with the rest of the Internet, to vastly improve our lives. Unique communication and security challenges have been brought out by the limited hardware, low-complexity, and severe energy constraints of IoT devices. In addition, a severe spectrum scarcity problem has also been stimulated by the use of a large number of IoT devices. In this paper, cognitive IoT (CIoT) is considered where an IoT network works as the secondary system using underlay spectrum sharing. A wireless energy harvesting (EH) node is used as a relay to improve the coverage of an IoT device. However, the relay could be a potential eavesdropper to intercept the IoT device's messages. This paper considers the problem of secure communication between the IoT device (e.g., sensor) and a destination (e.g., controller) via the wireless EH untrusted relay. Since the destination can be equipped with adequate energy supply, secure schemes based on destination-aided jamming are proposed based on power splitting (PS) and time splitting (TS) policies, called intuitive secure schemes based on PS (Int-PS), precoded secure scheme based on PS (Pre-PS), intuitive secure scheme based on TS (Int-TS) and precoded secure scheme based on TS (Pre-TS), respectively. The secure performances of the proposed schemes are evaluated through the metric of probability of successfully secure transmission ( P S S T ), which represents the probability that the interference constraint of the primary user is satisfied and the secrecy rate is positive. P S S T is analyzed for the proposed secure schemes, and the closed form expressions of P S S T for Pre-PS and Pre-TS are derived and validated through simulation results. Numerical results show that the precoded secure schemes have better P S S T than the intuitive secure schemes under similar power consumption. When the secure schemes based on PS and TS

  17. Outage analysis of selective cooperation in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays and primary interference modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-09-01

    Selective cooperation is a well investigated technique in non-cognitive networks for efficient spectrum utilization and performance improvement. However, it is still a nascent topic for underlay cognitive networks. Recently, it was investigated for underlay networks where the secondary nodes were able to adapt their transmit power to always satisfy the interference threshold to the primary users. This is a valid assumption for cellular networks but many non-cellular devices have fixed transmit powers. In this situation, selective cooperation poses a more challenging problem and performs entirely differently. In this paper, we extend our previous work of selective cooperation based on either hop\\'s signal to noise ratio (SNR) with fixed gain and fixed transmit power relays in an underlay cognitive network. This work lacked in considering the primary interference over the cognitive network and presented a rather idealistic analysis. This paper deals with a more realistic system model and includes the effects of primary interference on the secondary transmission. We first derive end-to-end signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) expression and the related statistics for a dual-hop relay link using asymptotic and approximate approaches. We then derive the statistics of the selected relay link based on maximum end-to-end SINR among the relays satisfying the interference threshold to the primary user. Using this statistics, we derive closed form asymptotic and approximate expressions for the outage probability of the system. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is concluded that selective cooperation in underlay cognitive networks performs better only in low to medium SNR regions. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Energy-Efficient Relay Selection Scheme for Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2015-01-01

    selection and dynamic power allocation in order to maximize SC and to minimize energy consumption. Moreover, we consider finite-state Markov channels and residual relay energy in the relay selection and power allocation process. Specifically, the formulation of the proposed relay selection and power allocation scheme is based on the restless bandit problem, which is solved by the primal-dual index heuristic algorithm. Additionally, the obtained optimal relay selection policy has an indexability property that dramatically reduces the computational complexity. Numerical results are presented to show that our proposed scheme has the maximum SC and minimum energy consumption compared to the existing ones.

  19. On the Feedback Reduction of Relay Multiuser Networks using Compressive Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-01-29

    This paper presents a comprehensive performance analysis of full-duplex multiuser relay networks employing opportunistic scheduling with noisy and compressive feedback. Specifically, two feedback techniques based on compressive sensing (CS) theory are introduced and their effect on the system performance is analyzed. The problem of joint user identity and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) estimation at the base-station is casted as a block sparse signal recovery problem in CS. Using existing CS block recovery algorithms, the identity of the strong users is obtained and their corresponding SNRs are estimated using the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE). To minimize the effect of feedback noise on the estimated SNRs, a back-off strategy that optimally backs-off on the noisy estimated SNRs is introduced, and the error covariance matrix of the noise after CS recovery is derived. Finally, closed-form expressions for the end-to-end SNRs of the system are derived. Numerical results show that the proposed techniques drastically reduce the feedback air-time and achieve a rate close to that obtained by scheduling techniques that require dedicated error-free feedback from all network users. Key findings of this paper suggest that the choice of half-duplex or full-duplex SNR feedback is dependent on the channel coherence interval, and on low coherence intervals, full-duplex feedback is superior to the interference-free half-duplex feedback.

  20. Scalable Video Streaming Relay for Smart Mobile Devices in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok

    2016-01-01

    Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN).

  1. Scalable Video Streaming Relay for Smart Mobile Devices in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok

    2016-01-01

    Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN). PMID:27907113

  2. Performance Analysis and Optimization of Millimeter Wave Networks with Dual-Hop Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Kansanen, Kimmo; Balasingham, Ilangko; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    of the transmitter and the receiver can play the role of a relay by amplifying the signal from the source device and forwarding it to the destination device. We consider that both the relay and the destination devices are subject to interference. We study

  3. Decode and Zero-Forcing Forward Relaying with Relay Selection in Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a cognitive radio (CR) relay network with multiple relay nodes that help forwarding the signal of CR users. Best relay selection is considered to take advantage of its low complexity of implementation. When the primary

  4. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Mechanism in Interference Alignment Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahui Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT mechanism in an interference alignment (IA relay system, in which source nodes send wireless information and energy simultaneously to relay nodes, and relay nodes forward the received signal to destination nodes powered by harvested energy. To manage interference and utilize interference as energy source, two-SWIPT receiver is designed, namely, power splitting (PS, and antennas switching (AS has been considered for relay system. The performance of AS- and PS-based IA relay systems is considered, as is a new energy cooperation (ECop scheme that is proposed to improve system performance. Numerical results are provided to evaluate the performance of all schemes and it is shown from the simulations that the performance of proposed ECop outperformed both AS and PS.

  5. Bi-directional interhemispheric inhibition during unimanual sustained contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between homologous muscle representations in the right and left primary motor cortex was studied using a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocol known to evoke interhemispheric inhibition (IHI. The timecourse and magnitude of IHI was studied in fifteen healthy right-handed adults at several interstimulus intervals between the conditioning stimulus and test stimulus (6, 8, 10, 12, 30, 40, 50 ms. IHI was studied in the motor dominant to non-dominant direction and vice versa while the right or left hand was at rest, performing isometric contraction of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle, and isometric contraction of the FDI muscle in the context of holding a pen. Results Compared with rest, IHI was reduced at all ISIs during contraction of either type (with or without the context of pen. IHI was reduced bi-directionally without evidence of hemispheric dominance. Further, contraction of the hand contralateral to the conditioning and test pulse yielded similar reductions in IHI. Conclusion These data provide evidence for bi-directional reduction of IHI during unimanual contractions. During unimanual, sustained contractions of the hand, the contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices demonstrate reduced inhibition. The data suggest that unimanual movement decreases inhibition bi-directionally across motor hemispheres and offer one explanation for the observation of ipsilateral M1 activity during hand movements.

  6. Performance and cavitation characteristics of bi-directional hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Tidal turbines extract energy from flows which reverse direction. One way to address this bi-directionality in horizontal axis turbines that avoid the use of complex and maintenance-intensive yaw or blade pitch mechanisms, is to design bi-directional blades which perform (equally) well in either flow direction. A large number of proposed hydrofoil designs were investigated using numerical simulations. Selected candidate foils were also tested (at various speeds and angles of attack) in the High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HICaT) at the University of New Hampshire. Lift and drag were measured using a force balance, and cavitation inception and desinence were recorded. Experimental and numerical results were compared, and the foils were compared to each other and to reference foils. Bi-directional hydrofoils may provide a feasible solution to the problem of reversing flow direction, when their performance and cavitation characteristics are comparable to those for unidirectional foils, and the penalty in decreased energy production is outweighed by the cost reduction due to lower complexity and respectively lower installation and maintenance costs.

  7. Effect of RF Interference on the Security-Reliability Trade-off Analysis of Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Salhab, Anas; Zummo, Salam; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) cochannel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser mixed RF/free-space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling under eavesdropping attack is studied. The considered

  8. Interference-Based Decode and Forward Scheme Using Relay Nodes in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishimori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes interference-based decode and forward scheme that utilizes relay stations (RSs. In Long-Term-Evolution (LTE- Advanced, heterogeneous networks in which femto- and picocells are overlaid onto macrocells are extensively discussed. However, interference between macro- and pico(femtocells arises due to their different transmit power levels. Unlike conventional cooperative transmission schemes, the RS decodes interference in the first transmit timing period and forwards it to the user equipment (UE in the second period. Moreover, cooperative transmission can be achieved without stopping the transmission from the base station (BS to UE when forwarding the interference from the RS to the UE by utilizing the fact that signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR between the RS and UE is much greater than that between the BS and UE. The basic performance of the proposed method is shown based on computer simulation. Moreover, the interference temperature and shadowing effect are measured when considering the coexistence between macro- and femtocells, and the performance of the proposed method is verified using measured shadowing effect.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumathy Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS. This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a “splitting tree” technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the “Biased Random Walk” model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  10. Sum-Rate Optimization in a Two-Way Relay Network with Buffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huaping; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    A Relay Station (RS) uses a buffer to store and process the received data packets before forwarding them. Recently, the buffer has been exploited in one-way relaying to opportunistically schedule the two different links according to their channel quality. The intuition is that, if the channel...... to the destination is poor, then RS stores more data from the source, in order to use it when the channel to the destination is good. We apply this intuition to the case of half-duplex two-way relaying, where the interactions among the buffers and links become more complex. We investigate the sum-rate maximization...

  11. The Impact of TCSC on IDMT Relays in SLG Fault in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazhar Bougouffa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available IDMT Directional Over-Current Relays protection is one of the basic protective relaying for distribution systems, for fault detection and clearing as soon as possible. Its function would generally be changed in presence of FACTS devices. In this paper a study to investigate the direct effect of varying reactance of the TCSC on single-line-to-ground (SLG fault in compensated distribution systems. This paper, therefore presents the calculation of fault component, and directional over-current relay operating time characteristics for phase-to-earth fault involving the TCSC. The case study is compared between compensated and uncompensated system. The coordination of the relays is a nonlinear programming problem and it is solved by using MATLAB software.

  12. Alternate MIMO relaying with three AF relays using interference alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop half-duplex relaying network with one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays equipped with M antennas each. We consider alternate transmission to compensate for the inherent loss of capacity pre-log factor 1/2 in half duplex mode, where source transmit message to two relays and the other relay alternately. The inter-relay interference caused by alternate transmission is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom (DOFs). It is shown that the proposed scheme enables us to exploit 3M/4 DOFs compared with the M/2 DOFs of conventional AF relaying. More specifically, suboptimal linear filter designs for a source and three relays are proposed to maximize the achievable sum-rate. We verify using some selected numerical results that the proposed filter designs give significant improvement of the sum-rate over a naive filter and conventional relaying schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Li, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton......–Raphson method. Both the unification of units and the per-unit system are proposed to simplify the system description and to enhance the computation efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing an IEEE-9 test system integrated with a 7-node natural gas network. Later, time...

  14. The queueing perspective of asynchronous network coding in two-way relay network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yaping; Chang, Qing; Li, Xianxu

    2018-04-01

    Asynchronous network coding (NC) has potential to improve the wireless network performance compared with a routing or the synchronous network coding. Recent researches concentrate on the optimization between throughput/energy consuming and delay with a couple of independent input flow. However, the implementation of NC requires a thorough investigation of its impact on relevant queueing systems where few work focuses on. Moreover, few works study the probability density function (pdf) in network coding scenario. In this paper, the scenario with two independent Poisson input flows and one output flow is considered. The asynchronous NC-based strategy is that a new arrival evicts a head packet holding in its queue when waiting for another packet from the other flow to encode. The pdf for the output flow which contains both coded and uncoded packets is derived. Besides, the statistic characteristics of this strategy are analyzed. These results are verified by numerical simulations.

  15. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  16. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-06-01

    In this report, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR.

  17. Combined Rate and Power Allocation with Link Scheduling in Wireless Data Packet Relay Networks with Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrakanti Dey

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a joint rate and power control problem in a wireless data traffic relay network with fading channels. The optimization problem is formulated in terms of power and rate selection, and link transmission scheduling. The objective is to seek high aggregate utility of the relay node when taking into account buffer load management and power constraints. The optimal solution for a single transmitting source is computed by a two-layer dynamic programming algorithm which leads to optimal power, rate, and transmission time allocation at the wireless links. We further consider an optimal power allocation problem for multiple transmitting sources in the same framework. Performances of the resource allocation algorithms including the effect of buffer load control are illustrated via extensive simulation studies.

  18. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this letter, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Near-optimal power allocation with PSO algorithm for MIMO cognitive networks using multiple AF two-way relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of power allocation for a multiple-input multiple-output two-way system is investigated in underlay Cognitive Radio (CR) set-up. In the CR underlay mode, secondary users are allowed to exploit the spectrum allocated to primary users in an opportunistic manner by respecting a tolerated temperature limit. The secondary networks employ an amplify-and-forward two-way relaying technique in order to maximize the sum rate under power budget and interference constraints. In this context, we formulate an optimization problem that is solved in two steps. First, we derive a closed-form expression of the optimal power allocated to terminals. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the power allocated to secondary relays. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchange within a meta-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marisabel Rodriguez; Kopp, Darin; Allen, Daniel; Kang, Yun

    2018-05-05

    The exchange of resources across ecosystem boundaries can have large impacts on ecosystem structures and functions at local and regional scales. In this article, we develop a simple model to investigate dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchanges between two local ecosystems in a meta-ecosystem framework. In our model, we assume that (1) Each local ecosystem acts as both a resource donor and recipient, such that one ecosystem donating resources to another results in a cost to the donating system and a benefit to the recipient; and (2) The costs and benefits of the bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems are correlated in a nonlinear fashion. Our model could apply to the resource interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are supported by the literature. Our theoretical results show that bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems can indeed generate complicated dynamical outcomes, including the coupled ecosystems having amensalistic, antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic interactions, with multiple alternative stable states depending on the relative costs and benefits. In addition, if the relative cost for resource exchange for an ecosystem is decreased or the relative benefit for resource exchange for an ecosystem is increased, the production of that ecosystem would increase; however, depending on the local environment, the production of the other ecosystem may increase or decrease. We expect that our work, by evaluating the potential outcomes of resource exchange theoretically, can facilitate empirical evaluations and advance the understanding of spatial ecosystem ecology where resource exchanges occur in varied ecosystems through a complicated network. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source’s radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  2. Joint sub-carrier pairing and resource allocation for cognitive networks with adaptive relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Bader, F.; Shaat, M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Relayed transmission in a cognitive radio (CR) environment could be used to increase the coverage and capacity of communication system that benefits already from the efficient management of the spectrum developed by CR. Furthermore, there are many types of cooperative communications, including decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). In this paper, these techniques are combined in an adaptive mode to benefit from its forwarding advantages; this mode is called adaptive relaying protocol (ARP). Moreover, this work focuses on the joint power allocation in a cognitive radio system in a cooperative mode that operates ARP in multi-carrier mode. The multi-carrier scenario is used in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) mode, and the problem is formulated to maximize the end-to-end rate by searching the best power allocation at the transmitters. This work includes, besides the ARP model, a sub-carrier pairing strategy that allows the relays to switch to the best sub-carrier pairs to increase the throughput. The optimization problem is formulated and solved under the interference and power budget constraints using the sub-gradient algorithm. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques. The results show also the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy. 2013 Stolojescu-Crisan and Isar; licensee Springer.

  3. Joint sub-carrier pairing and resource allocation for cognitive networks with adaptive relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-11-09

    Relayed transmission in a cognitive radio (CR) environment could be used to increase the coverage and capacity of communication system that benefits already from the efficient management of the spectrum developed by CR. Furthermore, there are many types of cooperative communications, including decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). In this paper, these techniques are combined in an adaptive mode to benefit from its forwarding advantages; this mode is called adaptive relaying protocol (ARP). Moreover, this work focuses on the joint power allocation in a cognitive radio system in a cooperative mode that operates ARP in multi-carrier mode. The multi-carrier scenario is used in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) mode, and the problem is formulated to maximize the end-to-end rate by searching the best power allocation at the transmitters. This work includes, besides the ARP model, a sub-carrier pairing strategy that allows the relays to switch to the best sub-carrier pairs to increase the throughput. The optimization problem is formulated and solved under the interference and power budget constraints using the sub-gradient algorithm. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques. The results show also the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy. 2013 Stolojescu-Crisan and Isar; licensee Springer.

  4. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  5. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  6. Physical Layer Security Enhancement in Multiuser Mixed RF#x002F;FSO Relay Networks under RF Interference

    KAUST Repository

    El-Malek, Ahmed H. Abd; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) co-channel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser (MU) mixed RF#x002F;free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling is studied. In the considered system, a user is opportunistically selected to communicate with a single destination through an amplify-and- forward (AF) relay in the presence of a single passive eavesdropper. The RF#x002F;FSO channel models are assumed to follow Rayleigh#x002F;Gamma-Gamma fading models, respectively with pointing errors and identical RF CCI signals. Exact closed-form expression for the system outage probability is derived. Then, an asymptotic expression for the outage probability is obtained at the high signal- to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) regime. The asymptotic results are used to formulate a power allocation problem to obtain optimal RF transmission power. Then, the secrecy performance is studied in the presence of CCI at both the authorized relay and eavesdropper by obtaining exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept probability. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the work.

  7. Physical Layer Security Enhancement in Multiuser Mixed RF#x002F;FSO Relay Networks under RF Interference

    KAUST Repository

    El-Malek, Ahmed H. Abd

    2017-05-12

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) co-channel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser (MU) mixed RF#x002F;free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling is studied. In the considered system, a user is opportunistically selected to communicate with a single destination through an amplify-and- forward (AF) relay in the presence of a single passive eavesdropper. The RF#x002F;FSO channel models are assumed to follow Rayleigh#x002F;Gamma-Gamma fading models, respectively with pointing errors and identical RF CCI signals. Exact closed-form expression for the system outage probability is derived. Then, an asymptotic expression for the outage probability is obtained at the high signal- to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) regime. The asymptotic results are used to formulate a power allocation problem to obtain optimal RF transmission power. Then, the secrecy performance is studied in the presence of CCI at both the authorized relay and eavesdropper by obtaining exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept probability. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the work.

  8. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  9. Capacity Bounds on the Downlink of Symmetric, Multi-Relay, Single-Receiver C-RAN Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Saeedi Bidokhti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The downlink of symmetric Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RANs with multiple relays and a single receiver is studied. Lower and upper bounds are derived on the capacity. The lower bound is achieved by Marton’s coding, which facilitates dependence among the multiple-access channel inputs. The upper bound uses Ozarow’s technique to augment the system with an auxiliary random variable. The bounds are studied over scalar Gaussian C-RANs and are shown to meet and characterize the capacity for interesting regimes of operation.

  10. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, Sibel; Kayacan, Ozhan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity–density and flux–density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones. (paper)

  11. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and negative experiences in work and private life, were collected together with salivary cortisol over 3 days (n = 265). Higher bedtime ratings of stress and problems during the day were associated with morning ratings of poor sleep. Poorer morning ratings of sleep were associated with higher ratings of stress...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  12. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  13. Coverage extension and balancing the transmitted power of the moving relay node at LTE-A cellular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, Jaafar A; Yahya, Abid; Ahmad, R Badlishah

    2014-01-01

    The poor capacity at cell boundaries is not enough to meet the growing demand and stringent design which required high capacity and throughput irrespective of user's location in the cellular network. In this paper, we propose new schemes for an optimum fixed relay node (RN) placement in LTE-A cellular network to enhance throughput and coverage extension at cell edge region. The proposed approach mitigates interferences between all nodes and ensures optimum utilization with the optimization of transmitted power. Moreover, we proposed a new algorithm to balance the transmitted power of moving relay node (MR) over cell size and providing required SNR and throughput at the users inside vehicle along with reducing the transmitted power consumption by MR. The numerical analysis along with the simulation results indicates that an improvement in capacity for users is 40% increment at downlink transmission from cell capacity. Furthermore, the results revealed that there is saving nearly 75% from transmitted power in MR after using proposed balancing algorithm. ATDI simulator was used to verify the numerical results, which deals with real digital cartographic and standard formats for terrain.

  14. On the performance of future full-duplex relay selection networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluate the performance of relay selection over Nakagami-m fading channels in the presence of a cluster of full-duplex decode-and-forward relays with self-interference. Specifically, we derive the exact cumulative distribution function of the end-to-end signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio in the presence of a direct source-destination link. When a direct link exists, all dual-hop paths become mutually correlated due to the common direct-link interference. The presented exact results enable the evaluation of the outage performance and system throughput for fixed-rate transmission systems. The theoretical findings are verified by numerical simulations, where the severity of fading effect in the residual self-interference link is also discussed.

  15. On the performance of future full-duplex relay selection networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the performance of relay selection over Nakagami-m fading channels in the presence of a cluster of full-duplex decode-and-forward relays with self-interference. Specifically, we derive the exact cumulative distribution function of the end-to-end signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio in the presence of a direct source-destination link. When a direct link exists, all dual-hop paths become mutually correlated due to the common direct-link interference. The presented exact results enable the evaluation of the outage performance and system throughput for fixed-rate transmission systems. The theoretical findings are verified by numerical simulations, where the severity of fading effect in the residual self-interference link is also discussed.

  16. Relay Selections for Security and Reliability in Mobile Communication Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongji Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relay selection schemes in mobile communication system over Nakagami-m channel. To make efficient use of licensed spectrum, both single relay selection (SRS scheme and multirelays selection (MRS scheme over the Nakagami-m channel are proposed. Also, the intercept probability (IP and outage probability (OP of the proposed SRS and MRS for the communication links depending on realistic spectrum sensing are derived. Furthermore, this paper assesses the manifestation of conventional direct transmission scheme to compare with the proposed SRS and MRS ones based on the Nakagami-m channel, and the security-reliability trade-off (SRT performance of the proposed schemes and the conventional schemes is well investigated. Additionally, the SRT of the proposed SRS and MRS schemes is demonstrated better than that of direct transmission scheme over the Nakagami-m channel, which can protect the communication transmissions against eavesdropping attacks. Additionally, simulation results show that our proposed relay selection schemes achieve better SRT performance than that of conventional direct transmission over the Nakagami-m channel.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Relay Selection Schemes in Beacon-Assisted Dual-Hop Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks under Impact of Hardware Noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Tran Dinh; Duy, Tran Trung; Dung, Le The; Choi, Seong Gon

    2018-06-05

    To solve the problem of energy constraints and spectrum scarcity for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CR-WSNs), an underlay decode-and-forward relaying scheme is considered, where the energy constrained secondary source and relay nodes are capable of harvesting energy from a multi-antenna power beacon (PB) and using that harvested energy to forward the source information to the destination. Based on the time switching receiver architecture, three relaying protocols, namely, hybrid partial relay selection (H-PRS), conventional opportunistic relay selection (C-ORS), and best opportunistic relay selection (B-ORS) protocols are considered to enhance the end-to-end performance under the joint impact of maximal interference constraint and transceiver hardware impairments. For performance evaluation and comparison, we derive the exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of outage probability (OP) and throughput (TP) to provide significant insights into the impact of our proposed protocols on the system performance over Rayleigh fading channel. Finally, simulation results validate the theoretical results.

  18. Bi-directional SIFT predicts a subset of activating mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    Full Text Available Advancements in sequencing technologies have empowered recent efforts to identify polymorphisms and mutations on a global scale. The large number of variations and mutations found in these projects requires high-throughput tools to identify those that are most likely to have an impact on function. Numerous computational tools exist for predicting which mutations are likely to be functional, but none that specifically attempt to identify mutations that result in hyperactivation or gain-of-function. Here we present a modified version of the SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant algorithm that utilizes protein sequence alignments with homologous sequences to identify functional mutations based on evolutionary fitness. We show that this bi-directional SIFT (B-SIFT is capable of identifying experimentally verified activating mutants from multiple datasets. B-SIFT analysis of large-scale cancer genotyping data identified potential activating mutations, some of which we have provided detailed structural evidence to support. B-SIFT could prove to be a valuable tool for efforts in protein engineering as well as in identification of functional mutations in cancer.

  19. Aplikasi Migrasi Database dan Replikasi Bi-Directional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yoseph Ricky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and design a migration and replication configurations in an enterprise using several methods such as literary study and direc survey to the company; analysis on hangar systems, process migration and replication as well as existing problems; and a prototype design for migration process implementated with Oracle SQL Developer and replication process implementated with Oracle GoldenGate. The study resluts ini a prototype for migration and replication configuration processes using Oracle's Golden Gate which can produce two sets of identical data for backup and recovery. Also a simple tool is designed to assist active-active replication process as well as active-passive one. The migration process from MySQL database to Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can not be done because GoldenGate Oracle has bugs related to the binary log, so database migration is done using Oracle SQL Developer. However, bi-directional replication between Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can ensure data availability and reduce the workload of primary database. 

  20. Alternate MIMO relaying with three AF relays using interference alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop half-duplex relaying network with one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays equipped with M antennas each. We consider alternate transmission to compensate for the inherent loss

  1. Reliability assessment using Bayesian networks. Case study on quantative reliability estimation of a software-based motor protection relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminen, A.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2003-06-01

    In this report a quantitative reliability assessment of motor protection relay SPAM 150 C has been carried out. The assessment focuses to the methodological analysis of the quantitative reliability assessment using the software-based motor protection relay as a case study. The assessment method is based on Bayesian networks and tries to take the full advantage of the previous work done in a project called Programmable Automation System Safety Integrity assessment (PASSI). From the results and experiences achieved during the work it is justified to claim that the assessment method presented in the work enables a flexible use of qualitative and quantitative elements of reliability related evidence in a single reliability assessment. At the same time the assessment method is a concurrent way of reasoning one's beliefs and references about the reliability of the system. Full advantage of the assessment method is taken when using the method as a way to cultivate the information related to the reliability of software-based systems. The method can also be used as a communicational instrument in a licensing process of software-based systems. (orig.)

  2. A Fluid Model for a Relay Node in an Ad Hoc Network: Evaluation of Resource Sharing Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mandjes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid queues offer a natural framework for analyzing waiting times in a relay node of an ad hoc network. Because of the resource sharing policy applied, the input and output of these queues are coupled. More specifically, when there are users who wish to transmit data through a specific node, each of them obtains a share 1/(+ of the service capacity to feed traffic into the queue of the node, whereas the remaining fraction /(+ is used to serve the queue; here >0 is a free design parameter. Assume now that jobs arrive at the relay node according to a Poisson process, and that they bring along exponentially distributed amounts of data. The case =1 has been addressed before; the present paper focuses on the intrinsically harder case >1, that is, policies that give more weight to serving the queue. Four performance metrics are considered: (i the stationary workload of the queue, (ii the queueing delay, that is, the delay of a “packet” (a fluid particle that arrives at an arbitrary point in time, (iii the flow transfer delay, (iv the sojourn time, that is, the flow transfer time increased by the time it takes before the last fluid particle of the flow is served. We explicitly compute the Laplace transforms of these random variables.

  3. All-optical two-way relaying free-space optical communications for HAP-based broadband backhaul networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Minh Q.; Nguyen, Nga T. T.; Pham, Hien T. T.; Dang, Ngoc T.

    2018-03-01

    High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are flexible, non-pollutant and cost-effective infrastructures compared to satellite or old terrestrial systems. They are being researched and developed widely in Europe, USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. However, the current limited data rates and the overload of radio frequency (RF) spectrum are problems which the developers for HAPs are confronting because most of them use RF links to communicate with the ground stations (GSs) or each other. In this paper, we propose an all-optical two-way half-duplex relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication for HAP-based backhaul networks, which connect the base transceiver station (BTS) to the core network (CN) via a single HAP. Our proposed backhaul solution can be deployed quickly and flexibly for disaster relief and for serving users in both urban environments and remote areas. The key subsystem of HAP is an optical regenerate-and-forward (ORF) equipped with an optical hard-limiter (OHL) and an optical XOR gate to perform all-optical processing and help mitigate the background noise. In addition, two-way half-duplex relaying can be provided thanks to the use of network coding scheme. The closed-form expression for the bit error rate (BER) of our proposed system under the effect of path loss, atmospheric turbulence, and noise induced by the background light is formulated. The numerical results are demonstrated to prove the feasibility of our proposed system with the verification by using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulations.

  4. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  5. Parenting and Anxiety: Bi-directional Relations in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouze, Karen R; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B; Lavigne, John V

    2017-08-01

    Developmental psychopathologists have long posited a reciprocal relation between parenting behaviors and the development of child anxiety symptoms. Yet, little empirical research has utilized a longitudinal design that would allow exploration of this bi-directional influence. The present study examined the reciprocal relations between parental respect for autonomy, parental hostility, and parental support, and the development of childhood anxiety during a critical developmental period-the transition from preschool to kindergarten and then first grade. Study participants included a community sample of 391 male and 405 female socioeconomically, racially and ethnically diverse 4 to 6-7 year olds. 54 % of the sample was White, non-Hispanic, 16.8 % was African American, 20.4 % was Hispanic, 2.4 % were Asian and 4.4 % self-identified as Other or mixed race. Parent report and observational methodology were used. Parenting and anxiety were found to interact reciprocally over time. Higher levels of age 4 anxiety led to reduced respect for child autonomy at age 5. At age 4 higher levels of parental hostility led to small increases in age 5 anxiety, and increased age 5 anxiety led to increased levels of age 6 parent hostility. Parental support at age 5 resulted in decreased anxiety symptoms at age 6-7 while higher age 5 anxiety levels were associated with reductions in age 6-7 parental support. No relations were found between these variables at the younger ages. Although the magnitude of these findings was small, they suggest that early treatment for childhood anxiety should include both parent intervention and direct treatment of the child's anxiety symptoms.

  6. Analysis of the impact of connecting a larger number of small hydroelectric power plants to the short-circuit currents values and relay protection system of distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of a large number of small hydro power plants on the short-circuit currents is analysed, as well as the operation of the relay protection system within the real distribution network in Serbia. The necessary modification of the existing protection functions, as well as the implementation of the new proposed protection functions, are presented and discussed. Network modeling and analysis are performed using the program tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

  7. A New Bi-Directional Projection Model Based on Pythagorean Uncertain Linguistic Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidong Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To solve the multi-attribute decision making (MADM problems with Pythagorean uncertain linguistic variable, an extended bi-directional projection method is proposed. First, we utilize the linguistic scale function to convert uncertain linguistic variable and provide a new projection model, subsequently. Then, to depict the bi-directional projection method, the formative vectors of alternatives and ideal alternatives are defined. Furthermore, a comparative analysis with projection model is conducted to show the superiority of bi-directional projection method. Finally, an example of graduate’s job option is given to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. A New Bi-Directional Projection Model Based on Pythagorean Uncertain Linguistic Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Huidong Wang; Shifan He; Xiaohong Pan

    2018-01-01

    To solve the multi-attribute decision making (MADM) problems with Pythagorean uncertain linguistic variable, an extended bi-directional projection method is proposed. First, we utilize the linguistic scale function to convert uncertain linguistic variable and provide a new projection model, subsequently. Then, to depict the bi-directional projection method, the formative vectors of alternatives and ideal alternatives are defined. Furthermore, a comparative analysis with projection model is co...

  9. Performance analysis of relay-assisted all-optical FSO networks over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    -optical links. Assuming a variable gain relay with amplify-and-forward protocol, the electrical signal at the source is forwarded to the destination with the help of this relay through all-optical links. More specifically, we first present a cumulative density

  10. Analysis of multiuser mixed RF/FSO relay networks for performance improvements in Cloud Computing-Based Radio Access Networks (CC-RANs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Isiaka A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.; Teixeira, António L.

    2017-11-01

    The key paths toward the fifth generation (5G) network requirements are towards centralized processing and small-cell densification systems that are implemented on the cloud computing-based radio access networks (CC-RANs). The increasing recognitions of the CC-RANs can be attributed to their valuable features regarding system performance optimization and cost-effectiveness. Nevertheless, realization of the stringent requirements of the fronthaul that connects the network elements is highly demanding. In this paper, considering the small-cell network architectures, we present multiuser mixed radio-frequency/free-space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks as feasible technologies for the alleviation of the stringent requirements in the CC-RANs. In this study, we use the end-to-end (e2e) outage probability, average symbol error probability (ASEP), and ergodic channel capacity as the performance metrics in our analysis. Simulation results show the suitability of deployment of mixed RF/FSO schemes in the real-life scenarios.

  11. Shape Optimization of the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn surgery for stage-1 single ventricle palliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Shang, Jessica; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Wong, Kwai; Marsden, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Babies born with a single functional ventricle typically undergo three open-heart surgeries starting as neonates. The first of these stages (BT shunt or Norwood) has the highest mortality rates of the three, approaching 30%. Proceeding directly to a stage-2 Glenn surgery has historically demonstrated inadequate pulmonary flow (PF) & high mortality. Recently, the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn (ABG) was proposed as a promising means to achieve a stable physiology by assisting the PF via an 'ejector pump' from the systemic circulation. We present preliminary parametrization and optimization results for the ABG geometry, with the goal of increasing PF. To limit excessive pressure increases in the Superior Vena Cava (SVC), the SVC pressure is included as a constraint. We use 3-D finite element flow simulations coupled with a single ventricle lumped parameter network to evaluate PF & the pressure constraint. We employ a derivative free optimization method- the Surrogate Management Framework, in conjunction with the OpenDIEL framework to simulate multiple simultaneous evaluations. Results show that nozzle diameter is the most important design parameter affecting ABG performance. The application of these results to patient specific situations will be discussed. This work was supported by an NSF CAREER award (OCI1150184) and by the XSEDE National Computing Resource.

  12. Event-Triggered Fault Estimation for Stochastic Systems over Multi-Hop Relay Networks with Randomly Occurring Sensor Nonlinearities and Packet Dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunji; Peng, Li

    2018-02-28

    Wireless sensors have many new applications where remote estimation is essential. Considering that a remote estimator is located far away from the process and the wireless transmission distance of sensor nodes is limited, sensor nodes always forward data packets to the remote estimator through a series of relays over a multi-hop link. In this paper, we consider a network with sensor nodes and relay nodes where the relay nodes can forward the estimated values to the remote estimator. An event-triggered remote estimator of state and fault with the corresponding data-forwarding scheme is investigated for stochastic systems subject to both randomly occurring nonlinearity and randomly occurring packet dropouts governed by Bernoulli-distributed sequences to achieve a trade-off between estimation accuracy and energy consumption. Recursive Riccati-like matrix equations are established to calculate the estimator gain to minimize an upper bound of the estimator error covariance. Subsequently, a sufficient condition and data-forwarding scheme are presented under which the error covariance is mean-square bounded in the multi-hop links with random packet dropouts. Furthermore, implementation issues of the theoretical results are discussed where a new data-forwarding communication protocol is designed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and communication protocol are extensively evaluated using an experimental platform that was established for performance evaluation with a sensor and two relay nodes.

  13. Achievable rate maximization for decode-and-forward MIMO-OFDM networks with an energy harvesting relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in

  14. Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee

    2016-11-20

    Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.

  15. Robust distributed two-way relay beamforming in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    . The secondary network shares the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and operates under a constraint on the maximum interference to the PU, in addition to its own resource and quality of service (QoS) constraints. We propose beamformer designs assuming

  16. Duplex Schemes in Multiple Antenna Two-Hop Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Klein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel scheme for two-hop relaying defined as space division duplex (SDD relaying is proposed. In SDD relaying, multiple antenna beamforming techniques are applied at the intermediate relay station (RS in order to separate downlink and uplink signals of a bi-directional two-hop communication between two nodes, namely, S1 and S2. For conventional amplify-and-forward two-hop relaying, there appears a loss in spectral efficiency due to the fact that the RS cannot receive and transmit simultaneously on the same channel resource. In SDD relaying, this loss in spectral efficiency is circumvented by giving up the strict separation of downlink and uplink signals by either time division duplex or frequency division duplex. Two novel concepts for the derivation of the linear beamforming filters at the RS are proposed; they can be designed either by a three-step or a one-step concept. In SDD relaying, receive signals at S1 are interfered by transmit signals of S1, and receive signals at S2 are interfered by transmit signals of S2. An efficient method in order to combat this kind of interference is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, it is shown how the overall spectral efficiency of SDD relaying can be improved if the channels from S1 and S2 to the RS have different qualities.

  17. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application.

  18. Decode and Zero-Forcing Forward Relaying with Relay Selection in Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a cognitive radio (CR) relay network with multiple relay nodes that help forwarding the signal of CR users. Best relay selection is considered to take advantage of its low complexity of implementation. When the primary user (PU) is located close to the relay nodes, the performance of the secondary network is severely degraded due to the interference power constraint during the transmission in the second hop. We propose a decode and zero-forcing forward scheme to suppress the interference power at the relay nodes and analyze the statistics of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio when the relay nodes are located arbitrarily and experience therefore non-identical Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results validate our theoretical results and show that our proposed scheme improves the performance of the CR network when the PU is close to the relay nodes. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus for potential application in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi [Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus is developed. This MRE was synthesized by filling NdFeB particles into polyurethane (PU)/ epoxy (EP) interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. The anisotropic samples were prepared in a permanent magnetic field and magnetized in an electromagnetic field of 1 T. Dynamic mechanical responses of the MRE to applied magnetic fields are investigated through magneto-rheometer, and morphology of MREs is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test result indicates that when the test field orientation is parallel to that of the sample's magnetization, the shear modulus of sample increases. On the other hand, when the orientation is opposite to that of the sample's magnetization, shear modulus decreases. In addition, this PU/EP IPN matrix based MRE has a high-damping property, with high loss factor and can be controlled by applying magnetic field. It is expected that the high damping property and the ability of bi-directional magnetic-control modulus of this MRE offer promising advantages in seismologic application.

  20. Performance analysis of selective cooperation in amplify-and-forward relay networks over identical Nakagami-m channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Hasna, Mazen Omar

    2011-01-01

    In cooperative communications, multiple relays between a source and a destination can increase the diversity gain. Because all the nodes must use orthogonal channels, multiple-relay cooperation becomes spectrally inefficient. Therefore, a bestrelay selection scheme was recently proposed. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of this scheme for a system with the relays operating in amplify-and-forward mode over identical Nakagami-m channels using an exact source-relay-destination signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).We derived accurate closed-form expressions for various system parameters including the probability density function of end-to-end SNR, the average output SNR, the bit error probability, and the channel capacity. The analytical results were verified through Monte Carlo simulations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. On the performance of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over amplify-and-forward dual-hop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    overhears the transmitted message, amplifies it using a variable gain amplifier, and then forwards the message to the destination. This latter combines both the source and the relay message and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure

  2. Performance analysis of selective cooperation in amplify-and-forward relay networks over identical Nakagami-m channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2011-05-02

    In cooperative communications, multiple relays between a source and a destination can increase the diversity gain. Because all the nodes must use orthogonal channels, multiple-relay cooperation becomes spectrally inefficient. Therefore, a bestrelay selection scheme was recently proposed. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of this scheme for a system with the relays operating in amplify-and-forward mode over identical Nakagami-m channels using an exact source-relay-destination signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).We derived accurate closed-form expressions for various system parameters including the probability density function of end-to-end SNR, the average output SNR, the bit error probability, and the channel capacity. The analytical results were verified through Monte Carlo simulations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System user impact and network compatibility study. [antenna design and telecommunication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The report contains data on antenna configurations for the low data rate users of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). It treats the coverage and mutual visibility considerations between the user satellites and the relay satellites and relates these considerations to requirements of antenna beamwidth and fractional user orbital coverage. A final section includes user/TDRS telecommunication link budgets and forward and return link data rate tradeoffs.

  4. An advanced OBP-based payload operating in an asynchronous network for future data relay satellites utilising CCSDS-standard data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M.; Vernucci, A.

    1991-01-01

    A possible Data Relay Satellite System (DRSS) topology and network architecture is introduced. An asynchronous network concept, whereby each link (Inter-orbit, Inter-satellite, Feeder) is allowed to operate on its own clock, without causing loss of information, in conjunction with packet data structures, such as those specified by the CCSDS for advanced orbiting systems is discussed. A matching OBP payload architecture is described, highlighting the advantages provided by the OBP-based concept and then giving some indications on the OBP mass/power requirements.

  5. Performance of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a relay network consisting of a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits a message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears

  6. A study of optimization problem for amplify-and-forward relaying over weibull fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said; Aissa, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the power allocation and relay positioning problems in amplify-and-forward cooperative networks operating in Weibull fading environments. We study adaptive power allocation (PA) with fixed relay location, optimal relay location

  7. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency

  8. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anushandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  9. Relay Selection with Limited and Noisy Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2016-01-28

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Nonetheless, relay selection algorithms generally require error-free channel state information (CSI) from all cooperating relays. Practically, CSI acquisition generates a great deal of feedback overhead that could result in significant transmission delays. In addition to this, the fed back channel information is usually corrupted by additive noise. This could lead to transmission outages if the central node selects the set of cooperating relays based on inaccurate feedback information. In this paper, we propose a relay selection algorithm that tackles the above challenges. Instead of allocating each relay a dedicated channel for feedback, all relays share a pool of feedback channels. Following that, each relay feeds back its identity only if its effective channel (source-relay-destination) exceeds a threshold. After deriving closed-form expressions for the feedback load and the achievable rate, we show that the proposed algorithm drastically reduces the feedback overhead and achieves a rate close to that obtained by selection algorithms with dedicated error-free feedback from all relays. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Telecommunications Relay Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Telecommunications Relay Services On this page: What are telecommunication ... additional information about telecommunication relay services? What are telecommunication relay services? Title IV of the Americans with ...

  11. Opportunistic Relay Selection With Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2015-08-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Generally, relay selection algorithms require channel state information (CSI) feedback from all cooperating relays to make a selection decision. This requirement poses two important challenges, which are often neglected in the literature. Firstly, the fed back channel information is usually corrupted by additive noise. Secondly, CSI feedback generates a great deal of feedback overhead (air-time) that could result in significant performance hits. In this paper, we propose a compressive sensing (CS) based relay selection algorithm that reduces the feedback overhead of relay networks under the assumption of noisy feedback channels. The proposed algorithm exploits CS to first obtain the identity of a set of relays with favorable channel conditions. Following that, the CSI of the identified relays is estimated using least squares estimation without any additional feedback. Both single and multiple relay selection cases are considered. After deriving closed-form expressions for the asymptotic end-to-end SNR at the destination and the feedback load for different relaying protocols, we show that CS-based selection drastically reduces the feedback load and achieves a rate close to that obtained by selection algorithms with dedicated error-free feedback. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  12. Channel estimation for physical layer network coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Feifei; Wang, Gongpu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents channel estimation strategies for the physical later network coding (PLNC) systems. Along with a review of PLNC architectures, this brief examines new challenges brought by the special structure of bi-directional two-hop transmissions that are different from the traditional point-to-point systems and unidirectional relay systems. The authors discuss the channel estimation strategies over typical fading scenarios, including frequency flat fading, frequency selective fading and time selective fading, as well as future research directions. Chapters explore the performa

  13. Downlink Cooperative Broadcast Transmission Based on Superposition Coding in a Relaying System for Future Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Guangjie; Shi, Sulong; Li, Zhengquan

    2018-06-20

    This study investigates the superiority of cooperative broadcast transmission over traditional orthogonal schemes when applied in a downlink relaying broadcast channel (RBC). Two proposed cooperative broadcast transmission protocols, one with an amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, and the other with a repetition-based decode-and-forward (DF) relay, are investigated. By utilizing superposition coding (SupC), the source and the relay transmit the private user messages simultaneously instead of sequentially as in traditional orthogonal schemes, which means the channel resources are reused and an increased channel degree of freedom is available to each user, hence the half-duplex penalty of relaying is alleviated. To facilitate a performance evaluation, theoretical outage probability expressions of the two broadcast transmission schemes are developed, based on which, we investigate the minimum total power consumption of each scheme for a given traffic requirement by numerical simulation. The results provide details on the overall system performance and fruitful insights on the essential characteristics of cooperative broadcast transmission in RBCs. It is observed that better overall outage performances and considerable power gains can be obtained by utilizing cooperative broadcast transmissions compared to traditional orthogonal schemes.

  14. Relay communications strategies for Mars exploration through 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Arnold, B.; DePaula, R.; Kazz, G.; Lee, C.; Noreen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will examine NASA's strategy for relay communications support of missions planned for this decade, and discuss options for longer-term relay network evolution in support of second-decade missions.

  15. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of different switched diversity configurations on the implementation complexity and achieved performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. A low-complexity model of the relay station

  16. Performance analysis of relay-assisted all-optical FSO networks over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we consider a relay-assisted free-space optical communication scheme over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment-induced pointing errors. The links from the source to the destination are assumed to be all-optical links. Assuming a variable gain relay with amplify-and-forward protocol, the electrical signal at the source is forwarded to the destination with the help of this relay through all-optical links. More specifically, we first present a cumulative density function (CDF) analysis for the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Based on this CDF, the outage probability, bit-error rate, and average capacity of our proposed system are derived. Results show that the system diversity order is related to the minimum value of the channel parameters.

  17. Effect of RF Interference on the Security-Reliability Trade-off Analysis of Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) cochannel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser mixed RF/free-space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling under eavesdropping attack is studied. The considered system includes multiple users, one decode-and-forward relay, one destination, and an eavesdropper. In the analysis, the RF/FSO channels follow Nakagami-m/Gamma-Gamma fading models, respectively, with pointing errors on the FSO link. Exact closed-form expression for the system outage probability is derived. Then, an asymptotic expression for the outage probability is obtained at the high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio regime to get more insights on the system performance. Moreover, the obtained results are used to find the optimal transmission power in different turbulence conditions. The secrecy performance is studied in the presence of CCI at both the authorized relay and eavesdropper, where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. The physical layer security performance is enhanced using cooperative jamming models, where new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. Another power allocation optimization problem is formulated to find the optimal transmission and jamming powers. The derived analytical formulas are supported by numerical results to clarify the main contributions of this paper.

  18. Applying a Space-Based Security Recovery Scheme for Critical Homeland Security Cyberinfrastructure Utilizing the NASA Tracking and Data Relay (TDRS) Based Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C.; McLaughlin, Brian; Stocklin, Frank; Fortin, Andre; Israel, David; Dissanayake, Asoka; Gilliand, Denise; LaFontaine, Richard; Broomandan, Richard; Hyunh, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Protection of the national infrastructure is a high priority for cybersecurity of the homeland. Critical infrastructure such as the national power grid, commercial financial networks, and communications networks have been successfully invaded and re-invaded from foreign and domestic attackers. The ability to re-establish authentication and confidentiality of the network participants via secure channels that have not been compromised would be an important countermeasure to compromise of our critical network infrastructure. This paper describes a concept of operations by which the NASA Tracking and Data Relay (TDRS) constellation of spacecraft in conjunction with the White Sands Complex (WSC) Ground Station host a security recovery system for re-establishing secure network communications in the event of a national or regional cyberattack. Users would perform security and network restoral functions via a Broadcast Satellite Service (BSS) from the TDRS constellation. The BSS enrollment only requires that each network location have a receive antenna and satellite receiver. This would be no more complex than setting up a DIRECTTV-like receiver at each network location with separate network connectivity. A GEO BSS would allow a mass re-enrollment of network nodes (up to nationwide) simultaneously depending upon downlink characteristics. This paper details the spectrum requirements, link budget, notional assets and communications requirements for the scheme. It describes the architecture of such a system and the manner in which it leverages off of the existing secure infrastructure which is already in place and managed by the NASAGSFC Space Network Project.

  19. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi-directional piezoel......This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  20. Analysis of Bi-directional Effects on the Response of a Seismic Base Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung-Kui; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The floor response spectrum depends on the height of the floor of the structure. Also FRS depends on the characteristics of the seismic base isolation system such as the natural frequency, damping ratio. In the previous study, the floor response spectrum of the base isolated structure was calculated for each axis without considering bi-directional effect. However, the shear behavior of the seismic base isolation system of two horizontal directions are correlated each other by the bi-directional effects. If the shear behavior of the seismic isolation system changes, it can influence the floor response spectrum and displacement response of isolators. In this study, the analysis of a bi-directional effect on the floor response spectrum was performed. In this study, the response of the seismic base isolation system based on the bi-directional effects was analyzed. By analyzing the time history result, while there is no alteration in the maximum shear force of seismic base isolation system, it is confirmed that the shear force is generally more decreased in a one-directional that in a two-directional in most parts. Due to the overall decreased shear force, the floor response spectrum is more reduced in a two-directional than in a one-directional

  1. Biophysical network modeling of the dLGN circuit: Effects of cortical feedback on spatial response properties of relay cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez-Cañada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite half-a-century of research since the seminal work of Hubel and Wiesel, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN in shaping the visual signals is not properly understood. Placed on route from retina to primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, a striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that both the relay cells (RCs and interneurons (INs not only receive feedforward input from retinal ganglion cells, but also a prominent feedback from cells in layer 6 of visual cortex. This feedback has been proposed to affect synchronicity and other temporal properties of the RC firing. It has also been seen to affect spatial properties such as the center-surround antagonism of thalamic receptive fields, i.e., the suppression of the response to very large stimuli compared to smaller, more optimal stimuli. Here we explore the spatial effects of cortical feedback on the RC response by means of a a comprehensive network model with biophysically detailed, single-compartment and multicompartment neuron models of RCs, INs and a population of orientation-selective layer 6 simple cells, consisting of pyramidal cells (PY. We have considered two different arrangements of synaptic feedback from the ON and OFF zones in the visual cortex to the dLGN: phase-reversed ('push-pull' and phase-matched ('push-push', as well as different spatial extents of the corticothalamic projection pattern. Our simulation results support that a phase-reversed arrangement provides a more effective way for cortical feedback to provide the increased center-surround antagonism seen in experiments both for flashing spots and, even more prominently, for patch gratings. This implies that ON-center RCs receive direct excitation from OFF-dominated cortical cells and indirect inhibitory feedback from ON-dominated cortical cells. The increased center-surround antagonism in the model is accompanied by spatial focusing, i.e., the maximum RC response occurs for smaller stimuli

  2. Biophysical network modeling of the dLGN circuit: Effects of cortical feedback on spatial response properties of relay cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cañada, Pablo; Halnes, Geir; Fyhn, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Despite half-a-century of research since the seminal work of Hubel and Wiesel, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in shaping the visual signals is not properly understood. Placed on route from retina to primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, a striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that both the relay cells (RCs) and interneurons (INs) not only receive feedforward input from retinal ganglion cells, but also a prominent feedback from cells in layer 6 of visual cortex. This feedback has been proposed to affect synchronicity and other temporal properties of the RC firing. It has also been seen to affect spatial properties such as the center-surround antagonism of thalamic receptive fields, i.e., the suppression of the response to very large stimuli compared to smaller, more optimal stimuli. Here we explore the spatial effects of cortical feedback on the RC response by means of a a comprehensive network model with biophysically detailed, single-compartment and multicompartment neuron models of RCs, INs and a population of orientation-selective layer 6 simple cells, consisting of pyramidal cells (PY). We have considered two different arrangements of synaptic feedback from the ON and OFF zones in the visual cortex to the dLGN: phase-reversed (‘push-pull’) and phase-matched (‘push-push’), as well as different spatial extents of the corticothalamic projection pattern. Our simulation results support that a phase-reversed arrangement provides a more effective way for cortical feedback to provide the increased center-surround antagonism seen in experiments both for flashing spots and, even more prominently, for patch gratings. This implies that ON-center RCs receive direct excitation from OFF-dominated cortical cells and indirect inhibitory feedback from ON-dominated cortical cells. The increased center-surround antagonism in the model is accompanied by spatial focusing, i.e., the maximum RC response occurs for smaller stimuli when

  3. On the achievable degrees of freedom of alternate MIMO relaying with multiple AF relays

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-hop relaying network where one source, one destination, and multiple amplify-and-forward (AF) relays equipped with M antennas operate in a half-duplex mode. In order to compensate for the inherent loss of capacity pre-log factor of 1/2 due to half-duplex relaying, we propose a new transmission protocol which combines alternate relaying and inter-relay interference alignment. We prove that the proposed scheme can (i) exploits M degrees of freedom (DOFs) and (ii) perfectly recover the pre-log factor loss if the number of relays is at least six. From our selected numerical results, we show that our proposed scheme gives significant improvement over conventional AF relaying which offers only M/2 DOFs. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Buffer-Aided Relaying with Adaptive Link Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatanov, Nikola; Schober, Robert; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple network consisting of a source, a half-duplex decode-and-forward relay, and a destination. We propose a new relaying protocol employing adaptive link selection, i.e., in any given time slot, based on the channel state information of the source-relay and the relay......-destination link a decision is made whether the source or the relay transmits. In order to avoid data loss at the relay, adaptive link selection requires the relay to be equipped with a buffer such that data can be queued until the relay-destination link is selected for transmission. We study both delay......-constrained and delay-unconstrained transmission. For the delay-unconstrained case, we characterize the optimal link selection policy, derive the corresponding throughput, and develop an optimal power allocation scheme. For the delay-constrained case, we propose to starve the buffer of the relay by choosing...

  5. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  6. Efficient parallel and out of core algorithms for constructing large bi-directed de Bruijn graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assembling genomic sequences from a set of overlapping reads is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Algorithms addressing the assembly problem fall into two broad categories - based on the data structures which they employ. The first class uses an overlap/string graph and the second type uses a de Bruijn graph. However with the recent advances in short read sequencing technology, de Bruijn graph based algorithms seem to play a vital role in practice. Efficient algorithms for building these massive de Bruijn graphs are very essential in large sequencing projects based on short reads. In an earlier work, an O(n/p time parallel algorithm has been given for this problem. Here n is the size of the input and p is the number of processors. This algorithm enumerates all possible bi-directed edges which can overlap with a node and ends up generating Θ(nΣ messages (Σ being the size of the alphabet. Results In this paper we present a Θ(n/p time parallel algorithm with a communication complexity that is equal to that of parallel sorting and is not sensitive to Σ. The generality of our algorithm makes it very easy to extend it even to the out-of-core model and in this case it has an optimal I/O complexity of Θ(nlog(n/BBlog(M/B (M being the main memory size and B being the size of the disk block. We demonstrate the scalability of our parallel algorithm on a SGI/Altix computer. A comparison of our algorithm with the previous approaches reveals that our algorithm is faster - both asymptotically and practically. We demonstrate the scalability of our sequential out-of-core algorithm by comparing it with the algorithm used by VELVET to build the bi-directed de Bruijn graph. Our experiments reveal that our algorithm can build the graph with a constant amount of memory, which clearly outperforms VELVET. We also provide efficient algorithms for the bi-directed chain compaction problem. Conclusions The bi-directed

  7. Efficient parallel and out of core algorithms for constructing large bi-directed de Bruijn graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, Vamsi K; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Dinh, Hieu; Vaughn, Matthew; Thapar, Vishal

    2010-11-15

    Assembling genomic sequences from a set of overlapping reads is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Algorithms addressing the assembly problem fall into two broad categories - based on the data structures which they employ. The first class uses an overlap/string graph and the second type uses a de Bruijn graph. However with the recent advances in short read sequencing technology, de Bruijn graph based algorithms seem to play a vital role in practice. Efficient algorithms for building these massive de Bruijn graphs are very essential in large sequencing projects based on short reads. In an earlier work, an O(n/p) time parallel algorithm has been given for this problem. Here n is the size of the input and p is the number of processors. This algorithm enumerates all possible bi-directed edges which can overlap with a node and ends up generating Θ(nΣ) messages (Σ being the size of the alphabet). In this paper we present a Θ(n/p) time parallel algorithm with a communication complexity that is equal to that of parallel sorting and is not sensitive to Σ. The generality of our algorithm makes it very easy to extend it even to the out-of-core model and in this case it has an optimal I/O complexity of Θ(nlog(n/B)Blog(M/B)) (M being the main memory size and B being the size of the disk block). We demonstrate the scalability of our parallel algorithm on a SGI/Altix computer. A comparison of our algorithm with the previous approaches reveals that our algorithm is faster--both asymptotically and practically. We demonstrate the scalability of our sequential out-of-core algorithm by comparing it with the algorithm used by VELVET to build the bi-directed de Bruijn graph. Our experiments reveal that our algorithm can build the graph with a constant amount of memory, which clearly outperforms VELVET. We also provide efficient algorithms for the bi-directed chain compaction problem. The bi-directed de Bruijn graph is a fundamental data structure for

  8. Outage probability analysis of a secondary user in an underlay dual hop cognitive amplify and forward relay network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance evaluation of a secondary user (SU in an underlay cognitive dual-hop relaying system considering instantaneous as well as average channel information of the interfering links (from the secondary source and relay to the primary receiver and the data link from the secondary source to relay, to calculate transmit power and amplifying gain of secondary system. Comparison of above mentioned cases is done for two different scenarios – with direct path and without direct path. We evaluate the performance considering two different diversity techniques namely as selection combining (SC and maximum ratio combining (MRC. The effect of different fading channels (Rayleigh and Nakagami on the outage performance of the SU for the two diversity techniques is also shown. The outage probability of the SU is reduced when the diversity techniques are used (with direct path as compared to the outage probability of SU without direct path. We find that the outage performance is better for instantaneous channel information as compared to average channel information for the links. We observe that MRC provides better performance than SC. Furthermore, this work shows that the outage performance of the SU has been improved when the Nakagami fading channel (m = 2 is considered instead of Rayleigh fading channel.

  9. Bi-directional triplexer with butterfly MMI coupler using SU-8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, David; Jeřábek, Vítězslav; Prajzler, Václav

    2015-01-01

    We report about a design of a bi-directional planar optical multiplex/demultiplex filter (triplexer) for the optical part of planar hybrid WDM bi-directional transceiver in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) PON applications. The triplex lightwave circuit is based on the Epoxy Novolak Resin SU-8 waveguides on the silica-on-silicon substrate with Polymethylmethacrylate cladding layer. The triplexer is comprised of a linear butterfly concept of multimode interference (MMI) coupler separating downstream optical signals of 1490 nm and 1550 nm. For the upstream channel of 1310 nm, an additional directional coupler (DC) is used to add optical signal of 1310 nm propagating in opposite direction. The optical triplexer was designed and optimized using beam propagation method. The insertion losses, crosstalk attenuation, and extinction ratio for all three inputs/outputs were investigated. The intended triplexer was designed using the parameters of the separated DC and MMI filter to approximate the idealized direct connection of both devices.

  10. Investigations of bi-directional flow behaviour of a large vertical opening in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Markandeya, S.G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the complex codes developed for fire analysis and for containment thermal hydraulic analysis. The junction in the multi-compartment geometries are often modeled as uni-directional junctions. However, certain large size junctions are known to depict bi-directional flow behaviour under specific circumstances. Detailed investigations have been carried out to understand the bi-directionality of a junction by analyzing an earlier reported case study of fire in an enclosure. A computer code FDS was used for the analysis. The paper presents the details of the analysis, the results obtained and further studies required to be conducted so that the findings can be applied to the fire/containment thermal hydraulics analysis codes successfully

  11. Bi-directional electrons in the near-Earth plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shiokawa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the occurrence characteristics of bi-directional electron pitch angle anisotropy (enhanced flux in field-aligned directions, F^ /F|| > 1.5 at energies of 0.1–30 keV using plasma and magnetic field data from the AMPTE/IRM satellite in the near-Earth plasma sheet. The occurrence rate increases in the tailward direction from XGSM = - 9 RE to - 19 RE . The occurrence rate is also enhanced in the midnight sector, and furthermore, whenever the elevation angle of the magnetic field is large while the magnetic field intensity is small, B ~ 15 nT. From these facts, we conclude that the bi-directional electrons in the central plasma sheet are produced mainly in the vicinity of the neutral sheet and that the contribution from ionospheric electrons is minor. A high occurrence is also found after earthward high-speed ion flows, suggesting Fermi-type field-aligned electron acceleration in the neutral sheet. Occurrence characteristics of bi-directional electrons in the plasma sheet boundary layer are also discussed.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; magnetotail; plasma sheet

  12. Magnetically actuated bi-directional microactuators with permalloy and Fe/Pt hard magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, C.T.; Shen, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Bi-directional polyimide (PI) electromagnetic microactuator with different geometries are designed, fabricated and tested. Fabrication of the electromagnetic microactuator consists of 10 μm thick Ni/Fe (80/20) permalloy deposition on the PI diaphragm by electroplating, high aspect ratio electroplating of copper planar coil with 10 μm in thickness, bulk micromachining, and excimer laser selective ablation. They were fabricated by a novel concept avoiding the etching selectivity and residual stress problems during wafer etching. A mathematical model is created by ANSYS software to analyze the microactuator. The external magnetic field intensity (H ext ) generated by the planar coil is simulated by ANSYS software. ANSYS software is used to predict the deflection angle of the microactuator. Besides, to provide bi-directional and large deflection angle of microactuator, hard magnet Fe/Pt is deposited at a low temperature of 300 deg. C by sputtering onto the PI diaphragm to produce a perpendicular magnetic anisotropic field. This magnetic field can enhance the interaction with H ext to induce attractive and repulsive bi-directional force to provide large displacement. The results of magnetic microactuator with and without hard magnets are compared and discussed. The preliminary result reveals that the electromagnetic microactuator with hard magnet shows a greater deflection angle than that without one

  13. Development of a bi-directional standing wave linear piezoelectric actuator with four driving feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Shi, Shengjun; Li, Chunhong; Chen, Weishan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Junkao

    2018-03-01

    A bi-directional standing wave linear piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator with four driving feet is proposed in this work. Two sandwich type transducers operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid modes are set parallelly. The working mode of the transducer is not simple hybrid vibrations of a longitudinal one and a bending one, but a special coupling vibration mode contained both longitudinal and bending components. Two transducers with the same structure and unsymmetrical boundary conditions are set parallelly to accomplish the bi-directional driving: the first transducer can push the runner forward, while the other one produces the backward driving. In the experiments, two voltages with different amplitudes are applied on the two transducers, respectively: the one with higher voltage serves as the actuator, whereas the other one applied with lower voltage is used to reduce the frictional force. The prototype achieves maximum no-load speed and thrust force of 244 mm/s and 9.8 N. This work gives a new idea for the construction of standing wave piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator with bi-directional driving ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatially Controlled Relay Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerias, Dionysios

    This thesis is about fusion of optimal stochastic motion control and physical layer communications. Distributed, networked communication systems, such as relay beamforming networks (e.g., Amplify & Forward (AF)), are typically designed without explicitly considering how the positions of the respective nodes might affect the quality of the communication. Optimum placement of network nodes, which could potentially improve the quality of the communication, is not typically considered. However, in most practical settings in physical layer communications, such as relay beamforming, the Channel State Information (CSI) observed by each node, per channel use, although it might be (modeled as) random, it is both spatially and temporally correlated. It is, therefore, reasonable to ask if and how the performance of the system could be improved by (predictively) controlling the positions of the network nodes (e.g., the relays), based on causal side (CSI) information, and exploitting the spatiotemporal dependencies of the wireless medium. In this work, we address this problem in the context of AF relay beamforming networks. This novel, cyber-physical system approach to relay beamforming is termed as "Spatially Controlled Relay Beamforming". First, we discuss wireless channel modeling, however, in a rigorous, Bayesian framework. Experimentally accurate and, at the same time, technically precise channel modeling is absolutely essential for designing and analyzing spatially controlled communication systems. In this work, we are interested in two distinct spatiotemporal statistical models, for describing the behavior of the log-scale magnitude of the wireless channel: 1. Stationary Gaussian Fields: In this case, the channel is assumed to evolve as a stationary, Gaussian stochastic field in continuous space and discrete time (say, for instance, time slots). Under such assumptions, spatial and temporal statistical interactions are determined by a set of time and space invariant

  15. Relay Architectures for 3GPP LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters StevenW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Third Generation Partnership Project's Long Term Evolution-Advanced is considering relaying for cost-effective throughput enhancement and coverage extension. While analog repeaters have been used to enhance coverage in commercial cellular networks, the use of more sophisticated fixed relays is relatively new. The main challenge faced by relay deployments in cellular systems is overcoming the extra interference added by the presence of relays. Most prior work on relaying does not consider interference, however. This paper analyzes the performance of several emerging half-duplex relay strategies in interference-limited cellular systems: one-way, two-way, and shared relays. The performance of each strategy as a function of location, sectoring, and frequency reuse are compared with localized base station coordination. One-way relaying is shown to provide modest gains over single-hop cellular networks in some regimes. Shared relaying is shown to approach the gains of local base station coordination at reduced complexity, while two-way relaying further reduces complexity but only works well when the relay is close to the handset. Frequency reuse of one, where each sector uses the same spectrum, is shown to have the highest network throughput. Simulations with realistic channel models provide performance comparisons that reveal the importance of interference mitigation in multihop cellular networks.

  16. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission

  17. On the achievable degrees of freedom of alternate MIMO relaying with multiple AF relays

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Park, Seongho; Ko, Youngchai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-hop relaying network where one source, one destination, and multiple amplify-and-forward (AF) relays equipped with M antennas operate in a half-duplex mode. In order to compensate for the inherent loss of capacity

  18. Distributed Antenna Channels with Regenerative Relaying: Relay Selection and Asymptotic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor del Coso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO techniques have been widely proposed as a means to improve capacity and reliability of wireless channels, and have become the most promising technology for next generation networks. However, their practical deployment in current wireless devices is severely affected by antenna correlation, which reduces their impact on performance. One approach to solve this limitation is relaying diversity. In relay channels, a set of N wireless nodes aids a source-destination communication by relaying the source data, thus creating a distributed antenna array with uncorrelated path gains. In this paper, we study this multiple relay channel (MRC following a decode-and-forward (D&F strategy (i.e., regenerative forwarding, and derive its achievable rate under AWGN. A half-duplex constraint on relays is assumed, as well as distributed channel knowledge at both transmitter and receiver sides of the communication. For this channel, we obtain the optimum relay selection algorithm and the optimum power allocation within the network so that the transmission rate is maximized. Likewise, we bound the ergodic performance of the achievable rate and derive its asymptotic behavior in the number of relays. Results show that the achievable rate of regenerative MRC grows as the logarithm of the Lambert W function of the total number of relays, that is, 𝒞=log⁡2(W0(N. Therefore, D&F relaying, cannot achieve the capacity of actual MISO channels.

  19. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  1. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2017-04-18

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  2. On Alternate Relaying with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-06-06

    In this letter, we investigate the potential benefits of adopting improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in a two-hop alternate relaying (AR) system. Given the known benefits of using IGS in interference-limited networks, we propose to use IGS to relieve the inter-relay interference (IRI) impact on the AR system assuming no channel state information is available at the source. In this regard, we assume that the two relays use IGS and the source uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS). Then, we optimize the degree of impropriety of the relays signal, measured by the circularity coefficient, to maximize the total achievable rate. Simulation results show that using IGS yields a significant performance improvement over PGS, especially when the first hop is a bottleneck due to weak source-relay channel gains and/or strong IRI.

  3. On Alternate Relaying with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Ikhlef, Aissa; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the potential benefits of adopting improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in a two-hop alternate relaying (AR) system. Given the known benefits of using IGS in interference-limited networks, we propose to use IGS to relieve the inter-relay interference (IRI) impact on the AR system assuming no channel state information is available at the source. In this regard, we assume that the two relays use IGS and the source uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS). Then, we optimize the degree of impropriety of the relays signal, measured by the circularity coefficient, to maximize the total achievable rate. Simulation results show that using IGS yields a significant performance improvement over PGS, especially when the first hop is a bottleneck due to weak source-relay channel gains and/or strong IRI.

  4. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  5. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  6. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed relay beamformer design for a cognitive radio network in which a cognitive (or secondary) transmit node communicates with a secondary receive node assisted by a set of cognitive non-regenerative relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. The proposed robust cognitive relay beamformer design seeks to minimize the total relay transmit power while ensuring that the transceiver signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio and PU interference constraints are satisfied. The proposed design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be reformulated as a tractable convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the performance of the proposed designs for different network operating conditions and parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  8. Opportunistic Fixed Gain Bidirectional Relaying with Outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed; Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2015-01-01

    In a network with multiple relays, relay selection has been shown as an effective scheme to achieve diversity as well as to improve the overall throughput. This paper studies the impact of using outdated channel state information for relay selection on the performance of a network where two sources communicate with each other via fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relays. For a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expressions for the outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error rate are derived. Simulations results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. It is shown that adding relays does not improve the performance if the channel is substantially outdated. Furthermore, relay location is also taken into consideration and it is shown that the performance can be improved by placing the relay closer to the source whose channel is more outdated. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Opportunistic Fixed Gain Bidirectional Relaying with Outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    In a network with multiple relays, relay selection has been shown as an effective scheme to achieve diversity as well as to improve the overall throughput. This paper studies the impact of using outdated channel state information for relay selection on the performance of a network where two sources communicate with each other via fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relays. For a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expressions for the outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error rate are derived. Simulations results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. It is shown that adding relays does not improve the performance if the channel is substantially outdated. Furthermore, relay location is also taken into consideration and it is shown that the performance can be improved by placing the relay closer to the source whose channel is more outdated. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Observations of a bi-directional lightning leader producing an M-component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Uman, M. A.; Wilkes, R.; Carvalho, F. L.; Jordan, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning discharges to ground often exhibit millisecond-scale surges in the continuing currents following return strokes, called M-components. Relatively little is known regarding the source of M-component charge and the mechanisms by which that charge is transferred to ground. In this work, we seek to directly address these questions by presenting correlated high-speed video and Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) observations of a bi-directional leader that resulted in an M-component occurring in a rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash. The observed leader initiated in the decayed remnants of a positive leader channel that had traversed virgin air approximately 90 msec prior. Three-dimensional locations and speeds of the photographed bi-directional leader and M-component processes are calculated by mapping video images to the observed LMA channel geometry. Both ends of the bi-directional leader exhibited speeds on the order of 2 x106 m sec-1 over 570 meters of the visible channel. Propagation of the luminosity wave from the in-cloud leader to ground ( 8.8 km channel length) exhibited appreciable dispersion, with rise-times (10-90%) increasing from 330 to 410 μsec and pulse-widths (half-maximum) increasing from 380 to 810 μsec - the M-component current pulse measured at ground-level exhibited a rise-time of 290 μsec and a pulse-width of 770 μsec. Group velocities of the luminosity wave have been calculated as a function of frequency, increasing from 2 x107 to 6 x107 m sec-1 over the dominant signal bandwidth (DC to 2 kHz). Additionally, multiple waves of luminosity are observed within the in-cloud channel, indicating nuanced wave phenomena possibly associated with reflection from the end of the leader channel and attachment with the main lightning channel carrying continuing current to ground.

  11. Integrating high dimensional bi-directional parsing models for gene mention tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Nan; Chang, Yu-Ming; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Lin, Yu-Shi; Huang, Han-Shen; Chung, I-Fang

    2008-07-01

    Tagging gene and gene product mentions in scientific text is an important initial step of literature mining. In this article, we describe in detail our gene mention tagger participated in BioCreative 2 challenge and analyze what contributes to its good performance. Our tagger is based on the conditional random fields model (CRF), the most prevailing method for the gene mention tagging task in BioCreative 2. Our tagger is interesting because it accomplished the highest F-scores among CRF-based methods and second over all. Moreover, we obtained our results by mostly applying open source packages, making it easy to duplicate our results. We first describe in detail how we developed our CRF-based tagger. We designed a very high dimensional feature set that includes most of information that may be relevant. We trained bi-directional CRF models with the same set of features, one applies forward parsing and the other backward, and integrated two models based on the output scores and dictionary filtering. One of the most prominent factors that contributes to the good performance of our tagger is the integration of an additional backward parsing model. However, from the definition of CRF, it appears that a CRF model is symmetric and bi-directional parsing models will produce the same results. We show that due to different feature settings, a CRF model can be asymmetric and the feature setting for our tagger in BioCreative 2 not only produces different results but also gives backward parsing models slight but constant advantage over forward parsing model. To fully explore the potential of integrating bi-directional parsing models, we applied different asymmetric feature settings to generate many bi-directional parsing models and integrate them based on the output scores. Experimental results show that this integrated model can achieve even higher F-score solely based on the training corpus for gene mention tagging. Data sets, programs and an on-line service of our gene

  12. Cross-layer combining of information-guided transmission withnetwork coding relaying for multiuser cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    For a cognitive radio relaying network, we propose a cross-layer design by combining information-guided transmission at the physical layer and network coding at the network layer. With this design, a common relay is exploited to help

  13. The Bi-Directional Prediction of Carbon Fiber Production Using a Combination of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper creates a bi-directional prediction model to predict the performance of carbon fiber and the productive parameters based on a support vector machine (SVM and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm (SVM-IPSO. In the SVM, it is crucial to select the parameters that have an important impact on the performance of prediction. The IPSO is proposed to optimize them, and then the SVM-IPSO model is applied to the bi-directional prediction of carbon fiber production. The predictive accuracy of SVM is mainly dependent on its parameters, and IPSO is thus exploited to seek the optimal parameters for SVM in order to improve its prediction capability. Inspired by a cell communication mechanism, we propose IPSO by incorporating information of the global best solution into the search strategy to improve exploitation, and we employ IPSO to establish the bi-directional prediction model: in the direction of the forward prediction, we consider productive parameters as input and property indexes as output; in the direction of the backward prediction, we consider property indexes as input and productive parameters as output, and in this case, the model becomes a scheme design for novel style carbon fibers. The results from a set of the experimental data show that the proposed model can outperform the radial basis function neural network (RNN, the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the hybrid approach of genetic algorithm and improved particle swarm optimization (GA-IPSO method in most of the experiments. In other words, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the SVM-IPSO model in dealing with the problem of forecasting.

  14. The Bi-Directional Prediction of Carbon Fiber Production Using a Combination of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chuncai; Hao, Kuangrong; Ding, Yongsheng

    2014-12-30

    This paper creates a bi-directional prediction model to predict the performance of carbon fiber and the productive parameters based on a support vector machine (SVM) and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm (SVM-IPSO). In the SVM, it is crucial to select the parameters that have an important impact on the performance of prediction. The IPSO is proposed to optimize them, and then the SVM-IPSO model is applied to the bi-directional prediction of carbon fiber production. The predictive accuracy of SVM is mainly dependent on its parameters, and IPSO is thus exploited to seek the optimal parameters for SVM in order to improve its prediction capability. Inspired by a cell communication mechanism, we propose IPSO by incorporating information of the global best solution into the search strategy to improve exploitation, and we employ IPSO to establish the bi-directional prediction model: in the direction of the forward prediction, we consider productive parameters as input and property indexes as output; in the direction of the backward prediction, we consider property indexes as input and productive parameters as output, and in this case, the model becomes a scheme design for novel style carbon fibers. The results from a set of the experimental data show that the proposed model can outperform the radial basis function neural network (RNN), the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and the hybrid approach of genetic algorithm and improved particle swarm optimization (GA-IPSO) method in most of the experiments. In other words, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the SVM-IPSO model in dealing with the problem of forecasting.

  15. Outage analysis of selective cooperation in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays and primary interference modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Hasna, Mazen Omar

    2012-01-01

    Selective cooperation is a well investigated technique in non-cognitive networks for efficient spectrum utilization and performance improvement. However, it is still a nascent topic for underlay cognitive networks. Recently, it was investigated

  16. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  17. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions.

  18. Evaluation of a bi-directional aluminum honeycomb impact limiter design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A 120 Ton shipping cask is being developed for the on-site shipment of dry spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Impact limiters were incorporated in the cask design to limit the inertial load of the package and its contents during the hypothetical 9-meter (30-foot) drop accident required by 10CFR71. The design process included: (1) a series of static and dynamic tests to determine the crush characteristics of the bi-directional aluminum honeycomb impact limiter material, (2) the development of an analytical model to predict the cask deceleration force as a function of impact limiter crush, and (3) a series of quarter scale model drop tests to qualify the analytical model. The scale model testing, performed at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, revealed several design aspects which should be considered in developing bi-directional aluminum honeycomb impact limiters and several other design aspects which should be considered for impact limiter designs in general

  19. Moral judgment modulation by disgust is bi-directionally moderated by individual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, How Hwee; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Kwok, Kenneth; Lim, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Modern theories of moral judgment predict that both conscious reasoning and unconscious emotional influences affect the way people decide about right and wrong. In a series of experiments, we tested the effect of subliminal and conscious priming of disgust facial expressions on moral dilemmas. “Trolley-car”-type scenarios were used, with subjects rating how acceptable they found the utilitarian course of action to be. On average, subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions resulted in higher rates of utilitarian judgments compared to neutral facial expressions. Further, in replication, we found that individual change in moral acceptability ratings due to disgust priming was modulated by individual sensitivity to disgust, revealing a bi-directional function. Our second replication extended this result to show that the function held for both subliminally and consciously presented stimuli. Combined across these experiments, we show a reliable bi-directional function, with presentation of disgust expression primes to individuals with higher disgust sensitivity resulting in more utilitarian judgments (i.e., number-based) and presentations to individuals with lower sensitivity resulting in more deontological judgments (i.e., rules-based). Our results may reconcile previous conflicting reports of disgust modulation of moral judgment by modeling how individual sensitivity to disgust determines the direction and degree of this effect. PMID:24639665

  20. Moral judgment modulation by disgust is bi-directionally moderated by individual sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    How Hwee eOng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern theories of moral judgment predict that both conscious reasoning and unconscious emotional influences affect the way people decide about right and wrong. In a series of experiments, we tested the effect of subliminal and conscious priming of disgust facial expressions on moral dilemmas. Trolley-car-type scenarios were used, with subjects rating how acceptable they found the utilitarian course of action to be. On average, subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions resulted in higher rates of utilitarian judgments compared to neutral facial expressions. Further, in replication, we found that individual change in moral acceptability ratings due to disgust priming was modulated by individual sensitivity to disgust, revealing a bi-directional function. Our second replication extended this result to show that the function held for both subliminally and consciously presented stimuli. Combined across these experiments, we show a reliable bi-directional function, with presentation of disgust expression primes to individuals with higher disgust sensitivity resulting in more utilitarian judgments (i.e., number-based and presentations to individuals with lower sensitivity resulting in more deontological judgments (i.e., rules-based. Our results may reconcile previous conflicting reports of disgust modulation of moral judgment by modeling how individual sensitivity to disgust determines the direction and degree of this effect.

  1. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Qian, Christopher; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Yan, Yick-Chun; Luo, Qian-Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhang, Fa-Li; Jiang, Li-Rong; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2017-10-01

    The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP) astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM) induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Differences of bi-directional regulative effects between acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definition; 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a) correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist), combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica in clinical practice, but their basis and modes for inducing effects are different.

  3. Comparative Study on Uni- and Bi-Directional Fluid Structure Coupling of Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Belayneh Ageze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of wind turbine blade designs are geared towards a longer and slender blade with high flexibility, exhibiting complex aeroelastic loadings and instability issues, including flutter; in this regard, fluid-structure interaction (FSI plays a significant role. The present article will conduct a comparative study between uni-directional and bi-directional fluid-structural coupling models for a horizontal axis wind turbine. A full-scale, geometric copy of the NREL 5MW blade with simplified material distribution is considered for simulation. Analytical formulations of the governing relations with appropriate approximation are highlighted, including turbulence model, i.e., Shear Stress Transport (SST k-ω. These analytical relations are implemented using Multiphysics package ANSYS employing Fluent module (Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-based solver for the fluid domain and Transient Structural module (Finite Element Analysis-based solver for the structural domain. ANSYS system coupling module also is configured to model the two fluid-structure coupling methods. The rated operational condition of the blade for a full cycle rotation is considered as a comparison domain. In the bi-directional coupling model, the structural deformation alters the angle of attack from the designed values, and by extension the flow pattern along the blade span; furthermore, the tip deflection keeps fluctuating whilst it tends to stabilize in the uni-directional coupling model.

  4. Two-Way Multi-Antenna Relaying with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaphat Srivantana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose various kinds of two-way multi-antenna relaying with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT and investigate their performance. Specifically, we first consider a two-way relay network where two single-antenna end nodes communicate with each other through a multi-antenna relay node that is energy constrained. This relay node harvests energy from the two end nodes and use the harvested energy for forwarding their information. Six relaying schemes that support the considered network then build on the power splitting-based relaying and time switching-based relaying protocols. The average bit error rates of these schemes are evaluated and compared by computer simulations considering several network parameters, including the number of relay antennas, power splitting ratio, and energy harvesting time. Such evaluation and comparison provide useful insights into the performance of SWIPT-based two-way multi-antenna relaying.

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  6. Radioisotope relay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakov, V.N.; Sazonov, O.L.; Taksar, I.M.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Yanushkovskij, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a radioisotope relay device containing a radiation source, a detector, an electronic relay block with a comparative threshold mechanism. The device differs from previously known ones in that, for the purpose of increasing stability and speed of action, the electronic relay block is a separate unit and contains two threshold pulse generators which are joined up, across series-connected ''and'' and ''or'' elements, with one of the inputs of the comparative threshold mechanism, whose second input is connected with a detector and whose outputs are connected with a relay element connected by feedback with the above-mentioned ''and'' elements. (author)

  7. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we consider a cooperative network where multiple relay nodes having different modulation capabilities assist the end-to-end communication between a source and its destination. Firstly, we evaluate the effective capacity (EC) performance of the network under study. According to the analysis, an EC-based relay selection criterion is proposed. Based on the proposed selection rule and half-duplex decode-and-forward protocol, the activated relays cooperatively help with the packet transmission from the source. At the destination, packet combining is taken into account to improve the quality of service. Compared to the popular scheme, opportunistic relay selection, numerical results are provided to prove the validity and advantages of our proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between with and without packet combining at the destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Bi-directional causality in California's electricity and natural-gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Chi-Keung; Olson, Arne; Horowitz, Ira; Luk, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Granger instantaneous-causality test is applied to explore the potential causal relationships between wholesale electricity and natural-gas prices in California. The test shows these relationships to be bi-directional, and reveals California's electricity and natural-gas markets to be as inextricably intertwined as casual observation and theoretical considerations would suggest they ought to be. This meshing of markets exacerbated the effects of California's natural-gas crisis on the contemporaneous electricity crisis, while concurrently the electricity crisis may have contributed to the dysfunction in the national-gas market and helped to precipitate the natural-gas crisis. The finding supports an integrated approach, as opposed to a piecemeal approach, for formulating energy policy recommendations, not just in California but in the world at large

  9. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  10. Inductorless bi-directional piezoelectric transformerbased converters: Design and control considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh

    electromagnetic interference, compact, light, high power density and low cost allows for promising market in the near future. The piezoelectric transformer technology has the potential to be used in various applications e.g. motor driver for magnetic resonance imaging scans, the electronic ballast for fluorescent...... of inductorless switch-mode power supplies employing piezoelectric transformers. The main focus of this research is on the functionality of the piezoelectric transformer-based power converters and applying control techniques in order to exploit advantages of the piezoelectric transformers for the power converters...... detector applicable for switch-mode power supplies, optimum phase detector, bi-directional wide bandwidth current sensor and a comprehensive analysis of piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies for zero-voltage switching, where all finalized with improving the unidirectional topology...

  11. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  12. Reliability analysis of an LCL tuned track segmented bi-directional inductive power transfer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif Iqbal, S. M.; Madawala, U. K.; Thrimawithana, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer (BDIPT) technique is suitable for renewable energy based applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), for the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems. Recently, more efforts have been made by researchers to improve both efficiency and reliability...... of renewable energy systems to further enhance their economical sustainability. This paper presents a comparative reliability study between a typical BDIPT system and an individually controlled segmented BDIPT system. Steady state thermal simulation results are provided for different output power levels...... for a 1.5 kW BDIPT system in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Reliability parameters such as failure rate and mean time between failures (MTBF) are compared between the two systems. A nonlinear programming (NP) model is developed for optimizing charging schedule for a stationery EV. A case study of EV...

  13. Bi-directional reflectance distribution function of a tungsten block for ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Kusama, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    In order to investigate reflection properties on plasma-facing material in ITER, the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a tungsten block sample has been measured. On the machining surface of the block, one-directional machining lines are engraved. Two laser diodes λ652 nm and λ473 nm were used to simulate H α and H β emissions, respectively. The reflected light is affected by the machining surface. The reflected light traces an arc when the incident light is injected in the parallel direction to the engraved line. On the other hand the reflected light traces a line shape when the incident light is injected in the perpendicular direction to the engraved lines. Ray tracing simulation qualitatively explains the experimental results. (author)

  14. Clinico-serologic co-relation in bi-directional ABO incompatible hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. Aims: The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. Materials and Methods: In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells. Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. Results: The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Conclusion: Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT.

  15. Early Childhood Media Exposure and Self-Regulation: Bi-Directional Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Howard, Steven J; Radesky, Jenny S; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A

    2018-04-26

    To investigate: i) prospective associations between media exposure (television viewing, computers, and electronic games) at 2 years and self-regulation at 4 and 6 years, and ii) bi-directional associations between media exposure and self-regulation at 4 and 6 years. We hypothesized that media exposure and self-regulation would display a negative prospective association and subsequent bi-directional inverse associations. Data from the nationally-representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) when children were aged 2 (n=2786) and 4/6 years (n=3527) were used. Primary caregivers reported children's weekly electronic media exposure. A composite measure of self-regulation was computed from caregivers-, teacher-, and observer-report data. Associations were examined using linear regression and cross-lagged panel models, accounting for covariates. Lower television viewing and total media exposure at 2 years were associated with higher self-regulation at 4 years (both β -0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.03, -0.01). Lower self-regulation at 4 years was also significantly associated with higher television viewing (β -0.15; 95% CI -0.21, -0.08), electronic game use (β -0.05; 95% CI -0.09, -0.01), and total media exposure (β -0.19; 95% CI -0.29, -0.09) at 6 years. However, media exposure at 4 years was not associated with self-regulation at 6 years. Although media exposure duration at 2 years was associated with later self-regulation, and self-regulation at 4 years was associated with later media exposure, associations were of small magnitude. More research is needed examining content quality, social context, and mobile media use and child self-regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. On the capacity of multiple cognitive links through common relay under spectrum-sharing constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an underlay cognitive relaying network consisting of multiple secondary users and introduce a cooperative transmission protocol using a common relay to help with the communications between all secondary source

  17. Mechanical analysis of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded intelligent micro-beams using modified couple stress theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi Khaniki, Hossein; Rajasekaran, Sundaramoorthy

    2018-05-01

    This study develops a comprehensive investigation on mechanical behavior of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded beam sensors in the framework of modified couple stress theory. Material variation is modelled through both length and thickness directions using power-law, sigmoid and exponential functions. Moreover, beam is assumed with linear, exponential and parabolic cross-section variation through the length using power-law and sigmoid varying functions. Using these assumptions, a general model for microbeams is presented and formulated by employing Hamilton’s principle. Governing equations are solved using a mixed finite element method with Lagrangian interpolation technique, Gaussian quadrature method and Wilson’s Lagrangian multiplier method. It is shown that by using bi-directional functionally graded materials in nonuniform microbeams, mechanical behavior of such structures could be affected noticeably and scale parameter has a significant effect in changing the rigidity of nonuniform bi-directional functionally graded beams.

  18. Learning to Monitor Machine Health with Convolutional Bi-Directional LSTM Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Zhao; Ruqiang Yan; Jinjiang Wang; Kezhi Mao

    2017-01-01

    In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression mode...

  19. Whether and Where to Code in the Wireless Relay Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Médard, Muriel; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The throughput benefits of random linear network codes have been studied extensively for wirelined and wireless erasure networks. It is often assumed that all nodes within a network perform coding operations. In energy-constrained systems, however, coding subgraphs should be chosen to control...... the number of coding nodes while maintaining throughput. In this paper, we explore the strategic use of network coding in the wireless packet erasure relay channel according to both throughput and energy metrics. In the relay channel, a single source communicates to a single sink through the aid of a half......-duplex relay. The fluid flow model is used to describe the case where both the source and the relay are coding, and Markov chain models are proposed to describe packet evolution if only the source or only the relay is coding. In addition to transmission energy, we take into account coding and reception...

  20. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  1. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  2. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  3. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  4. Three-port bi-directional converter for electric vehicles: focus on high-frequency coaxial transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrich, G.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    A bi-directional multi-port converter can accommodate various energy storages and sources. Therefore, a multiport converter will be a good candidate for application as a future universal converter for (hybrid) electrical vehicles or local distribution systems. The main design challenge of the

  5. Single-stage three-phase AC to DC conversion with isolation and Bi-directional power flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermulst, B.J.D.; Duarte, J.L.; Wijnands, C.G.E.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach for three-phase AC to DC conversion is proposed, which consists of a single-stage while offering galvanic isolation, soft-switching, bi-directional power flow and a significant reduction of inductive and capacitive energy storage. Two elements enable this approach, namely a neutral

  6. ROLE OF LEAF SURFACE WATER IN THE BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to study the ammonia exchange between plants and the atmosphere in a soybean field in Duplin County, North Carolina during the summer of 2002. Measurements indicate that the net canopy-scale ammonia exchange is bi-directional and has a significant...

  7. Effects of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on Distance Relay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effects of UPFC on Distance Relay tripping characteristics in Nigerian 330kV (North-Central) Network. Its operation is based on impedance measurement at the relaying point. However, the system performance is often impeded by certain operational or structural factors such as load angle, the ...

  8. The Role of PTSD in Bi-directional Intimate Partner Violence in Military and Veteran Populations: A Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Misca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting the higher prevalence of PTSD linked to combat-related trauma in military personnel and veteran populations is well-established. Consequently, much research has explored the effects that combat related trauma and the subsequent PTSD may have on different aspects of relationship functioning and adjustment. In particular, PTSD in military and veterans has been linked with perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV. New research and theoretical perspectives suggest that in order to respond effectively to IPV, a more accurate understanding of the direction of the violence experienced within each relationship is critical. In both civilian and military populations, research that has examined the direction of IPV's, bi-directional violence have been found to be highly prevalent. Evidence is also emerging as to how these bi-directional violence differ in relation to severity, motivation, physical and psychological consequences and risk factors. Of particular importance within military IPV research is the need to deepen understanding about the role of PTSD in bi-directional IPV not only as a risk factor for perpetration but also as a vulnerability risk factor for victimization, as findings from recent research suggest. This paper provides a timely, critical review of emergent literature to disentangle what is known about bi-directional IPV patterns in military and veteran populations and the roles that military or veterans' PTSD may play within these patterns. Although, this review aimed to identify global research on the topic, the majority of research meeting the inclusion criteria was from US, with only one study identified from outside, from Canada. Strengths and limitations in the extant research are identified. Directions for future research are proposed with a particular focus on the kinds of instruments and designs needed to better capture the complex interplay of PTSD and bi-directional IPV in military populations and

  9. Ready, steady… relay!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Thursday 5 June. With another year comes another success for CERN’s Relay Race. With 76 teams taking part it was the second highest turnout in the race’s history. ‘The Shabbys’ won the relay race in 10 minutes 51 seconds.As popular as ever, this year the relay race took on the atmosphere of a mini carnival. Gathering on the lawn outside Restaurant 1, various stalls and attractions added to the party feeling of the event, with beer courtesy of ‘AGLUP’, the Belgian beer club, and a wandering jazz group entertaining spectators and competitors alike. Reflecting the greater involvement of other associations in the relay race, the president of the Staff Association Clubs Committee, James Purvis, was the guest of honour, launching the start of the race and presenting the prizes. As regular followers of the race could have probably predicted, The Shabbys were once again victorious and claimed first place. The team members th...

  10. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  11. Bi-directional Reflectance of Icy Surface Analogs: A Dual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Juan Manuel; Vides, Christina; Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark; Mannat, Ken s.

    2018-01-01

    Bi-directional reflectance measurements of analogs for planetary regolith have provided insight into the surface properties of planetary satellites and small bodies. Because Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) and water ice share a similar hexagonal crystalline structure, the former has been used in laboratory experiments to simulate the regolith of both icy and dusty planetary bodies. By measuring various sizes of well sorted size fractions of Al2O3, the reflectance phase curve and porosity of a planetary regolith can be determined. We have designed an experiment to test the laboratory measurements produced by Nelson et al. (2000). Additionally, we made reflectance measurements for other alkali-halide compounds that could be used for applications beyond astronomy and planetary science.In order to provide an independent check on the Nelson et al. data, we designed an instrument with a different configuration. While both instruments take bidirectional reflectance measurements, our instrument, the Rigid Photometric Goniometer (RPG), is fixed at a phase angle of 5° and detects the scattered light with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The PMT current is then measured with an electrometer. Following the example of Nelson et al., we measured the bidirectional reflectance of Al2O3 particulate size fractions between 0.1sizes from 20size that provided optimal, or maximum, reflectance for each compound. Our conclusions bring confirmation and clarity to photometric sciences.

  12. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  13. Fast bi-directional prediction selection in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC temporal scalable video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Hang, Hsueh-Ming; Peng, Wen-Hsiao

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm that efficiently selects the temporal prediction type for the dyadic hierarchical-B prediction structure in the H.264/MPEG-4 temporal scalable video coding (SVC). We make use of the strong correlations in prediction type inheritance to eliminate the superfluous computations for the bi-directional (BI) prediction in the finer partitions, 16×8/8×16/8×8 , by referring to the best temporal prediction type of 16 × 16. In addition, we carefully examine the relationship in motion bit-rate costs and distortions between the BI and the uni-directional temporal prediction types. As a result, we construct a set of adaptive thresholds to remove the unnecessary BI calculations. Moreover, for the block partitions smaller than 8 × 8, either the forward prediction (FW) or the backward prediction (BW) is skipped based upon the information of their 8 × 8 partitions. Hence, the proposed schemes can efficiently reduce the extensive computational burden in calculating the BI prediction. As compared to the JSVM 9.11 software, our method saves the encoding time from 48% to 67% for a large variety of test videos over a wide range of coding bit-rates and has only a minor coding performance loss. © 2011 IEEE

  14. [The Support System for Diabetic Patients at Home with Bi-Directional IT Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Eguchi, Kyoko; Nishijima, Yuki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2010-12-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of bi-directional IT communication on the purpose of preventing diabetes progression and to reduce a caregiver burden. Diabetic patients were informed of the nature and purpose of the study before giving their voluntary consents to participate in the study. For the period of 12 weeks, a diabetic patient and his caregiver were communicated with a nurse through the TV telephone for 30 minutes once a week. Medical staff checked the list of weight change, compliance check, exercise habit, and attached pictures of the plate with a diabetic patient through the TV telephone in real time. We encouraged a diabetic patient to eat properly based on the diet record. The 12-week TV telephone communication resulted in the body weight decrease and HbA1c. There was a consciousness change about their daily eating habit. In the present study, the 12-week TV telephone communication once a week might be useful as an auxiliary therapy for changing a bad daily habit to a good daily habit for a diabetic patient at home.

  15. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2018-04-02

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  16. Mechanism and bias considerations for design of a bi-directional pneumatic artificial muscle actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocke III, Robert D; Wereley, Norman M; Kothera, Curt S

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs), or McKibben actuators, have received considerable attention for robotic manipulators and in aerospace applications due to their similarity to natural muscles. Like natural muscles, PAMs are a purely contractile actuator, so that, in order to produce bi-directional or rotational motion, they must be arranged in an agonist/antagonist pair, which inherently limits the deflection of the system due to the high parasitic stiffness of the antagonistic PAM. This study presents two methods for increasing the performance of an antagonistic PAM system by decreasing the passive parasitic torque, rather than increasing the active torque. The first involves selection of the kinematic mechanism geometry, and the second involves the introduction of bias into the system, both in terms of PAM contraction and passive (antagonistic) PAM pressure. It was found with the proper selection of design parameters, including mechanism geometry, PAM geometry, and bias conditions, that an ideal actuator configuration can be chosen that maximizes deflection for a given arbitrary loading. When comparing a baseline design to an improved design for a simplified case, a nearly 50% increase in maximum deflection was predicted simply by optimizing mechanism geometry and bias contraction. These results were experimentally verified with quasi-static testing that showed a 300% increase in actuator deflection over the baseline design. (paper)

  17. Bi-directional Exchange: the Cornerstone of Globally Focused Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gary; Ali, Samira; Ringell, Kassia; McKay, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Social work holds a unique place relative to other professions in that it prioritizes the elimination of human suffering as its primary goal. The roots of the profession are firmly planted in Western theories, historically and culturally specific perspectives, and knowledge. History has repeatedly demonstrated an association between the arrival of Westerners and the subsequent control of natural resources. Some argue that the development of global social work practice has serious pitfalls, including diverting needed resources away from local contexts and inadvertently spreading western world-views, paradigms and practices. However, the social work profession is uniquely positioned to offer expertise and collaborate with those experiencing the serious consequences of social inequity and the dearth of economic and social resources locally and across the globe. Grounded in anti-oppressive theory, guided by the difficult, yet acute awareness of western privilege and racism, and drawing from social/collective action and collaborative paradigms, a bi-directional exchange and action are detailed as the foundations for globally focused social work. The skills and knowledge base for global social work are essential as populations locally and worldwide are impacted by a global economic system that innately increases serious social inequity. Comprehensive training and preparation for globally focused social work, critical to successful engagement in global practice are outlined.

  18. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 17 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site.

  20. Modular relay control

    OpenAIRE

    Ivarsson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Enics Sweden AB, Västerås, is an electronics manufacturing services company with its main business in manufacturing electronics. Most, if not all, electronic devices that are manufactured are being widely tested before delivery to ensure proper functionality. Often during tests a large number of signals are measured by one to a few digital multimeters and are therefore controlled through relays. Relays are also used when applying stimuli with high currents or voltages to the unit under test. ...

  1. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula for opportunistic relaying in the channel, and validate the results by comparing it with the exact outage probability. Also, we suggest a new relay selection algorithm that incorporates shadowing. We consider a protocol of broadcasting the channel gain of the previously selected relay. This saves resources in slow fading channel by reducing collisions in relay selection. We further investigate the optimal relay selection period to maximize the throughput while avoiding selection overhead. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Simple Models for the Performance Evaluation of a Class of Two-Hop Relay Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Kherani, Arzad A.; Nain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of a class of two-hop relay protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. The interest is on the multicopy two-hop relay (MTR) protocol, where the source may generate multiple copies of a packet and use relay nodes to deliver the packet (or a copy) to its destination, and on the

  3. Simple models for the performance evaluation of a class of two-hop relay protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.; Kherani, A.A.; Nain, P.; Akyildiz, I.F.; Sivakumar, R.; Ekici, E.; Cavalcante de Oliveira, J.; McNair, J.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of a class of two-hop relay protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. The interest is on the multicopy two-hop relay (MTR) protocol, where the source may generate multiple copies of a packet and use relay nodes to deliver the packet (or a copy) to its destination, and on the

  4. Optimal Contract Design for Cooperative Relay Incentive Mechanism under Moral Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative relay can effectively improve spectrum efficiency by exploiting the spatial diversity in the wireless networks. However, wireless nodes may acquire different network information with various users’ location and mobility, channels’ conditions, and other factors, which results in asymmetric information between the source and the relay nodes (RNs. In this paper, the relay incentive mechanism between relay nodes and the source is investigated under the asymmetric information. By modelling multiuser cooperative relay as a labour market, a contract model with moral hazard for relay incentive is proposed. To effectively incentivize the potential RNs to participate in cooperative relay, the optimization problems are formulated to maximize the source’s utility while meeting the feasible conditions under both symmetric and asymmetric information scenarios. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for cooperative relay.

  5. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  6. Security-Reliability Analysis of Noma-Based Multi-Hop Relay Networks in Presence of an Active Eavesdropper with Imperfect Eavesdropping CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Tin Phu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate system performances of a multi-hop relay protocol with presence of an active eavesdropper. In the proposed protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination with assistance of multiple intermediate relays. From the eavesdropping Channel State Information (CSI estimated, the source and relays adjust their transmit power so that the eavesdropper cannot overhear the transmitted data. Moreover, to enhance throughput for the proposed system, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA technique with a simple power allocation is also proposed. We derive exact closed-form expressions of the Outage Probability (OP and throughput for the data transmission over Rayleigh fading channel. In addition, when the CSI estimation is imperfect, Intercept Probability (IP at the eavesdropper is derived. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are presented to verify the theoretical derivations.

  7. Reconfigurable, Bi-Directional Flexfet Level Shifter for Low-Power, Rad-Hard Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Kelly; Wilson, Dale G.

    2009-01-01

    Two prototype Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet Level Shifters (ReBiLS) have been developed, where one version is a stand-alone component designed to interface between external low voltage and high voltage, and the other version is an embedded integrated circuit (IC) for interface between internal low-voltage logic and external high-voltage components. Targeting stand-alone and embedded circuits separately allows optimization for these distinct applications. Both ReBiLS designs use the commercially available 180-nm Flex fet Independently Double-Gated (IDG) SOI CMOS (silicon on insulator, complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Embedded ReBiLS circuits were integrated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder using CMOS Ultra-Low-Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) double-gated digital logic circuits. The scope of the project includes: creation of a new high-voltage process, development of ReBiLS circuit designs, and adjustment of the designs to maximize performance through simulation, layout, and manufacture of prototypes. The primary technical objectives were to develop a high-voltage, thick oxide option for the 180-nm Flexfet process, and to develop a stand-alone ReBiLS IC with two 8-channel I/O busses, 1.8 2.5 I/O on the low-voltage pins, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O on the high-voltage pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10-pF external loads. Another objective was to develop an embedded, rad-hard ReBiLS I/O cell with 0.5-V low-voltage operation for interface with core logic, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. A third objective was to develop a 0.5- V Reed-Solomon Encoder with embedded ReBilS I/O: Transfer the existing CULPRiT RS encoder from a 0.35-micron bulk-CMOS process to the ASI 180-nm Flexfet, rad-hard SOI Process. 0.5-V low-voltage core logic. 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins. 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. The stand

  8. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2000-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  9. Bi-directional series-parallel elastic actuator and overlap of the actuation layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnémont, Raphaël; Mathijssen, Glenn; Verstraten, Tom; Lefeber, Dirk; Vanderborght, Bram

    2016-01-27

    Several robotics applications require high torque-to-weight ratio and energy efficient actuators. Progress in that direction was made by introducing compliant elements into the actuation. A large variety of actuators were developed such as series elastic actuators (SEAs), variable stiffness actuators and parallel elastic actuators (PEAs). SEAs can reduce the peak power while PEAs can reduce the torque requirement on the motor. Nonetheless, these actuators still cannot meet performances close to humans. To combine both advantages, the series parallel elastic actuator (SPEA) was developed. The principle is inspired from biological muscles. Muscles are composed of motor units, placed in parallel, which are variably recruited as the required effort increases. This biological principle is exploited in the SPEA, where springs (layers), placed in parallel, can be recruited one by one. This recruitment is performed by an intermittent mechanism. This paper presents the development of a SPEA using the MACCEPA principle with a self-closing mechanism. This actuator can deliver a bi-directional output torque, variable stiffness and reduced friction. The load on the motor can also be reduced, leading to a lower power consumption. The variable recruitment of the parallel springs can also be tuned in order to further decrease the consumption of the actuator for a given task. First, an explanation of the concept and a brief description of the prior work done will be given. Next, the design and the model of one of the layers will be presented. The working principle of the full actuator will then be given. At the end of this paper, experiments showing the electric consumption of the actuator will display the advantage of the SPEA over an equivalent stiff actuator.

  10. Bi-Directional Tuning of Amygdala Sensitivity in Combat Veterans Investigated with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashers-Krug, Tom; Jorge, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combat stress can be followed by persistent emotional consequences. It is thought that these emotional consequences are caused in part by increased amygdala reactivity. It is also thought that amygdala hyper-reactivity results from decreased inhibition from portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in which activity is negatively correlated with activity in the amygdala. However, experimental support for these proposals has been inconsistent. Methods We showed movies of combat and civilian scenes during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session to 50 veterans of recent combat. We collected skin conductance responses (SCRs) as measures of emotional arousal. We examined the relation of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala and ACC to symptom measures and to SCRs. Results Emotional arousal, as measured with SCR, was greater during the combat movie than during the civilian movie and did not depend on symptom severity. As expected, amygdala signal during the less-arousing movie increased with increasing symptom severity. Surprisingly, during the more-arousing movie amygdala signal decreased with increasing symptom severity. These differences led to the unexpected result that amygdala signal in highly symptomatic subjects was lower during the more-arousing movie than during the less-arousing movie. Also unexpectedly, we found no significant inverse correlation between any portions of the amygdala and ACC. Rather, signal throughout more than 80% of the ACC showed a strong positive correlation with signal throughout more than 90% of the amygdala. Conclusions Amygdala reactivity can be tuned bi-directionally, either up or down, in the same person depending on the stimulus and the degree of post-traumatic symptoms. The exclusively positive correlations in BOLD activity between the amygdala and ACC contrast with findings that have been cited as evidence for inhibitory control of the amygdala by the ACC. The

  11. Effect of Working Fluids on the Thermal Performance of a Bi-directional Solar Thermodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yung Joo

    2008-02-01

    An excessive use of fossil fuel leads to the limitation of coal deposits and carbon dioxide accumulation that accelerates the global warming, so the international environment regulation becomes more strict to control the greenhouse gas emission. Many researches are being made on alternative energy development to cut down fossil fuel and to decrease carbon dioxide. During the last decade, there have been active tries to utilize the solar energy that is unlimited and clean . The application of solar energy to heating and cooling of the building has much improved the economical efficiency and function with the development of high-technology materials, and it is not rare to find the recently built houses and commercial buildings equipped with solar energy systems. In particular, the advanced countries such as USA and Japan attempt the remarkable reduction of energy consumption in heating and cooling of buildings. For this, they are searching for the more effective application of various alternative energies including the solar energy. In addition, they are trying to realize the distinct zero energy conception by applying the new techniques and materials to the existing buildings. In developing the new techniques of solar energy application to heating and cooling system, the economic problems hire to be addressed, The typical problems encountered in applying the solar energy are insufficient design concept for HVAC(heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system and low reliability, Further, the economical efficiency of the solar energy is still low to compete with the oil, and there are many limits on the realization of the actual system in a building, e.g. spatial alignments and exterior appearances. The purpose of this study is to find the improved method to increase the heat transfer efficiency of the solar energy system that are to be installed in houses and commercial buildings. For this, a series of experiments using the bi-directional thermo diode system

  12. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Two-Way Relaying FSO Networks with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors Over Double-Generalized Gamma Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2018-01-01

    In this correspondence, an asymptotic performance analysis for two-way relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with nonzero boresight pointing errors over double-generalized gamma fading channels is presented. Assuming amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, two nodes having the FSO ability can communicate with each other through the optical links. With this setup, an approximate cumulative distribution function (CDF) expression for the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. With this statistic distribution, we derive the asymptotic analytical results for the outage probability and average bit error rate. Furthermore, we provide the asymptotic average capacity analysis for high SNR by using the momentsbased method.

  13. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Two-Way Relaying FSO Networks with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors Over Double-Generalized Gamma Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2018-05-07

    In this correspondence, an asymptotic performance analysis for two-way relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with nonzero boresight pointing errors over double-generalized gamma fading channels is presented. Assuming amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, two nodes having the FSO ability can communicate with each other through the optical links. With this setup, an approximate cumulative distribution function (CDF) expression for the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. With this statistic distribution, we derive the asymptotic analytical results for the outage probability and average bit error rate. Furthermore, we provide the asymptotic average capacity analysis for high SNR by using the momentsbased method.

  14. relay coordination in the protection of radially-connected power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... PROTECTION OF. RADIALLY-CONNECTED POWER SYSTEM NETWORK ... Protective relays detect intolerable or unwanted conditions within an assigned area, and then trip or open one ... time, and current transformer ratio errors. 2.2.1.

  15. MaROS Strategic Relay Planning and Coordination Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) is designed to provide planning and analysis tools in support of ongoing Mars Network relay operations. Strategic relay planning requires coordination between lander and orbiter mission ground data system (GDS) teams to schedule and execute relay communications passes. MaROS centralizes this process, correlating all data relevant to relay coordination to provide a cohesive picture of the relay state. Service users interact with the system through thin-layer command line and web user interface client applications. Users provide and utilize data such as lander view periods of orbiters, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna tracks, and reports of relay pass performance. Users upload and download relevant relay data via formally defined and documented file structures including some described in Extensible Markup Language (XML). Clients interface with the system via an http-based Representational State Transfer (ReST) pattern using Javascript Object Notation (JSON) formats. This paper will provide a general overview of the service architecture and detail the software interfaces and considerations for interface design.

  16. A new low threshold bi-directional wind vane and its potential impact on unplanned atmospheric release prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) maintains and develops a comprehensive meteorological monitoring program which employs bi-directional wind vanes (bivanes) for the measurement of horizontal and vertical wind direction and turbulence. Wind data collected near and below instrument starting thresholds under stable nighttime conditions with these bivanes can result in artificially large standard deviations of horizontal wind direction (σA). In one hypothetical case, downwind concentrations could be underestimated by a factor of 40 by using artificially high σA data in a Gaussian dispersion model. In an effort to improve low wind speed measurements of wind direction, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been created to improve the dynamic performance of the Met One Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane

  17. Investigations of bi-directional flow behaviour in presence of a large vertical opening in a fire compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the complex thermal hydraulics codes developed for fire, reactor and containment safety the junctions in the multi-compartment geometries are often modeled as uni-directional junctions and some construct of flow coefficient. However, certain large size junctions are known to depict bi-directional flow behaviour under specific circumstances. The CFD based computer code FDS was used for an earlier reported study of fire in an enclosure on the bidirectional flow behaviour in present of a wall opening. Numerical simulation is directed to monitor the entrainment of the fresh air from outside to the fire compartment and resulting plume deflection due to presence of a big opening. The paper presents the details of the analysis, the results obtained, and comparison with the reported experimental data in terms of plume deflection, entrainment. Detailed investigations have been carried out to understand the bi-directionality of a junction by analyzing studying the outgoing hot air flow and incoming cold air. (orig.)

  18. On the capacity of multiple cognitive links through common relay under spectrum-sharing constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we consider an underlay cognitive relaying network consisting of multiple secondary users and introduce a cooperative transmission protocol using a common relay to help with the communications between all secondary source-destination pairs for higher throughput and lower realization complexity. A whole relay-assisted transmission procedure is composed of multiple access phase and broadcast phase, where the relay is equipped with multiple antennas, and the secondary sources and destinations are single-antenna nodes. Considering the spectrum-sharing constraints on the secondary sources and the relay, we analyze the capacity behaviors of the underlay cognitive relaying network under study. The corresponding numerical results provide a convenient tool for the presented network design and substantiate a distinguishing feature of introduced design in that multiple secondary users\\' communications do not rely on multiple relays, hence allowing for a more efficient use of the radio resources. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Relay test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing

  20. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  1. Biophysical Network Modelling of the dLGN Circuit: Different Effects of Triadic and Axonal Inhibition on Visual Responses of Relay Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heiberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite its prominent placement between the retina and primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN in molding and regulating the visual signals entering the brain is still poorly understood. A striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that relay cells (RCs and interneurons (INs form so-called triadic synapses, where an IN dendritic terminal can be simultaneously postsynaptic to a retinal ganglion cell (GC input and presynaptic to an RC dendrite, allowing for so-called triadic inhibition. Taking advantage of a recently developed biophysically detailed multicompartmental model for an IN, we here investigate putative effects of these different inhibitory actions of INs, i.e., triadic inhibition and standard axonal inhibition, on the response properties of RCs. We compute and investigate so-called area-response curves, that is, trial-averaged visual spike responses vs. spot size, for circular flashing spots in a network of RCs and INs. The model parameters are grossly tuned to give results in qualitative accordance with previous in vivo data of responses to such stimuli for cat GCs and RCs. We particularly investigate how the model ingredients affect salient response properties such as the receptive-field center size of RCs and INs, maximal responses and center-surround antagonisms. For example, while triadic inhibition not involving firing of IN action potentials was found to provide only a non-linear gain control of the conversion of input spikes to output spikes by RCs, axonal inhibition was in contrast found to substantially affect the receptive-field center size: the larger the inhibition, the more the RC center size shrinks compared to the GC providing the feedforward excitation. Thus, a possible role of the different inhibitory actions from INs to RCs in the dLGN circuit is to provide separate mechanisms for overall gain control (direct triadic inhibition and regulation of spatial

  2. Biophysical Network Modelling of the dLGN Circuit: Different Effects of Triadic and Axonal Inhibition on Visual Responses of Relay Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberg, Thomas; Hagen, Espen; Halnes, Geir; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2016-05-01

    Despite its prominent placement between the retina and primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in molding and regulating the visual signals entering the brain is still poorly understood. A striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that relay cells (RCs) and interneurons (INs) form so-called triadic synapses, where an IN dendritic terminal can be simultaneously postsynaptic to a retinal ganglion cell (GC) input and presynaptic to an RC dendrite, allowing for so-called triadic inhibition. Taking advantage of a recently developed biophysically detailed multicompartmental model for an IN, we here investigate putative effects of these different inhibitory actions of INs, i.e., triadic inhibition and standard axonal inhibition, on the response properties of RCs. We compute and investigate so-called area-response curves, that is, trial-averaged visual spike responses vs. spot size, for circular flashing spots in a network of RCs and INs. The model parameters are grossly tuned to give results in qualitative accordance with previous in vivo data of responses to such stimuli for cat GCs and RCs. We particularly investigate how the model ingredients affect salient response properties such as the receptive-field center size of RCs and INs, maximal responses and center-surround antagonisms. For example, while triadic inhibition not involving firing of IN action potentials was found to provide only a non-linear gain control of the conversion of input spikes to output spikes by RCs, axonal inhibition was in contrast found to substantially affect the receptive-field center size: the larger the inhibition, the more the RC center size shrinks compared to the GC providing the feedforward excitation. Thus, a possible role of the different inhibitory actions from INs to RCs in the dLGN circuit is to provide separate mechanisms for overall gain control (direct triadic inhibition) and regulation of spatial resolution

  3. Sum-Rate Maximization of Coordinated Direct and Relay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Popovski, Petar; Thai, Chan

    2012-01-01

    Joint processing of multiple communication flows in wireless systems has given rise to a number of novel transmission techniques, notably the two-way relaying based on wireless network coding. Recently, a related set of techniques has emerged, termed coordinated direct and relay (CDR) transmissions......, where the constellation of traffic flows is more general than the two-way. Regardless of the actual traffic flows, in a CDR scheme the relay has a central role in managing the interference and boosting the overall system performance. In this paper we investigate the novel transmission modes, based...... on amplify-and-forward, that arise when the relay is equipped with multiple antennas and can use beamforming. We focus on one representative traffic type, with one uplink and one downlink users and consider the achievable sum-rate maximization relay beamforming. The beamforming criterion leads to a non...

  4. Beamforming Design for Coordinated Direct and Relay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Thai, Chan

    2012-01-01

    Joint processing of multiple communication flows in wireless systems has given rise to a number of novel transmission techniques, notably the two-way relaying based on wireless network coding. Recently, a related set of techniques has emerged, termed coordinated direct and relay (CDR) transmissions......, where the constellation of traffic flows is more general than the two-way. Regardless of the actual traffic flows, in a CDR scheme the relay has a central role in managing the interference. In this paper we investigate the novel transmission modes, based on amplify-and-forward, that arise when the relay...... an iterative solution, as well as derive an upper performance bound. The numerical results demonstrate a clear benefit from usage of multiple antennas at the relay node....

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 19 May between 12.15 and 12.35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  6. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday May 21st between 12h15 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  7. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May between 12:20 and 12:35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please stop until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  8. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 22 May between 12h20 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  9. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  10. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  11. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,; Stark, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula

  12. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with different bi-directional emission colors using color-conversion capping layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghee, E-mail: jonghee.lee@etri.re.kr [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Koh, Tae-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyunsu [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schwab, Tobias [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lee, Jae-Hyun [Department School of Global Convergence Studies, Hanbat National University, San 16-1, Duckmyoung-dong, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Hofmann, Simone [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Ik [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seunghyup [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-06-15

    We report a study on transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors, enabled by color-conversion organic capping layers. Starting from a transparent blue OLED with an uncapped Ag top electrode exhibiting an average transmittance of 33.9%, a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doped tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3) capping layer is applied to achieve color-conversion from blue to orange-red on the top side while maintaining almost unchanged device transmittance. This color-conversion capping layer does not only change the color of the top side emission, but also enhances the overall device efficiency due to the optical interaction of the capping layer with the primary blue transparent OLED. Top white emission from the transparent bi-directional OLED exhibits a correlated color temperature around 6000–7000 K, with excellent color stability as evidenced by an extremely small variation in color coordinate of Δ(x,y)=(0.002, 0.002) in the forward luminance range of 100–1000 cd m{sup −2}. At the same time, the blue emission color of bottom side is not influenced by the color conversion capping layer, which finally results in different emission colors of the two opposite sides of our transparent OLEDs. - Highlights: • We report transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors. • Transparent blue OLED with color-conversion organic capping layers (CCL) shows orange top side emission. • Top white emission exhibits a CCT around 7000 K, with excellent color stability on a driving voltage.

  13. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with different bi-directional emission colors using color-conversion capping layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jonghee; Koh, Tae-Wook; Cho, Hyunsu; Schwab, Tobias; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hofmann, Simone; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2015-01-01

    We report a study on transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors, enabled by color-conversion organic capping layers. Starting from a transparent blue OLED with an uncapped Ag top electrode exhibiting an average transmittance of 33.9%, a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doped tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3) capping layer is applied to achieve color-conversion from blue to orange-red on the top side while maintaining almost unchanged device transmittance. This color-conversion capping layer does not only change the color of the top side emission, but also enhances the overall device efficiency due to the optical interaction of the capping layer with the primary blue transparent OLED. Top white emission from the transparent bi-directional OLED exhibits a correlated color temperature around 6000–7000 K, with excellent color stability as evidenced by an extremely small variation in color coordinate of Δ(x,y)=(0.002, 0.002) in the forward luminance range of 100–1000 cd m −2 . At the same time, the blue emission color of bottom side is not influenced by the color conversion capping layer, which finally results in different emission colors of the two opposite sides of our transparent OLEDs. - Highlights: • We report transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors. • Transparent blue OLED with color-conversion organic capping layers (CCL) shows orange top side emission. • Top white emission exhibits a CCT around 7000 K, with excellent color stability on a driving voltage

  14. The sequence relay selection strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Chen, Xihao; Huang, Yangchao

    2017-07-01

    Relay-assisted (RA) network with relay node selection is a kind of effective method to improve the channel capacity and convergence performance. However, most of the existing researches about the relay selection did not consider the statically channel state information and the selection cost. This shortage limited the performance and application of RA network in practical scenarios. In order to overcome this drawback, a sequence relay selection strategy (SRSS) was proposed. And the performance upper bound of SRSS was also analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, in order to make SRSS more practical, a novel threshold determination algorithm based on the stochastic dynamic program (SDP) was given to work with SRSS. Numerical results are also presented to exhibit the performance of SRSS with SDP.

  15. Ultra Reliable Short Message Relaying with Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    López, Onel L. Alcaraz; Alves, Hirley; Souza, Richard Demo; Fernández, Evelio Martín García

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We consider a dual-hop wireless network where an energy constrained relay node first harvests energy through the received radio-frequency signal from the source, and then uses the harvested energy to forward the source’s information to the destination node. The throughput and delay metrics are investigated for a decode-and-forward relaying mechanism at finite blocklength regime and delay-limited transmission mode. We consider ultra-reliable communication scenarios under discussio...

  16. An analysis of the operation of a single-pole relay integrated circuit device with a controlled reset ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetov, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Relay equipment using semiconductor components (such as those containing gates using planar transformers, and a relay in networks which control the operational time of a relay) are widely used in the automation equipment of electric power systems. A scheme where a gate in the form of an integrated circuit is used is given.

  17. Cooperation of electrically stimulated muscle and pneumatic muscle to realize RUPERT bi-directional motion for grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xikai Tu; Jiping He; Yue Wen; Jian Huang; Xinhan Huang; Hailong Huang; Meng Guo; Yong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an active area of research to meet the demand of repetitive therapy in stroke rehabilitation. Robotic upper-extremity repetitive trainer (RUPERT) with its unidirectional pneumatic muscle actuation (PMA) can be used by most stroke patients that have difficulty moving in one direction because of a weak agonist or hyperactive antagonist. In this research, to broaden the usage of RUPERT, we not only add grasping functionality to the rehabilitation robot with the help of surface Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) but also realize the robot joint bi-directional motion by using a PMA in cooperation with surface FES evoked paralyzed muscle force. This integrative rehabilitation strategy is explored for training patients to practice coordinated reaching and grasping functions. The effectiveness of this FES electrically evoked bio-actuator way is verified through a method that separates the mixed electromyogram (MEMG) into the electrically evoked electromyogram (EEMG) and voluntary electromyogram (VEMG). This is a promising approach to alleviate the size and mechanical complexity of the robot, thereby the cost of the joint bi-directional actuator rehabilitation robot by means of their own characteristics of stroke subjects.

  18. Reusable bi-directional 3ω sensor to measure thermal conductivity of 100-μm thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubner, Sean D.; Choi, Jeunghwan; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Waag, Bastian; Mishra, Vivek; Natesan, Harishankar; Bischof, John C.; Dames, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the thermal conductivity (k) of biological tissues is important for cryopreservation, thermal ablation, and cryosurgery. Here, we adapt the 3ω method—widely used for rigid, inorganic solids—as a reusable sensor to measure k of soft biological samples two orders of magnitude thinner than conventional tissue characterization methods. Analytical and numerical studies quantify the error of the commonly used "boundary mismatch approximation" of the bi-directional 3ω geometry, confirm that the generalized slope method is exact in the low-frequency limit, and bound its error for finite frequencies. The bi-directional 3ω measurement device is validated using control experiments to within ±2% (liquid water, standard deviation) and ±5% (ice). Measurements of mouse liver cover a temperature ranging from -69 °C to +33 °C. The liver results are independent of sample thicknesses from 3 mm down to 100 μm and agree with available literature for non-mouse liver to within the measurement scatter.

  19. A new method for the measurement of two-phase mass flow rate using average bi-directional flow tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, B. J.; Uh, D. J.; Kang, K. H.; Song, C. H.; Paek, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    Average bi-directional flow tube was suggested to apply in the air/steam-water flow condition. Its working principle is similar with Pitot tube, however, it makes it possible to eliminate the cooling system which is normally needed to prevent from flashing in the pressure impulse line of pitot tube when it is used in the depressurization condition. The suggested flow tube was tested in the air-water vertical test section which has 80mm inner diameter and 10m length. The flow tube was installed at 120 of L/D from inlet of test section. In the test, the pressure drop across the average bi-directional flow tube, system pressure and average void fraction were measured on the measuring plane. In the test, fluid temperature and injected mass flow rates of air and water phases were also measured by a RTD and two coriolis flow meters, respectively. To calculate the phasic mass flow rates : from the measured differential pressure and void fraction, Chexal drift-flux correlation was used. In the test a new correlation of momentum exchange factor was suggested. The test result shows that the suggested instrumentation using the measured void fraction and Chexal drift-flux correlation can predict the mass flow rates within 10% error of measured data

  20. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, C.; Redekop, D.

    2005-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading

  1. Improving historical spelling normalization with bi-directional LSTMs and multi-task learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bollmann, Marcel; Søgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Natural-language processing of historical documents is complicated by the abundance of variant spellings and lack of annotated data. A common approach is to normalize the spelling of historical words to modern forms. We explore the suitability of a deep neural network architecture for this task, particularly a deep bi-LSTM network applied on a character level. Our model compares well to previously established normalization algorithms when evaluated on a diverse set of texts from Early New Hig...

  2. Exploring bi-directional and SMS messaging for communications between Public Health Agencies and their stakeholders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Debra; Calhoun, Rebecca; Baseman, Janet; Oberle, Mark

    2015-07-08

    Communication technologies that enable bi-directional/two-way communications and cell phone texting (SMS) between public health agencies and their stakeholders may improve public health surveillance, ensure targeted distribution of alerts to hard-to-reach populations, reduce mortality and morbidity in an emergency, and enable a crucial feedback loop between public health agencies and the communities they serve. Building on prior work regarding health care provider preferences for receiving one-way public health communications by email, fax or SMS, we conducted a formative, exploratory study to understand how a bi-directional system and the incorporation of SMS in that system might be used as a strategy to send and receive messages between public health agencies and community-based organizations which serve vulnerable populations, health care providers, and public health workers. Our research question: Under what conditions and/or situations might public health agencies utilize bi-directional and/or SMS messaging for disseminating time-sensitive public health information (alerts, advisories, updates, etc.) to their stakeholders? A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted between April and July 2014. Data collection included a survey distributed to health care providers and semi-structured interviews with providers, community- and government-based organization leaders and directors, and public health agency internal workforce staff. Survey respondents and interviewees were asked about their exposure to public health messages, how these messages are received and how the information in these messages are handled, and in what situations (for example, a local vs. a national event, a pandemic or emergency vs. a health update) a bi-directional and/or SMS messaging system might improve communications between public health agencies and their stakeholder group. Interview and survey data were qualitatively analyzed. Thematic codes were quantitized into

  3. Simulation of Distance Relay for Load Encroachment Alleviation with Agent Based Supervision of Zone3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Badr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cascaded tripping of power lines due to mal-operation of zone-3 distance relays has been one of the main causes of many previous blackouts worldwide. Encroachment of load into zone-3 characteristics during stressed system operation conditions is a basic factor for such mal-operation of the relays. By improving the operation of zone-3, it is possible to prevent mal-operations so that cascaded line tripping can be avoided. For proper study of the behavior of distance relay during faults and load encroachment phenomenon, we must build a model of distance relay, so in this paper a modeling study of distance relay is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink program. However, this model is distinguished from previous models that, examines in detail the third zone of distance relay. Many cases are simulated with changing line loading and fault location to ensure the capability of the relay to detect the fault and thus the maximum load ability limit of distance relay is obtained. In order to prevent cascading events caused by hidden failures in zone-3 relays, agent based relay architectures have been suggested in the recent past. In such architectures each zone-3 relay contains agents that require communication with other agents at various relevant relays in order to distinguish a real zone-3 event from a temporary overload. In this paper, a local master agent is consulted by all zone-3 agents before a tripping decision is made. The master agent maintains a rule base which is updated based on the local topology of the network and real time monitoring of the status of other relays and circuit breakers. Cisco Packet Tracer program is used for running communication network simulations. The result of the simulation indicate that the time estimated to send and receive a packet data unit (PDU message between one relay to anther can satisfy the communication requirement for the proposed scheme with fiber media.

  4. Energy-efficient relay selection and optimal power allocation for performance-constrained dual-hop variable-gain AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy-efficiency enhancement of a variable-gain dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network utilizing selective relaying. The objective is to minimize the total consumed power while keeping the end-to-end signal

  5. Architecture of a bi-directional Bluetooth-UPnP proxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.; Lukkien, J.J.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Madureira, A.J.P.S.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.; Selgert, F.

    2007-01-01

    The current service- and device discovery protocols are not platform- and network independent Therefore, proxy servers will be needed to extend the range of IP-based discovery protocols to non-IP domains. We developed an architecture of a proxy that enables UPnP devices and services to be discovered

  6. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the selected relay. We first derive the signal-to-noise (SNR) statistics for each hop, which are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network architecture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation where the detector may use maximum ration combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC). Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network (LN) architecture and considering Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Overlay cognitive radio systems with adaptive two-way relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a spectrum sharing mechanism with a two-phase two-way relaying protocol for an overlay cognitive network. The system comprises two primary users (PUs) and two secondary users (SUs). One of the SUs acts as a relay for the PUs and gains spectrum sharing as long as he respects outage probability constraints of the primary system. Moreover, we consider that the relaying node performs an optimal power allocation scheme that minimizes the outage performance of the secondary receiver. Closed form expressions for the outage probability are derived for the cases of Decode-and-Forward (DF), Amplify-and-Forward (AF), and adaptive relaying. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Cognitive two-way relay beamforming: Design with resilience to channel state uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Ubaidulla, P.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust distributed relay beamformer design for cognitive radio network operating under uncertainties in the available channel state information. The cognitive network consists of a pair of transceivers and a set of non

  10. Advanced relay technologies in next generation wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Krikidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    This book details the use of the cooperative networks/relaying approach in new and emerging telecommunications technologies such as full-duplex radio, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), network coding and spatial modulation, and new application areas including visible light communications (VLC), wireless power transfer, and 5G.

  11. CERN Relay Race 2018

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: http://runningclub.web.cern.ch/content/cern-relay-race. A video of the previous edition is also available here : http://cern.ch/go/Nk7C. As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.

  12. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  13. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  14. Relays undergo seismic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to document that seismic vibration will not adversely affect critical electrical equipment. Seismic testing should be designed to determine the malfunction level (fragility testing). Input possibilities include a continuous sine, a decaying sine, a sine beat, random vibrations, and combinations of random vibrations and sine beat. The sine beat most accurately simulates a seismic event. Test frequencies have a broad range in order to accommodate a variety of relay types and cabinet mounting. Simulation of motion along three axes offers several options, but is best achieved by three in-phase single-axis vibration machines that are less likely to induce testing fatigue failure. Consensus on what constitutes relay failure favors a maximum two microsecond discontinuity. Performance tests should be conducted for at least two of the following: (1) nonoperating modes, (2) operating modes, or (3) the transition above the two modes, with the monitoring mode documented for all three. Results should specify a capability curve of maximum safe seismic acceleration and a graph plotting acceleration with sine-beat frequency

  15. Performance Analysis of Relays in LTE for a Realistic Suburban Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coletti, Claudio; Mogensen, Preben; Irmer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Relays are likely to play an important role in the deployment of Beyond 3G networks, such as LTE-Advanced, thanks to the possibility of effectively extending Macro network coverage and fulfilling the expected high data-rate requirements. Up until now, the relay technology potential and its cost......-effectiveness have been widely investigated in the literature, considering mainly statistical deployment scenarios, like regular networks with uniform traffic distribution. This paper is envisaged to illustrate the performances of different relay technologies (In-Band/Out-band) in a realistic suburban network...... scenario with real Macro site positions, user density map and spectrum band availability. Based on a proposed heuristic deployment algorithm, results show that deploying In-band relays can significantly reduce the user outage if high backhaul link quality is ensured, whereas Out-band relaying and the usage...

  16. STUDI ANALISIS KOORDINASI OVER CURRENT RELAY (OCR DAN GROUND FAULT RELAY (GFR PADA RECLOSER DI SALURAN PENYULANG PENEBEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Gde Agung Budhi Udiana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Short circuit causing over current problem and can might causing interference of the equipment performance such as distribution transformers also causing widespread disruption occurred. In resolving such interference is required as protection system on the distribution system. Seeing all above is needed coordination between the supporting component of the protection system which is consisted of Over Current Relay (OCR and Ground Fault Relay (GFR. The research was conducted at PT. PLN (Persero South Bali Area Network, INDONESIA on recloser in the feeder line of Penebel. OCR setting between the Relay feeder of Penebel, Recloser Celagi, Recloser Bakisan, and Recloser Benana still less selective, with time value coordination between average security was still less than 0,2 second. Then OCR setting and GFR relay feeder of Penebel, Recloser Celagi, Recloser Bakisan, and Recloser Benana was recommended for re-setting in order to minimize disruption and electric power distribution system to be reliable.

  17. Relay discovery and selection for large-scale P2P streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Zhang

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer networks, application relays have been commonly used to provide various networking services. The service performance often improves significantly if a relay is selected appropriately based on its network location. In this paper, we studied the location-aware relay discovery and selection problem for large-scale P2P streaming networks. In these large-scale and dynamic overlays, it incurs significant communication and computation cost to discover a sufficiently large relay candidate set and further to select one relay with good performance. The network location can be measured directly or indirectly with the tradeoffs between timeliness, overhead and accuracy. Based on a measurement study and the associated error analysis, we demonstrate that indirect measurements, such as King and Internet Coordinate Systems (ICS, can only achieve a coarse estimation of peers' network location and those methods based on pure indirect measurements cannot lead to a good relay selection. We also demonstrate that there exists significant error amplification of the commonly used "best-out-of-K" selection methodology using three RTT data sets publicly available. We propose a two-phase approach to achieve efficient relay discovery and accurate relay selection. Indirect measurements are used to narrow down a small number of high-quality relay candidates and the final relay selection is refined based on direct probing. This two-phase approach enjoys an efficient implementation using the Distributed-Hash-Table (DHT. When the DHT is constructed, the node keys carry the location information and they are generated scalably using indirect measurements, such as the ICS coordinates. The relay discovery is achieved efficiently utilizing the DHT-based search. We evaluated various aspects of this DHT-based approach, including the DHT indexing procedure, key generation under peer churn and message costs.

  18. Firing-rate based network modeling of the dLGN circuit: Effects of cortical feedback on spatiotemporal response properties of relay cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarhan, Milad Hobbi; Halnes, Geir; Martínez-Cañada, Pablo; Hafting, Torkel; Fyhn, Marianne; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2018-05-01

    Visually evoked signals in the retina pass through the dorsal geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the way to the visual cortex. This is however not a simple feedforward flow of information: there is a significant feedback from cortical cells back to both relay cells and interneurons in the dLGN. Despite four decades of experimental and theoretical studies, the functional role of this feedback is still debated. Here we use a firing-rate model, the extended difference-of-Gaussians (eDOG) model, to explore cortical feedback effects on visual responses of dLGN relay cells. For this model the responses are found by direct evaluation of two- or three-dimensional integrals allowing for fast and comprehensive studies of putative effects of different candidate organizations of the cortical feedback. Our analysis identifies a special mixed configuration of excitatory and inhibitory cortical feedback which seems to best account for available experimental data. This configuration consists of (i) a slow (long-delay) and spatially widespread inhibitory feedback, combined with (ii) a fast (short-delayed) and spatially narrow excitatory feedback, where (iii) the excitatory/inhibitory ON-ON connections are accompanied respectively by inhibitory/excitatory OFF-ON connections, i.e. following a phase-reversed arrangement. The recent development of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods has provided new tools for more precise manipulation and investigation of the thalamocortical circuit, in particular for mice. Such data will expectedly allow the eDOG model to be better constrained by data from specific animal model systems than has been possible until now for cat. We have therefore made the Python tool pyLGN which allows for easy adaptation of the eDOG model to new situations.

  19. MIMO Four-Way Relaying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huaping; Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Two-way relaying in wireless systems has initiated a large research effort during the past few years. Nevertheless, it represents only a specific traffic pattern and it is of interest to investigate other traffic patterns where such a simultaneous processing of information flows can bring...... performance advantage. In this paper we consider a \\emph{four-way relaying} multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenario, where each of the two Mobile Stations (MSs) has a two-way connection to the same Base Station (BS), while each connection is through a dedicated Relay Station (RS). The RSs are placed...... the sum-rate of the new scheme for Decode-and-Forward (DF) operational model for the RS. We compare the performance with state-of-the-art reference schemes, based on two-way relaying with DF. The results indicate that the sum-rate of the two-phase four-way relaying scheme largely outperforms the four...

  20. Accurate torque control of a bi-directional magneto-rheological actuator considering hysteresis and friction effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel type of magneto-rheological (MR) actuator called a bi-directional magneto-rheological (BMR) actuator and accurate torque control results considering both hysteresis and friction compensation. The induced torque of this actuator varies from negative to positive values. As a result, it can work as either a brake or a clutch depending on the scheme of current input. In our work, the configuration of the actuator as well as its driving system is presented first. Subsequently, a congruency hysteresis based (CBH) model to take account of the effect of the hysteresis is proposed. After that, a compensator based on this model is developed. In addition, the effect of dry friction, which exists inherently with MR actuators in general, is also considered. In order to assess the effectiveness of the hysteresis compensator, several experiments on modeling and control of the actuator with different waveforms are carried out.

  1. Accurate torque control of a bi-directional magneto-rheological actuator considering hysteresis and friction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel type of magneto-rheological (MR) actuator called a bi-directional magneto-rheological (BMR) actuator and accurate torque control results considering both hysteresis and friction compensation. The induced torque of this actuator varies from negative to positive values. As a result, it can work as either a brake or a clutch depending on the scheme of current input. In our work, the configuration of the actuator as well as its driving system is presented first. Subsequently, a congruency hysteresis based (CBH) model to take account of the effect of the hysteresis is proposed. After that, a compensator based on this model is developed. In addition, the effect of dry friction, which exists inherently with MR actuators in general, is also considered. In order to assess the effectiveness of the hysteresis compensator, several experiments on modeling and control of the actuator with different waveforms are carried out. (paper)

  2. Performance Analysis of Video PHY Controller Using Unidirection and Bi-directional IO Standard via 7 Series FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M F L; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    graphics consumes more power, this creates a need of designing the low power design for Video PHY controller. In this paper, the performance of Video PHY controller is analyzed by comparing the power consumption of unidirectional and bi-directional IO Standard over 7 series FPGA. It is determined...... that total on-chip power is reduced for unidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller compared to bidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller. The most significant achievement of this work is that it is concluded that unidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller consume least...... standby power compared to bidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller. It is defined that for 6 GHz operated frequency Video PHY controller, the 32% total on-chip power is reduced using unidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller is less compared to bidirectional IO Standard based Video...

  3. Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex AF and DF Relaying with Energy-Harvesting in Log-Normal Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2017-08-15

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer in cooperative relaying networks have recently attracted a considerable amount of research attention. Most of the existing work on this topic however focuses on Rayleigh fading channels, which represent outdoor environments. In contrast, this paper is dedicated to analyze the performance of dual-hop relaying systems with EH over indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Both half-duplex (HD) and full-duplex (FD) relaying mechanisms are studied in this work with decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying protocols. In addition, three EH schemes are investigated, namely, time switching relaying, power splitting relaying and ideal relaying receiver which serves as a lower bound. The system performance is evaluated in terms of the ergodic outage probability for which we derive accurate analytical expressions. Monte Carlo simulations are provided throughout to validate the accuracy of our analysis. Results reveal that, in both HD and FD scenarios, AF relaying performs only slightly worse than DF relaying which can make the former a more efficient solution when the processing energy cost at the DF relay is taken into account. It is also shown that FD relaying systems can generally outperform HD relaying schemes as long as the loop-back interference in FD is relatively small. Furthermore, increasing the variance of the log-normal channel has shown to deteriorate the performance in all the relaying and EH protocols considered.

  4. Bi-directional exchange of membrane components occurs during co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, Sandra; Hodson, Nigel W; Hill, Patrick I; Richardson, Stephen M; Hoyland, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been proposed as novel treatments for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that when MSCs are co-cultured with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells with direct cell-cell contact, they differentiate along the NP lineage and simultaneously stimulate the degenerate NP cell population to regain a normal (non-degenerate) phenotype, an effect which requires cell-cell communication. However, the mechanisms by which NP cells and MSCs interact in this system are currently unclear. Thus, in this study we investigated a range of potential mechanisms for exchange of cellular components or information that may direct these changes, including cell fusion, gap-junctional communication and exchange of membrane components by direct transfer or via microvesicle formation. Flow cytometry of fluorescently labeled MSCs and NP cells revealed evidence of some cell fusion and formation of gapjunctions, although at the three timepoints studied these phenomena were detectable only in a small proportion of cells. While these mechanisms may play a role in cell-cell communication, the data suggests they are not the predominant mechanism of interaction. However, flow cytometry of fluorescently dual-labeled cells showed that extensive bi-directional transfer of membrane components is operational during direct co-culture of MSCs and NP cells. Furthermore, there was also evidence for secretion and internalization of membrane-bound microvesicles by both cell types. Thus, this study highlights bi-directional intercellular transfer of membrane components as a possible mechanism of cellular communication between MSC and NP cells.

  5. Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, M.K.; Jangid, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic response of the liquid storage tanks isolated by lead-rubber bearings is investigated for bi-directional earthquake excitation (i.e. two horizontal components). The biaxial force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is considered as bi-linear modelled by coupled non-linear differential equations. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses known as convective mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness associated with these lumped masses has been worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Since the force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is non-linear, as a result, the seismic response is obtained by the Newmark's step-by-step method. The seismic responses of two types of the isolated tanks (i.e. slender and broad) are investigated under several recorded earthquake ground to study the effects of bi-directional interaction. Further, a parametric study is also carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation for liquid storage tanks. The various important parameters considered are: (i) the period of isolation, (ii) the damping of isolation bearings and (iii) the yield strength level of the bearings. It has been observed that the seismic response of isolated tank is found to be insensitive to interaction effect of the bearing forces. Further, there exists an optimum value of isolation damping for which the base shear in the tank attains the minimum value. Therefore, increasing the bearing damping beyond a certain value may decrease the bearing and sloshing displacements but it may increase the base shear

  6. Bi-directional vibration control of offshore wind turbines using a 3D pendulum tuned mass damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.; Jahangiri, V.

    2018-05-01

    Offshore wind turbines suffer from excessive bi-directional vibrations due to wind-wave misalignment and vortex induced vibrations. However, most of existing research focus on unidirectional vibration attenuation which is inadequate for real applications. The present paper proposes a three dimensional pendulum tuned mass damper (3d-PTMD) to mitigate the tower and nacelle dynamic response in the fore-aft and side-side directions. An analytical model of the wind turbine coupled with the 3d-PTMD is established wherein the interaction between the blades, the tower and the 3d-PTMD is modeled. Aerodynamic loading is computed using the Blade Element Momentum method where the Prandtls tip loss factor and the Glauert correction are considered. JONSWAP spectrum is adopted to generate wave data. Wave loading is computed using Morisons equation in collaboration with the strip theory. Via a numerical search approach, the design formula of the 3d-PTMD is obtained and examined on a National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) monopile 5 MW baseline wind turbine model under misaligned wind, wave and seismic loading. Dual linear tuned mass dampers (TMDs) deployed in the fore-aft and side-side directions are utilized for comparison. It is found that the 3d-PTMD with a mass ratio of 2 % can improve the mitigation of the root mean square and peak response by around 10 % when compared with the dual linear TMDs in controlling the bi-directional vibration of the offshore wind turbines under misaligned wind, wave and seismic loading.

  7. Light sensitive memristor with bi-directional and wavelength-dependent conductance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.; Rebello Sousa Dias, M.; Castelano, L. K.; Marques, G. E.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Höfling, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the optical control of localized charge on positioned quantum dots in an electro-photo-sensitive memristor. Interband absorption processes in the quantum dot barrier matrix lead to photo-generated electron-hole-pairs that, depending on the applied bias voltage, charge or discharge the quantum dots and hence decrease or increase the conductance. Wavelength-dependent conductance control is observed by illumination with red and infrared light, which leads to charging via interband and discharging via intraband absorption. The presented memristor enables optical conductance control and may thus be considered for sensory applications in artificial neural networks as light-sensitive synapses or optically tunable memories.

  8. Light sensitive memristor with bi-directional and wavelength-dependent conductance control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, P.; Hartmann, F., E-mail: fabian.hartmann@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L. [Technische Physik and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Physikalisches Institut, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rebello Sousa Dias, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Castelano, L. K.; Marques, G. E.; Lopez-Richard, V. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Höfling, S. [Technische Physik and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Physikalisches Institut, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    We report the optical control of localized charge on positioned quantum dots in an electro-photo-sensitive memristor. Interband absorption processes in the quantum dot barrier matrix lead to photo-generated electron-hole-pairs that, depending on the applied bias voltage, charge or discharge the quantum dots and hence decrease or increase the conductance. Wavelength-dependent conductance control is observed by illumination with red and infrared light, which leads to charging via interband and discharging via intraband absorption. The presented memristor enables optical conductance control and may thus be considered for sensory applications in artificial neural networks as light-sensitive synapses or optically tunable memories.

  9. Review of droop-controlled bi-directional inverter in conducting islanded operation of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Ace Lin Yi; Wong, Jianhui; Lim, Yun Seng

    2017-04-01

    Global warming due to the excessive greenhouse gas emissions has led to the emergence of green technologies in Malaysia, particularly photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under the current regulatory framework, islanded operation of the PV system is not permissible. As a result, any renewable energy sources will be disconnected immediately in the event of grid outages. This practice is to ensure the safety of working personnel, as well as the customer equipment connected within the distribution networks. In addition, there is no synchronizing equipment to aid the reconnection of the islanded network to the grid. However, with the shutdown of the Distributed Generator (DG) during islanded operation, the customers are not able to utilize the available renewable energy and the number of power interruption is not improved with the renewable energy sources. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of the PV system in conducting islanding operation with the use of Energy Storage System (ESS). This paper also proposes a control algorithm to maintain the voltage and frequency excursion within the statutory limit by manipulating the real and reactive power flow of the ESS within the transition period between grid connected and islanding operation.

  10. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  11. Voz sobre frame relay

    OpenAIRE

    D´Elia, Gabriel Anibal

    2000-01-01

    Esta tesis trata el tema de VOFR, desde la digitalización de la voz hasta su transmisión a través de dicha red, así también como la comparación con otros medios de transporte como VOIP. Dada las características del protocolo frame relay y su disponibilidad se eligió como el medio más apropiado para la transmisión de voz y datos en forma integrada sobre una misma red. El trabajo comienza con una breve explicación de la voz, su digitalización y forma actual de transmisión a través de una red di...

  12. Analysis and Design of Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter in the Extended Run Time DC UPS System Based on Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes. The deli......Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes...

  13. Compressive Sensing for Feedback Reduction in Wireless Multiuser Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    User/relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in multiuser networks. However, for user/relay selection algorithms to make a selection decision, channel state information (CSI) from all cooperating users/relays is usually

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Out of Step Blocking Relay for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al Adwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates a power swing effect on a distance protection relay performance installed on (HV/EHV transmission line as well as power system stability. A conventional distance relay can’t properly operate under transient stability conditions; therefore, it cause mol-operation, and it will adversely impact on its trip signals. To overcome this problem, the Out Of Step (OOS relay has modeled and simulated to joint with distance relay to supervise and control on its trip signals response. The setting characteristics technique of the OOS based on concentric polygons scheme method to detect power swing under transient stability situation.         This study ia a modeling and simulating using (Maltab\\ Simulink software. A Two relays had been  performed   and  tested  with  two equivalents network connected to ends.      The results of this study showed an activity and reliability of this way to control the distance relay response under a transient stability conditions and it indicated the possibility to find out faults which may occur at period of power swing

  15. Information-guided transmission in decode-and-forward relaying systems: Spatial exploitation and throughput enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-07-01

    In addressing the issue of achieving high throughput in half-duplex relay channels, we exploit a concept of information-guided transmission for the network consisting of a source node, a destination node, and multiple half-duplex relay nodes. For further benefiting from multiple relay nodes, the relay-selection patterns are defined as the arbitrary combinations of given relay nodes. By exploiting the difference among the spatial channels states, in each relay-help transmission additional information to be forwarded is mapped onto the index of the active relay-selection pattern besides the basic information mapped onto the traditional constellation, which is forwarded by the relay node(s) in the active relay-selection pattern, so as to enhance the relay throughtput. With iterative decoding, the destination node can achieve a robust detection by decoupling the signals forwarded in different ways. We investigate the proposed scheme considering "decode-and-forward" protocol and establish its achievable transmission rate. The analytical results on capacity behaviors prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme by showing that it achieves better capacity performance than the conventional scheme. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-05-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward (OAF) protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information (CSI) at the destination (CSI-OAF). In this paper, we propose a distributed relay selection framework for opportunistic AF (D-OAF) cooperative communications and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signalto- noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI-based counterparts. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Application of over-current relay in offshore wind power plant grid with VSC-HVDC connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Teodorescu, Remus [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rodriguez, Pedro [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kjaer, Philip C. [Vestas Technology R and D, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the setting and coordination of over-current relays in an offshore wind power plant (WPP) grid connected only to the power electronic converters with limited fault current capability. The limited fault current injection capability of the converters has been considered as a hindrance for the relay setting. This characteristic can be utilized to develop a deterministic picture of the radial grid network and then the relays settings could be applied. The relay coordination has been demonstrated through an implementation in the Real Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) platform. The setting of relay parameters based upon maximum nominal currents is explained and the consequences are investigated. (orig.)

  18. Distributed cognitive two-way relay beamformer designs under perfect and imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present distributed two-way relay beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relay nodes

  19. Information-guided transmission in decode-and-forward relaying systems: Spatial exploitation and throughput enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In addressing the issue of achieving high throughput in half-duplex relay channels, we exploit a concept of information-guided transmission for the network consisting of a source node, a destination node, and multiple half-duplex relay nodes

  20. Low-Complexity Combining Schemes in Dual-Hop AF Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of different low-complexity combining schemes in the context of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. It is assumed that the relay uses single transmit (receive) antenna due to space limitation

  1. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  2. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those

  3. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karani S Vimaleswaran

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR analysis.We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OHD (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects. Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT consortium (n = 123,864. Each 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OHD (p = 6.52×10⁻²⁷. The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (p = 6.30×10⁻⁶² and 25(OHD (-0.06% [95% CI -0.10 to -0.02], p = 0.004 in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OHD (p≤8.07×10⁻⁵⁷ for both scores but not with BMI (synthesis score, p = 0.88; metabolism score, p = 0.08 in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OHD concentrations (IV ratio: -4.2 [95% CI -7.1 to -1.3], p = 0.005. No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OHD with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (p≥0.57 for both vitamin D scores.On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OHD, while any effects of lower 25(OHD increasing BMI are likely to be small. Population level interventions to

  4. Implementing Strategic Planning Capabilities Within the Mars Relay Operations Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hy, Franklin; Gladden, Roy; Allard, Dan; Wallick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Spirit and Opportunity, began their travels across the Martian surface in January of 2004, orbiting spacecraft such as the Mars 2001 Odyssey orbiter have relayed the majority of their collected scientific and operational data to and from Earth. From the beginning of those missions, it was evident that using orbiters to relay data to and from the surface of Mars was a vastly more efficient communications strategy in terms of power consumption and bandwidth compared to direct-to-Earth means. However, the coordination between the various spacecraft, which are largely managed independently and on differing commanding timelines, has always proven to be a challenge. Until recently, the ground operators of all these spacecraft have coordinated the movement of data through this network using a collection of ad hoc human interfaces and various, independent software tools. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) has been developed to manage the evolving needs of the Mars relay network, and specifically to standardize and integrate the relay planning and coordination data into a centralized infrastructure. This paper explores the journey of developing the MaROS system, from inception to delivery and acceptance by the Mars mission users.

  5. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  6. A time relay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yosimura, K.; Sudzuki, Y.

    1981-06-18

    The synchronous micromotor of the time relay by means of a two staged cylindrical gear drive drives the gear wheel and the shaft of an actuating mechanism. The shaped drum of a cam mechanism, equipped with a vertical groove, which interacts in its upper part with a lever for driving the first commutating subassembly and in the lower, with a bent sector of a spring and plate movable contact of the second commutating subassembly, is attached to the lower end of the mechanism's shaft (V). The L-shaped lever of the second commutating subassembly's drive rests on a vertical rocking axle, located parallel to the shaft. Both pairs of spring and plate contacts are bracketed in two dielectric brackets which provide for a plane parallel disposition of the cited contacts. The operational time setting for the unit is a function of the initial angular position of the shaft, which is provided for by the attachment of a handle on its upper end.

  7. Energy-efficient relay selection and optimal power allocation for performance-constrained dual-hop variable-gain AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the energy-efficiency enhancement of a variable-gain dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network utilizing selective relaying. The objective is to minimize the total consumed power while keeping the end-to-end signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain peak value and satisfying the peak power constraints at the source and relay nodes. To achieve this objective, an optimal relay selection and power allocation strategy is derived by solving the power minimization problem. Numerical results show that the derived optimal strategy enhances the energy-efficiency as compared to a benchmark scheme in which both the source and the selected relay transmit at peak power. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Outage performance of two-way DF relaying systems with a new relay selection metric

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Benjillali, Mustapha; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a new constrained relay selection scheme for two-way relaying systems where two end terminals communicate simultaneously via a relay. The introduced technique is based on the maximization of the weighted sum rate of both

  9. Do smoking attitudes predict behaviour? A longitudinal study on the bi-directional relations between adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vermulst, Ad A; Scholte, Ron H J

    2008-10-01

    Prevention and intervention programmes focus frequently upon retaining or creating negative attitudes towards smoking in an effort to prevent adolescents from smoking. As the focus upon attitudes is central in these programmes it is essential to know whether smoking attitudes actually precede smoking behaviour or, conversely, are affected by it. Therefore, in the present study we examined to what extent bi-directional relations existed between smoking attitudes and behaviour. Data were used from the three annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires individually at their homes. Addresses of families consisting of two parents and two adolescents were obtained from the records of 22 municipalities in the Netherlands. At baseline, 428 families participated with a response rate of 94% at the third measurement. Self-reports were used to assess adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviour. Associations between smoking attitudes and behaviour were tested using structural equation modelling. Findings revealed that smoking attitudes did not predict smoking consistently over time. However, past smoking affected subsequent attitudes moderately, suggesting that adolescents who started to smoke developed less negative attitudes towards smoking. The current findings imply that smoking behaviour predominantly shapes smoking-related attitudes, rather than vice versa. Focusing merely on smoking attitudes is probably not enough to prevent adolescents from smoking.

  10. Bi-directional activation between mesenchymal stem cells and CLL B-cells: implication for CLL disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Knox, Traci R; Boysen, Justin C; Maas, Mary L; Schwager, Susan M; Wu, Wenting; Wellik, Linda E; Dietz, Allan B; Ghosh, Asish K; Secreto, Charla R; Medina, Kay L; Shanafelt, Tait D; Zent, Clive S; Call, Timothy G; Kay, Neil E

    2009-11-01

    It was hypothesized that contact between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B-cells and marrow stromal cells impact both cell types. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a long-term primary culture system from bone biopsies that reliably generates a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Co-culture of MSC with CLL B-cells protected the latter from both spontaneous apoptosis and drug-induced apoptosis. The CD38 expression in previously CD38 positive CLL B-cells was up-regulated with MSC co-culture. Upregulation of CD71, CD25, CD69 and CD70 in CLL B-cells was found in the co-culture. CD71 upregulation was more significantly associated with high-risk CLL, implicating CD71 regulation in the microenvironment predicting disease progression. In MSC, rapid ERK and AKT phosphorylation (within 30 min) were detected when CLL B-cells and MSC were separated by transwell; indicating that activation of MSC was mediated by soluble factors. These findings support a bi-directional activation between bone marrow stromal cells and CLL B-cells.

  11. Self-vibration cancellation of a novel bi-directional magnetized NdFeB/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    A novel magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite structure is proposed in this work, aiming to provide a good self-vibration cancellation performance under the magnetic field detection environment. The proposed structure consists of two Terfenol-D magnetostrictive alloy plates which are revised and length-magnetized by two NdFeB magnets bonded on the top surface of a thickness-polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic plate with separate electrodes. Experiments have shown that great vibration suppression up to 44 dB under harmonic disturbance was observed. The ME coefficient of the proposed structure also reaches up to ∼29 mV/Oe at non-resonance frequency and 758 mV/Oe at resonance frequency of 79 kHz which is ∼2 times larger than the traditional L-T Terfenol-D/PZT bilayer configuration of the same scale. Such performance improvement is achieved based on the bi-directional magnetic field bias (HBias) of two NdFeB magnets in magnetostrictive layer, internal in-series electrical wire connection in piezoelectric layer. The proposed design has great potential to be used for industrial applications associated with heavy environmental vibration noise.

  12. Self-vibration cancellation of a novel bi-directional magnetized NdFeB/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    A novel magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite structure is proposed in this work, aiming to provide a good self-vibration cancellation performance under the magnetic field detection environment. The proposed structure consists of two Terfenol-D magnetostrictive alloy plates which are revised and length-magnetized by two NdFeB magnets bonded on the top surface of a thickness-polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic plate with separate electrodes. Experiments have shown that great vibration suppression up to 44 dB under harmonic disturbance was observed. The ME coefficient of the proposed structure also reaches up to ˜29 mV/Oe at non-resonance frequency and 758 mV/Oe at resonance frequency of 79 kHz which is ˜2 times larger than the traditional L-T Terfenol-D/PZT bilayer configuration of the same scale. Such performance improvement is achieved based on the bi-directional magnetic field bias (HBias) of two NdFeB magnets in magnetostrictive layer, internal in-series electrical wire connection in piezoelectric layer. The proposed design has great potential to be used for industrial applications associated with heavy environmental vibration noise.

  13. Simulating bi-directional pedestrian flow in a cellular automaton model considering the body-turning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.

  14. Bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization for strut-and-tie modelling of three-dimensional structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Vahid; Ahmadi-Nedushan, Behrouz

    2017-12-01

    This article presents a method for the automatic generation of optimal strut-and-tie models in reinforced concrete structures using a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization method. The methodology presented is developed for compliance minimization relying on the Abaqus finite element software package. The proposed approach deals with the generation of truss-like designs in a three-dimensional environment, addressing the design of corbels and joints as well as bridge piers and pile caps. Several three-dimensional examples are provided to show the capabilities of the proposed framework in finding optimal strut-and-tie models in reinforced concrete structures and verifying its efficiency to cope with torsional actions. Several issues relating to the use of the topology optimization for strut-and-tie modelling of structural concrete, such as chequerboard patterns, mesh-dependency and multiple load cases, are studied. In the last example, a design procedure for detailing and dimensioning of the strut-and-tie models is given according to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318-08 provisions.

  15. Appendices for: Improper Signaling in Two-Path Relay Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This document contains the appendices for the work in “Improper Signaling in Two-Path Relay Channels,” which is submitted to 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) Workshop on Full-Duplex Communications for Future Wireless Networks, Paris, France.

  16. Appendices for: Improper Signaling in Two-Path Relay Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Schaefer, Rafael F.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This document contains the appendices for the work in “Improper Signaling in Two-Path Relay Channels,” which is submitted to 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) Workshop on Full-Duplex Communications for Future Wireless Networks, Paris, France.

  17. Performance of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider a relay network consisting of a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits a message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears the transmitted messages over the different HARQ rounds and tries to decode the data packet. In case of successful decoding at the relay, both the relay and the source cooperate to transmit the message to the destination. A maximum number M of HARQ rounds is considered. The channel realizations are independent for different HARQ rounds. We assume Rayleigh fading channels for the links source-relay, source-destination, and relay-destination. We investigate the performance of HARQ-IR over relay channel from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the information outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate. We illustrate through our investigation the benefit of relaying. We also show the impact of the target outage probability and the maximum number M of HARQ rounds on the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop amplify-and-forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates different receive single-branch switch-based diversity schemes for dual-hop amplify-and-forward relaying networks. Specifically, three receive processing algorithms are adopted, in which the receive branch is selected using

  19. Performance analysis of underlay cognitive multihop regenerative relaying systems with multiple primary receivers

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Benjillali, Mustapha; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Da Costa, Daniel Benevides Da

    2013-01-01

    Multihop relaying is an efficient strategy to improve the connectivity and extend the coverage area of secondary networks in underlay cognitive systems. In this work, we provide a comprehensive performance study of cognitive multihop regenerative

  20. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    - noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI