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Sample records for bi-directional overlapping promoter

  1. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming. PMID:23183382

  2. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming.

  3. Identification of a bi-directional promoter from Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bi-directional promoter of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) was obtained with the total DNA from TYLCCNV isolate Y10 infected tobacco leaves as a template. Plant expression vectors were constructed by fusing the amplified DNA fragment with the gus gene and nopaline terminator in different orientations. The vectors containing promoter fragments were transferred into leaf cells and plant stems of Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transient expression results showed that both the complementary and virion-sense promoters could drive the gus gene to express, and the GUS activity of the complementary-sense promoter was stronger than that of the virion-sense. Co-expression of the vector containing βC1 gene of TYLCCNV DNAβ with the vector containing a bi-directional promoter revealed that the βC1 protein has no impact on expression of either the virion- or the complementarysense promoter.

  4. The enhancement effect of pp38 gene product on the activity of its upstream bi-directional promoter in Marek's disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There was a bi-directional promoter between gene 38 kd phosphorylated protein (pp38) gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcript gene family in the genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV). In this study, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter plamids, pP(pp38)-EGFP and pP(1.8- kb)-EGFP, were constructed under this bi-directional promoter in two directions. The two plasmids were transfected into uninfected chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF), MDV clone rMd5 infected CEF (rMd5-CEF) and pp38-deleted derivative rMd5Δpp38 infected CEF (rMd5Δpp38-CEF) respectively. Transfection analysis showed that EGFP was only expressed in rMd5-CEF, and no EGFP could be detected in uninfected CEF or rMd5Δpp38-CEF, implying that pp38 was a factor influencing the activity of the promoter. The pp38-expressing recombinant plasmid pcDNA-pp38 was constructed to co- transfect CEF or rMd5Δpp38-CEF with pP(pp38)-EGFP or pP(1.8-kb)-EGFP. In this case, EGFP could be detected only in rMd5Δpp38-CEF but still not in uninfected CEF, implying that pp38 needs other protein(s) to work together for the complete trans-acting activity. Another MDV gene, 24 kd phosphorylated protein pp24 gene was cloned into pcDNA3.1 as a pp24-expressing recombinant plasmid pcDNA-pp24. When uninfected CEF was co-transfected with pcDNA-pp38, pcDNA-pp24 and EGFP expressing plasmids pP(pp38)-EGFP or pP(1.8-kb)-EGFP, the EGFP could be detected. These results indicated that pp38 and pp24 could enhance the activity of the promoter when they worked together. DNA mobility shift assay showed that pp38 would bind to the bi-directional promoter with the co-existing of pp24, although neither of them alone influenced mobility of the promoter DNA. All the above suggested that MDV pp38 could transactivate the bi-directional promoter when combined with pp24. The results also indicated that the activity of the promoter in the direction of 1.8-kb mRNA was significantly stronger than that of pp38 direction.

  5. The construction and characterization of the bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts of Marek's disease viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Jiabo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek's disease virus (MDV has a bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts. By sequencing for the promoters from 8 different strains (CVI988, 814, GA, JM, Md5, G2, RB1B and 648A, it is found, comparing with the other 7 MDV strains, CVI988 has a 5-bp (from -628 to -632 deletion in this region, which caused a Sp1 site destroyed. In order to analysis the activity of the promoter, the complete bi-directional promoters from GA and CVI988 were, respectively, cloned into pCAT-Basic vector in both directions for the recombinants pPGA(pp38-CAT, pPGA(1.8 kb-CAT, pPCVI(pp38-CAT and pPCVI(1.8 kb-CAT. The complete promoter of GA was divided into two single-direction promoters from the replication of MDV genomic DNA, and cloned into pCAT-Basic for pdPGA(pp38-CAT and pdPGA(1.8 kb-CAT as well. The above 6 recombinants were then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs infected with MDV, and the activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT was measured from the lysed CEFs 48 h post transfection. Results The results showed the activity of the divided promoters was decreased on both directions. In 1.8-kb mRNA direction, it is nearly down to 2.4% (19/781 of the whole promoter, while it keeps 65% (34/52 activity in pp38 direction. The deletion of Sp1 site in CVI988 causes the 20% activity decreased, and has little influence in pp38 direction. Conclusion The present study confirmed their result, and the promoter for the 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts is a much stronger promoter than that in the orientation for pp38.

  6. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul A Khan

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV, belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells.

  7. Construction of recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV co-expressing AIV-H9N2-NA and NDV-F genes under control of MDV's own bi-directional promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Zhang

    Full Text Available To qualitatively analyze and evaluate a bi-directional promoter transcriptional function in both transient and transgenic systems, several different plasmids were constructed and recombinant MDV type 1 strain GX0101 was developed to co-express a Neuraminidase (NA gene from Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 strain and a Fusion (F gene from the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The two foreign genes, NDV-F gene and AIV-NA gene, were inserted in the plasmid driven in each direction by the bi-directional promoter. To test whether the expression of pp38/pp24 heterodimers are the required activators for the expression of the foreign genes, the recombinant plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F containing expression cassette for the two foreign genes was co-transfected with a pp38/pp24 expression plasmid, pBud-pp38-pp24, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells. Alternatively, plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F was transfected in GX0101-infected CEFs where the viral endogenous pp38/pp24 were expressed via virus infection. The expression of both foreign genes was activated by pp38/pp24 dimers either via virus infection, or co-expression. The CEFs transfected with pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F alone had no expression. We chose to insert the expression cassette of Ppp38-NA/1.8kb-F in the non-essential region of GX0101ΔMeq US2 gene, and formed a new rMDV named MZC13NA/F through homologous recombination. Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA test, ELISA and Western blot analyses indicated that F and NA genes were expressed simultaneously under control of the bi-directional promoter, but in opposite directions. The data also indicated the activity of the promoter in the 1.8-kb mRNA transcript direction was higher than that in the direction for the pp38 gene. The expression of pp38/pp24 dimers either via co-tranfection of the pBud-pp38-pp24 plasmid, or by GX0101 virus infection were critical to activate the bi-directional promoter for expression of two foreign genes in both directions. Therefore, the

  8. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, János; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Sneppen, Kim; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2011-09-01

    Optimal response to environmental stimuli often requires activation of certain genes and repression of others. Dual function regulatory proteins play a key role in the differential regulation of gene expression. While repression can be achieved by any DNA binding protein through steric occlusion of RNA polymerase in the promoter region, activation often requires a surface on the regulatory protein to contact RNAP and thus facilitate transcription initiation. RNAP itself is also a DNA binding protein, therefore it can function as a transcriptional repressor. Searching the Escherichia coli promoter database we found that ∼14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find that promoter interference depends on the characteristics of overlapping promoters. The model predicts that promoter strength and interference can be regulated separately, which provides unique opportunities for regulation. Our experimental data suggest that in principle any DNA binding protein can be used for both activation and repression of promoter transcription, depending on the context. These findings can be exploited in the construction of synthetic networks. PMID:21609952

  9. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt;

    2011-01-01

    Optimal response to environmental stimuli often requires activation of certain genes and repression of others. Dual function regulatory proteins play a key role in the differential regulation of gene expression. While repression can be achieved by any DNA binding protein through steric occlusion...... of RNA polymerase in the promoter region, activation often requires a surface on the regulatory protein to contact RNAP and thus facilitate transcription initiation. RNAP itself is also a DNA binding protein, therefore it can function as a transcriptional repressor. Searching the Escherichia coli...... promoter database we found that ~14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find...

  10. Core promoter-specific gene regulation: TATA box selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyu; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Martinez, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    Gene-specific activation by enhancers involves their communication with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery at the core promoter. Core promoters are diverse and may contain a variety of sequence elements such as the TATA box, the Initiator (INR), and the downstream promoter element (DPE) recognized, respectively, by the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors of the TFIID complex. Core promoter elements contribute to the gene selectivity of enhancers, and INR/DPE-specific enhancers and activators have been identified. Here, we identify a TATA box-selective activating sequence upstream of the human β-actin (ACTB) gene that mediates serum response factor (SRF)-induced transcription from TATA-dependent but not INR-dependent promoters and requires the TATA-binding/bending activity of TBP, which is otherwise dispensable for transcription from a TATA-less promoter. The SRF-dependent ACTB sequence is stereospecific on TATA promoters but activates in an orientation-independent manner a composite TATA/INR-containing promoter. More generally, we show that SRF-regulated genes of the actin/cytoskeleton/contractile family tend to have a TATA box. These results suggest distinct TATA-dependent and INR-dependent mechanisms of TFIID-mediated transcription in mammalian cells that are compatible with only certain stereospecific combinations of activators, and that a TBP-TATA binding mechanism is important for SRF activation of the actin/cytoskeleton-related gene family.

  11. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  12. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output volta...

  13. The bi-directional transcriptional promoters for the latency-relating transcripts of the pp38/pp24 mRNAs and the 1.8 kb-mRNA in the long inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 DNA are regulated by common promoter-specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigekane, H; Kawaguchi, Y; Shirakata, M; Sakaguchi, M; Hirai, K

    1999-01-01

    In cell lines established from Marek's disease tumors, several viral transcripts are expressed and among them the products of pp38/pp24 mRNA and 1.8 kb-mRNA have been suggested to be involved in viral oncogenicity. The long inverted repeats of Marek's Disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) genome contain closely located transcriptional promoters for phosphorylated protein pp38/pp24 and 1.8 kb-mRNA. These promoters initiate transcription in opposite directions and are separated only by a short enhancer region, which is likely to regulate both promoters simultaneously. We have analyzed the transcription activity of these promoters in MDV1 (Md5 strain) infected CEF by transient expression of CAT reporter genes and found that the promoters were in fact active in infected cells and the promoter for 1.8 kb-mRNA was more active than the pp38/pp24 promoter. Deletion analysis of the short enhancer region revealed that the 30 bp region overlapping the enhancer elements for 1.8 kb-mRNA was important for promoter activity for pp38/pp24. The gel shift analysis revealed that nuclear factor(s) actually bound to the overlapping 30 bp region. In addition, the activity of these promoters in infected cells varied with MDV strains. These results suggest that pp38/pp24 and 1.8 kb-mRNA promoters share a common regulatory sequence but a viral or a cellular factor(s) induced by viral infection regulates the promoter by distinct mechanisms.

  14. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3 has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements in the Southeastern US, NH3 concentrations decrease throughout the globe, up to 17 ppb in India and Southeastern China, with corresponding decreases in aerosol nitrate by up to 7 μg m−3. The ammonium (NH4+ soil pool in the bi-directional exchange model largely extends the NH3 lifetime in the atmosphere. Including bi-directional exchange generally increases NH3 gross emissions (7.1% and surface concentrations (up to 3.9 ppb throughout the globe in July, except in India and Southeastern China. In April and October, it decreases NH3 gross emissions in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., 43.6% in April in China and increases NH3 gross emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. Bi-directional exchange does not largely impact NH4+ wet deposition overall. While bi-directional exchange is fundamentally a better representation of NH3 emissions from fertilizers, emissions from primary sources are still underestimated and thus significant model biases remain when compared to in situ measurements in the US. The adjoint of bi-directional exchange has also been developed for the GEOS-Chem model and is used to investigate the sensitivity of NH3 concentrations with respect to soil pH and fertilizer application rate. This study thus lays the groundwork for future inverse modeling studies to more directly constrain these physical processes rather than tuning bulk uni-directional NH3 emissions.

  15. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  16. Transfer of Pragmatic Competences: A Bi-Directional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, I-Ru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the bi-directionality of language transfer (first language [L1] to second language [L2] and L2 to L1) at the pragmatic level with a focus on the speech act of request. The L2 participants were Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners at the intermediate and advanced levels. Data were collected via discourse…

  17. Bi-directional Secure Communication Based on Discrete Chaotic Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Min; QIU Shui-Sheng; PENG Fei

    2007-01-01

    Discrete chaotic systems are used for bi-directional secure communication. Both sides of communication keep sending signals to achieve their synchronization, and then recover the messages. However, the third side without keys cannot get useful information. Known-plaintext attack is also engaged to analyze this method, and the simulation results show that the proposed method can reach high security performance.

  18. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  19. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high voltage DC-DC converter topology for bi-directional energy transfer between a low voltage DC source and a high voltage capacitive load. The topology is a bi-directional flyback converter with variable switching frequency control during the charge mode, and constant...... switching frequency control during the discharge mode. The converter is capable of charging the capacitive load from 24 V DC source to 2.5 kV, and discharges it to 0 V. The flyback converter has been analyzed in detail during both charge and discharge modes, by considering all the parasitic elements...... in the converter, including the most dominating parameters of the high voltage transformer viz., self-capacitance and leakage inductance. The specific capacitive load for this converter is a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, which can be used as an effective replacement for conventional actuators...

  20. Bi-directional normalized difference vegetation index: concept and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The data products of land surface bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) from the space-borne Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance (POLDER) of France and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)of USA are available recently, but the atmospheric correction for meeting the requirement of quantitative remote sensing is still a very dfficult problem. This paper presents a concept: bi-directional normalized difference vegetation index (Bi-NDVI), in order to consider simul taneously the effects of both land surface BRDF and atmospheric path scattering. An atmospheric quality index is thus defined for satellite multi-angular observations. The quality of MODIS/BRDF data products can be improved notably through iterative inversion weighed by this index.

  1. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDRIK Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  2. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    DUDRIK Jaroslav; OLEJAR Martin; BERES Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  3. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru Miyauchi; Yanjun Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirmlow optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  4. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru; Miyauchi; Yanjun; Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirm low optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  5. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  6. Efficient Parallel and Out of Core Algorithms for Constructing Large Bi-directed de Bruijn Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Dinh, Hieu

    2010-01-01

    Assembling genomic sequences from a set of overlapping reads is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Algorithms addressing the assembly problem fall into two broad categories -- based on the data structures which they employ. The first class uses an overlap/string graph and the second type uses a de Bruijn graph. However with the recent advances in short read sequencing technology, de Bruijn graph based algorithms seem to play a vital role in practice. Efficient algorithms for building these massive de Bruijn graphs are very essential in large sequencing projects based on short reads. In Jackson et. al. ICPP-2008, an $O(n/p)$ time parallel algorithm has been given for this problem. Here $n$ is the size of the input and $p$ is the number of processors. This algorithm enumerates all possible bi-directed edges which can overlap with a node and ends up generating $\\Theta(n\\Sigma)$ messages. In this paper we present a $\\Theta(n/p)$ time parallel algorithm with a communication complexity e...

  7. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  8. APLIKASI MIGRASI DATABASE DAN REPLIKASI BI-DIRECTIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yoseph Ricky

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and design a migration and replication configurations in an enterprise using several methods such as literary study and direc survey to the company; analysis on hangar systems, process migration and replication as well as existing problems; and a prototype design for migration process implementated with Oracle SQL Developer and replication process implementated with Oracle GoldenGate. The study resluts ini a prototype for migration and replication configuration processes using Oracle's Golden Gate which can produce two sets of identical data for backup and recovery. Also a simple tool is designed to assist active-active replication process as well as active-passive one. The migration process from MySQL database to Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can not be done because GoldenGate Oracle has bugs related to the binary log, so database migration is done using Oracle SQL Developer. However, bi-directional replication between Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can ensure data availability and reduce the workload of primary database.

  9. Design of Bi-Directional Hydrofoils for Tidal Current Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Tidal Current Turbines operate in flows which reverse direction. Bi-directional hydrofoils have rotational symmetry and allow such turbines to operate without the need for pitch or yaw control, decreasing the initial and maintenance costs. A numerical test-bed was developed to automate the simulations of hydrofoils in OpenFOAM and was utilized to simulate the flow over eleven classes of hydrofoils comprising a total of 700 foil shapes at different angles of attack. For promising candidate foil shapes physical models of 75 mm chord and 150 mm span were fabricated and tested in the University of New Hampshire High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HiCaT). The experimental results were compared to the simulations for model validation. The numerical test-bed successfully generated simulations for a wide range of foil shapes, although, as expected, the k - ω - SST turbulence model employed here was not adequate for some of the foils and for large angles of attack at which separation occurred. An optimization algorithm is currently being coupled with the numerical test-bed and additional turbulence models will be implemented in the future.

  10. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A. G.; Stanslaski, S. R.; Cong, P.; Jensen, R. M.; Afshar, P.; Ullestad, D.; Gupta, R.; Molnar, G. F.; Moran, D. W.; Denison, T. J.

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy.

  11. Behavior of composite rigid frame bridge under bi-directional seismic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis and time history analysis are conducted to explore the bi-directional seismic behavior of composite steel-concrete rigid frame bridge, which is composed of RC piers and steel-concrete composite girders. Both longitudinal and transverse directions excitations are investigated using OpenSees. Firstly, the applicability of pushover analysis based on the fundamental mode is discussed. Secondly, an improved pushover analysis method considering the contribution of higher modes is proposed, and the applicability on composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional earthquake is verified. Based on this method, an approach to predict the displacement responses of composite rigid frame bridge under random bi-directional seismic excitations by revising the elasto-plastic demand curve is also proposed. It is observed that the developed method yield a good estimate on the responses of composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional seismic excitations.

  12. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan;

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency.......We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  13. Bi-directional light transmission properties assessment for venetian blinds : Computer simulations compared to photogoniometer measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Rubin, M. D.; Powles, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    An accurate evaluation of daylight distribution through advanced fenestration systems (complex glazing, solar shading systems) requires the knowledge of their Bi-directional light Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF). An innovative equipment for the experimental assessment of these bi-directional functions has been developed, based on a digital imaging detection system. An extensive set of BTDF measurements was performed with this photogoniometer on venetian blinds presenting curved slat...

  14. Promoter polymorphisms in two overlapping 6p25 genes implicate mitochondrial proteins in cognitive deficit in schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jablensky, A

    2011-10-04

    In a previous study, we detected a 6p25-p24 region linked to schizophrenia in families with high composite cognitive deficit (CD) scores, a quantitative trait integrating multiple cognitive measures. Association mapping of a 10 Mb interval identified a 260 kb region with a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with CD scores and memory performance. The region contains two colocalising genes, LYRM4 and FARS2, both encoding mitochondrial proteins. The two tagging SNPs with strongest evidence of association were located around the overlapping putative promoters, with rs2224391 predicted to alter a transcription factor binding site (TFBS). Sequencing the promoter region identified 22 SNPs, many predicted to affect TFBSs, in a tight linkage disequilibrium block. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed promoter activity in the predicted promoter region, and demonstrated marked downregulation of expression in the LYRM4 direction under the haplotype comprising the minor alleles of promoter SNPs, which however is not driven by rs2224391. Experimental evidence from LYRM4 expression in lymphoblasts, gel-shift assays and modelling of DNA breathing dynamics pointed to two adjacent promoter SNPs, rs7752203-rs4141761, as the functional variants affecting expression. Their C-G alleles were associated with higher transcriptional activity and preferential binding of nuclear proteins, whereas the G-A combination had opposite effects and was associated with poor memory and high CD scores. LYRM4 is a eukaryote-specific component of the mitochondrial biogenesis of Fe-S clusters, essential cofactors in multiple processes, including oxidative phosphorylation. LYRM4 downregulation may be one of the mechanisms involved in inefficient oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress, increasingly recognised as contributors to schizophrenia pathogenesis.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 4 October 2011; doi:10.1038\\/mp.2011.129.

  15. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-09-01

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  16. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anushandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  17. Detection of Bi-Directionality in Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    An indicator variable was developed for both visualization and detection of bi-directionality in wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. First, the calculation of the indicator variable is explained in detail. Then, a criterion is discussed that may be used to decide which gage outputs of a balance have bi- directional behavior. The result of this analysis could be used, for example, to justify the selection of certain absolute value or other even function terms in the regression model of gage outputs whenever the Iterative Method is chosen for the balance calibration data analysis. Calibration data of NASA s MK40 Task balance is analyzed to illustrate both the calculation of the indicator variable and the application of the proposed criterion. Finally, bi directionality characteristics of typical multi piece, hybrid, single piece, and semispan balances are determined and discussed.

  18. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency

  19. Bi-directional WDM transmission by use of SOAs as inline amplifiers without isolators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle; Yu, Jianjun

    2001-01-01

    Error-free bi-directional transmission of 8×10 Gb/s signals over two inline SOAs is realized for the first time. It is demonstrated that SOAs can be used for inline amplifiers in bidirectional multi-wavelength transmission systems at 10 Gb/s without any isolator.......Error-free bi-directional transmission of 8×10 Gb/s signals over two inline SOAs is realized for the first time. It is demonstrated that SOAs can be used for inline amplifiers in bidirectional multi-wavelength transmission systems at 10 Gb/s without any isolator....

  20. Transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic motor and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xiangcheng; CHEN Zaili

    2002-01-01

    A transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic notor is presented. It has the features of flexible bi-directional drive, simple construction and easy control, etc. The characteristics parameters of the prototype are: frequency 21.46 kHz, maximum moving speed 400 mm/s under pre-load of 3.2 N, maximum thrust 2.1 N under pre-load of 1.6 N. The influence of phase shift and vibration amplitude of ultrasonic transducers on ideal elliptical locus and output characteristics are investigated with theoretical and experimental methods.

  1. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire;...

  2. A self-adaptive full asynchronous bi-directional transmission channel for network-on-chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve two shortcomings of conventional network-on-chips, i.e. low utilization rate in channels between routers and excessive interconnection lines, this paper proposes a full asynchronous self-adaptive bi-directional transmission channel. It can utilize interconnection lines and register resources with high efficiency, and dynamically detect the data transmission state between routers through a direction regulator, which controls the sequencer to automatically adjust the transmission direction of the bi-directional channel, so as to provide a flexible data transmission environment. Null convention logic units are used to make the circuit quasi-delay insensitive and highly robust. The proposed bi-directional transmission channel is implemented based on SMIC 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology. Post-layout simulation results demonstrate that this self-adaptive bi-directional channel has better performance on throughput, transmission flexibility and channel bandwidth utilization compared to a conventional single direction channel. Moreover, the proposed channel can save interconnection lines up to 30% and can provide twice the bandwidth resources of a single direction transmission channel. The proposed channel can apply to an on-chip network which has limited resources of registers and interconnection lines. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Reliability analysis of an LCL tuned track segmented bi-directional inductive power transfer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif Iqbal, S. M.; Madawala, U. K.; Thrimawithana, D. J.;

    2013-01-01

    Bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer (BDIPT) technique is suitable for renewable energy based applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), for the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems. Recently, more efforts have been made by researchers to improve both efficiency and reliability o...

  4. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement…

  5. Longitudinal Bi-Directional Relationships between Sleep and Youth Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Latimer, Lara A.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known deficits in sleep that occur during adolescence and the high prevalence of substance use behaviors among this group, relatively little research has explored how sleep and substance use may be causally related. The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal bi-directional relationships between sleep duration, sleep…

  6. Properties and Stability of Max-Product Fuzzy Bi-Directional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Lan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy operator of max-product is defined at first, and the fuzzy bi-directional associative memory (FBAM) based on the fuzzy operator of max-product is given. Then the properties and the Lyapunov stability of equilibriums of the networks are studied.

  7. Inferring bi-directional interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolism with model ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    There has been much interest in reconstructing bi-directional regulatory networks linking the circadian clock to metabolism in plants. A variety of reverse engineering methods from machine learning and computational statistics have been proposed and evaluated. The emphasis of the present paper is on

  8. High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar Ullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2013-01-01

    A High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the Cool...

  9. Achievable rate regions and outer bounds for a multi-pair bi-directional relay network

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Joon; Devroye, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    In a bi-directional relay channel, a pair of nodes wish to exchange independent messages over a shared wireless half-duplex channel with the help of relays. Recent work has mostly considered information theoretic limits of the bi-directional relay channel with two terminal nodes (or end users) and one relay. In this work we consider bi-directional relaying with one base station, multiple terminal nodes and one relay, all of which operate in half-duplex modes. We assume that each terminal node communicates with the base-station in a bi-directional fashion through the relay and do not place any restrictions on the channels between the users, relays and base-stations; that is, each node has a direct link with every other node. Our contributions are three-fold: 1) the introduction of four new temporal protocols which fully exploit the two-way nature of the data and outperform simple routing or multi-hop communication schemes by carefully combining network coding, random binning and user cooperation which exploit ...

  10. Absolute exponential stability analysis of delayed bi-directional associative memory neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Xuyang [Research Center of Control Science and Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Cui Baotong [Research Center of Control Science and Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)]. E-mail: btcui@sohu.com

    2007-02-15

    The problem of absolute exponential stability for delayed bi-directional associative memory neural networks with time delay is investigated via Lyapunov stability theory. A new sufficient condition ensuring existence and uniqueness of equilibrium and its absolute exponential stability is derived. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  11. Tissue Microarray Study of Vasculogenic Mimicry in Bi-directional Differentiated Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XishanHao; BaocunSun; ShiwuZhang; XiulanZhao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if vasculogenic mimicry (VM) exists in bi-directional differentiated malignant tumors. METHODS The blood supply models for bi-directional differentiated tumors were studied with immunohistochemical and PAS double-staining techniques. New sections were made from 158 paraffin-embedded bi-directional malignant-tumor samples, including melanoma (high malignancy n=30, low malignancy n=30); synoviosarcoma(SS) (high malignancy n=26, low malignancy n=13); acinar rhabdomyosarcoma (All) (high malignancy n=16,low malignancy n=13); malignant mesothelioma (MM) (n=26), and epithelioid sarcoma (ES)(n=4). Tissue microarrays were made. The representative points in the paraffin sections were labeled and two tissue microarrays were made, one included 60 cases of melanoma, and the other included the other tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of the platelet-endothelial cell adhesive molecule(CD31 antigen) and periodic acid Schiff(PAS) staining were conducted. The areas were calculated of vessel-like channels consisting of CD31 antigen-positive tumor cells and of PAS positive materials. The VM was studied using the data obtained. RESULTS Some of these bi-directional tumor cells secreted PAS-positive materials and 0D31 positive materials. The walls of the VM consisted of PAS-positive materials lined with CD31 negative tumor cells with red blood cells inside the channel, whereas the walls of the epithelium-dependent vessels were comprised of CD31 positive materials. The positive areas of CD31 were significantly less than that of PAS (P<0.01). The number of cases with VM in highly malignant tumors was greater than that found in the lowly malignant tumors. CONCLUSIONS Bi-directional differentiated malignant tumor cells have the ability to auto-transform and might interact with the extracellular matrix to form a vessel channel system which mimics blood vessels for transporting blood. That process is called VM. Results in this study show that bi-directional

  12. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire; DC current runs with unbalanced part of AC current in neutral wire. Without galvanic isolation grounded neutral would cause short circuit if DC/DC converter is connected to three phase rectifier or inverter. Simulation was carried out with PSCAD electromagnetic transient simulator.

  13. Detailed string stability analysis for bi-directional optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亮

    2015-01-01

    The class of bi-directional optimal velocity models can describe the bi-directional looking effect that usually exists in the reality and is even enhanced with the development of the connected vehicle technologies. Its combined string stability condition can be obtained through the method of the ring-road based string stability analysis. However, the partial string stability about traffic fluctuation propagated backward or forward was neglected, which will be analyzed in detail in this work by the method of transfer function and its H∞norm from the viewpoint of control theory. Then, through comparing the conditions of combined and partial string stabilities, their relationships can make traffic flow be divided into three distinguishable regions, displaying various combined and partial string stability performance. Finally, the numerical experiments verify the theoretical results and find that the final displaying string stability or instability performance results from the accumulated and offset effects of traffic fluctuations propagated from different directions.

  14. Inferring bi-directional interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolism with model ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    There has been much interest in reconstructing bi-directional regulatory networks linking the circadian clock to metabolism in plants. A variety of reverse engineering methods from machine learning and computational statistics have been proposed and evaluated. The emphasis of the present paper is on combining models in a model ensemble to boost the network reconstruction accuracy, and to explore various model combination strategies to maximize the improvement. Our results demonstrate that a r...

  15. Matrix Converter Bi-directional Switch Power Loss and Cooling Condition Estimation for Integrated Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovs, A; Galkins, I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper power loss estimation of bi-directional switch of matrix converter is done by means of calculation and experiments. For safe operation of power devices an efficient cooling system of specific device must be designed. This work is part of a greater project of integrated matrix converter AC drives and the cooling problem here is viewed in context of this task. It is necessary to develop a compact power board and cooling system to extract excessive heat from power devices.

  16. The bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Ning, Zongjun; Su, Yingna

    2016-09-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of ˜10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, 211 Å, 131 Å, 94 Å, 335 Å and 304 Å, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 Å and 1400 Å. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km s^{-1}, while the typically period is ˜90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional flows and their periodicity) can be detected simultaneously at all the 9 wavelengths. This CBP takes place at the site between a small pair of magnetic polarities. High time resolution observations show that they are moving close to each other during its lifetime. These facts support the magnetic reconnection model of the CBP and the bi-directional moving structures could be the observational outflows after the reconnection. Therefore, they can be as the direct observation evidence of the magnetic reconnection.

  17. BI-DIRECTIONAL COHEN-GROSSBERG NEURAL NETWORK WITH DISCRETE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Discrete-time version of the bi-directional Cohen-Grossberg neural network is stud-ied in this paper. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponen-tial stability of such networks with discrete time based on Lyapunov method. These results do not require the symmetry of the connection matrix and the monotonicity, boundedness and differentiability of the activation function.

  18. BI-DIRECTIONAL COHEN-GROSSBERG NEURAL NETWORK WITH DISCRETE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Dejun; Chen Anping

    2009-01-01

    Discrete-time version of the bi-directional Cohen-Grossberg neural network is stu-died in this paper. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global ex-ponential stability of such" networks with discrete time based on Lyapunov method. These results do not require the symmetry of the connection matrix and the monoto-nicity, boundedness and differentiability of the activation function.

  19. Upgrade of a transverse ventilation system in a bi-directional tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar Peter; Petelin Stojan; Luin Blaž

    2012-01-01

    The Karavanke tunnel forms an important link between Slovenia and Austria. The almost 8 km long tunnel is operated with bi-directional traffic and does not have dedicated escape routes. Moreover, the ventilation in case of fire does not satisfy requirements of the EU Directive 2004/54/EC that specifies the minimum requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network. The paper present results of the research conducted regarding the possibility of upgrade the existing system in or...

  20. The Bi-directional Moving Structures in a Coronal Bright Point

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dong; Su, Yingna

    2016-01-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of about 10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171, 193, 211, 131, 94, 335 and 304 A, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 and 1400 A. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km/s, while the typically period is about 90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional fl...

  1. Comparison of laser-assisted damage in soft tissue using bi-directional and forward-firing optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhwan; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Park, Hoyong; Lee, Yong Joong; Lee, Ho

    2014-03-01

    Laser-assisted endoscopic surgery is made possible by employing optical devices such as fiber optics and hollow wave-guides. In some applications of laser-assisted endoscopic surgery, it is necessary to change the direction of the light emission. Our group reported a new fabrication method for bi-directional firing fibers. The conical surface of the fiber tip made the bi-directional emission of the laser light at the distal end of the fiber. In this study, we employed the bi-directional firing fiber for laser-assisted coagulation of soft tissue. The developed fiber and the normal forward-firing fiber are used for the endoscopic delivery system of a continuous IR laser into an in vitro porcine liver. The ablation and coagulation pattern were compared for two distinctive fiber systems. Regardless of the laser's parameters, the bi-directional firing fiber produced a cavity and coagulation zone with more or less a circular shape, while the forward fiber produced an elongated cavity and coagulation region. The bi-directional firing fiber produced wider and shorter coagulation and cavity zones compared to that of the forward-firing fiber. We expect the bi-directional firing fiber to be an excellent optical delivery system for endoscopic laser-hyperthermia when used against various tumors in the liver, breast and thyroid.

  2. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the dry deposition module DEPAC in the LOTOS-EUROS model are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia life time and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in Southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extend. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  3. Optimization of Bi-Directional Flyback Converter for a High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization technique for a flyback converter with a bidirectional energy transfer. The main goal is to optimize the converter for driving an incremental dielectric electro active polymer actuator, which must be charged and discharged from 0 V to 2500 V DC, supplied from...... for this application. The efficiency and loss distribution results provided by the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the transformer design and its impact on total converter efficiency. Finally, experimental work on a prototype of the bi-directional flyback converter is presented. The maximum charging...... and discharging energy efficiencies of the optimized design, are 96.1% and 85%, respectively....

  4. Analysis of global exponential stability for a class of bi-directional associative memory networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏霞; 何晨

    2003-01-01

    In real-time applications of bi-directional associative memory (BAM) networks, a global exponentially stable equilibrium is highly desired. The existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability for a class of BAM networks are studied in this paper, the signal function of neurons is assumed to be piece-wise linear from the engineering point of view. A very concise condition for the equilibrium of such a network being globally exponentially stable is derived,which makes the practical design of this kind of networks an easy job.

  5. Study on Application of Bi-directional Combination Technology Integrating Residue Hydrotreating with Catalytic Cracking RICP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Chuanfeng; Gao Yongcan; Dai Lishun; Li Dadong

    2008-01-01

    After analysing the disadvantages of the traditional residue hydrotreating-catalytic cracking combination process, RIPP has proposed a bi-directional combination technology integrating residue hydrotreating with catalytic cracking called RICP which does not further recycles the FCC heavy cycle oil (HCO) inside the FCC unit and delivers HCO to the residue hydrotreating unit as a diluting oil for the residue that is concurrently subjected to hydrotreating prior to being used as the FCC feed oil. The RICP technology can stimulate residue hydrotreating reactions through utilization of HCO along with an increased yield of FCC light distillate, resulting in enhanced petroleum utilization and economic benefits of the refinery.

  6. Motile properties of the bi-directional kinesin-5 Cin8 are affected by phosphorylation in its motor domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Ofer; Gheber, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-5 Cin8 performs essential mitotic functions in spindle assembly and anaphase B spindle elongation. Recent work has shown that Cin8 is a bi-directional motor which moves towards the minus-end of microtubules (MTs) under high ionic strength (IS) conditions and changes directionality in low IS conditions and when bound between anti-parallel microtubules. Previous work from our laboratory has also indicated that Cin8 is differentially phosphorylated during late anaphase at cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)-specific sites located in its motor domain. In vivo, such phosphorylation causes Cin8 detachment from spindles and reduces the spindle elongation rate, while maintaining proper spindle morphology. To study the effect of phosphorylation on Cin8 motor function, we examined in vitro motile properties of wild type Cin8, as well as its phosphorylation using phospho-deficient and phospho-mimic variants, in a single molecule fluorescence motility assay. Analysis was performed on whole cell extracts and on purified Cin8 samples. We found that addition of negative charges in the phospho-mimic mutant weakened the MT-motor interaction, increased motor velocity and promoted minus-end-directed motility. These results indicate that phosphorylation in the catalytic domain of Cin8 regulates its motor function. PMID:27216310

  7. Moral judgment modulation by disgust is bi-directionally moderated by individual sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    How Hwee eOng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern theories of moral judgment predict that both conscious reasoning and unconscious emotional influences affect the way people decide about right and wrong. In a series of experiments, we tested the effect of subliminal and conscious priming of disgust facial expressions on moral dilemmas. Trolley-car-type scenarios were used, with subjects rating how acceptable they found the utilitarian course of action to be. On average, subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions resulted in higher rates of utilitarian judgments compared to neutral facial expressions. Further, in replication, we found that individual change in moral acceptability ratings due to disgust priming was modulated by individual sensitivity to disgust, revealing a bi-directional function. Our second replication extended this result to show that the function held for both subliminally and consciously presented stimuli. Combined across these experiments, we show a reliable bi-directional function, with presentation of disgust expression primes to individuals with higher disgust sensitivity resulting in more utilitarian judgments (i.e., number-based and presentations to individuals with lower sensitivity resulting in more deontological judgments (i.e., rules-based. Our results may reconcile previous conflicting reports of disgust modulation of moral judgment by modeling how individual sensitivity to disgust determines the direction and degree of this effect.

  8. Impact of holding umbrella on uni- and bi-directional pedestrian flow: Experiments and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of holding umbrella on the uni- and bi-directional flow has been investigated via experiment and modeling. In the experiments, pedestrians are required to walk clockwise/anti-clockwise in a ring-shaped corridor under normal situation and holding umbrella situation. No matter in uni- or bi-directional flow, the flow rate under holding umbrella situation decreases comparing with that in normal situation. In bidirectional flow, pedestrians segregate into two opposite moving streams very quickly under normal situation, and clockwise/anti-clockwise walking pedestrians are always in the inner/outer lane due to right-walking preference. Under holding umbrella situation, spontaneous lane formation has also occurred. However, when holding umbrella, pedestrians may separate into more than two lanes. Moreover, the merge of lanes have been observed, and clockwise/anti-clockwise pedestrians are not always in the inner/outer lane. To model the flow dynamics, an improved force-based model has been ...

  9. Geologically controlled bi-directional exchange of groundwater with a hypersaline lake in the Canadian prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Laurence R.; Hayashi, Masaki; Zimmerman, Elena P.; Holmden, Chris; Kelley, Lynn I.

    2016-06-01

    Hypersaline lakes occur in hydrologically closed basins due to evaporitic enrichment of dissolved salts transported to the lakes by surface water and groundwater. At the hypersaline Lydden Lake in Saskatchewan, Canada, groundwater/lake-water interaction is strongly influenced by the geological heterogeneity of glacial deposits, whereby a highly permeable glaciofluvial sand/gravel deposit is underlain by glaciolacustrine deposits consisting of dense clay interspersed with silt/sand lenses. Pressure head distribution in a near shore area indicates a bi-directional flow system. It consists of topographically driven flow of fresh groundwater towards the lake in the sand/gravel aquifer and density-driven, landward flow of saline groundwater in the underlying glaciolacustrine deposits. Electrical resistivity tomography, and chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater clearly show the landward intrusion of saline water in the heterogeneous unit. The feasibility of bi-directional flow and transport is supported by numerical simulations of density-coupled groundwater flow and transport. The results suggest that the geologically controlled groundwater exchange processes have substantial influences on both inputs and outputs of dissolved minerals in hypersaline lakes in closed basins.

  10. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, R.-S.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-11-01

    Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3). Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the ground layer compensation point (χg), stomatal compensation point (χs) and cuticular resistance (Rw). We review existing measurements of χg, χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and dissociation equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N) input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH4 apomodel for example). In principle, the parameterisations should be applicable to other climates, though there is a need for more underpinning data, with the uncertainties being especially large for tropical and subtropical conditions.

  11. Response of piping system on friction support to bi-directional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation of friction devices between a piping system and its supporting medium is an effective way of energy dissipation in the piping systems. In this paper, seismic effectiveness of friction type support for a piping system subjected to two horizontal components of earthquake motion is investigated. The interaction between the mobilized restoring forces of the friction support is duly considered. The non-linear behavior of the restoring forces of the support is modeled as an elastic-perfectly plastic system with a very high value of initial stiffness. Such an idealization avoids keeping track of transitional rules (as required in conventional modeling of friction systems) under arbitrary dynamic loading. The frictional forces mobilized at the friction support are assumed to be dependent on the sliding velocity and instantaneous normal force acting on the support. A detailed systematic procedure for analysis of piping systems supported on friction support considering the effects of bi-directional interaction of the frictional forces is presented. The proposed procedure is validated by comparing the analytical seismic responses of a spatial piping system supported on a friction support with the corresponding experimental results. The responses of the piping system and the frictional forces of the support are observed to be in close agreement with the experimental results validating the proposed analysis procedure. It was also observed that the friction supports are very effective in reducing the seismic response of piping systems. In order to investigate the effects of bi-directional interaction of the frictional forces, the seismic responses of the piping system are compared by considering and ignoring the interaction under few narrow-band and broad-band (real earthquake) ground motions. The bi-directional interaction of the frictional forces has significant effects on the response of piping system and should be included in the analysis of piping systems

  12. A distributed optical fiber bi-directional strain-displacement sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A distributed optical fiber strain-displacement sensor is developed, which consists of an optical fiber gauge of strain-displacement and an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). The operational principle is the modulation of fiber loss in OTDR, i.e. the strain and displacement in monitoring position are obtained from the bending loss of optical fiber bonded on the optical fiber gauge of strain-displacement. After examining the strain and displacement in the cantilever and the micro displacement rack respectively, the result indicates that the distributed optical fiber gauge of strain-displacement can monitor strains or displacements in different sensitive lengths. The key technique for measuring bi-directional strain-displacement is the pretreatment of bending of the freely suspended optical fibers, which can be identified with OTDR by inserting time delay optical fiber.

  13. Bi-directional causality in California's electricity and natural-gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Granger instantaneous-causality test is applied to explore the potential causal relationships between wholesale electricity and natural-gas prices in California. The test shows these relationships to be bi-directional, and reveals California's electricity and natural-gas markets to be as inextricably intertwined as casual observation and theoretical considerations would suggest they ought to be. This meshing of markets exacerbated the effects of California's natural-gas crisis on the contemporaneous electricity crisis, while concurrently the electricity crisis may have contributed to the dysfunction in the national-gas market and helped to precipitate the natural-gas crisis. The finding supports an integrated approach, as opposed to a piecemeal approach, for formulating energy policy recommendations, not just in California but in the world at large. (author)

  14. A multi-layered vascular scaffold with symmetrical structure by bi-directional gradient electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Huang, Chen; Li, Dawei; Yin, Anlin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jianfeng; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-09-01

    Multi-layered scaffolds are advantageous in vascular tissue engineering, in consideration of better combination of biomechanics, biocompatibility and biodegradability than the scaffolds with single structure. In this study, a bi-directional gradient electrospinning method was developed to fabricate poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)), collagen and chitosan based tubular scaffold with multi-layered symmetrical structure. The multi-layered composite scaffold showed improved mechanical property and biocompatibility, in comparison to the blended scaffold using the same proportion of raw materials. Endothelialization on the multi-layered scaffold was accelerated owing to the bioactive surface made of pure natural materials. hSMCs growth showed the similar results because of its better biocompatibility. Additionally, fibers morphology change, pH value balance and long term mechanical support results showed that the gradient structure effectively improved biodegradability. PMID:26101818

  15. High efficiency interleaved bi-directional ZVS DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Akbar Hussain, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    A high efficiency interleaved bi-directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the CoolMOS drain-to-source voltage always falls to zero before it turns on and ZVS is achieved. Multiphase interleaved inductors are used to achieve high power and low ripple currents. Converter is operated at 50kHz and MATLAB Simulink simulation is performed. 6kW prototype converter is implemented in buck mode and simulation results are verified.

  16. Inference of biological networks using Bi-directional Random Forest Granger causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Mohammad Shaheryar; Siyal, Mohammad Yakoob

    2016-01-01

    The standard ordinary least squares based Granger causality is one of the widely used methods for detecting causal interactions between time series data. However, recent developments in technology limit the utilization of some existing implementations due to the availability of high dimensional data. In this paper, we are proposing a technique called Bi-directional Random Forest Granger causality. This technique uses the random forest regularization together with the idea of reusing the time series data by reversing the time stamp to extract more causal information. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method by applying it to simulated data and then applied it to two real biological datasets, i.e., fMRI and HeLa cell. fMRI data was used to map brain network involved in deductive reasoning while HeLa cell dataset was used to map gene network involved in cancer. PMID:27186478

  17. Regenerative Strategy for Sum-rate Enhancement in Bi-directional Three-node Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ning; Zhong Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    In bi-directional three-node cooperation, one regenerative strategy with network coding and power optimization is proposed for system sum-rate under a total energy constraint. In this paper, the network coding and power optimization are applied to improve system sum-rate. But max-min optimization problem in power allocation is a NP-hard problem. In high Signal-to-Noise Ratio regime, this NP-hard problem is transformed into constrained polynomial optimization problem, which can be computed in polynomial time. Although it is a suboptimal solution, numerical simulations show that this strategy enhances the system sum-rate up to 45% as compared to a traditional four-phase strategy, and up to 13% as compared to the three-phase strategy without power optimization.

  18. A possible mechanism for self coordination of bi-directional traffic across nuclear pores

    CERN Document Server

    Kapon, Ruti; Mukamel, David; Reich, and Ziv

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes are constantly confronted by large fluxes of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes that need to get into and out of the nucleus. Such bi-directional traffic occurring in a narrow channel can easily lead to jamming. How then is passage between the nucleus and cytoplasm maintained under the varying conditions that arise during the lifetime of the cell? Here, we address this question using computer simulations in which the behaviour of the ensemble of transporting cargoes is analyzed under different conditions. We suggest that traffic can exist in two distinct modes, depending on concentration of cargoes and dissociation rates of the transport receptor-cargo complexes from the pores. In one mode, which prevails when dissociation is quick and cargo concentration is low, transport in either direction proceeds uninterrupted by the other direction. The result is that overall-traffic-direction fluctuates rapidly and unsystematically between import and export. Remarkably, when cargo concen...

  19. A bi-directional gap model for simulating the directional thermal radiance of row crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Liangfu; (陈良富); LIU; Qinhuo; (柳钦火); FAN; Wenjie; (范闻捷); LI; Xiaowen; (李小文); XIAO; Qing; (肖青); YAN; Guangjian; (闫广建); TIAN; Guoliang; (田国良)

    2002-01-01

    Row crops are a kind of typical vegetation canopy between discrete canopy and continuous canopy. Kimes et al. studied the directional thermal radiation of row crops using the geometrical optical model, which simplified row structure as "box" and neglected the gap among foliage and did not consider the emissivity effects. In this work we take account of the gaps along illumination and viewing directions and propose a bi-direction gap model on the basis of the idea of gap probability of discrete vegetation canopy introduced by "Li-Strahler" and inter-correlation of continuous vegetation developed by Kuusk. It can be used to explain "hot spot" effects in thermal infrared region. The gap model has been validated by field experiment on winter wheat planted in shape of rows and results show that the gap model is better than Kimes' model in describing the directionality of thermal infrared emission for row crops.

  20. Demonstration and experimental evaluation of a bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; Correa-Mena, A. G.; Hernández-Nava, P.; García-Juárez, A.; Rodríguez-Asomoza, J.; Lee, Min Won

    2016-09-01

    A bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter is proposed and experimentally evaluated. Its frequency response consists of a series of microwave band-pass windows obtained by the interaction of externally modulated multimode laser diodes emitting around of 1550 nm associated to the chromatic dispersion parameter of an optical fiber, as well as the length of the optical link. Microwave band-pass windows exhibit on average a-3 dB bandwidth of 378 MHz. This electro-optical system shows an efficient configuration and good performance. Potentially, filtered microwave signals can be used as electrical carriers in optical communication systems to transmit and distribute services such as video, voice and data.

  1. UWB Bi-directional Bow-tie antenna loaded by rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Sun, Kai; Xie, Ji-yang; Qiu, Yu-jie; Jiang, Xing

    2016-07-01

    Performances of bow-tie antennae can be improved by loading a ring. Specially, the distorted radiation patterns of the reference bow-tie antenna (RBA) at high frequencies become less distorted when a ring is added. That is due to the disciplined current flows trained by the ring. Furthermore, when more rings are loaded, which act as reflectors, higher directivities are obtained and, patterns become bi-directional. Antennae with no ring (RBA), one ring, two rings (three cases), three rings, and four rings are investigated. Research find that loading more rings means better directivity. The directivity of the RBA varies from 2.29 dB to 3.66 dB for the frequency band from 2.5 to 7.5 GHz while the directivity for the four-ring-loaded case varies from 4.27 dB to 7.61 dB in that frequency band.

  2. Power system transient stability simulation based on module bi-directional iteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Dazhong; YANG; Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    A new simultaneous solution method using module bi-directional iteration is proposed for power system transient stability simulation. In this method, power network is partitioned into a tree hierarchy; computation modules are established for decomposed power networks and various power system components respectively. Through representing every computation module by a computation node, a computation tree is constructed by connecting the nodes together according to their electrical relations in power systems. A tree-traversing procedure called forward reduction and backward evaluation is performed to calculate correction factors of the variables in Newton iterations. This high-efficiency simulation method is feasible to be applied in parallel computation for large interconnected systems. Simulation tests are conducted on the New England 10-generator test power system and the North China-Northeast interconnected system, and the results are compared with those of the commercial software BPA to validate the effectiveness and correctness of this method.

  3. Identifying missing and spurious connections via the bi-directional diffusion on bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Link prediction and spurious link detection in complex networks have attracted increasing attention from both physical and computer science communities, due to their wide applications in many real systems. Related previous works mainly focus on monopartite networks while these problems in bipartite networks are not yet systematically addressed. Containing two different kinds of nodes, bipartite networks are essentially different from monopartite networks, especially in node similarity calculation: the similarity between nodes of different kinds (called inter-similarity) is not well defined. In this letter, we employ the local diffusion processes to measure the inter-similarity in bipartite networks. We find that the inter-similarity is asymmetric if the diffusion is applied in different directions. Accordingly, we propose a bi-directional hybrid diffusion method which is shown to achieve higher accuracy than the existing diffusion methods in identifying missing and spurious links in bipartite networks.

  4. Bi-directional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies in a piezoelectric optomechanical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainsencher, Amit; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the principles of design, fabrication, and operation of a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal with which we demonstrate bi-directional conversion of energy between microwave and optical frequencies. The optomechanical crystal has an optical mode at 1523 nm co-located with a mechanical breathing mode at 3.8 GHz, with a measured optomechanical coupling strength gom/2π of 115 kHz. The breathing mode is driven and detected by curved interdigitated transducers that couple to a Lamb mode in suspended membranes on either end of the optomechanical crystal, allowing the external piezoelectric modulation of the optical signal as well as the converse, the detection of microwave electrical signals generated by a modulated optical signal. We compare measurements to theory where appropriate.

  5. Clinico-serologic co-relation in bi-directional ABO incompatible hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. Aims: The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. Materials and Methods: In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells. Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. Results: The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Conclusion: Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of the Responses of Classic Spar Platform Subjected to Bi-directional Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kurian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bi-directional short-crested waves on the dynamic motion responses of the moored classic spar is demonstrated from the results of the models test in this study. Practically in the design of offshore structures, long-crested or 2-dimensional wave properties that propagated to one direction are considered. Even though such long-crested wave is widely used for the design purposes, it is hardly determined in the real sea. The wind generated sea state in the real sea conditions are indeed well represented by the short-crested waves. Short-crested waves are defined as linear summation of long-crested wave series that propagated to different directions. Hence, the motions of the model were investigated experimentally by conducting the wave tank tests in the wave tank of Offshore Laboratory of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. Five groups of bi-directional wave series were defined and exerted on the classic spar model, which fabricated by using steel with scaling factor of 1:100. From the results measured, it was found that similar trends of the responses in term of Response Amplitude Operator (RAO for surge, heave and pitch motions were obtained. Maximum responses of surge, heave and pitch were found due to wave crossing angle 90°, while minimum response was found due to wave crossing angle 135°, respectively. It could be concluded that the wave crossing angle 90° (BD3 gives the widest spreading for short crested waves, while the wave crossing angle 135° (BD4 gives the narrowest spreading for short crested waves.

  7. Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Nancy; du Jardin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Multiple variants of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) are used to drive the expression of transgenes in genetically modified plants, for both research purposes and commercial applications. The genetic organization of the densely packed genome of this virus results in sequence overlap between P35S and viral gene VI, encoding the multifunctional P6 protein. The present paper investigates whether introduction of P35S variants by genetic transformation is likely to result in the expression of functional domains of the P6 protein and in potential impacts in transgenic plants. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to assess the safety for human and animal health of putative translation products of gene VI overlapping P35S. No relevant similarity was identified between the putative peptides and known allergens and toxins, using different databases. From a literature study it became clear that long variants of the P35S do contain an open reading frame, when expressed, might result in unintended phenotypic changes. A flowchart is proposed to evaluate possible unintended effects in plant transformants, based on the DNA sequence actually introduced and on the plant phenotype, taking into account the known effects of ectopically expressed P6 domains in model plants.

  8. Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Nancy; du Jardin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Multiple variants of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) are used to drive the expression of transgenes in genetically modified plants, for both research purposes and commercial applications. The genetic organization of the densely packed genome of this virus results in sequence overlap between P35S and viral gene VI, encoding the multifunctional P6 protein. The present paper investigates whether introduction of P35S variants by genetic transformation is likely to result in the expression of functional domains of the P6 protein and in potential impacts in transgenic plants. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to assess the safety for human and animal health of putative translation products of gene VI overlapping P35S. No relevant similarity was identified between the putative peptides and known allergens and toxins, using different databases. From a literature study it became clear that long variants of the P35S do contain an open reading frame, when expressed, might result in unintended phenotypic changes. A flowchart is proposed to evaluate possible unintended effects in plant transformants, based on the DNA sequence actually introduced and on the plant phenotype, taking into account the known effects of ectopically expressed P6 domains in model plants. PMID:22892689

  9. ROLE OF LEAF SURFACE WATER IN THE BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to study the ammonia exchange between plants and the atmosphere in a soybean field in Duplin County, North Carolina during the summer of 2002. Measurements indicate that the net canopy-scale ammonia exchange is bi-directional and has a significant...

  10. Dielectric Electro Active Polymer Incremental Actuator Driven by Multiple High-Voltage Bi-directional DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2013-01-01

    capacitive sub-actuators. It needs to be driven by three high voltage (~2.5 kV) DC-DC converters, to achieve the linear incremental motion. The topology used for this application is a bi-directional flyback DC-DC converter. The control of the incremental actuator involves, implementation of digital...

  11. Performance Impairments due to Gain Transients in a Raman-based Bi-directional Long-reach PON Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2007-01-01

    A Raman-based bi-directional long-reach passive optical network (PON) link was proposed and had shown to be very robust toward WDM channel add/drops and therefore look promising for future high-capacity fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) systems with bursty traffic. Penalty measurements on a weak data...

  12. Arginine bi-directional translocation and breakdown into ornithine along the arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN HaiRu

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional translocatlon and degradation of Arginine (Arg) along the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycellum were testified through 15N and/or 13C isotopic labeling. In vitro mycorrhizas of Glomus intraradices and Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were grown in dual compartment Petri dishes. [15N-and/or13C]Arg was supplied to either the fungal compartment or the mycorrhizal compartment or separate dishes containing the uncolonized roots. The levels and labeling of free amino acids (AAs) in the mycorrhizal roots and in the extraradical mycelia(ERM) were measured by gas chromatogra-phy/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ERM of AM fungi exposed in either NH4+ or urea as sole external nitrogen source had much higher 15N enrichment of Arg, compared with those In nitrate or exogenous Arg; however, glycerol supplied as an external car-bon source to the ERM had no significant effect on the level of Arg in the ERM. Meanwhile, Arg bio-synthesized In the ERM could be translocated intact to the mycorrhizal roots and thereby the level of Arg in the mycorrhizal roots increased to about 20% after culture of ERM in 4 mmol/L NH4+ for 6 weeks.Also Arg was found to be bi-directionally transported along the AM fungal mycelium through [U-13C]Arg labeling either In the mycorrhizal compartment or in the fungal compartment. Once Arg was translo-cated to the potential N-limited sites, it would be further degraded into ornithine (Orn) and urea since either [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Orn was apparently shown up in the mycorrhizal root tissues when [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Arg was labeled In the fungal compartment, respectively. Evidently Orn formation indi-cated the ongoing activities of Arg translocation and degradation through the urea cycle in AM fungal mycelium.

  13. Arginine bi-directional translocation and breakdown into ornithine along the arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional translocation and degradation of Arginine (Arg) along the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelium were testified through 15N and/or 13C isotopic labeling. In vitro mycorrhizas of Glomus intraradices and Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were grown in dual compartment Petri dishes. [15N- and/or13C]Arg was supplied to either the fungal compartment or the mycorrhizal compartment or separate dishes containing the uncolonized roots. The levels and labeling of free amino acids (AAs) in the mycorrhizal roots and in the extraradical mycelia(ERM) were measured by gas chromatogra- phy/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ERM of AM fungi exposed in either NH4+ or urea as sole external nitrogen source had much higher 15N enrichment of Arg, compared with those in nitrate or exogenous Arg; however, glycerol supplied as an external car- bon source to the ERM had no significant effect on the level of Arg in the ERM. Meanwhile, Arg bio- synthesized in the ERM could be translocated intact to the mycorrhizal roots and thereby the level of Arg in the mycorrhizal roots increased to about 20% after culture of ERM in 4 mmol/L NH4+ for 6 weeks. Also Arg was found to be bi-directionally transported along the AM fungal mycelium through [U-13C]Arg labeling either in the mycorrhizal compartment or in the fungal compartment. Once Arg was translo- cated to the potential N-limited sites, it would be further degraded into ornithine (Orn) and urea since either [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Orn was apparently shown up in the mycorrhizal root tissues when [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Arg was labeled in the fungal compartment, respectively. Evidently Orn formation indi- cated the ongoing activities of Arg translocation and degradation through the urea cycle in AM fungal mycelium.

  14. A Bi-Directional Refinement Algorithm for the Calculus of (Co)Inductive Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Asperti, Andrea; Coen, Claudio Sacerdoti; Tassi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the refinement algorithm for the Calculus of (Co)Inductive Constructions (CIC) implemented in the interactive theorem prover Matita. The refinement algorithm is in charge of giving a meaning to the terms, types and proof terms directly written by the user or generated by using tactics, decision procedures or general automation. The terms are written in an "external syntax" meant to be user friendly that allows omission of information, untyped binders and a certain liberal use of user defined sub-typing. The refiner modifies the terms to obtain related well typed terms in the internal syntax understood by the kernel of the ITP. In particular, it acts as a type inference algorithm when all the binders are untyped. The proposed algorithm is bi-directional: given a term in external syntax and a type expected for the term, it propagates as much typing information as possible towards the leaves of the term. Traditional mono-directional algorithms, instead, proceed in a bottom-up way by inferring...

  15. Inferring bi-directional interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolism with model ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    There has been much interest in reconstructing bi-directional regulatory networks linking the circadian clock to metabolism in plants. A variety of reverse engineering methods from machine learning and computational statistics have been proposed and evaluated. The emphasis of the present paper is on combining models in a model ensemble to boost the network reconstruction accuracy, and to explore various model combination strategies to maximize the improvement. Our results demonstrate that a rich ensemble of predictors outperforms the best individual model, even if the ensemble includes poor predictors with inferior individual reconstruction accuracy. For our application to metabolomic and transcriptomic time series from various mutagenesis plants grown in different light-dark cycles we also show how to determine the optimal time lag between interactions, and we identify significant interactions with a randomization test. Our study predicts new statistically significant interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana, and thus provides independent statistical evidence that the regulation of metabolism by the circadian clock is not uni-directional, but that there is a statistically significant feedback mechanism aiming from metabolism back to the circadian clock. PMID:25719342

  16. Longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail with bi-directional FBG strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Xie, Kaize; Shao, Liyang; Yan, Lianshan; Xu, Jingmang; Chen, Rong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new method has been proposed to accurately determine longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail (CWR) with bi-directional fiber Bragg grating (B-FBGs) strain sensors (vertically and longitudinally installed according to the axis of rail). The response of B-FBGs has been theoretically analyzed by binding on CWR under different restrained conditions, where the coefficient of strain sensitivity of FBG is calibrated by its temperature sensitivity. Then the proposed sensor structure has been installed at two elaborately selected points on the subgrade on a Chinese high-speed railway in field. The experiment lasts for about 23 h. During the experiment, the rail temperature varied by about 7.8 °C and the differentials of relative value of wavelength change of B-FBGs of two points were 1.7850 × 10-5 and 1.4969 × 10-5. The maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical results is 13.8 kN. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis very well. To guarantee the measurement accuracy of over 95%, the ratio of strain sensitivity coefficients of two FBG sensors of B-FBGs structure at one test point shall be within 0.78 ˜ 1.22.

  17. Bi-directional modulation of AMPA receptor unitary conductance by synaptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Paul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of how synapses alter their efficiency of communication is central to the understanding of learning and memory. The most extensively studied forms of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation (LTP and its counterpart long-term depression (LTD of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, it has been shown that LTP often involves a rapid increase in the unitary conductance of AMPA receptor channels. However, LTP can also occur in the absence of any alteration in AMPA receptor unitary conductance. In the present study we have used whole-cell dendritic recording, failures analysis and non-stationary fluctuation analysis to investigate the mechanism of depotentiation of LTP. Results We find that when LTP involves an increase in unitary conductance, subsequent depotentiation invariably involves the return of unitary conductance to pre-LTP values. In contrast, when LTP does not involve a change in unitary conductance then depotentiation also occurs in the absence of any change in unitary conductance, indicating a reduction in the number of activated receptors as the most likely mechanism. Conclusions These data show that unitary conductance can be bi-directionally modified by synaptic activity. Furthermore, there are at least two distinct mechanisms to restore synaptic strength from a potentiated state, which depend upon the mechanism of the previous potentiation.

  18. Bi-directional Effects of Peer Relationships and Adolescent Substance Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Jose, Paul E; Stuart, Jaimee

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the predictors of the onset and maintenance of substance use in adolescence is important because it is a recognized health risk. The present longitudinal study examined whether negative peer influence and peer connectedness predicted changes in adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and other illegal drug use, and reciprocally whether substance use predicted changes in peer relationships. Adolescents (N = 1940; 52 % female; 52 % European New Zealanders, 30 % Maori, 12 % Pacific Islander) aged 10-15 years completed measures annually for 3 years. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine bi-directional effects. Negative peer influence predicted increased use of all substances. In turn, alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use predicted increased negative peer influence, but this effect was inconsistent over time. Peer connectedness, predicted to diminish the frequency of substance use, was found to be unrelated to it. Breaking the reciprocal cycle between peer coercion and substance use would seem to be useful for reducing substance use. PMID:26391360

  19. Development of an Advanced Flow Meter using the Averaging Bi-directional Flow Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced flow meter using the concept of averaging bi-directional flow tube was developed. To find characteristics of flow meter and derive theory of measurement in the single and two phase flow condition, some basic tests were attempted using flow meters with diameters of 27, 80 and 200 mm. The CFD(computational fluid dynamics) calculation was also performed to find the effects of temperature and pressure, and to optimize design of a prototypic flow meter. Following this procedure, prototypical flow meters with diameters of 200 and 500 mm were designed and manufactured. It is aimed to use in the region in which calibration constant was unchanged. The stress analysis showed that the proposed flow meter of H-beam shape is inherently strong against the bending force induced by flow. The flow computer was developed for the flow rate calculation from the measured pressure difference. In this study, the performance test using this prototype flow meter was carried out. The developed flow meter can be applied in the wide range of pressure and temperature. The basic tests showed that the lineality of the proposed flow meter is ± 0.5 % of full scale and flow turn down ratio is 1:20 where the Reynolds number is larger than 10,000

  20. Current understanding of the bi-directional relationship of major depression with inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messay Berhane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consistent evidence links major depression and its affective components to negative health outcomes. Although the pathways of these effects are likely complex and multifactorial, recent evidence suggests that innate inflammatory processes may play a role. An overview of current literature suggests that pathways between negative moods and inflammation are bi-directional. Indeed, negative moods activate peripheral physiologic mechanisms that result in an up regulation of systemic levels of inflammation. Conversely, peripheral inflammatory mediators signal the brain to affect behavioral, affective and cognitive changes that are consistent with symptoms of major depressive disorder. It is likely that these pathways are part of a complex feedback loop that involves the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and plays a role in the modulation of peripheral inflammatory responses to central and peripheral stimuli, in central responses to peripheral immune activation and in the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Further research is warranted to fully understand the role of central processes in this feedback loop, which likely contributes to the pathophysiology of mental and physical health.

  1. Possible bi-directional link between ETA receptors and protein kinase C in rat blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Northover

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible links have been investigated between activation of protein kinase C (PKC and endothelin (ET production by small blood vessels. Perfusion pressures were recorded from rat isolated mesenteric artery, with or without the small intestine attached, before and after addition to the perfusate of either ET-1, ET-3 or the PKC activator 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (DOPPA. Rises in perfusion pressure in response to ET-1 (10−8 Mor DOPPA (10−6 M were reduced significantly by pre-treatment with either the ETA receptor antagonist PD151242 (10−6 M or the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (10−6 M. ET-3 (10−8 M had a significant, albeit small, effect only when the gut was still attached to the mesentery. Inthis latter preparation ET-1 and DOPPA increased the permeability of villi microvessels to colloidal carbon in the perfusate. This effect of DOPPA was reduced by pre-treatment with either PD151242 or Ro 31-8220, but the effects of ET-1 were reduced significantly only by Ro 31-8220. ET-3 (10−8 M was without effect. The results suggest a possible bi-directional link between ETA receptors and PKC in the intestinal vasculature.

  2. Upgrade of a transverse ventilation system in a bi-directional tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmar Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karavanke tunnel forms an important link between Slovenia and Austria. The almost 8 km long tunnel is operated with bi-directional traffic and does not have dedicated escape routes. Moreover, the ventilation in case of fire does not satisfy requirements of the EU Directive 2004/54/EC that specifies the minimum requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network. The paper present results of the research conducted regarding the possibility of upgrade the existing system in order to reach the required level of safety at lower costs possible. It is shown that with simple but novel adaptations of the ventilation system, a sizeable increase in the overall level of safety can be achieved. The methodology applied is a combination of a simple pipe model for tunnel ventilation and for detailed fluid dynamics analysis the CFD model is used. The existing ventilation system that in fire ventilation extracts smoke from a single duct is replaced with the smoke extraction from both ducts applying four axial fans. The analysis is focused on air/smoke flow through the vents and ducts and on pressure drops calculated over the length of the ventilation duct and its influence on the total flow. The change of the flow condition also has influence on ventilation fan operation point that is investigated in the paper as well.

  3. Low frequency radio observations of bi-directional electron beams in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Carley, Eoin P; Vilmer, Nicole; Gallagher, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    The radio signature of a shock travelling through the solar corona is known as a type II solar radio burst. In rare cases these bursts can exhibit a fine structure known as `herringbones', which are a direct indicator of particle acceleration occurring at the shock front. However, few studies have been performed on herringbones and the details of the underlying particle acceleration processes are unknown. Here, we use an image processing technique known as the Hough transform to statistically analyse the herringbone fine structure in a radio burst at $\\sim$20-90 MHz observed from the Rosse Solar-Terrestrial Observatory on 2011 September 22. We identify 188 individual bursts which are signatures of bi-directional electron beams continuously accelerated to speeds of 0.16$_{-0.10}^{+0.11} c$. This occurs at a shock acceleration site initially at a constant altitude of $\\sim$0.6 R$_{\\odot}$ in the corona, followed by a shift to $\\sim$0.5 R$_{\\odot}$. The anti-sunward beams travel a distance of 170$_{-97}^{+174}$ ...

  4. Low Frequency Radio Observations of Bi-directional Electron Beams in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, E.; Reid, H.; Vilmer, N.; Gallagher, P.

    2015-12-01

    The radio signature of a shock travelling through the solar corona is known as a type II solar radio burst. In rare cases, these bursts can exhibit a fine structure known as 'herringbones' which are a direct indicator of particle acceleration occurring at the shock front. However, few studies have been performed on herringbones and the details of the underlying particle acceleration processes are unknown. Here, we use an image processing technique known as the Hough transform to statistically analyse the herringbone fine structure in a radio burst at 20-90MHz observed from the Rosse Solar-Terrestrial Observatory on 2011 September 22. We identify 188 individual bursts which are signatures of bi-directional electron beams continuously accelerated to speeds of 0.16 c. This occurs at a shock acceleration site initially at a constant altitude of 0.6 Rsun in the corona, followed by a shift to 0.5 Rsun. The anti-sunward beams travel a distance of 170 Mm (and possibly further) away from the acceleration site, while those travelling toward the sun come to a stop sooner, reaching a smaller distance of 112 Mm. We show that the stopping distance for the sunward beams may depend on the total number density and the velocity of the beam. Our study concludes that a detailed statistical analysis of herringbone fine structure can provide information on the physical properties of the corona which lead to these relatively rare radio bursts.

  5. 4x10Gb/s WDM Bi-directional Gating in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by Using Polarization Multiplexing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s....

  6. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-S. Massad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3. Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the ground layer compensation point (χg, stomatal compensation point (χs and cuticular resistance (Rw. We review existing measurements of χg, χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and dissociation equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH4 apo, NH4 bulk. For managed ecosystems, the main source of N is fertilisation which is reflected in a peak value of χs a few days following application, but also alters seasonal values of NH4 apo and NH4 bulk. We propose a parameterisation for χs which includes peak values as a function of amount and type of fertiliser application which gradually decreases to a background value. The background χs is based on total N input to the ecosystem as a yearly fertiliser application and N deposition (Ndep. For non-managed ecosystems, χs is parameterised based solely on the link with Ndep.

    For Rw we propose a general parameterisation as a function of atmospheric relative humidity (RH, incorporating a minimum value (

  7. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-S. Massad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3. Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the stomatal compensation point (χs and cuticular resistance (Rw. We here review existing measurements of χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and solubility equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH+4 apo, NH+4 bulk. For managed ecosystems, the main source of N is fertilisation which is reflected in a peak value of χs a few days following application, but also alters seasonal values of NH+4 apo and NH+4 bulk. We propose a parameterisation for χs which includes peak values as a function of amount and type of fertiliser application which gradually decreases to a background value. The background χs is set based on total N input to the ecosystem as a yearly fertiliser application and N deposition (Ndep. For non-managed ecosystems, χs is parameterised based solely on the link with Ndep.

    For Rw we propose a general parameterisation as a function of atmospheric Relative Humidity (RH, incorporating a minimum value (R w(min, which depends on the ratio of atmospheric acid

  8. Bi-Directional Tuning of Amygdala Sensitivity in Combat Veterans Investigated with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brashers-Krug

    Full Text Available Combat stress can be followed by persistent emotional consequences. It is thought that these emotional consequences are caused in part by increased amygdala reactivity. It is also thought that amygdala hyper-reactivity results from decreased inhibition from portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in which activity is negatively correlated with activity in the amygdala. However, experimental support for these proposals has been inconsistent.We showed movies of combat and civilian scenes during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session to 50 veterans of recent combat. We collected skin conductance responses (SCRs as measures of emotional arousal. We examined the relation of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal in the amygdala and ACC to symptom measures and to SCRs.Emotional arousal, as measured with SCR, was greater during the combat movie than during the civilian movie and did not depend on symptom severity. As expected, amygdala signal during the less-arousing movie increased with increasing symptom severity. Surprisingly, during the more-arousing movie amygdala signal decreased with increasing symptom severity. These differences led to the unexpected result that amygdala signal in highly symptomatic subjects was lower during the more-arousing movie than during the less-arousing movie. Also unexpectedly, we found no significant inverse correlation between any portions of the amygdala and ACC. Rather, signal throughout more than 80% of the ACC showed a strong positive correlation with signal throughout more than 90% of the amygdala.Amygdala reactivity can be tuned bi-directionally, either up or down, in the same person depending on the stimulus and the degree of post-traumatic symptoms. The exclusively positive correlations in BOLD activity between the amygdala and ACC contrast with findings that have been cited as evidence for inhibitory control of the amygdala by the ACC. The conceptualization of post

  9. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Liu, Jinghua;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton...... series of wind power and power load are used to investigate the mitigation effect of the integrated energy system. At last, the effect of wind power and power demand on the output of Power to Gas (P2G) and gas-fired power generation (GPG) has also been investigated....

  10. A bi-directional DC/DC converter for hybrid wind generator/battery system with state machine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.C.; Liao, Y.C. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A bi-directional DC to DC converter used in a hybrid wind generator/lead-acid battery power system was presented. A state machine control strategy was used to control both the system power flow and load distribution. It was also used to increase the power capacity of the system. The battery was also charged or discharged through the bi-directional DC to DC converter. Multi-stage current charging control of the batteries was accomplished by adjusting the duty cycle of the power converter. This also improved the charging efficiency by the maximum power point tracking algorithm. It was concluded that the proposed control method can be readily extended to other renewable energy conversion systems. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Performance assessment of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices in juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-07-02

    Acoustic transmitters used in survival and telemetry studies are often surgically implanted in fish. While this is a well-established method, it has the potential to affect health, behavior, and survival, thus affecting study results. Much research has been done to try to minimize the harmful effects caused by the transmitter and tagging process. In 2009, we first investigated the use of a bi-directional knotless (barbed) suture material in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that it resulted in higher tag retention than the simple interrupted suture pattern; however, the occurrence of ulceration and redness increased. The objective of this study was to refine the suturing patterns of the bi-directional knotless suture and retest suture performance in juvenile Chinook salmon. We tested the bi-directional suture using 3 different suture patterns and two needle types: 6-Point (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” Knot 12 (12-mm needle circumference), and Wide “N” Knot 18 (18-mm needle circumference).

  12. Interactive Furniture: Bi-directional Interaction with a Vibrotactile Wearable Sensate Vest in an Urban Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Manresa, Cristina;

    2016-01-01

    with a vibrotactile wearable vest. The heart beats and breath rates of the vest wearers are vibroacoustically displayed at The Humming Wall. In addition, participants can swipe and knock on The Hum-ming Wall and the vest wearer is effectively swiped and knocked upon. We work with overlapping vibrotactile outputs...

  13. Projecting Ammonia Dry Deposition Using Passive Samplers and a Bi-Directional Exchange Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.; Austin, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Animal agriculture within the United States is known to be a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Dry deposition of NH3 to terrestrial ecosystems immediately surrounding large local sources of NH3 emissions (e.g. animal feeding operations) is difficult to measure, and is best estimated via models. Presented here are results for a semi-empirical modeling approach for estimating air-surface exchange fluxes of NH3 downwind of a large poultry facility (~ 3.5 million layers) using a bi-directional air-surface exchange model. The modeling domain is the western section of the Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge in Tyrrell, Washington, and Hyde Counties of eastern North Carolina in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic region. Vegetation within the modeling domain is primarily pocosin wetlands, characterized by acid (pH 3.6) peat soils and a thick canopy of shrub vegetation (leatherwood (Cyrilla racemiflora), inkberry (Ilex glabra), wax myrtle (Morella cerifera)). Land surrounding the refuge is primarily used for crop production: ~ 28%, 24%, and 45% agricultural in Tyrell, Hyde, and Washington counties, respectively. Ammonia air-surface exchange (flux) was calculated using a two-layer canopy compensation point model developed by Nemitz et al. (2001. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 127, 815 - 833.) as implemented by Walker et al. (2008. Atmos. Environ., 42, 3407 - 3418.), in which the competing processes of emission and deposition within the foliage-soil system were taken into account by relating the net canopy-scale NH3 flux to the net emission potential of the canopy (i.e., foliage and soil). Ammonia air concentrations were measured using ALPHA passive samplers (Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh) along transects to the north and northeast of the poultry facility at distances of 800, 2000 and 3200 m, respectively. Samplers were deployed in duplicate at each location at a height of 5.8 m from July 2008 to July 2010 weekly during warm months and bi-weekly curing

  14. Laboratory characterization of a CCD camera system for retrieval of bi-directional reflectance distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Prabal; Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    1999-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group of the Optical Science Center at the University of Arizona has developed a four-band, multi- spectral, wide-angle, imaging radiometer for the retrieval of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for vicarious calibration applications. The system consists of a fisheye lens with four interference filters centered at 470 nm, 575 nm, 660 nm, and 835 nm for spectral selection and an astronomical grade 1024 X 1024-pixel, silicon CCD array. Data taken by the system fit in the array as a nominally 0.2 degree per pixel image. This imaging radiometer system has been used in support of the calibration of Landsat-5 and SPOT- satellite sensors. This paper presents the results of laboratory characterization of the system to determine linearity of the detector, point spread function (PSF) and polarization effects. The linearity study was done on detector array without the lens, using a spherical-integrating source with a 1.5-mm aperture. This aperture simulates a point source for distances larger than 60 cm. Data were collected as both a function of exposure time and distance from the source. The results of these measurements indicate that each detector of the array is linear to better than 0.5%. Assuming a quadratic response improves this fit to better than 0.1% over 88% of the upper end of the detector's dynamic range. The point spread function (PSF) of the lens system was measured using the sphere source and aperture with the full camera system operated at a distance of 700 mm from the source, thus the aperture subtends less than the field of view of one pixel. The PSF was measured for several field angles and the signal level was found to fall to less than 1% of the peak signal within 1.5-degrees (10 pixels) for the on-axis case. The effect of this PSF on the retrieval of modeled BRDFs is shown to be less than 0.2% out to view angles of 70 degrees. The final test presented is one to assess the polarization effects of the lens

  15. Ultra-High Voltage 4H-SiC Bi-Directional Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sauvik

    4H- Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) is an attractive material for power semiconductor devices due to its large bandgap, high critical electric field and high thermal conductivity compared to Silicon (Si). For ultra-high voltage applications (BV > 10 kV), 4H-SiC Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are favored over unipolar transistors due to lower conduction losses. With improvements in SiC materials and processing technology, promising results have been demonstrated in the area of conventional unidirectional 4H-SiC IGBTs, with breakdown voltage ratings up to 27 kV. This research presents the experimental demonstration of the world's first high voltage bi-directional power transistors in 4H-SiC. Traditionally, four (two IGBTs and two diodes) or two (two reverse blocking IGBTs) semiconductor devices are necessary to yield a bidirectional switch. With a monolithically integrated bidirectional switch as presented here, the number of semiconductor devices is reduced to only one, which results in increased reliability and reduced cost of the overall system. Additionally, by using the unique dual gate operation of BD-IGBTs, switching losses can be reduced to a small fraction of that in conventional IGBTs, resulting in increased efficiency. First, the performance limits of SiC IGBTs are calculated by using analytical methods. The performance benefits of SiC IGBTs over SiC unipolar devices and Si IGBTs are quantified. Numerical simulations are used to optimize the unit cell and edge termination structures for a 15 kV SiC BD-IGBT. The effect of different device parameters on BD-IGBT static and switching performance are quantified. Second, the process technology necessary for the fabrication of high voltage SiC BD-IGBTs is optimized. The effect of different process steps on parameters such as breakdown voltage, carrier lifetime, gate oxide reliability, SiO2-SiC interface charge density is quantified. A carrier lifetime enhancement process has been optimized for lightly doped

  16. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bi-directional NH3 exchange coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Pleim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurements indicate that the air-surface exchange of NH3 is bi-directional. However, the effects of bi-directional exchange, soil biogeochemistry and human activity are not parameterized in air quality models. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's Community Multiscale Air-Quality (CMAQ model with bi-directional NH3 exchange has been coupled with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA's Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC agro-ecosystem model's nitrogen geochemistry algorithms. CMAQ with bi-directional NH3 exchange coupled to EPIC connects agricultural cropping management practices to emissions and atmospheric concentrations of reduced nitrogen and models the biogeochemical feedback on NH3 air-surface exchange. This coupled modeling system reduced the biases and error in NHx (NH3 + NH4+ wet deposition and in ambient aerosol concentrations in an annual 2002 Continental US (CONUS domain simulation when compared to a 2002 annual simulation of CMAQ without bi-directional exchange. Fertilizer emissions estimated in CMAQ 5.0 with bi-directional exchange exhibits markedly different seasonal dynamics than the US EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI, with lower emissions in the spring and fall and higher emissions in July.

  17. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with different bi-directional emission colors using color-conversion capping layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a study on transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors, enabled by color-conversion organic capping layers. Starting from a transparent blue OLED with an uncapped Ag top electrode exhibiting an average transmittance of 33.9%, a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doped tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3) capping layer is applied to achieve color-conversion from blue to orange-red on the top side while maintaining almost unchanged device transmittance. This color-conversion capping layer does not only change the color of the top side emission, but also enhances the overall device efficiency due to the optical interaction of the capping layer with the primary blue transparent OLED. Top white emission from the transparent bi-directional OLED exhibits a correlated color temperature around 6000–7000 K, with excellent color stability as evidenced by an extremely small variation in color coordinate of Δ(x,y)=(0.002, 0.002) in the forward luminance range of 100–1000 cd m−2. At the same time, the blue emission color of bottom side is not influenced by the color conversion capping layer, which finally results in different emission colors of the two opposite sides of our transparent OLEDs. - Highlights: • We report transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors. • Transparent blue OLED with color-conversion organic capping layers (CCL) shows orange top side emission. • Top white emission exhibits a CCT around 7000 K, with excellent color stability on a driving voltage

  18. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  19. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Hyun Eom; Yunsik Seo; Sungjoon Lim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antenn...

  20. Exploration of pathological prediction of chronic kidney diseases by a novel theory of bi-directional probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Luo, Min; Xiao, Li; Zhu, Xue-jing; Wang, Chang; Fu, Xiao; Yuan, Shu-guang; Xiao, Fang; Liu, Hong; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Fu-you; Sun, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the clinic, the pathological types of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are considered references for choosing treatment protocols. From a statistical viewpoint, a non-invasive method to predict pathological types of CKD is a focus of our work. In the current study, following a frequency analysis of the clinical indices of 588 CKD patients in the department of nephrology, a third-grade class-A hospital, a novel theory is proposed: “bi-directional cumulative probability dichotomy”. Further, two models for the prediction and differential diagnosis of CKD pathological type are established. The former indicates an occurrence probability of the pathological types, and the latter indicates an occurrence of CKD pathological type according to logistic binary regression. To verify the models, data were collected from 135 patients, and the results showed that the highest accuracy rate on membranous nephropathy (MN-100%), followed by IgA nephropathy (IgAN-83.33%) and mild lesion type (MLN-73.53%), whereas lower prediction accuracy was observed for mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (0%) and focal segmental sclerosis type (21.74%). The models of bi-directional probability prediction and differential diagnosis indicate a good prediction value in MN, IgAN and MLN and may be considered alternative methods for the pathological discrimination of CKD patients who are unable to undergo renal biopsy. PMID:27557856

  1. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada); Redekop, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: dredekop@tesla.cc.uottawa.ca

    2005-03-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading.

  2. A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus for potential application in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi [Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus is developed. This MRE was synthesized by filling NdFeB particles into polyurethane (PU)/ epoxy (EP) interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. The anisotropic samples were prepared in a permanent magnetic field and magnetized in an electromagnetic field of 1 T. Dynamic mechanical responses of the MRE to applied magnetic fields are investigated through magneto-rheometer, and morphology of MREs is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test result indicates that when the test field orientation is parallel to that of the sample's magnetization, the shear modulus of sample increases. On the other hand, when the orientation is opposite to that of the sample's magnetization, shear modulus decreases. In addition, this PU/EP IPN matrix based MRE has a high-damping property, with high loss factor and can be controlled by applying magnetic field. It is expected that the high damping property and the ability of bi-directional magnetic-control modulus of this MRE offer promising advantages in seismologic application.

  3. A new method for the measurement of two-phase mass flow rate using average bi-directional flow tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average bi-directional flow tube was suggested to apply in the air/steam-water flow condition. Its working principle is similar with Pitot tube, however, it makes it possible to eliminate the cooling system which is normally needed to prevent from flashing in the pressure impulse line of pitot tube when it is used in the depressurization condition. The suggested flow tube was tested in the air-water vertical test section which has 80mm inner diameter and 10m length. The flow tube was installed at 120 of L/D from inlet of test section. In the test, the pressure drop across the average bi-directional flow tube, system pressure and average void fraction were measured on the measuring plane. In the test, fluid temperature and injected mass flow rates of air and water phases were also measured by a RTD and two coriolis flow meters, respectively. To calculate the phasic mass flow rates : from the measured differential pressure and void fraction, Chexal drift-flux correlation was used. In the test a new correlation of momentum exchange factor was suggested. The test result shows that the suggested instrumentation using the measured void fraction and Chexal drift-flux correlation can predict the mass flow rates within 10% error of measured data

  4. Cooperation of electrically stimulated muscle and pneumatic muscle to realize RUPERT bi-directional motion for grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xikai Tu; Jiping He; Yue Wen; Jian Huang; Xinhan Huang; Hailong Huang; Meng Guo; Yong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an active area of research to meet the demand of repetitive therapy in stroke rehabilitation. Robotic upper-extremity repetitive trainer (RUPERT) with its unidirectional pneumatic muscle actuation (PMA) can be used by most stroke patients that have difficulty moving in one direction because of a weak agonist or hyperactive antagonist. In this research, to broaden the usage of RUPERT, we not only add grasping functionality to the rehabilitation robot with the help of surface Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) but also realize the robot joint bi-directional motion by using a PMA in cooperation with surface FES evoked paralyzed muscle force. This integrative rehabilitation strategy is explored for training patients to practice coordinated reaching and grasping functions. The effectiveness of this FES electrically evoked bio-actuator way is verified through a method that separates the mixed electromyogram (MEMG) into the electrically evoked electromyogram (EEMG) and voluntary electromyogram (VEMG). This is a promising approach to alleviate the size and mechanical complexity of the robot, thereby the cost of the joint bi-directional actuator rehabilitation robot by means of their own characteristics of stroke subjects.

  5. Mechanistic exploration of a bi-directional PDT-based combination in pancreatic cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang-Chiao; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Liu, Joyce; Chiang, Chun-Te; Mai, Zhiming; Goldschmidt, Ruth; Rizvi, Imran; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Neema; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that the most effective cancer treatments will involve interactive regimens that target multiple non-overlapping pathways, preferably such that each component enhances the others to improve outcomes while minimizing systemic toxicities. Toward this goal, we developed a combination of photodynamic therapy and irinotecan, which mechanistically cooperate with each other, beyond their individual tumor destruction pathways, to cause synergistic reduction in orthotopic pancreatic tumor burden. A three-way mechanistic basis of the observed the synergism will be discussed: (i) PDT downregulates drug efflux transporters to increase intracellular irinotecan levels. (ii) Irinotecan reduces the expression of hypoxia-induced marker, which is upregulated by PDT. (iii) PDT downregulates irinotecan-induced survivin expression to amplify the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects. The clinical translation potential of the combination will also be highlighted.

  6. 通过重叠PCR构建2个增强型植物花特异双向启动子%Construction of two enhanced plant flower-specific bidirectional promoters through overlap extension PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄飞; 刘雅莉; 娄倩; 祁银燕; 杜灵娟

    2013-01-01

    Promoter is a key element on gene expression regulation,and it is an emphasis of plant transgenic research.Now,detailed analysis about flower-specific promoters such as chalcone synthase gene promoter from petunia and lily has been made.Enhancer is another kind of regulatory element usually placed at upstream of promoter sequence.In order to precisely regulate gene expression in plant genetic engineering,scientists put forward a method of designing artificial promoter to avoid homology-dependent gene silencing caused by repeatedly using a same promoter sequence.In addition,in order to decrease the size of foreign gene and conform to the trend of multiple genes transformation,the method of using bidirectional promoter was proposed by scientists.According to the previous studies,the present study use core sequence of petunia flower-specific promoter pPCHS and lily flower-specific promoter pLCHS,CaMV 35S enhance sequence,OCS enhance sequence to design and construct two enhanced plant flower-specific bidirectional promoters.We wish to provide some promoters with practical value when we try to use multiple genes transformation method to precisely regulate ornamental traits of some important flower species such as petunia and lily. In this research,according to the procedure of overlap extension PCR method and sequences of petunia flower-specific promoter pPCHS,lily flower-specific promoter pLCHS,CaMV 35S enhancer,OCS enhancer,10 primers were designed and synthesized firstly.In the first round of PCR process,plasmids which contain above-mentioned four sequences were templates; six fragments with overlapping areas were amplified using overlapping primers.These six fragments were named as pPCHS-1-2,pPCHS-1-3,35S-4-5,OCS 6 7,pLCHS-8 10,pLCHS-9-10.Moreover,Prime StarTM HS DNA Polymerase was used in this PCR process and these six products were all blunt-ended.In the second round of PCR process,the mixture of products pPCHS-1-2,35S-4-5,pLCHS-8-10 was a group of template

  7. Bi-directional controlled release of ibuprofen and Mg(2+) from magnesium alloys coated by multifunctional composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Qing; Tan, Cui; Bai, Ningning; Cai, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Two major problems for magnesium alloy implant are the high degradation rate and easy infection associated with implantation. Herein, a surface drug delivery system (Mg/Epoxy resin-ZnO/PCL-Ibuprofen) which can realize bi-directional controlled release of ibuprofen and Mg(2+) was designed via a dip coating process followed by spraying. The in vitro test demonstrated that the ibuprofen in drug-eluting compound material showed sustained release profiles for 22days, which can effectively solve the local cellular rejection and inflammation during the early stage of implantation. Besides, the drug carrier also exhibited improved corrosion resistance duel to the high combining strength between Epoxy resin-ZnO coating and magnesium alloy, so Mg(2+) can release slowly at first and then speeded up later. This approach may be suitable for coating other implant materials such as stainless steel, titanium alloy etc. PMID:27524048

  8. Parallel input parallel output high voltage bi-directional converters for driving dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2014-01-01

    is to design and implement driving circuits for the DEAP actuators for their use in various applications. This paper presents implementation of parallel input, parallel output, high voltage (~2.5 kV) bi-directional DC-DC converters for driving the DEAP actuators. The topology is a bidirectional flyback DC......-DC converter incorporating commercially available high voltage MOSFETs (4 kV) and high voltage diodes (5 kV). Although the average current of the aforementioned devices is limited to 300 mA and 150 mA, respectively, connecting the outputs of multiple converters in parallel can provide a scalable design....... This enables operating the DEAP actuators in various static and dynamic applications e.g. positioning, vibration generation or damping, and pumps. The proposed idea is experimentally verified by connecting three high voltage converters in parallel to operate a single DEAP actuator. The experimental results...

  9. Bi-directional terahertz-to-infrared emission from metal-coated nanostructures upon femtosecond laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Ji; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, X-C

    2015-09-21

    We report on the investigation of bi-directional terahertz-to-infrared (THz-to-IR) radiation from a metal film coated on a substrate with randomly ordered pore arrays by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses. THz-to-IR radiation was observed both for front-side excitation (laser incident on the metal surface) and for rear-side excitation (laser incident on the substrate). In both cases, the radiation was observed both in the propagation direction of the laser beam and in the reverse direction. Considering these findings, we propose a thermal emission mechanism based on the production of surface plasmons, either delocalized (through phase-matched excitation) or localized (through surface roughness) at the air/metal and metal/substrate interfaces. PMID:26406717

  10. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Yunsik; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch. PMID:26690443

  11. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Eom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  12. Activation and Inhibition of Posterior Parietal Cortex Have Bi-Directional Effects on Spatial Errors Following Interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Khan Foroughi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance.

  13. Improvised Security for RDF using Random Salt and Levels with Bi-Directional Translation to Relational Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Srinivasa Rao Mothukuri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A Middleware Framework is required for SemanticWeb applications to access data from relational databases andlegacy storage systems, without replication or synchronization.Resource Description Framework is one such type ofmiddleware framework which bridges the gap between twoneeds. Though, there were some efforts to publish relationaldata as Resource Description Framework triples, they presentthe existing data into respective RDF stack only in Read-onlymanner, also in dearth of security. This paper accomplishes suchin vulnerabilities by enhancing a nexus to be bi-directional,allowing data updates specified as triples to be sent back to therelational database as tuples. The data can beUpdated/Inserted/Deleted wherever required. Also, this paperdeals with the Level-1 and Level-2 security hierarchy. In thosetwo levels, a random “salt” is added up to the data followed byencryption.

  14. Bi-Directional Fluorescence Distribution and its Correction for Estimates of Gross Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetic Light-Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie

    2015-04-01

    Passive measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) presents a new way for directly estimating the photosynthetic activities. In this study, one diurnal multi-angular spectral experiment and three independent diurnal flux experiments were carried out on winter wheat and maize to assess directional emission of SIF for estimating photosynthesis activities. Firstly, the Bi-Directional Fluorescence Distribution Function (BFDF) of SIF was investigated. A BFDF shape similar to the red Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) was observed for the directional SIF emissions at 688 nm. Secondly, the relationship between the directional emission of canopy SIF and BRDF reflectance was examined, finding a strict linear correlation between SIF and reflectance at 688 nm, with an R2> 0.80 for all seven BRDF observations on winter wheat. Then, a BFDF correction model for the canopy SIF at 688 nm was presented by dividing by the canopy reflectance, and about 65.3% of the directional variation was successfully removed. Finally, the BFDF-corrected SIF signals were linked to photosynthetic activities, including gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), and the determination coefficients between photosynthetic activities and the BFDF-corrected SIF increased for most cases. For GEP, the determination coefficients were slightly improved from 0.563, 0.382, and 0.613 (for raw SIF signals) to 0.592, 0.473, and 0.640 for all three diurnal experiments. For LUE, the determination coefficients increased from 0.393, and 0.358 to 0.517, and 0.528 for two experiments, while deceased slightly from 0.695 to 0.607 for one experiment. Therefore, according to the above preliminary results, the canopy SIF cannot be regarded as isotropic, and the directional emission SIF may be an important uncertainty in estimates of GEP and LUE.

  15. OVERLAPPING VIRTUAL CADASTRAL DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina - Cristina Marian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cadastrale plans of buildings, can overlap virtual. Overlap is highlighted when digital reception. According to Law no. 7/1996 as amended and supplemented, to solve these problems is by updating the database graphs, the repositioning. This paper addresses the issue of overlapping virtual cadastre in the history of the period 1999-2012.

  16. Fast Overlapping Group Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) non-overlapping groups of features. The non-overlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation, where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. We have performed empirical evaluations using the breast cancer gene expression data set, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results demonstrate the eff...

  17. Self-vibration cancellation of a novel bi-directional magnetized NdFeB/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    A novel magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite structure is proposed in this work, aiming to provide a good self-vibration cancellation performance under the magnetic field detection environment. The proposed structure consists of two Terfenol-D magnetostrictive alloy plates which are revised and length-magnetized by two NdFeB magnets bonded on the top surface of a thickness-polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic plate with separate electrodes. Experiments have shown that great vibration suppression up to 44 dB under harmonic disturbance was observed. The ME coefficient of the proposed structure also reaches up to ∼29 mV/Oe at non-resonance frequency and 758 mV/Oe at resonance frequency of 79 kHz which is ∼2 times larger than the traditional L-T Terfenol-D/PZT bilayer configuration of the same scale. Such performance improvement is achieved based on the bi-directional magnetic field bias (HBias) of two NdFeB magnets in magnetostrictive layer, internal in-series electrical wire connection in piezoelectric layer. The proposed design has great potential to be used for industrial applications associated with heavy environmental vibration noise. PMID:27370467

  18. Self-vibration cancellation of a novel bi-directional magnetized NdFeB/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    A novel magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite structure is proposed in this work, aiming to provide a good self-vibration cancellation performance under the magnetic field detection environment. The proposed structure consists of two Terfenol-D magnetostrictive alloy plates which are revised and length-magnetized by two NdFeB magnets bonded on the top surface of a thickness-polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic plate with separate electrodes. Experiments have shown that great vibration suppression up to 44 dB under harmonic disturbance was observed. The ME coefficient of the proposed structure also reaches up to ˜29 mV/Oe at non-resonance frequency and 758 mV/Oe at resonance frequency of 79 kHz which is ˜2 times larger than the traditional L-T Terfenol-D/PZT bilayer configuration of the same scale. Such performance improvement is achieved based on the bi-directional magnetic field bias (HBias) of two NdFeB magnets in magnetostrictive layer, internal in-series electrical wire connection in piezoelectric layer. The proposed design has great potential to be used for industrial applications associated with heavy environmental vibration noise.

  19. Are there Bi-directional Associations between Depressive Symptoms and C-Reactive Protein in Mid-life Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A.; Schott, Laura L.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether depressive symptoms are related to subsequent C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or whether CRP levels are related to subsequent depressive symptoms in mid-life women. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were followed for seven years and had measures of CES-Depression scores and CRP seven times during the follow-up period. Women were pre- or early peri-menopausal at study entry and were of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Japanese, or Chinese race/ethnicity. Analyses were restricted to initially healthy women. RESULTS: Longitudinal mixed linear regression models adjusting for age, race, site, time between exams, and outcome variable at year X showed that higher CES-D scores predicted higher subsequent CRP levels and vice versa over a 7-year period. Full multivariate models adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, medications, health conditions, and other covariates showed that higher CRP levels at year X predicted higher CES-D scores at year X+1, p = 0.03. Higher depressive symptoms predicted higher subsequent CRP levels at marginally significant levels, p=0.10. CONCLUSIONS: Higher CRP levels led to higher subsequent depressive symptoms, albeit the effect was small. The study demonstrates the importance of considering bi-directional relationships for depression and other psychosocial factors and risk for heart disease. PMID:19683568

  20. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Slow, Bi-directional Perfusion Enhance the Formation of Tissue-Engineered Cardiac Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo; Engelmayr, George C.; Freed, Lisa E.

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical and mechanical signals enabling cardiac regeneration can be elucidated using in vitro tissue-engineering models. We hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF) and slow, bi-directional perfusion could act independently and interactively to enhance the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts. Heart cells were cultured on three-dimensional porous scaffolds in medium with or without supplemental IGF and in the presence or ab...

  1. The association between attachment style and uni- and bi-directional pursuer-distancer patterns in couples: A clinical sample of couples in counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Lorin Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and pursuer-distancer patterns in couples. Both uni- and bi-directional pursuer-distancer patterns were studied. Participants were 67 individuals (including 32 couples) in therapy. Each partner, independent of the other, completed an anonymous questionnaire containing the Multi-item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) and a four-item measure of pursuer-distancer pattern designed for this s...

  2. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  3. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on. PMID:24515019

  4. The Bi-Directional Prediction of Carbon Fiber Production Using a Combination of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper creates a bi-directional prediction model to predict the performance of carbon fiber and the productive parameters based on a support vector machine (SVM and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm (SVM-IPSO. In the SVM, it is crucial to select the parameters that have an important impact on the performance of prediction. The IPSO is proposed to optimize them, and then the SVM-IPSO model is applied to the bi-directional prediction of carbon fiber production. The predictive accuracy of SVM is mainly dependent on its parameters, and IPSO is thus exploited to seek the optimal parameters for SVM in order to improve its prediction capability. Inspired by a cell communication mechanism, we propose IPSO by incorporating information of the global best solution into the search strategy to improve exploitation, and we employ IPSO to establish the bi-directional prediction model: in the direction of the forward prediction, we consider productive parameters as input and property indexes as output; in the direction of the backward prediction, we consider property indexes as input and productive parameters as output, and in this case, the model becomes a scheme design for novel style carbon fibers. The results from a set of the experimental data show that the proposed model can outperform the radial basis function neural network (RNN, the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the hybrid approach of genetic algorithm and improved particle swarm optimization (GA-IPSO method in most of the experiments. In other words, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the SVM-IPSO model in dealing with the problem of forecasting.

  5. Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.

  6. Analysis and Design of Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter in the Extended Run Time DC UPS System Based on Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes...... input voltage combined with load current feedback using PI controller with anti-windup scheme to realize closed-loop control of the whole system, and verify the feasibility of the control scheme proposed by simulation. A 1kW prototype controlled by TMS320F2808 DSP is implemented and tested. Experimental...

  7. Simulation analysis of one-stage C+L-band erbium-doped fiber ASE source with double-pass bi-directional pumping configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wencai Huang(黄文财); Hai Ming(明海)

    2004-01-01

    A new technique to generate a C+L-band flat amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source in one-stage erbium-doped fiber (EDF) using bi-directional pumping configuration is analyzed. The simulation results show that the key point of obtaining flat C+L-band ASE spectrum in one-stage EDF is using a laser diode operated at 980 nm as backward pump source. ASE source with nearly 80-nm bandwidth can be obtained by means of selecting suitable fiber length and properly adjusting the ratio of forward to backward pump power.

  8. Overlapping Consensus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Monsen, Mats

    2007-01-01

    An empirical study of how Malaysian pluralism is understood through Islam Hadhari, Article 11 and the Inter-faith Commission against the backdrop of current Malaysian political and social history, coupled with a theoretical analysis through John Rawls' Political Liberalism, with particular emphasis on the idea of Overlapping Consensus. The thesis is an attempt at applying Rawls' theory on the practical case of Malaysia, as a plural society, while at the same time using the practical case of M...

  9. iGC2: an architecture for micro gas chromatographs utilizing integrated bi-directional pumps and multi-stage preconcentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an integrated micro gas chromatography (µGC) architecture which utilizes a bi-directional micropump. Four integral components-–the bi-directional Knudsen pump (KP2), a two-stage preconcentrator-focuser (PCF2), a separation column, and a gas detector-–are integrated in a 4.3 cm3 stack, forming a serial flow path. All four components are fabricated using the same three-mask process. Compared to the conventional approach used with multi-stage preconcentrators, in which valves are used to reverse flow between the sampling phase and the separation phase, this µGC architecture reduces the overall complexity. In this architecture, the vapors being sampled are drawn through the detector and column before reaching the PCF2. The microsystem operation is experimentally validated by quantitative analyses of benzene, toluene, and xylene vapors ranging in concentration from 43–1167 mg m−3. (paper)

  10. Forming-free, bi-directional polarity conductive-bridge memory devices with Ge2Sb2Te5 solid-state electrolyte and Ag active electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin-Hsien; Chen, Hsuan-An; Wu, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2015-01-01

    Preparation and characteristics of conductive-bridge random access memory devices containing Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) chalcogenide as the solid-state electrolyte, Ag as the active electrode, and W-Ti as the counter electrode are presented. As revealed by the electrical measurement, only the samples containing crystalline GST exhibited the resistive switching behaviors. With an insertion of ZnS-SiO2 dielectric layer at the Ag/GST interface and a postannealing at 100 °C for 1 min, the sample exhibited the best electrical performance with satisfactory cycleability and retention properties. Moreover, the forming-free and bi-directional polarity features were observed in such a sample type. Microstructure and composition analyses found the finely dispersed nano-scale Ag clusters in GST and, when electrical bias is applied, the migrating Ag ions may build up the connections in between neighboring Ag clusters. Moreover, grain boundaries in polycrystalline GST might be the main paths for Ag migration. The thread-like conduction channels in GST hence form, leading to the low resistance state of sample. On the contrary, the depletion of Ag in GST broke the connections in between Ag clusters when the electrical bias is reversed. This led to the rupture of conduction channels and, hence, the high resistance state of sample. The low operational voltage, forming-free, and bi-directional polarity features observed in (AZGW)T sample might also originated from the fine dispersion of Ag clusters in GST electrolyte.

  11. Novel Bi-directional Converter for Photovoltaic LED Illuminatce System%光伏LED照明系统中双向变换器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪义旺; 张波; 曹丰文; 吴铄

    2011-01-01

    研究设计了一种应用于光伏LED照明系统的改进型Zeta/Speic双向变换电路,该电路兼顾MPPT控制、蓄电池充放电控制、LED恒流控制及隔离保护控制等多种功能,与传统光伏LED照明系统中的常规变换器相比,具有结构简单灵活、成本低、效率高等优点.详细分析了电路组成及工作模式,并通过实验进行了测试,测试结果验证了该变换器的有效性及优越性.%A novel bi-directional Zeta/Speic converter for LED photovoltaic illuminatce system is analyzed and designed, which can realize MPPT control,battery charge and discharge control,LED current control and isolation control function,compared with the traditional DC/DC converters for LED photovoltaic illuminatce system,has simple structure flexible, low cost and high efficiency ad vantages. The consists of the circuit and working model are analyzed. Finally the test experimental waveforms of prototype are given to demonstrate the goodness of this novel bi-directional Zeta/Speic converter.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-I and slow, bi-directional perfusion enhance the formation of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo; Engelmayr, George C; Freed, Lisa E

    2009-03-01

    Biochemical and mechanical signals enabling cardiac regeneration can be elucidated using in vitro tissue-engineering models. We hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF) and slow, bi-directional perfusion could act independently and interactively to enhance the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts. Heart cells were cultured on three-dimensional porous scaffolds in medium with or without supplemental IGF and in the presence or absence of slow, bi-directional perfusion that enhanced transport and provided shear stress. Structural, molecular, and electrophysiologic properties of the resulting grafts were quantified on culture day 8. IGF had independent, beneficial effects on apoptosis (p < 0.01), cellular viability (p < 0.01), contractile amplitude (p < 0.01), and excitation threshold (p < 0.01). Perfusion independently affected the four aforementioned parameters and also increased amounts of cardiac troponin-I (p < 0.01), connexin-43 (p < 0.05), and total protein (p < 0.01) in the grafts. Interactive effects of IGF and perfusion on apoptosis were also present (p < 0.01). Myofibrillogenesis and spontaneous contractility were present only in grafts cultured with perfusion, although contractility was inducible by electrical field stimulation of grafts from all groups. Our findings demonstrate that multi-factorial stimulation of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts using IGF and perfusion resulted in independent and interactive effects on heart cell survival, differentiation, and contractility. PMID:18759675

  13. A mathematical model and computational framework for three-dimensional chondrocyte cell growth in a porous tissue scaffold placed inside a bi-directional flow perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawath Hossain, Md; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture for cartilage tissue regeneration in a perfusion bioreactor is a complex process. Mathematical modeling and computational simulation can provide important insights into the culture process, which would be helpful for selecting culture conditions to improve the quality of the developed tissue constructs. However, simulation of the cell culture process is a challenging task due to the complicated interaction between the cells and local fluid flow and nutrient transport inside the complex porous scaffolds. In this study, a mathematical model and computational framework has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) cell growth in a porous scaffold placed inside a bi-directional flow perfusion bioreactor. The model was developed by taking into account the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field and associated glucose concentration, and then used to perform a resolved-scale simulation based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The simulation predicts the local shear stress, glucose concentration, and 3D cell growth inside the porous scaffold for a period of 30 days of cell culture. The predicted cell growth rate was in good overall agreement with the experimental results available in the literature. This study demonstrates that the bi-directional flow perfusion culture system can enhance the homogeneity of the cell growth inside the scaffold. The model and computational framework developed is capable of providing significant insight into the culture process, thus providing a powerful tool for the design and optimization of the cell culture process.

  14. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  15. An Introduction of Bi-direction Module Reading Method Based on Instructional Scaffolding%基于支架教学法的双向模块阅读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾锡涛

    2012-01-01

      The bi-direction module reading method based on instructional scaffolding is a fast reading method with bi-direction understanding which is from text to question and from question to text. In the course of teaching, teachers can build different kinds of scaffolding to develop students’ reading skills and help them form good reading habits so that they can do autonomous reading without scaffolding.%  基于支架教学法的双向模块阅读是从文章到问题和从问题到文章的双向理解的快速阅读方法,在教学过程中教师可以通过建立各种支架不断培养学生阅读能力,形成好的阅读习惯,最终达到摆脱支架形成自主能力。

  16. Packing ellipsoids with overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Uhler, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The problem of packing ellipsoids of different sizes and shapes into an ellipsoidal container so as to minimize a measure of overlap between ellipsoids is considered. A bilevel optimization formulation is given, together with an algorithm for the general case and a simpler algorithm for the special case in which all ellipsoids are in fact spheres. Convergence results are proved and computational experience is described and illustrated. The motivating application - chromosome organization in the human cell nucleus - is discussed briefly, and some illustrative results are presented.

  17. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  18. Sequences promoting the transcription of the human XA gene overlapping P450c21A correctly predict the presence of a novel, adrenal-specific, truncated form of tenascin-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Meng Kian; Thomson, A.A.; Bristow, J.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-07-20

    A compact region in the human class III major histocompatibility locus contains the human genes for the fourth component of human complement (C4) and steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) in one transcriptional orientation, while the gene for the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TN-X) overlaps the last exon of P450c21 on the opposite strand of DNA in the opposite transcriptional orientation. This complex locus is duplicated into A and B loci, so that the organization is 5{prime}-C4A-21A-XA-C4B-21B-XB-3{prime}. Although this duplication event truncated the 65-kb X(B) gene to a 4.5-kb XA gene, the XA gene is transcriptionally active in the adrenal cortex. To examine the basis of the tissue-specific expression of XA and C4B, we cloned the 1763-bp region that lies between the cap sites for XA and C4B and analyzed its promoter activity in both the XA and the C4 orientations. Powerful, liver-specific sequences lie within the first 75 to 138 bp from the C4B cap site, and weaker elements lie within 128 bp of the XA cap site that function in both liver and adrenal cells. Because these 128 bp upstream from the XA cap site are perfectly preserved in the XB gene encoding TN-X, we sought to determine whether a transcript similar to XA arises within the SB gene. RNase protection assays, cDNA cloning, and RT/PCR show that adrenal cells contain a novel transcript, termed short XB (XB-S), which has the same open reading frame as TN-X. Cell-free translation and immunoblotting show that this transcript encodes a novel 74-kDa XB-S protein that is identical to the carboxy-terminal 673 residues of TN-X. Because this protein consists solely of fibronectin type III repeats and a fibrinogen-like domain, it appears to correspond to an evolutionary precursor of the tenascin family of extracellular matrix proteins. 40 refs., 6 figs.

  19. A discussion of the bi-directional ranking of occurrence-frequency based non-interactive literature method for knowledge discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yunqiu; GUO; Kelei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the existing ranking terminology or subject relevancy of documents methods through an intermediary collection as a catalyst(designated as Group B collection)for the purpose of of non-interactive literature-based discovery,this article proposes a bi-directional document occurrence frequency based ranking method according to the"concurrence theory"and the degree and extent of the subject relevancy.This method explores and further refines the ranking method that is based on the occurrence frequency of the usage of certain terminologies and documents and injects a new insightful perspective of the concurrence of appropriate terminologies/documents in the"low occurrence frequency component"of three non-interactive document collections.A preliminary experiment was conducted to analyze and to test the significance and viability of our newly designed operational method.

  20. A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, A.; Jonsson, C.J.; Appelfeld, David;

    2013-01-01

    for arbitrary fenestration systems could only be produced using either expensive software or with expensive equipment. genBSDF outputs CFS data in the Window 6 XML file format and so can be used with CFS-enabled software tools to model multi-layered window systems composed of glazing and shading layers......Fenestration attachments are anticipated to produce significant reductions in building energy use because they can be deployed quickly at low-cost. New software tools enable users to assess the building energy impacts of optically complex fenestration systems (CFS) such as shades, Venetian blinds......, or daylighting systems. However, such tools require users to provide bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data that describe the solar-optical performance of the CFS. A free, open-source Radiance tool genBSDF enables users to generate BSDF data for arbitrary CFS. Prior to genBSDF, BSDF data...

  1. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

    2012-11-09

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide “N”, Wide “N” Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2×2×2×2 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (“Second Skin”).

  2. 双向非线性隔震支座本构关系模型在双向地震下的动力反应研究%Study on the dynamic response of the constitutional relation models of Bi-directional nonlinear Isolation bearing under the bi-directional earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦增; 李向真

    2015-01-01

    Based on the constitutional relation models of bi-directional nonlinear isolation bearing,the dynamic equations and calculation methods of single particle isolation system under the bi-directional earthquake are established.The seismic responses of isolation system under various dynamic parameters when meet the rarely met earthquake of 8,8.5 and 9 degree are calculated and analyzed,the rational yield-gravity ratio of lead met the limitation of displacement under various fortified intensity is proposed to provide reliable basis and vector for designing isolation houses.%在双向非线性隔震支座本构关系模型基础上,建立了单质点隔震体系在双向地震作用下的动力方程和计算方法.在8度、8.5度和9度罕遇地震作用下计算分析了隔震体系在各种动力参数下的地震反应,提出了在不同设防烈度下满足位移限制要求的合理纯铅屈重比,为隔震房屋设计提供了可靠的依据和途径.

  3. 一种改进的基于BiDirectional体制的MISO-SAR系统%Improved MISO-SAR System Based on BiDirectional Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海; 宋红军

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the German Aerospace Center (DLR.) proposed a BiDirectional mode that can achieve several seconds of repeated time lags by single star and single flight. Its basic principle includes the generation of a double-beam antenna pattern by electronic beam steering and simultaneous emission of two pulses that irradiate the front and back imaging area. The two pulses, which are simultaneously received will be separated by band-pass filtering in the Doppler domain and imaged, respectively. This paper presents an improved Multi Input Single Output (MISO)-SAR system based on the BiDirectional mode which converts the traditional simultaneous dual beam emitting and receiving into time-division emitting and simultaneous receiving, respectively. This results in an improved emitting antenna pattern owning to the suppression of the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR). The current paper describes the spectrum separation effects, AASR analysis, and the system design process. Therefore, to confirm effectiveness, point target 1-D and 2-D simulation results are compared before and after the improvement. Furthermore, the BiDirectional and other short-term repeated SAR modes are compared.%BiDirectional体制是德宇航在2012年提出的一种通过单星单次飞行实现秒级重访的新体制,基本原理是利用相控阵电扫描方式生成双波束天线方向图,同时发射两个脉冲照射方位向前后两块成像区域,将同时接收到的脉冲在多普勒域进行带通滤波分离,并分别成像。该文介绍了一种改进的基于BiDirectional体制的多发单收(Multi Input Single Output, MISO)SAR系统,将传统的双波束同发同收改进为分时先后发射和同时接收,利用发射时较优的方向图抑制方位模糊(AASR),获得了较好的效果。文中给出了频谱分离效果、AASR分析和系统设计流程,给出了改进前后的点目标1维和2维成像结果对比,证明了该改进的有效性,最后

  4. Topological susceptibility from overlap fermion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应和平; 张剑波

    2003-01-01

    We numerically calculate the topological charge of the gauge configurations on a finite lattice by the fermionic method with overlap fermions. By using the lattice index theorem, we identify the index of the massless overlap fermion operator to the topological charge of the background gauge configuration. The resulting topological susceptibility X is in good agreement with the anticipation made by Witten and Veneziano.

  5. SURFATM-NH3: a model combining the surface energy balance and bi-directional exchanges of ammonia applied at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Personne

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biophysical model SURFATM-NH3, simulating the ammonia (NH3 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is presented. SURFATM-NH3 consists of two coupled models: (i an energy budget model and (ii a pollutant exchange model, which distinguish the soil and plant exchange processes. The model describes the exchanges in terms of adsorption to leaf cuticles and bi-directional transport through leaf stomata and soil. The results of the model are compared with the flux measurements over grassland during the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment at Braunschweig, Germany. The dataset of GRAMINAE allows the model to be tested in various meteorological and agronomic conditions: prior to cutting, after cutting and then after the application of mineral fertilizer. The whole comparison shows close agreement between model and measurements for energy budget and ammonia fluxes. The major controls on the ground and plant emission potential are the physicochemical parameters for liquid-gas exchanges which are integrated in the compensation points for live leaves, litter and the soil surface. Modelled fluxes are highly sensitive to soil and plant surface temperatures, highlighting the importance of accurate estimates of these terms. The model suggests that the net flux depends not only on the foliar (stomatal compensation point but also that of leaf litter. SURFATM-NH3 represents a comprehensive approach to studying pollutant exchanges and its link with plant and soil functioning. It also provides a simplified generalised approach (SVAT model applicable for atmospheric transport models.

  6. Development a bi-directional sampler with invention patent for geotechnical experiments%土工实验双向制样仪研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明星; 聂良佐; 侯天顺

    2013-01-01

    A bi-directional sampler with invention patent for geotechnical experiments is introduced ,which is easy to overcome the one-way vertical multilayer compaction by shackles ,to eliminate density heterogeneity of the sample structures ,to improve problems of data uncertainties ,discreteness and poor curve fitting of the experimental samples .It is good for controlling uniform density of sample structures ,optimizing the states and tests of the experimental samples to achieve the goal of geotechnical experimental teaching and research services .%推介一种获得发明专利的土工实验双向制样仪,便于克服单向垂直多层击实方式束缚,消除了样品结构密度不均一,克服了样品实验数据的不可确定性、离散性及实验曲线拟合性差问题,为控制样品结构密度均一、优化实验样品状态及测试、实现土工实验教学与研究目标服务。

  7. Quantitative measurements of one-dimensional OH absolute concentration profiles in a methane/air flat flame by bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欣; 杨振; 彭江波; 张蕾; 马欲飞; 杨超博; 李晓晖; 孙锐

    2015-01-01

    The one-dimensional (1D) spatial distributions of OH absolute concentration in methane/air laminar premixed flat flame under different equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure are investigated by using bi-directional laser-induced flu-orescence (LIF) detection scheme combined with the direct absorption spectroscopy. The effective peak absorption cross section and the average temperature at a height of 2 mm above the burner are obtained by exciting absorption on the Q1(8) rotational line in the A2Σ+ (υ0=0)←X2Π(υ0 =0) at 309.240 nm. The measured values are 1.86×10−15 cm2 and 1719 K, respectively. Spatial filtering and frequency filtering methods of reducing noise are used to deal with the experi-mental data, and the smoothing effects are also compared using the two methods. The spatial distribution regularities of OH concentration are obtained with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.3. The spatial resolution of the measured result is 84 µm. Finally, a comparison is made between the experimental result of this paper and other relevant study results.

  8. Priming in the Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system triggers strand-independent spacer acquisition, bi-directionally from the primed protospacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Corinna; Dy, Ron L; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Watson, Bridget N J; Taylor, Corinda; Chang, James T; McNeil, Matthew B; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process is the least characterized step in CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we used Pectobacterium atrosepticum to investigate adaptation in Type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Pre-existing spacers that matched plasmids stimulated hyperactive primed acquisition and resulted in the incorporation of up to nine new spacers across all three native CRISPR arrays. Endogenous expression of the cas genes was sufficient, yet required, for priming. The new spacers inhibited conjugation and transformation, and interference was enhanced with increasing numbers of new spacers. We analyzed ∼ 350 new spacers acquired in priming events and identified a 5'-protospacer-GG-3' protospacer adjacent motif. In contrast to priming in Type I-E systems, new spacers matched either plasmid strand and a biased distribution, including clustering near the primed protospacer, suggested a bi-directional translocation model for the Cas1:Cas2-3 adaptation machinery. Taken together these results indicate priming adaptation occurs in different CRISPR-Cas systems, that it can be highly active in wild-type strains and that the underlying mechanisms vary.

  9. Ndt80 activates the meiotic ORC1 transcript isoform and SMA2 via a bi-directional middle sporulation element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bingning; Horecka, Joe; Chu, Angela; Davis, Ronald W; Becker, Emmanuelle; Primig, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The origin of replication complex subunit ORC1 is important for DNA replication. The gene is known to encode a meiotic transcript isoform (mORC1) with an extended 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), which was predicted to inhibit protein translation. However, the regulatory mechanism that controls the mORC1 transcript isoform is unknown and no molecular biological evidence for a role of mORC1 in negatively regulating Orc1 protein during gametogenesis is available. By interpreting RNA profiling data obtained with growing and sporulating diploid cells, mitotic haploid cells, and a starving diploid control strain, we determined that mORC1 is a middle meiotic transcript isoform. Regulatory motif predictions and genetic experiments reveal that the activator Ndt80 and its middle sporulation element (MSE) target motif are required for the full induction of mORC1 and the divergently transcribed meiotic SMA2 locus. Furthermore, we find that the MSE-binding negative regulator Sum1 represses both mORC1 and SMA2 during mitotic growth. Finally, we demonstrate that an MSE deletion strain, which cannot induce mORC1, contains abnormally high Orc1 levels during post-meiotic stages of gametogenesis. Our results reveal the regulatory mechanism that controls mORC1, highlighting a novel developmental stage-specific role for the MSE element in bi-directional mORC1/SMA2 gene activation, and correlating mORC1 induction with declining Orc1 protein levels. Because eukaryotic genes frequently encode multiple transcripts possessing 5'-UTRs of variable length, our results are likely relevant for gene expression during development and disease in higher eukaryotes. PMID:27362276

  10. Bi-directional induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 during T lymphoma/endothelial cell contact: implication of ICAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudjit, F; Potworowski, E F; St-Pierre, Y

    1998-03-15

    The mechanisms that lead to the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) during the invasive process of normal and transformed T cells remain largely unknown. Since vascular cells form a dynamic tissue capable of responding to local stimuli and activating cells through the expression of cytokine receptors and specific cell adhesion molecules, we hypothesized that the firm adhesion of T lymphoma cells to endothelial cells is a critical event in the local production of MMP and TIMP. In the present work, we show that adhesion of lymphoma cells to endothelial cells induced a transient and reciprocal de novo expression of MMP-9 mRNA and enzymatic activity by both cell types. Up-regulation of MMP-9 in T lymphoma cells was concomitant to that of TIMP-1, and required direct contact with endothelial cells. Induction of MMP-9, but not of TIMP-1, was blocked by anti-LFA-1 and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 Abs, indicating that induction of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in lymphoma cells required direct, yet distinct, intercellular contact. In contrast, the induction of MMP-9 in endothelial cells by T lymphoma cells did not necessitate direct contact and could be achieved by exposure to IL-1 and TNF, or to the supernatant of T lymphoma cell culture. Together, these results demonstrate that firm adhesion of T lymphoma cells to endothelial cells participates in the production of MMP-9 in both cell types through bi-directional signaling pathways, and identify intercellular adhesion molecule-1/LFA-1 as a key interaction in the up-regulation of MMP-9 in T lymphoma cells.

  11. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  12. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  13. Dynamic strength of saturated sand under bi-directional cyclic loading%双向耦合剪切条件下饱和砂土动强度特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许成顺; 高英; 杜修力; 耿琳

    2014-01-01

    Using the vertical-torsional coupling shear apparatus, a set of bi-directional cyclic loading tests on saturated sand under isotropic consolidated condition are conducted. Based on the existing definitions of dynamic strength, the effects of phase difference of bi-directional dynamic load (β ) and ratio of bi-directional dynamic load amplitude (λ ) on dynamic strength and pore pressure of sand are studied. The test results show that the dynamic strength of liquefaction of saturated sand considerably relates with both β and λ . The existing definitions of dynamic strength have obvious limitation. The phase difference of bi-directional dynamic load (β ) and the ratio of bi-directional dynamic load amplitude (λ ) have significant influences on the growth rate of pore water pressure, while they have no significant influence on the development model for the normalized pore water pressure.%针对饱和粉细砂,利用双向耦合多功能剪切仪进行了均等固结条件下的循环耦合剪切试验。应用已有的动强度定义,着重研究了双向动荷载的相位差β,双向动荷载的幅值比值λ对砂土动强度及孔压特性的影响。实验结果表明,砂土液化动强度与相位差β及幅值之比λ密切相关,现有的动强度定义在复杂加载情况下具有一定局限性;双向动荷载相位差β以及幅值比值λ对孔隙水压力增长速度影响显著,但对归一化孔隙水压力发展模式没有显著的影响。

  14. A subgroup of plant aquaporins facilitate the bi-directional diffusion of As(OH3 and Sb(OH3 across membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Annemarie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V and arsenite (As(III. As(V is a non-functional phosphate analog that enters the food chain via plant phosphate transporters. Inside cells, As(V becomes reduced to As(III for subsequent extrusion or compartmentation. Although much is known about As(III transport and handling in microbes and mammals, the transport systems for As(III have not yet been characterized in plants. Results Here we show that the Nodulin26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, OsNIP2;1 and OsNIP3;2 from Oryza sativa, and LjNIP5;1 and LjNIP6;1 from Lotus japonicus are bi-directional As(III channels. Expression of these NIPs sensitized yeast cells to As(III and antimonite (Sb(III, and direct transport assays confirmed their ability to facilitate As(III transport across cell membranes. On medium containing As(V, expression of the same NIPs improved yeast growth, probably due to increased As(III efflux. Our data furthermore provide evidence that NIPs can discriminate between highly similar substrates and that they may have differential preferences in the direction of transport. A subgroup of As(III permeable channels that group together in a phylogenetic tree required N-terminal truncation for functional expression in yeast. Conclusion This is the first molecular identification of plant As(III transport systems and we propose that metalloid transport through NIPs is a conserved and ancient feature. Our observations are potentially of great importance for improved remediation and tolerance of plants, and may provide a key to the development of low arsenic crops for food production.

  15. Bi-directional subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean during the Late Silurian: Magmatic records from both the southern Central Tianshan Block and northern Tarim Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Ge, Maohui

    2016-10-01

    The subduction polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean (STO) is a matter of debate, primarily in that the Paleozoic structures of Tianshan orogenic belt have been strongly overprinted by the Cenozoic intra-continental deformation. Indentifying the arc-related magmatic rocks may provide a convincible clue for understanding the closure process of the STO. In this study, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope were presented on the andesite and monzonite from the Bayanbulak area of the southern Central Tianshan Block (CTB) and on the quartz diorite from the Ouxidaban area of the northern Tarim Craton. Geochemically, all the samples are Na-rich, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, U, K and Pb), and depleted in high strength field elements (Nb, Ta and Ti), like most arc-type igneous rocks. The Bayanbulak andesite samples display high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2 and Mg# values, and positive εHf(t) values, indicating magma source from the wedge mantle. But the existence of xenocrystic zircons implies that continental crust material were involved during magma ascend, suggesting a continental arc setting for the Bayanbulak andesite. The Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite samples display relatively higher SiO2 contents, and lower MgO, Fe2O3T and TiO2 concentrations, indicating crustal sources. But the Mg# values of the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite are 48.76-51.85 and 50.31-53.73, and the εHf(t) values are -2.5 to 8.7 and -1.7 to 4.1, indicating that their magma sources were also mixed by mantle-derived components. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that the Bayanbulak andesite, the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite were formed at 423, 424 Ma, and 421 Ma, respectively. The age and geochemical data indicate that both the southern CTB and northern Tarim Craton were active continental margins during the Late Silurian, favoring a bi-directional subduction

  16. 一种双向短行程永磁直线直流电机%A Bi-directional Short Stroke Permanent Magnet Linear DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 沈文杰; 艾武; 金振荣

    2011-01-01

    阐述了一种双向短行程永磁动圈式直线直流电动机的结构及特点,直线电机采用双环形磁钢、直线轴承滚动副支撑结构形式,径向磁场中的动圈固接在轴上并被两个刚度相同的预压弹簧平衡,导向机构阻止动圈周向转动,带有分辨率为1 μm光栅尺,设计的行程范围为±5 mm.给出了样机的主要参数,并对样机进行了试验研究,结果表明直线电机输入电流与电磁力呈线性关系.在控制信号频率为30 Hz时,峰值电流为±2.56 A,峰值推力可达±30.9 N,最大速度可达±0.86 m/s,最大加速度可达±16.5 g.%The structure and features of a bi-directional short stroke linear DC motor with permanent magnets were presented. The magnetic field was produced by the two concentric ring permanent magnets embedded on the stator. The moving coil mounted on the shaft was a tubular coil situated within a radially oriented magnetic field and balanced by the two opposing forces generated by two springs along with the central axis and supported by the two linear bearings. The linear guide prevented the moving coil from rotating around on the central axis and carries with the linear optical encoder of 1 (xm resolution. The required controlled travel was limited in a ±5 mm displacement range. The prototype specifications were given. The experimental results show that between the electromagnetic force and the coil electric current exists a linear relation. When the frequency of control command is the 30Hz sine wave, the peak current, the peak force, the max velocity and the max acceleration are, respectively, ±2. 56A, ±30. 9N, ±0. 86m/s and ± 16. 5g.

  17. The human {alpha}2(XI) collagen gene (COL11A2): Completion of coding information, identification of the promoter sequence, and precise localization within the major histocompatibility complex reveal overlap with the KE5 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lui, V.C.H.; Ng, Ling Jim; Sat, E.W.Y.; Cheah, K.S.E. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1996-03-05

    Type XI collagen, a fibril-forming collagen, is important for the integrity and development of the skeleton because mutations in the genes encoding its consituent {alpha} chains have been found in some osteochondrodysplasias. We provide data that complete information for the coding sequence of human {alpha}2(XI) procollagen, with details of the promoter region and intron-exon organization at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene (COL11A2), including the transcription start and polyadenylation sites. COL11A2 is 30.5 kb with a minimum of 62 exons, differing from other reported fibrillar collagen genes because the amino propeptide is encoded by 14 not 5 to 8 exons. But exon numbers for the carboxy propeptide and 3{prime}-untranslated region are conserved. The promoter region of COL11A2 lacks a TATA box but is GC-rich with two potential SP1 binding sites. Mouse {alpha}2(XI) collagen mRNAs undergo complex alternative splicing involving three amino-terminal propeptide exons but only one of these has been reported for COL11A2. We have located these missing human exons and have identified splice signals that point to additional splice variants. We have precisely mapped COL11A2 within the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. The retinoid X receptor {beta} (RXR{beta}) gene is located 1.1 kb upstream of COL11A2. KE5, previously thought to be a distinct transcribed gene sequence, was mapped within COL11A2 in the alternatively spliced region, raising the question whether KE5 and COL11A2 are separate genes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Research on control strategy for battery system of photovoltaic power system based on bi-directional DC/DC converter%基于双向变换器的光伏储能控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 解璞

    2016-01-01

    独立光伏系统中,储能环节起到平衡功率、稳定系统的关键作用,而合理的控制策略能将储能系统与光伏阵列有机地结合起来,双向 DC/DC变换器正是完成此目标的桥梁。本文在对已有的双向 DC/DC变换器进行优化设计的基础上,提出了一种兼顾电池电性能与系统稳定性的储能系统控制策略。在 Matlab仿真环境下搭建了带有双向 DC/DC变换器的独立光伏系统模型,并对储能系统的工作情况进行仿真,验证了变换器拓扑结构与储能控制策略的合理性。%The independent photovoltaic system needs energy storage in order to balance the power and improve its stability of power generation. A scientiifc control strategy can combine the PV cells with the battery system organically. The bi-directional DC/DC converter can be the bridge to achieve this target. This paper presents a control strategy which takes account of battery electrical performance and system stability based on optimization on the circuit topology of bi-directional DC/DC already underway. Moreover, the charge and discharge circuit based on bi-directional DC/DC converter and an integral independent PV power system are built with Matlab. The simulation results show the correctness of the charge and discharge circuit topology and control strategy.

  19. Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)'s transport sector: A fully modified bi-directional relationship approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the bi-directional long-run relationship between energy consumption in the road transport sector with CO2 emissions and economic growth in OECD countries. Using time series data from 1960 to 2008 and employing the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares cointegration approach, the paper shows positive significant long-run bi-directional relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth, road sector energy consumption and economic growth and CO2 emissions and road sector energy consumption in all the OECD countries. To examine the response of each of the variables to shocks in the value of other variables, the generalized impulse response approach is employed. The response of CO2 emissions to economic growth is initially positive in most cases but it is relatively shorter when compared to its initial response to the road transport sector energy consumption. Moreover, in most cases, the response of carbon emissions to the road transport sector energy consumption lasts longer than its response to economic growth. This implies that most of the CO2 emissions from transport come from energy consumption, thus long-run policies related to the efficient use of energy and shifting to biofuel, renewable and nuclear energy can bring major benefits in mitigating GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. - Highlights: • The relationship between GDP, energy and CO2 in OECD's transport is investigated. • The Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares cointegration approach was employed. • There is positive long-run bi-directional relationship between the variables. • The response of CO2 to GDP is shorter than its response to the energy consumption

  20. Item Overlap Correlations: Definitions, Interpretations, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1994-01-01

    Item overlap coefficient (IOC) formulas are discussed, providing six warnings about their calculation and interpretation and some explanations of why item overlap influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory factor structures. (SLD)

  1. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  2. An LCL Composite Resonant-Type Bi-directional Contactless Power Transfer Mode%复合谐振型非接触电能双向传输模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴欣; 施惠; 孙跃

    2013-01-01

    针对单级谐振的双向电能传输方式所存在的谐振容量小及器件应力大等缺点,提出一种基于LCL复合谐振的对称拓扑双向电能传输模式.建立了系统的交流阻抗模型,推导了系统输入输出增益,并分析了不同负载下系统的频率响应及不同负载与耦合系数下输出功率特性.在此基础上,给出一种基于能量注入和自由振荡双工作模式切换的输出电压调节方法,并给出一种切换占空比控制方法以保证输出电压的恒定.仿真与实验数据表明:基于双工作模式的双向电能传输模式能有效地实现能量双向传输,输出的电压纹波始终小于0.3V,同时该模式还具有相对简单、易于实现的特点.%Classical single-load bi-directional inductive power transfer systems have some drawbacks such as low resonant capacity and high voltage and current stress of switching devices.Based on LCL composite resonance,a bi-directional power energy transfer mode using symmetric topology was proposed.The impedance model for alternating current was presented and the gain between the input and output was deduced.By analyzing the frequency responses and the output power under different loads and coupling coefficients,an output voltage regulation method was proposed,which runs in the bi-operation mode between energy injection and free running.Furthermore,a duty cycle control method for the bi-operation mode was also proposed to guarantee the stability of output voltage.The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed mode can achieve bi-directional energy transmission and the output voltage ripple less than 0.3 V.Moreover,this mode is simple and easy for implementation.

  3. Overlapped frequency-time division multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; LI Dao-ben

    2009-01-01

    A technique named overlapped frequency-time division multiplexing (OVFTDM)) is proposed in this article. The technique is derived from Nyquist system and frequency-time division multiplexing system. When the signals are compactly overlapped without the orthogonality in time domain, the technique is named overlapped time division multiplexing (OVTDM), whereas when signals are compactly overlapped without the orthogonality in frequency domain, the technique is called overlapped frequency division multiplexing (OVFDM). To further improve spectral efficiency, the OVFTDM in which signals are overlapped both in frequency domain and in time domain is explored. OVFTDM does not depend on orthogonality whatever in time domain or in frequency domain like Nyquist system or OFDM system, but on the convolutional constraint relationship among signals. Therefore, not only the spectral efficiency but also the reliability is improved. The simulations verify the validity of this theory.

  4. LLVM-based overlapped executable code generator

    OpenAIRE

    V. Aranov; A. Terentiev

    2014-01-01

    Overlapped executable code is an attractive artifact of obfuscation technology not yet widely covered and researched. Overlapped code and opaque predicates technologies together allows creation of prominent software obfuscation technologies featuring both obscure executable code and code protected from patching due to hard-to-track relations with other code. The paper provides polynomial algorithm to generate overlapped executable code using LLVM framework and discuss results of the generatio...

  5. Correlated Edge Overlaps in Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Gareth J; da Costa, Rui A; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N; Mendes, José F F

    2016-01-01

    We develop the theory of sparse multiplex networks with partially overlapping links based on their local tree-likeness. This theory enables us to find the giant mutually connected component in a two-layer multiplex network with arbitrary correlations between connections of different types. We find that correlations between the overlapping and non-overlapping links markedly change the phase diagram of the system, leading to multiple hybrid phase transitions. For assortative correlations we observe recurrent hybrid phase transitions.

  6. Overlap syndromes among autoimmune liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Rust; Ulrich Beuers

    2008-01-01

    The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH),primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes,although there has been no standardised definition.Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC.The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form,affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC.Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported.The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children,adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC.Interestingly,transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients,especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome.Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment.Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric,since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders.Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes.In end-stage disease,liver transplantation is the treatment of choice.

  7. Overlap in Facebook Profiles Reflects Relationship Closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Araceli M; Wendel, Markie L; Crockett, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the association between self-reported Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) and Facebook overlap. Ninety-two participants completed online measures of IOS and investment model constructs. Researchers then recorded Facebook data from participants' profile pages. Results from multilevel models revealed that IOS predicted Facebook overlap. Furthermore, Facebook overlap was associated with commitment and investment in ways comparable to self-reported IOS. These findings suggest that overlap in Facebook profiles can be used to measure relationship closeness. PMID:25635533

  8. The Entropy of an Overlapping Dynamical System

    CERN Document Server

    Barnsley, Michael F; Vince, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The term "overlapping" refers to a certain fairly simple type of piecewise continuous function from the unit interval to itself and also to a fairly simple type of iterated function system (IFS) on the unit interval. A correspondence between these two classes of objects is used (1) to find a necessary and sufficient condition for a fractal transformation from the attractor of one overlapping IFS to the attractor of another overlapping IFS to be a homeomorphism and (2) to find a formula for the topological entropy of the dynamical system associated with an overlapping function.

  9. DIMENSIONS OF SELF-AFFINESETS WITH OVERLAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华苏

    2003-01-01

    The authors develop an algorithm to show that a class of self-affine sets with overlaps canbe viewed as sofic affine-invariant sets without overlaps, thus by using the results of [11] and[10], the Hausdorff and Minkowski dimensions are determined.

  10. Bayesian Overlapping Community Detection in Dynamic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorbani, Mahsa; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Detecting community structures in social networks has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, lack of prior knowledge about the number of communities, and their overlapping nature have made community detection a challenging problem. Moreover, many of the existing methods only consider static networks, while most of real world networks are dynamic and evolve over time. Hence, finding consistent overlapping communities in dynamic networks without any prior knowledge about the number of communities is still an interesting open research problem. In this paper, we present an overlapping community detection method for dynamic networks called Dynamic Bayesian Overlapping Community Detector (DBOCD). DBOCD assumes that in every snapshot of network, overlapping parts of communities are dense areas and utilizes link communities instead of common node communities. Using Recurrent Chinese Restaurant Process and community structure of the network in the last snapshot, DBOCD simultaneously extracts the numbe...

  11. Does Government Expenditure on Education Promote Economic Growth? An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijeet, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Education being an important component of human capital has always attracted the interests of economists, researchers and policy makers. Governments across the globe in general and in India in particular are trying to improve the human capital by pumping more investments in education. But the issue that whether improved level of education resulting from more education spending can promote economic growth is still controversial. Some economists and researchers have supported the bi-directional...

  12. Motor Protein Accumulation on Antiparallel Microtubule Overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D

    2016-05-10

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Overlap motor density profiles and motor trajectories resemble experimental measurements. The phase diagram of the model is similar to the single-filament case for low switching rate, while for high switching rate we find a new (to our knowledge) low density-high density-low density-high density phase. The overlap center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would naïvely expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center motor density depends on total overlap length, motor speed, and motor switching rate. The size of the crowded boundary layer near the overlap ends is also dependent on the overlap length and switching rate in addition to the motor speed and bulk concentration. The antiparallel microtubule overlap geometry may offer a previously unrecognized mechanism for biological regulation of protein concentration and consequent activity. PMID:27166811

  13. Motor Protein Accumulation on Antiparallel Microtubule Overlaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-05-01

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Overlap motor density profiles and motor trajectories resemble experimental measurements. The phase diagram of the model is similar to the single-filament case for low switching rate, while for high switching rate we find a new low density-high density-low density-high density phase. The overlap center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would naively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center motor density depends on total overlap length, motor speed, and motor switching rate. The size of the crowded boundary layer near the overlap ends is also dependent on the overlap length and switching rate in addition to the motor speed and bulk concentration. The antiparallel microtubule overlap geometry may offer a previously unrecognized mechanism for biological regulation of protein concentration and consequent activity.

  14. Genomic and Functional Overlap between Somatic and Germline Chromosomal Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan van Heesch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic rearrangements are a common cause of human congenital abnormalities. However, their origin and consequences are poorly understood. We performed molecular analysis of two patients with congenital disease who carried de novo genomic rearrangements. We found that the rearrangements in both patients hit genes that are recurrently rearranged in cancer (ETV1, FOXP1, and microRNA cluster C19MC and drive formation of fusion genes similar to those described in cancer. Subsequent analysis of a large set of 552 de novo germline genomic rearrangements underlying congenital disorders revealed enrichment for genes rearranged in cancer and overlap with somatic cancer breakpoints. Breakpoints of common (inherited germline structural variations also overlap with cancer breakpoints but are depleted for cancer genes. We propose that the same genomic positions are prone to genomic rearrangements in germline and soma but that timing and context of breakage determines whether developmental defects or cancer are promoted.

  15. The new bi - directional compression fracture malunion of calcaneal nail care%新型双向加压钉治疗跟骨骨折畸形愈合的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑慧琳; 余旭辉; 段清萍; 张弘; 饶绮

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨新型双向加压钉治疗跟骨骨折畸形愈合的护理方法。方法:选择陈旧性跟骨骨折畸形愈合患者30例,采集患者症状、体征及 X 线摄片或 CT 检查的相关数据,根据畸形的类型、程度、临床表现,实施新型双向加压钉矫形手术治疗,在围术期进行系统的护理。结果:30例患者33足手术时间15~45 min,平均时间(28.3±6.7)min;术中失血16~52 ml。术后 X 线片及螺旋 CT 扫描复查,均显示跟骨外侧突出骨块及跟骨横径已恢复正常。所有患者均顺利出院,术后随访时间12~30个月,平均17.5个月。 X 线片显示跟骨高度、宽度、Bohler 角基本恢复正常。根据美国骨科足踝外科学会的踝后足评分标准评分,60~70分1例,71~80分5例,81~90分18例,91~100分6例。结论:对陈旧性跟骨骨折患者行新型双向加压钉治疗,在围术期进行精心的护理,可有效减少并发症,提高手术成功率。%Objective:To explore the new bi - directional compression fracture malunion of calcaneal nail care. Methods:30 cases of calcaneal fracture mal-union cases,collecting patient symptoms,signs and X - ray or CT examination of the relevant data,according to the clinical types,degrees,deformity,the im-plementation of the new bi - directional compression nail for treatment of orthopedic operation,in the perioperative period nursing system. Results:30 cases of 33 foot operation time 15 - 45 min,average time was (28. 3 ± 6. 7)min;intraoperative blood loss was 16 - 52 ml. after X - ray and spiral CT scans showed prominent,lateral calcaneus bone block and calcaneal diameter has returned to normal. All patients were successfully discharged,postoperative follow - up, patients were followed up for 12 - 30 months,average 17. 5 months. X - ray showed the calcaneal height,width,the angle of Bohler returned to normal. Ac-cording to the Institute of USA Department of orthopedics of foot and ankle surgery ankle hindfoot score

  16. 三相 AC/DC 双向变流器的控制研究%Research on the Control of Three-Phase AC/DC Bi-Directional Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡惠雄; 陈昊; 吴鹏

    2015-01-01

    Because AC/DC three-phase bi-directional converter can realization bi-directional transmission,it has very wide application in the fields such as motor control,automotive electronics,and new energy power generation.In order to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of the three-phase inverters,this article proposed the full digital software phase-locked loop and the traditional PI control as well as the improvement PI control strategy.By sampling the vector control of three-phase voltage,it realize the d and q axis decoupling control of electric current,q-axis current control of the active power,d-axis current control of reactive power.This control strategy provides one kind of highly effective solution for the three-phase grid-connected inverter,finally confirms the accuracy and the feasibility of this plan through the experiment.%三相 AC/DC 双向变流器由于能够实现能量的双向传输,在电机控制、汽车电子、新能源发电等领域有非常广泛的应用。为提高三相逆变器的可靠性和降低其成本,文中提出全数字软件锁相环和传统 PI 控制以及改进后的 PI 控制策略。通过对采样三相电网电压的矢量控制,实现了 d 、q 轴电流的解耦控制,使 q 轴电流控制有功功率,d 轴电流控制无功功率。此控制策略为三相并网逆变器提供一种高效的解决方案,最后通过实验验证了该方案的正确性与可行性。

  17. Motor protein accumulation on antiparallel microtubule overlaps

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would na\\"ively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center ...

  18. SCLERODERMA OVERLAP SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Overlap syndrome is a condition in which the patient presents with features of two or more diseases. These rheumatic conditions can co-exist in various combinations and are not rare, as myopathy or myositis co-exist in scleroderma in up to3 7% of scleroderma patients. 1 Here we present a case of 49 years old patient of overlap syndrome (Scleroderma (LcSS/Myositis (Dermatomyositis.

  19. Detecting overlapping coding sequences in virus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Chris M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting new coding sequences (CDSs in viral genomes can be difficult for several reasons. The typically compact genomes often contain a number of overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements, which can result in unusual patterns of codon usage; conservation between related sequences can be difficult to interpret – especially within overlapping genes; and viruses often employ non-canonical translational mechanisms – e.g. frameshifting, stop codon read-through, leaky-scanning and internal ribosome entry sites – which can conceal potentially coding open reading frames (ORFs. Results In a previous paper we introduced a new statistic – MLOGD (Maximum Likelihood Overlapping Gene Detector – for detecting and analysing overlapping CDSs. Here we present (a an improved MLOGD statistic, (b a greatly extended suite of software using MLOGD, (c a database of results for 640 virus sequence alignments, and (d a web-interface to the software and database. Tests show that, from an alignment with just 20 mutations, MLOGD can discriminate non-overlapping CDSs from non-coding ORFs with a typical accuracy of up to 98%, and can detect CDSs overlapping known CDSs with a typical accuracy of 90%. In addition, the software produces a variety of statistics and graphics, useful for analysing an input multiple sequence alignment. Conclusion MLOGD is an easy-to-use tool for virus genome annotation, detecting new CDSs – in particular overlapping or short CDSs – and for analysing overlapping CDSs following frameshift sites. The software, web-server, database and supplementary material are available at http://guinevere.otago.ac.nz/mlogd.html.

  20. Correlated edge overlaps in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gareth J.; Bianconi, Ginestra; da Costa, Rui A.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2016-07-01

    We develop the theory of sparse multiplex networks with partially overlapping links based on their local treelikeness. This theory enables us to find the giant mutually connected component in a two-layer multiplex network with arbitrary correlations between connections of different types. We find that correlations between the overlapping and nonoverlapping links markedly change the phase diagram of the system, leading to multiple hybrid phase transitions. For assortative correlations we observe recurrent hybrid phase transitions.

  1. Perceived Non-Overlap of Objects in an Audiovisual Stream/Bounce Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In a stream/bounce display in which two identical visual objects move toward each other, coincide (completely overlap, and then move apart, the objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. Despite the perceptual ambiguity in this display, the streaming percept is dominant. However, a sound burst presented at the time that the objects coincide facilitates the bouncing percept. Herein, we report a perceptual phenomenon in which the overlap between objects is illusorily perceived as a non-overlap in the stream/bounce display accompanied with sound. In the experiment, the amount of overlap between two objects was systematically manipulated in the presence/absence of a sound. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and then asked whether the objects appeared to stream through or bounce off each other. The results were consistent with those of previous studies showing that sound promoted the bouncing percept. Most importantly, the sound presentation facilitated the perception of a non-overlap between the objects instead of a physical overlap, suggesting that the momentary overlap was inadequately perceived. We discuss the possibility that an abrupt sound temporally interrupts visual processing such as the formation of dynamic object representations.

  2. 大数据动态安全SAT双向防御模型的研究%Research on bi-directional defense SAT model of big data dynamic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO En-tao; HU Zhi-gang; YANG Jie

    2014-01-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of big data calculation, and based on the concepts of security research and trustworthy clouds of big data safety,this paper put forward a bi-directional defense system SAT model under big data calculation. The model regul%为了保障大数据计算的安全,结合大数据安全的安全研究和可信云的概念,提出一个大数据计算下SAT的双向防御系统模型。该模型通过动态安全因子对用户数据证据进行规范;逐步确定各行为证据的安全权限,实现行为的可靠性测试,为用户提供最大限度的安全防御。实验结果表明,该系统模型可以有效地提升大数据的数据安全,降低黑客的恶意攻击行为,从而提高大数据分析效率。

  3. Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanquan; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun; Shang, Huiliang

    2013-01-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel full-duplex bi-directional subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system based on commercially available red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) and phosphor-based LED (P-LED) with 575-Mb/s downstream and 225-Mb/s upstream transmission, employing various modulation orders of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). For the downlink, red and green colors/wavelengths are assigned to carry useful information, while blue chip is just kept lighting to maintain the white color illumination, and for the uplink, the low-cost P-LED is implemented. In this demonstration, pre-equalization and post-equalization are also adopted to compensate the severe frequency response of LEDs. Using this scheme, 4-user downlink and 1-user uplink transmission can be achieved. Furthermore, it can support more users by adjusting the bandwidth of each sub-channel. Bit error rates (BERs) of all links are below pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8x 10(-3) after 66-cm free-space delivery. The results show that this scheme has great potential in the practical VLC system.

  4. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity of TiO$_2$- and ZnO-filled bi-directional E-glass fibre-based polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AKANT KUMAR SINGH; SIDDHARTHA; DEEPAK

    2016-08-01

    This paper is about the development of bi-directional E-glass fibre-based polyester composites filled with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO$_2$) fillers, respectively. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three-body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. For this, the three-body abrasion test is done on dry abrasion test rig (TR-50)and analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance. The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner–Lancaster and Wang. A good linear relationship is obtained between specific wear rate and the reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites. It indicates that the experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with theseexisting models. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with filler loading, while hardness, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are increased. TiO$_2$-filled composites were observed to performbetter than ZnO-filled composites under abrasive wear situations. The wear mechanism is studied in correlation with the SEM micrograph of the worn-out surface of composites. Performance optimization of composites is doneby using VIKOR method.

  5. Research on Chinese Word Segmentation Based on Bi- Direction Marching Method and Feature Selection Algorithm%基于双向匹配法和特征选择算法的中文分词技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦范金; 李东普; 岳晓光

    2011-01-01

    Bi-direction marching method is a traditional algorithm, which can find ambiguity but can not solve the ambiguity problem. In order to find a better solution, this paper proposes a combination method based on bidirection marching method and feature selection algorithm. Through the accumulation of corpus, a Chinese word segmentation system is designed. Experimental results show that the new Chinese word segmentation method is better than traditional methods.%传统的双向匹配算法虽然能够发现歧义现象,但是却不能解决歧义问题.为了更好地进行歧义消解,提出了一种基于双向匹配法和特征选择算法的中文分词技术,通过积累的语料库,设计并实现了一个基于两种方法的分词系统.该系统的实验结果表明,基于双向匹配法和特征选择算法的中文分词技术比传统方法的效果要好.

  6. Wavelet fractal character of overlapping signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new method based on the combining of the wavelet theory with the fractal theory and named wavelet fractal peak position method (WFPPM) is introduced to extract the number of the components and the relevant peak positions from overlapping signals in chemistry. The overlapping signal is first transformed into continuous wavelet transform value of time domain in certain dilation range via continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and then changed into capacity dimensions (Dc). The number of the components and the relevant positions of overlapping peaks can be identified easily according to the change of Dc. An investigation concerning the influence of different dilation ranges on the peak positions extracted by WFPPM is also provided. Studies show that WFPPM is and efficient tool for extracting the peak positions and identifying the number of peaks from unresolved signals, even wht\\en this kind of overlapping is significantly serious. Relative errors of less than 1.0% in peak are found when WFPPM is used in the processing of the cadmium(Ⅱ)-indium(Ⅲ) mixture system. The analytical results demonstrate that the desired peak positions can be extracted conveniently, accurately and rapidly from and unresolved signal via WFPPM. Tremendous developing and applications based on currently reported WFPPM in extracting overlapping signals would be expected in the near futrue.

  7. Eat now or later: self-control as an overlapping cognitive mechanism of depression and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Privitera

    Full Text Available While overlapping neurobiological mechanisms are known, relatively little is known about how "self-control" and cognitive affective processing of rewards may also influence the bi-directional risk between obesity and depression. The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which "self-control," measured using a delay discounting task is co-related to BMI and Depression diagnostic thresholds. A within-subjects counterbalanced design was used in which 92 participants (Mean ± SD: BMI = 27.9 ± 3.5, HAMD = 14.7 ± 7.7 completed a series of clinical diagnostic, survey, and demographic questionnaires in a behavioral health laboratory setting. For the delay discounting task, participants chose between one large delayed reward and one successively smaller immediate reward for four food types (dessert, fried food, fruit, and vegetable. Results showed that delay discounting scores were predictive of BMI and depression with lower delay discounting scores associated with higher BMI and HAMD for the dessert (HAMD scores (β = -.197, p = .013, BMI (β = -.239, p < .001 and fried food (HAMD scores (β = -.328, p = .001, BMI (β = -.166, p = .027. Clinical significance was further evident when HAMD and BMI scores were converted to diagnostic thresholds. Only depression and/or atypical depressive symptoms were related to delay discounting scores with the fruit and vegetable. Thus, reduced cognitive affective self-control for impulsive food choices-particularly for "comfort foods" high in fat and sugar-appears to be a shared cognitive mechanism for both conditions perhaps contributing to the high prevalence of co-morbid mood disorders and weight gain.

  8. Image fusion using bi-directional similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Infrared images are widely used in the practical applications to capture abundant information. However, it is still challenging to enhance the infrared image by the visual image. In this paper, we propose an effective method using bidirectional similarity. In the proposed method, we aim to find an optimal solution from many feasible solutions without introducing intermediate image. We employ some priori constraints to meet the requirements of image fusion which can be detailed to preserve both good characteristics in the infrared image and spatial information in the visual image. In the iterative step, we use the matrix with the square of the difference between images to integrate the image holding most information. We call this matrix the bidirectional similarity distance. By the bidirectional similarity distance, we can get the transitive images. Then, we fuse the images according to the weight. Experimental results show that, compared to the traditional image fusion algorithm, fusion images from bidirectional similarity fusion algorithm have greatly improved in the subjective vision, entropy, structural similarity index measurement. We believe that the proposed scheme can have a wide applications.

  9. Overlapping community detection using weighted consensus clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LINTAO YANG; ZETAI YU; JING QIAN; SHOUYIN LIU

    2016-10-01

    Many overlapping community detection algorithms have been proposed. Most of them are unstable and behave non-deterministically. In this paper, we use weighted consensus clustering for combining multiple base covers obtained by classic non-deterministic algorithms to improve the quality of the results. We first evaluate a reliability measure for each community in all base covers and assign a proportional weight to each one. Then we redefine the consensus matrix that takes into account not only the common membership of nodes, but also the reliability of the communities. Experimental results on both artificial and real-world networks show that our algorithm can find overlapping communities accurately.

  10. Using Model-based Overlapping Seed Expansion to detect highly overlapping community structure

    CERN Document Server

    McDaid, Aaron F

    2010-01-01

    As research into community finding in social networks progresses, there is a need for algorithms capable of detecting overlapping community structure. Many algorithms have been proposed in recent years that are capable of assigning each node to more than a single community. The performance of these algorithms tends to degrade when the ground-truth contains a more highly overlapping community structure, with nodes assigned to more than two communities. Such highly overlapping structure is likely to exist in many social networks, such as Facebook friendship networks. In this paper we present a scalable algorithm, MOSES, based on a statistical model of community structure, which is capable of detecting highly overlapping community structure, especially when there is variance in the number of communities each node is in. In evaluation on synthetic data MOSES is found to be superior to existing algorithms, especially at high levels of overlap. We demonstrate MOSES on real social network data by analyzing the netwo...

  11. Thermal management and performance evaluation of a dual bi-directional, soft-switched IGBT-based inverter for the 1st autonomous microgrid power system in Taiwan under various operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chan; Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Lu, Hong-Yi; Tu, Sheng-Xun

    2016-06-01

    The thermal management of the inverter system is of great importance since very high voltage/current will be switched intermittently and/or continuously and high temperature is excruciably detrimental to the service life of electronics, especially for the switching devices such as insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). In this study, a newly developed dual bi-directional IGBT-based inverter in conjunction with autonomous microgrid system is investigated with particular focus on the thermal management and performance evaluation under various operation conditions. Locally enhanced heat transfer approach such as oblique orientation and heat dissipating materials are experimentally investigated. The studied inverter system is initially packaged by a galvanized steel plate (size 62 × 48 × 18 cm) and the switching power is set in the range of 0.5-3 kW. The module is operated at the switching and pulse frequencies of 60 Hz and 20 kHz, respectively. The adoption of heat dissipating material in either paste or film form had experimentally shown to possess the flexibility tailoring heat transfer performance locally. Experimental studies of heat dissipating film with various hotspot scenarios showed that the temperature difference can be appreciably reduced as much as 13.1 and 15.4 °C, respectively with facilitation of one- and two-layers of heat dissipating film. From the measurement results, the measured peak temperature is highly dominated by the thickness of heat dissipating film, showing the dominance of thickness-dependent thermal resistance and resultant heat accumulation phenomena.

  12. 适合于混合动力汽车新型双向DC/DC变换器研究%Study of One Bi-directional DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建明

    2011-01-01

    首先介绍了一种混合动力汽车的基本电路,然后根据要求设计了一种双向变换器,它具有高功率传输能力和最小开关应力,适合于连接超级电容器来驱动混合动力汽车.与一些典型的隔离式双向DC/DC变换器相比,该变换器具有较低的设备应力,并且可通过相移加PWM控制,采用隔离变压器的漏感作为能量传输单元和控制变量.最后,实验波形证明该变换器能较好地应用于混合动力汽车.%The paper first introduces the basic drive system of a hybrid electric vehicle.Then the selection and design of aforementioned converter are proposed. The converter has high powerflow capability and minimum device stresses that can suitably interface a super capacitor with the drive train of a hybrid electric vehicle. Furthermore ,by comparing of the main characteristics and applications with some typical isolated bi-directional DC/DC converter, the proposed converter has low device rating and can be controlled by duty cycle and phase shift. At last,the most important characteristics of this converter is to uses the transformer leakage inductance as the primary energy transfer element and control parameters, the experimental waveforms are given to demonstrate the goodness of this novel topology which is in particular for hybrid electric vehicle.

  13. Power Divergences in Overlapping Wilson Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Berwein, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the divergence structure of Wilson line operators with partially overlapping segments on the basis of the cyclic Wilson loop as an explicit example. The generalized exponentiation theorem is used to show the exponentiation and factorization of power divergences for certain linear combinations of associated loop functions.

  14. Power divergences in overlapping Wilson lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwein, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the divergence structure of Wilson line operators with partially overlapping segments on the basis of the cyclic Wilson loop as an explicit example. The generalized exponentiation theorem is used to show the exponentiation and factorization of power divergences for certain linear combinations of associated loop functions.

  15. Parallelizing SLPA for Scalable Overlapping Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kuzmin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Communities in networks are groups of nodes whose connections to the nodes in a community are stronger than with the nodes in the rest of the network. Quite often nodes participate in multiple communities; that is, communities can overlap. In this paper, we first analyze what other researchers have done to utilize high performance computing to perform efficient community detection in social, biological, and other networks. We note that detection of overlapping communities is more computationally intensive than disjoint community detection, and the former presents new challenges that algorithm designers have to face. Moreover, the efficiency of many existing algorithms grows superlinearly with the network size making them unsuitable to process large datasets. We use the Speaker-Listener Label Propagation Algorithm (SLPA as the basis for our parallel overlapping community detection implementation. SLPA provides near linear time overlapping community detection and is well suited for parallelization. We explore the benefits of a multithreaded programming paradigm and show that it yields a significant performance gain over sequential execution while preserving the high quality of community detection. The algorithm was tested on four real-world datasets with up to 5.5 million nodes and 170 million edges. In order to assess the quality of community detection, at least 4 different metrics were used for each of the datasets.

  16. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. A Note On Computing Set Overlap Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Pierre; Habib, Michel; Limouzy, Vincent; de Montgolfier, Fabien; Raffinot, Mathieu; Rao, Michaël

    2007-01-01

    Let ${\\cal V}$ be a finite set of $n$ elements and ${\\cal F}=\\{X_1,X_2, \\ldots , X_m\\}$ a family of $m$ subsets of ${\\cal V}.$ Two sets $X_i$ and $X_j$ of ${\\cal F}$ overlap if $X_i \\cap X_j \

  18. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  19. On the acoustics of overlapping laughter in conversational speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Trouvain, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The social nature of laughter invites people to laugh together. This joint vocal action often results in overlapping laughter. In this paper, we show that the acoustics of overlapping laughs are different from non-overlapping laughs. We found that overlapping laughs are stronger prosodically marked

  20. 胃肠调节类中西药对胃肠道平滑肌的双向调节作用%Bi-directional Regulation Effect of Chinese and Western Medicines Used in Gastro-Intestine on Gastro-Intestinal Smooth Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段煜; 张俊; 战丽彬; 林原; 唐泽耀

    2011-01-01

    在不同条件下,单味、复方中药对胃肠道平滑肌可产生双向调节作用.其可能机理为多层次网络系统的平衡调节等.从整体、离体器官、分子水平,单一、配对西药也对胃肠道平滑肌产生双向调节作用.这种双向调节作用充分体现网络系统平衡调节的整体性的哲学内涵,遵循对立统一规律辩证哲学观.%Chinese traditional sole or compound medicines may affect on gastro- intestinal smooth muscle in bi- directional regulation under different conditions. The possible mechanism may be as the balanced regulation under multi-level network system. Moreover, sole or pair western medicines also can act on the gastro-intestinal smooth muscle in bi-directional regulation in general body or isolated organ or molecular level. The bi-directional regulation fully manifestate the integrity philosophy connotation of balancing regulation in the network system, following dialectical philosophy law of the unity of opposites.

  1. MOHCS: Towards Mining Overlapping Highly Connected Subgraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiahong; Chen, Kefei; Chiu, David K Y

    2008-01-01

    Many networks in real-life typically contain parts in which some nodes are more highly connected to each other than the other nodes of the network. The collection of such nodes are usually called clusters, communities, cohesive groups or modules. In graph terminology, it is called highly connected graph. In this paper, we first prove some properties related to highly connected graph. Based on these properties, we then redefine the highly connected subgraph which results in an algorithm that determines whether a given graph is highly connected in linear time. Then we present a computationally efficient algorithm, called MOHCS, for mining overlapping highly connected subgraphs. We have evaluated experimentally the performance of MOHCS using real and synthetic data sets from computer-generated graph and yeast protein network. Our results show that MOHCS is effective and reliable in finding overlapping highly connected subgraphs. Keywords-component; Highly connected subgraph, clustering algorithms, minimum cut, m...

  2. EVOG: a database for evolutionary analysis of overlapping genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Chi-Young; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cho, Hwan-Gue

    2008-01-01

    Overlapping genes are defined as a pair of genes whose transcripts are overlapped. Recently, many cases of overlapped genes have been investigated in various eukaryotic organisms; however, their origin and transcriptional control mechanism has not yet been clearly determined. In this study, we implemented evolutionary visualizer for overlapping genes (EVOG), a Web-based DB with a novel visualization interface, to investigate the evolutionary relationship between overlapping genes. Using this ...

  3. Non-omega-overlapping TRSs are UN

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Connor; Kahrs, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves problem #79 of RTA's list of open problems --- in the positive. If the rules of a TRS do not overlap w.r.t. substitutions of infinite terms then the TRS has unique normal forms. We solve the problem by reducing the problem to one of consistency for ``similar'' constructor term rewriting systems. For this we introduce a new proof technique. We define a relation $\\invariant$ that is consistent by construction, and which --- if transitive --- would coincide wi...

  4. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Wurm; Katrin Vogel; Anna Holl; Christoph Ebner; Dietmar Bayer; Sabrina Mörkl; Istvan-Szilard Szilagyi; Erich Hotter; Hans-Peter Kapfhammer; Peter Hofmann

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire ...

  5. Burnout-depression overlap: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Whether burnout is a form of depression or a distinct phenomenon is an object of controversy. The aim of the present article was to provide an up-to-date review of the literature dedicated to the question of burnout-depression overlap. A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed, PsycINFO, and IngentaConnect. A total of 92 studies were identified as informing the issue of burnout-depression overlap. The current state of the art suggests that the distinction between burnout and depression is conceptually fragile. It is notably unclear how the state of burnout (i.e., the end stage of the burnout process) is conceived to differ from clinical depression. Empirically, evidence for the distinctiveness of the burnout phenomenon has been inconsistent, with the most recent studies casting doubt on that distinctiveness. The absence of consensual diagnostic criteria for burnout and burnout research's insufficient consideration of the heterogeneity of depressive disorders constitute major obstacles to the resolution of the raised issue. In conclusion, the epistemic status of the seminal, field-dominating definition of burnout is questioned. It is suggested that systematic clinical observation should be given a central place in future research on burnout-depression overlap.

  6. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  7. Separating cyclostationary signals from spectrally overlapping interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jie; LIU Yun; YE Zhi-hui; SONG Tie-cheng; SHEN Lian-feng

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies an algorithm about separating spectmlly overlapping signals using the cyclostationary properties of signals.On the basis of direct sequence spread system (DSSS),frequency shift filter is added into the receiver of the communication system.Although the structure of frequency shift filter is more complicated than the time-domain filter,it uses both time correlations and frequency spectrum correlations so it can achieve better performances on separating the overlapping signals.After the analysis of cyclostationary characteristic and frequency spectrum correlation,the structure of the frequency shift filter can be gained.Then,a self-adaptive algorithm is utilized for the purpose of achieving optimum multidimensional tap weights of frequency shift components.The simulation results indicate that this method can efficiently separate overlapping signals,and its error rate is lower than the time-domain filter or DSSS system by two orders of magnitude on the condition that high-power interference is added into the system.

  8. Parallel computing method of Monte Carlo criticality calculation based on bi-directional traversal%基于双向遍历的蒙特卡罗临界计算并行方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 宋婧; 龙鹏程; 刘鸿飞; 江平

    2015-01-01

    在基于蒙特卡罗粒子输运方法的反应堆模拟中,如裂变堆、聚变裂变混合堆等,达到可接受的统计误差需要大量的计算时间,这已成为蒙特卡罗方法的挑战问题之一,需通过并行计算技术解决。为解决现有方法中通信死锁的问题并保证负载均衡性,设计了基于双向遍历的临界计算并行算法。该方法基于超级蒙特卡罗核计算仿真软件系统SuperMC进行实现,以池式钠冷快堆BN600基准模型进行验证,并与MCNP进行对比。测试结果表明,串行和并行计算结果一致,且SuperMC并行效率高于MCNP。%Background: It requires much computational time with acceptable statistics errors in reactor simulations including fission reactors and fusion-fission hybrid reactors, which has become one challenge of the Monte Carlo method.Purpose: In this paper, an efficient parallel computing method was presented for resolving the communication deadlock and load balancing problem of current methods.Methods: The parallel computing method based on bi-directional traversal of criticality calculation was implemented in super Monte Carlo simulation program (SuperMC) for nuclear and radiation process. The pool-type sodium cooled fast reactor BN600 was proposed for benchmarking and was compared with MCNP.Results: Results showed that the parallel method and un-parallel methods were in agreement with each other.Conclusion: The parallel efficiency of SuperMC is higher than that of MCNP, which demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the parallel computing method.

  9. A Method of Bi-Directionally Changing-Thickness Design for Airborne Broadband Radome%机载宽频带雷达罩双向变厚度设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓春; 孙世宁; 王茜

    2014-01-01

    新一代战机的火控雷达向着宽频带和相控阵方向发展。针对宽频带相控阵机头雷达罩的高性能要求,提出了“高传输、低反射、等插入相位延迟”综合设计准则。分析了宽频带夹层罩壁结构的电性能特性,针对其相位特性差的情况给出了一种新的双向变厚度设计方法。通过雷达罩轴向变厚度设计以适配不同的入射角获得高传输/低反射性能,通过环向变厚度设计以适配不同的极化角获得接近的插入相位延迟,实现了优良的宽频带传输性能和方向图特性,在雷达罩产品研制中得到应用并发挥了重要作用。%The direction of the new generation airborne fire control radar development is towards broadband and phased array.To aim at the high performance requirements from broadband phased array on radome,this paper put forward the design rule as “high transmission efficiency,low reflection,and equal insertion phase delay”to conduct the required electrical performance analysis.To overcome the unfavorable phase character-istics of sandwich wall structure,this paper raised a new bi-directionally changing thickness design method that utilizes changing thickness along radome axial direction to mate with different incident angles in an effort to achieve high-transmission/low-reflection performance.In addition,changing thickness along radome circu-lar direction can mate with different polarization angles and achieve equal insertion phase delay.Better broad-band transmission efficiency and radiation pattern can thus be achieved.The method proposed in this paper has been used in radome development programs and achieved the best available results.

  10. Investigation on Bi-directional SCR ESD Protection Devices in a 0.18 μm RF CMOS Process%0.18 μm RF CMOS双向可控硅ESD防护器件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯逸辰; 梁海莲; 顾晓峰; 朱兆旻; 董树荣

    2013-01-01

    Based on the bi-directional silicon controlled rectifier (SCR),two novel electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection devices have been proposed,which can prevent ESD stresses on both the positive and the negative directions.While the conventional dual-direction SCR ESD protection device is usually triggered by the avalanche breakdown between N-well and P-well,the two proposed devices use the embedded NMOS/PMOS as the triggering structure to decrease the trigger voltage.Both the modified structures are implemented in a 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and examined by the transmission line pulse testing system.Experimental results indicate that the proposed devices have lower trigger voltage,smaller leakage current (~nA),a protection level passing 2 kV of human body model,and a high holding voltage (>3.3 V),making them immune to the latch-up in 1.8 V or 3.3 V I/O ESD protection applications.%基于传统双向可控硅(DDSCR)提出了两种静电放电(ESD)保护器件,可应对正、负ESD应力从而在2个方向上对电路进行保护.传统的DDSCR通过N-well与P-well之间的雪崩击穿来触发,而提出的新器件则通过嵌入的NMOS/PMOS来改变触发机制、降低触发电压.两种改进结构均在0.18μm RF CMOS下进行流片,并使用传输线脉冲测试系统进行测试.实验数据表明,这两种新器件具有低触发电压、低漏电流(~nA),抗ESD能力均超过人体模型2 kV,同时具有较高的维持电压(均超过3.3V),可保证其可靠地用于1.8V、3.3 V I/O端口而避免出现闩

  11. Analysis and Design of Two-stage Isolated Bi-directional DC/DC Converter%一种两级式隔离型双向DC/DC变换器的分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东; 王一军

    2016-01-01

    A two-stage isolated bi-directional DC/DC converter is proposed. The converter is composed of a regulated front-end DC/DC converter and a unregulated back-end LLC resonant converter. When the energy flows from low-voltage DC bus to high-voltage DC bus, the converter is equivalent to Boost converter cascaded full bridge LLC resonant converter with output voltage doubling. When the energy flow is reversed, the converter is equivalent to half bridge LLC resonant converter cascaded Buck converter. The operational theory and key design point are analyzed, and efficiency-oriented optimization method of middle-voltage DC bus is proposed. A prototype of 1kW, 12 V/336 V is build, and the optimum nominal voltage of middle-voltage DC bus is 50 V. The experimental results verify the good performance of the proposed converter.%提出了一种两级式隔离型双向DC/DC变换器,该变换器包含一个闭环的前级DC/DC变换器和一个开环的后级LLC谐振变换器。当能量从低压直流母线传输到高压直流母线时,变换器等效为Boost变换器+全桥倍压LLC谐振变换器;当能量反方向流动时,变换器等效为半桥LLC谐振变换器+Buck变换器。通过分析变换器工作原理与设计要点,提出了以效率为目标的中间直流母线电压优化方法,并研制了1台12 V/336 V、1 kW的样机,其优化后的中间直流母线电压额定值为50 V。样机实验结果验证了所提变换器的良好工作性能。

  12. BI-DIRECTIONAL ANONYMOUS IDENTITY AUTHENTICATION SCHEME FOR CLOUD COMPUTING BASED ON SECURITY ACTIVE BUNDLE%基于安全活跃束S AB的匿名双向云身份认证方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼文; 吴承荣

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic and transparent cloud brings infinite possibility to people’s life;meanwhile it also imposes greater challenges on theincreasing privacy and security problems of digital identity in virtual world.Digital identity has a close relationship with information services.Before accessing or sharing the resources,the identities of both users and services providers should be authenticated each other.In particular,when the identity theft is rampant,telling authentication on users,partners and cloud services providers is the crucial measurement.Weanalyse the status quo of cloud identity authentication and the challenges encountering,and propose a scheme named “security active bundle(SAB)cloud identity authentication”based on predicate encryption and Active Bundle idea,which realises the bi-directional anonymousauthentication between the end user and the cloud,or among the clouds.This scheme strengthens the privacy protection of personal sensitiveinformation and no longer depends on the trusted third party,etc.%动态透明的云给人们的生活带来了无限的可能,同时也对虚拟世界中与日俱增的数字身份的隐私和安全问题提出了更大的挑战。数字身份和信息服务有着密切关系,在访问或分享资源前,用户和服务双方的身份都有必要先通过认证。特别是当身份窃取猖獗的时候,有力地用户认证、合作伙伴认证、云服务提供商认证等是至关重要的措施。分析云身份认证的现状和面临的挑战,基于谓词加密和Active Bundle思想提出了安全活跃束SAB(Security Active Bundle)云身份认证方案,实现了终端用户与云以及云之间的双向匿名认证,加强了个人敏感信息隐私保护和不再依赖可信第三方等。

  13. Influence of slice overlap on positron emission tomography image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Clare; Gillen, Gerry; Dempsey, Mary Frances; Findlay, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    PET scans use overlapping acquisition beds to correct for reduced sensitivity at bed edges. The optimum overlap size for the General Electric (GE) Discovery 690 has not been established. This study assesses how image quality is affected by slice overlap. Efficacy of 23% overlaps (recommended by GE) and 49% overlaps (maximum possible overlap) were specifically assessed. European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for calculating minimum injected activities based on overlap size were also reviewed. A uniform flood phantom was used to assess noise (coefficient of variation, (COV)) and voxel accuracy (activity concentrations, Bq ml-1). A NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) body phantom with hot/cold spheres in a background activity was used to assess contrast recovery coefficients (CRCs) and signal to noise ratios (SNR). Different overlap sizes and sphere-to-background ratios were assessed. COVs for 49% and 23% overlaps were 9% and 13% respectively. This increased noise was difficult to visualise on the 23% overlap images. Mean voxel activity concentrations were not affected by overlap size. No clinically significant differences in CRCs were observed. However, visibility and SNR of small, low contrast spheres (⩽13 mm diameter, 2:1 sphere to background ratio) may be affected by overlap size in low count studies if they are located in the overlap area. There was minimal detectable influence on image quality in terms of noise, mean activity concentrations or mean CRCs when comparing 23% overlap with 49% overlap. Detectability of small, low contrast lesions may be affected in low count studies—however, this is a worst-case scenario. The marginal benefits of increasing overlap from 23% to 49% are likely to be offset by increased patient scan times. A 23% overlap is therefore appropriate for clinical use. An amendment to EANM guidelines for calculating injected activities is also proposed which better reflects the effect overlap size has

  14. Overlap Quark Propagator in Coulomb Gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Schröck, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The chirally symmetric Overlap quark propagator is explored in Coulomb gauge. This gauge is well suited for studying the relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, since confinement can be attributed to the infrared divergent Lorentz-vector dressing function. Using quenched gauge field configurations on a $20^4$ lattice, the quark propagator dressing functions are evaluated, the dynamical quark mass is extracted and the chiral limit of these quantities is discussed. By removing the low-lying modes of the Dirac operator, chiral symmetry is artificially restored. Its effect on the dressing functions is discussed.

  15. Technology initiatives with government/business overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Robert H., Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Three important present-day technology development settings involve significant overlap between government and private sectors. The Advanced Research Project Agency for Energy (ARPA-E) supports a wide range of "high risk, high return" projects carried out in academic, non-profit or private business settings. The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI), based in the White House, aims at radical acceleration of the development process for advanced materials. California public utilities such as Pacific Gas & Electric operate under a structure of financial returns and political program mandates that make them arms of public policy as much as independent businesses.

  16. Diffuse interstitial lung disease: overlaps and uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Histopathological analysis of lung biopsy material allows the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; however, the strength of this diagnosis is sometimes subverted by interobserver variation and sampling. The American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations of 2002 provide a framework for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and proposed an integrated clinical, radiological and histopathological approach. These recommendations represent a break with tradition by replacing the 'gold standard' of histopathology with the combined 'silver standards' of clinical, imaging and histopathological information. One of the pitfalls of a rigid classification system for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is its failure to accommodate the phenomenon of overlapping disease patterns. This article reviews the various ways that interstitial lung disease may be classified and discusses their applicability. In addition the issue of overlap disease patterns is considered in the context of histopathological interobserver variation and sampling error and how a pigeonhole approach to disease classification may overlook these hybrid entities. (orig.)

  17. Activation of words with phonological overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Friedrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lexical representations overlapping with the input (cohort neighbors are temporarily activated in the listener’s mental lexicon when speech unfolds in time. Activation for cohort neighbors appears to rapidly decline as soon as there is mismatch with the input. However, it is a matter of debate whether or not they are completely excluded from further processing. We recorded behavioral data and event-related brain potentials (ERPs in auditory-visual word onset priming during a lexical decision task. As primes we used the first two syllables of spoken German words. In a carrier word condition, the primes were extracted from spoken versions of the target words (ano-ANORAK 'anorak'. In a cohort neighbor condition, the primes were taken from words that overlap with the target word up to the second nucleus (ana- taken from ANANAS 'pineapple'. Relative to a control condition, where primes and targets were unrelated, lexical decision responses for cohort neighbors were delayed. This reveals that cohort neighbors are disfavored by the decision processes at the behavioral front end. In contrast, left-anterior ERPs reflected long-lasting facilitated processing of cohort neighbors. We interpret these results as evidence for extended parallel processing of cohort neighbors. That is, in parallel to the preparation and elicitation of delayed lexical decision responses to cohort neighbors, aspects of the processing system appear to keep track of those less efficient candidates.

  18. Non-perturbative renormalisation for overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using non-perturbative techniques we have found the renormalisation factor, Z, in the RI-MOM scheme for quark bilinear operators in quenched QCD. We worked with overlap fermions using the Luescher-Weisz gauge action. Our calculation was performed at β = 8.45 at a lattice spacing of 1/a=2.1 GeV using a value of ρ = 1.4. Our results show good agreement between the vector and the axial vector in the zero mass limit. This shows that overlap fermions have good chiral properties. To attempt to improve the discretisation errors in our results we subtracted the O(a2) terms in one-loop lattice perturbation theory from the Monte Carlo Green functions. In particular we paid attention to the operators for the observable left angle x right angle. We found a value for the renormalisation constants ZMSv2b and ZMSv2a just less than 1.9 at μ = 1/a = 2.1 GeV. (orig.)

  19. Symptom overlap in anxiety and multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Donnchadha, Seán

    2013-02-14

    BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.

  20. Monobloc分段截骨双向牵引治疗婴儿Crouzon综合征%Segmental monobloc osteotomy and bi-directional distraction for the treatment of Crouzon syndrome in an infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈卫民; 崔杰; 陈建兵; 陈海妮; 邹继军; 季易

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结Monobloc截骨、外置牵引和上颌骨延长在婴儿Crouzon综合征伴颅缝早闭后缩病例的治疗经验。方法 对1例9个月的女婴经颅内外联合径路进行手术。设计Monobloc 截骨线,将整个面骨分成额部、眶部、上颌3段截骨,固定后前移重塑颅面骨,并外置牵引器,将额、双侧眼眶和面中部颧骨上颌骨整体逐步前移,同时内置延长器向下延长上颌骨,牵引结束后固定3个月。结果 患儿顺利完成Monobloc截骨牵引,牵引器调节螺丝杆前移达18 mm,三维影像测量颅面骨实际前移12 mm。牵引结束时、拆除牵引器后1个月及6个月均显示患者面部轮廓有6 mm的回缩,头部畸形和面中部严重凹陷得到良好纠正,患儿突眼、反咬合得到完全纠正,术前重度阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征改善,但上颌向下延长长度有限。结论 Monobloc截骨外置牵引和上颌骨延长可以应用于婴儿Crouzon综合征,并且为呼吸困难型的Crouzon综合征患儿提供了一种早期的安全有效的治疗方法。%Objective To discuss the segmental monobloc osteotomy and bi-directional distraction for the treatment of Crouzon syndrome in an infant. Methods A 9-month-old female infant underwent monobloc osteotomy through combined intra- and extra-cranial way. The facial skull was divided into frontal, orbital and maxillary segments. The external distractor was used to move the frontal segment, orbital segment and midface forward. The internal distractor was used to move the maxilla downward. The consolidation lasted for 3 months after distraction. Results The osteotomy and distraction were successfully completed. The distraction distance reached 18 mm, showing by distractor. The real distraction distance of facial bone was 12 mm, documented by 3-D image. The skull deformity and severe depression of midface improved a lot. The exophthalmos and underbite were corrected. The obstructive sleep

  1. A Social Network Model Exhibiting Tunable Overlapping Community Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Blenn, N.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks, as well as many other real-world networks, exhibit overlapping community structure. In this paper, we present formulas which facilitate the computation for characterizing the overlapping community structure of networks. A hypergraph representation of networks with overlapping commun

  2. Social externalities, overlap and the poverty trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chul; Loury, Glenn C

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies find that some social groups are stuck in poverty traps because of network effects. However, these studies do not carefully analyze how these groups overcome low human capital investment activities. Unlike previous studies, the model in this paper includes network externalities in both the human capital investment stage and the subsequent career stages. This implies that not only the current network quality, but also the expectations about future network quality affect the current investment decision. Consequently, the coordinated expectation among the group members can play a crucial role in the determination of the final state. We define "overlap" for some initial skill ranges, whereby the economic performance of a group can be improved simply by increasing expectations of a brighter future. We also define "poverty trap" for some ranges, wherein a disadvantaged group is constrained by its history, and we explore the egalitarian policies to mobilize the group out of the trap.

  3. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... coding genes. Here, we repredict the protein-coding genes of the C. trachomatis genome using the gene-finder EasyGene that was trained specifically for C. trachomatis, and compare it with the primary C. trachomatis annotation. Our work predicts 15 genes not listed in the primary annotation and 853...... that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...

  4. Grid adaptation using chimera composite overlapping meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite overlapping meshes in regions of large gradient to accurately capture the salient features during computation. The chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using trilinear interpolation. Application to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well-resolved.

  5. Grid adaption using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

  6. Geometrical constraint experimental determination of Raman lidar overlap profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Li, Chengcai; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Jing; Chu, Yiqi

    2016-06-20

    A simple experimental method to determine the overlap profile of Raman lidar is presented in this paper. Based on Mie and Raman backscattering signals and a geometrically constrained condition, the overlap profile of a Raman lidar system can be determined. Our approach simultaneously retrieves the lidar ratio of aerosols, which is one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the overlap profile determination. The results indicate that the overlap factor is significantly influenced by the lidar ratio in experimental methods. A representative case study indicates that the correction of the overlap profile obtained by this method is practical and feasible. PMID:27409119

  7. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wurm

    Full Text Available Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three "core" components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians.In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI, the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI, as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8% participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis.Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21-4.06 for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58-13.59 for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25-62.24 for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96-136.74 for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components. The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92 explained more HBI_sum variance than the three "core" components (adj.R2 = 0.85 of burnout combined. Cronbach's alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three "core" components.This study demonstrates the

  8. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Walter; Vogel, Katrin; Holl, Anna; Ebner, Christoph; Bayer, Dietmar; Mörkl, Sabrina; Szilagyi, Istvan-Szilard; Hotter, Erich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8%) participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis. Results Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21–4.06) for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58–13.59) for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25–62.24) for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96–136.74) for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components). The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization) tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy) than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92) explained more HBI_sum variance than the three “core” components (adj.R2 = 0.85) of burnout combined. Cronbach’s alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three

  9. EVOG: a database for evolutionary analysis of overlapping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Chi-Young; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cho, Hwan-Gue

    2009-01-01

    Overlapping genes are defined as a pair of genes whose transcripts are overlapped. Recently, many cases of overlapped genes have been investigated in various eukaryotic organisms; however, their origin and transcriptional control mechanism has not yet been clearly determined. In this study, we implemented evolutionary visualizer for overlapping genes (EVOG), a Web-based DB with a novel visualization interface, to investigate the evolutionary relationship between overlapping genes. Using this technique, we collected and analyzed all overlapping genes in human, chimpanzee, orangutan, marmoset, rhesus, cow, dog, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus, zebrafish and Drosophila. This integrated database provides a manually curated database that displays the evolutionary features of overlapping genes. The EVOG DB components included a number of overlapping genes (10074 in human, 10,009 in chimpanzee, 67,039 in orangutan, 51,001 in marmoset, 219 in rhesus, 3627 in cow, 209 in dog, 10,700 in mouse, 7987 in rat, 1439 in chicken, 597 in Xenopus, 2457 in zebrafish and 4115 in Drosophila). The EVOG database is very effective and easy to use for the analysis of the evolutionary process of overlapping genes when comparing different species. Therefore, EVOG could potentially be used as the main tool to investigate the evolution of the human genome in relation to disease by comparing the expression profiles of overlapping genes. EVOG is available at http://neobio.cs.pusan.ac.kr/evog/. PMID:18986995

  10. Enzymatic assembly of overlapping DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    Three methods for assembling multiple, overlapping DNA molecules are described. Each method shares the same basic approach: (i) an exonuclease removes nucleotides from the ends of double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules, exposing complementary single-stranded (ss) DNA overhangs that are specifically annealed; (ii) the ssDNA gaps of the joined molecules are filled in by DNA polymerase, and the nicks are covalently sealed by DNA ligase. The first method employs the 3'-exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase (T4 pol), Taq DNA polymerase (Taq pol), and Taq DNA ligase (Taq lig) in a two-step thermocycled reaction. The second method uses 3'-exonuclease III (ExoIII), antibody-bound Taq pol, and Taq lig in a one-step thermocycled reaction. The third method employs 5'-T5 exonuclease, Phusion® DNA polymerase, and Taq lig in a one-step isothermal reaction and can be used to assemble both ssDNA and dsDNA. These assembly methods can be used to seamlessly construct synthetic and natural genes, genetic pathways, and entire genomes and could be very useful for molecular engineering tools. PMID:21601685

  11. Overlapping Zone Partitioning Localisation Technique for RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basically used for contactless identification, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology was originallythought as a complement for the drawbacks of the Barcode. Due to its capabilities and on-going drop in cost,researchers have started to look into other areas where RFID can be employed. One such area of research isReal-Time Location Tracking (RTLT, especially for indoor environments. While technologies such as Ultra-Sound, Infrared, WiFi, Bluetooth and GSM have been considered for indoor localisation, their requirements forline of sight and/or prohibitive cost have hindered their successful adoption. We are therefore presenting a lowcostsolution using RFID technology which we refer to as the ‘Overlapping Zone Partitioning’ (OZP techniquethat can be implemented using basic off-the-shelf RFID Readers and which has been derived from the zonebasedlocalisation technique. We have successfully implemented OZP and evaluated its performance. It hasbeen found that its accuracy is enhanced by nearly 40% in comparison to a normal zone-based localisationsystem. Its performance in terms of correct zone classification is within the range of 80-90%.

  12. Some Indices of Alphabet Overlap Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Yang; Zhao-Lan Yang; He-Ping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The undirected de Bruijn graph is often used as the model of communication network for its useful properties,such as short diameter,small maximum vertex degree.In this paper,we consider the alphabet overlap graph G(k,d,s):the vertex set V ={vㄧv =(v1…vk); vi ∈ {1,2,…,d},i =1,2,…,k}; they are distinct and two vertices u =(u1…uk) and v =(v1…vk) are adjacent if and only if us+i =vi or vs+i =ui (i =1,2,…,k-s).In particular,when s =1,G(k,d,s) is just an undirected de Bruijn graph.First,we give a formula to calculate the vertex degree of G(k,d,s).Then,we use the corollary of Menger's theorem to prove that the connectivity of G(k,d,s) is 2ds-2d2s-k for s ≥ k/2.

  13. Axial anomaly and index of the overlap hypercube operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overlap hypercube fermion is constructed by inserting a lattice fermion with hypercubic couplings into the overlap formula. One obtains an exact Ginsparg-Wilson fermion, which is more complicated than the standard overlap fermion, but which has improved practical properties and is of current interest for use in numerical simulations. Here we deal with conceptual aspects of the overlap hypercube Dirac operator. Specifically, we evaluate the axial anomaly and the index, demonstrating that the correct classical continuum limit is recovered. Our derivation is non-perturbative and therefore valid in all topological sectors. At the non-perturbative level this result had previously only been shown for the standard overlap Dirac operator with Wilson kernel. The new techniques which we develop to accomplish this also for hypercubic kernels are of a general nature and have the potential to be extended to overlap Dirac operators with even more general kernels. (orig.)

  14. A Model-Based Framework to Overlap Product Development Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan Krishnan; Steven D. Eppinger; Whitney, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    Intense competition in many industries forces manufacturing firms to develop new, higher quality products at an increasingly rapid pace. Overlapping product development activities is an important component of concurrent product development that can help firms develop products faster. However, since product development activities may be coupled in complex ways, overlapping interrelated activities can present many difficulties. Without careful management of the overlapped product development pr...

  15. Do Neutrino Wave Functions Overlap and Does it Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Studies of neutrinos commonly ignore anti-symmetrization of their wave functions. This implicitly assumes that either spatial wave functions for neutrinos with approximately the same momentum do not overlap or their overlapping has no measurable consequences. We examine these assumptions by considering the evolution of three-dimensional neutrino wave packets (WPs). We find that it is perfectly adequate to treat accelerator and reactor neutrinos as separate WPs for typical experimental setup. While solar and supernova neutrinos correspond to overlapping WPs, they can be treated effectively as non-overlapping for analyses of their detection.

  16. Nested Genetic Algorithm for Resolving Overlapped Spectral Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A nested genetic algorithm, including genetic parameter level and genetic implemented level for peak parameters, was proposed and applied for resolving overlapped spectral bands. By the genetic parameter level, parameters of genetic algorithm were optimized; moreover, the number of overlapped peaks was determined simultaneously. Then parameters of individual peaks were computed with the genetic implemented level.

  17. Overlaps of Partial Neel States and Bethe States

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O

    2015-01-01

    Partial Neel states are generalizations of the ordinary Neel (classical anti-ferromagnet) state that can have arbitrary integer spin. We study overlaps of these states with Bethe states. We first identify this overlap with a partial version of reflecting-boundary domain-wall partition function, and then derive various determinant representations for off-shell and on-shell Bethe states.

  18. Compressed Sensing Inspired Image Reconstruction from Overlapped Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key idea discussed in this paper is to reconstruct an image from overlapped projections so that the data acquisition process can be shortened while the image quality remains essentially uncompromised. To perform image reconstruction from overlapped projections, the conventional reconstruction approach (e.g., filtered backprojection (FBP algorithms cannot be directly used because of two problems. First, overlapped projections represent an imaging system in terms of summed exponentials, which cannot be transformed into a linear form. Second, the overlapped measurement carries less information than the traditional line integrals. To meet these challenges, we propose a compressive sensing-(CS- based iterative algorithm for reconstruction from overlapped data. This algorithm starts with a good initial guess, relies on adaptive linearization, and minimizes the total variation (TV. Then, we demonstrated the feasibility of this algorithm in numerical tests.

  19. Piles, Tabs and Overlaps in Navigation among Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2010-01-01

    Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles. In an experim......Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles....... In an experiment we compared 11 participants’ navigation with these variations and found strong task effects. Overall, overlapping windows were preferred and their structured layout worked well with some tasks. Surprisingly, tabbed documents were efficient in tasks requiring simply finding a document. Piled...... on document navigation and its support by piling....

  20. Prevention of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies. In this study, we used health insurance claims (i.e., receipts) for dispensing as the main source of information in an investigation of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. A total of 119 patients were found to have received overlapping prescriptions, as identified by community pharmacists who were members of the Saitama Pharmaceutical Association, using patient medication records, followed by medication counseling and prescription notes for the patient. According to our findings, the most frequently overlapping medication was etizolam. Etizolam can be prescribed for more than 30 days since it is not regulated under Japanese law as a "psychotropic drug." Generally, when a drug can be prescribed for a greater number of days, it increases the likelihood of an overlapping prescription during the same period. As a result, the long-term prescription of etizolam increases the risk of overlapping prescriptions. We also found that the patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam were mostly elderly and the most common pattern was prescription from both internal medicine and orthopedics physicians. Etizolam has wide range of indications that are covered by health insurance. Our results suggest that patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam may receive prescriptions from different prescribers for different purposes. Therefore, it may be appropriate to regulate etizolam as a "psychotropic drug" under Japanese law

  1. An extension to artifact-free projection overlaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In multipinhole single photon emission computed tomography, the overlapping of projections has been used to increase sensitivity. Avoiding artifacts in the reconstructed image associated with projection overlaps (multiplexing) is a critical issue. In our previous report, two types of artifact-free projection overlaps, i.e., projection overlaps that do not lead to artifacts in the reconstructed image, were formally defined and proved, and were validated via simulations. In this work, a new proposition is introduced to extend the previously defined type-II artifact-free projection overlaps so that a broader range of artifact-free overlaps is accommodated. One practical purpose of the new extension is to design a baffle window multipinhole system with artifact-free projection overlaps. Methods: First, the extended type-II artifact-free overlap was theoretically defined and proved. The new proposition accommodates the situation where the extended type-II artifact-free projection overlaps can be produced with incorrectly reconstructed portions in the reconstructed image. Next, to validate the theory, the extended-type-II artifact-free overlaps were employed in designing the multiplexing multipinhole spiral orbit imaging systems with a baffle window. Numerical validations were performed via simulations, where the corresponding 1-pinhole nonmultiplexing reconstruction results were used as the benchmark for artifact-free reconstructions. The mean square error (MSE) was the metric used for comparisons of noise-free reconstructed images. Noisy reconstructions were also performed as part of the validations. Results: Simulation results show that for noise-free reconstructions, the MSEs of the reconstructed images of the artifact-free multiplexing systems are very similar to those of the corresponding 1-pinhole systems. No artifacts were observed in the reconstructed images. Therefore, the testing results for artifact-free multiplexing systems designed using the

  2. In-Band Full-Duplex Communications for Cellular Networks with Partial Uplink/Downlink Overlap

    KAUST Repository

    Alammouri, Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Karim

    2015-12-06

    In-band full-duplex (FD) communications have been optimistically promoted to improve the spectrum utilization in cellular networks. However, the explicit impact of spatial interference, imposed by FD communications, on uplink and downlink transmissions has been overlooked in the literature. This paper presents an extensive study of the explicit effect of FD communications on the uplink and downlink performances. For the sake of rigorous analysis, we develop a tractable framework based on stochastic geometry toolset. The developed model accounts for uplink truncated channel inversion power control in FD cellular networks. The study shows that FD communications improve the downlink throughput at the expense of significant degradation in the uplink throughput. Therefore, we propose a novel fine-grained duplexing scheme, denoted as α-duplex scheme, which allows a partial overlap between uplink and downlink frequency bands. To this end, we show that the amount of the overlap can be optimized via adjusting α to achieve a certain design objective.

  3. Combining Density and Overlap (CoDO): A New Method for Assessing the Significance of Overlap Among Subgraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Magner, Abram; Grama, Ananth

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms for detecting clusters (including overlapping clusters) in graphs have received significant attention in the research community. A closely related important aspect of the problem -- quantification of statistical significance of overlap of clusters, remains relatively unexplored. This paper presents the first theoretical and practical results on quantifying statistically significant interactions between clusters in networks. Such problems commonly arise in diverse applications, ranging from social network analysis to systems biology. The paper addresses the problem of quantifying the statistical significance of the observed overlap of the two clusters in an Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi graph model. The analytical framework presented in the paper assigns a $p$-value to overlapping subgraphs by combining information about both the sizes of the subgraphs and their edge densities in comparison to the corresponding values for their overlapping component. This $p$-value is demonstrated to have excellent discriminati...

  4. 单向活瓣补片治疗合并重度肺动脉高压双向分流型室间隔缺损%One - way - valved patch for repair of ventricular septal defect with severe pulmonary hypertension with Bi-directional shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵双印

    2009-01-01

    目的 总结本院自2003年至2008年用自制单向活瓣补片治疗合并重度肺动脉高压双向分流型室间隔缺损15例的经验.方法 对收治的15例合并重度肺动脉高压双向分流的室间隔缺损患者行单向活瓣补片修补室间隔缺损.结果 本组15例病人无手术死亡,疗效满意,1周时有7例右向左分流,3周时右向左分流消失.随访3个月病人自觉症状改善,肺动脉压下降.结论 单向活瓣补片能降低肺动脉高压危象的发生率,降低围术期死亡率,围术期的管理也非常重要.%Objective To summerize the surgical effect with one - way - valved patch to treat vetricular septal de-feet with severe pulmonary hypertension with bi - directional shunt since 2003. Methods The materials of 15 patients with ventricular septal defect and severe PH with bi- directional shunt who were treated by one- way- valved patch were ana-lyzed. Results No patient died in hospital after operation due to pulmonary hypertention crisis and the low output of left ventrical. Most patients felt better than preoperation and their pulmonary artery pressure decreased gradually. Conclusions One -way -valved patch is useful in decreasing the rate of perioparative pulmonary hypertension crisis and perioperation mortality. The perioperative therapy and prioperative evaluation are also essential to raise surgical operation effect.

  5. Flight performance and feather quality: paying the price of overlapping moult and breeding in a tropical highland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Echeverry-Galvis

    Full Text Available A temporal separation of energetically costly life history events like reproduction and maintenance of the integumentary system is thought to be promoted by selection to avoid trade-offs and maximize fitness. It has therefore remained somewhat of a paradox that certain vertebrate species can undergo both events simultaneously. Identifying potential costs of overlapping two demanding life history stages will further our understanding of the selection pressures that shape the temporal regulation of life history events in vertebrates. We studied free-living tropical Slaty brush-finches (Atlapetes schistaceus, in which individuals spontaneously overlap reproduction and moult or undergo both events in separation. To assess possible costs of such an overlap we quantified feather quality and flight performance of individuals in different states. We determined individual's life history state by measuring gonad size and scoring moult stage, and collected a newly grown 7(th primary wing feather for later analysis of feather quality. Finally, we quantified flight performance for each individual in the wild. Overlapping individuals produced lighter and shorter wing feathers than individuals just moulting, with females decreasing feather quality more strongly during the overlap than males. Moreover, overlapping individuals had a reduced flight speed during escape flights, while their foraging flight speed was unaffected. Despite overlappers being larger and having a smaller wing area, their lower body mass resulted in a similar wing load as in breeders or moulters. Individuals measured repeatedly in different states also showed significant decreases in feather quality and escape flight speed during the overlap. Reduced escape flight speed may represent a major consequence of the overlap by increasing predation risk. Our data document costs to undergoing two life history stages simultaneously, which likely arise from energetic trade-offs. Impairments in

  6. A Guide to Using STITCHER for Overlapping Assembly PCR Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping PCR is commonly used in many molecular applications that include stitching PCR fragments together, generating fluorescent transcriptional and translational fusions, inserting mutations, making deletions, and PCR cloning. Overlapping PCR is also used for genotyping and in detection experiments using techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). STITCHER is a web tool providing a central resource for researchers conducting all types of overlapping assembly PCR experiments with an intuitive interface for automated primer design that's fast, easy to use, and freely available online.

  7. A Guide to Using STITCHER for Overlapping Assembly PCR Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping PCR is commonly used in many molecular applications that include stitching PCR fragments together, generating fluorescent transcriptional and translational fusions, inserting mutations, making deletions, and PCR cloning. Overlapping PCR is also used for genotyping and in detection experiments using techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). STITCHER is a web tool providing a central resource for researchers conducting all types of overlapping assembly PCR experiments with an intuitive interface for automated primer design that's fast, easy to use, and freely available online. PMID:27671928

  8. Genetic overlap among intelligence and other candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, Maartje F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Kemner, Chantal; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A strategy to improve genetic studies of schizophrenia involves the use of endophenotypes. Information on overlapping genetic contributions among endophenotypes may provide additional power, reveal biological pathways, and have practical implications for genetic research. Several cogniti

  9. Overlapping Communities Detection Based on Link Partition in Directed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described as networks to comprehend both the structure and the function. Community structure is one of the most important properties of complex networks. Detecting overlapping communities in networks have been more attention in recent years, but the most of approaches to this problem have been applied to the undirected networks. This paper presents a novel approach based on link partition to detect overlapping communities structure in directed networks. In contrast to previous researches focused on grouping nodes, our algorithm defines communities as groups of directed links rather than nodes with the purpose of nodes naturally belong to more than one community. This approach can identify a suitable number of overlapping communities without any prior knowledge about the community in directed networks. We evaluate our algorithm on a simple artificial network and several real-networks. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm proposed is efficient for detecting overlapping communities in directed networks.  

  10. Analysis of Surface Roughness at Overlapping Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, F. Z.; Zhang, Z. D.; Zhou, J. Z.; Lu, J. Z.; Zhang, Y. K.

    2016-02-01

    The overlapping effects on surface roughness are studied when samples are treated by laser shock peening (LSP). Surface roughness of overlapped circular laser spot is calculated by ISO 25178 height parameters. The usually used overlapping styles namely isosceles-right-triangle-style (AAP) and equilateral-triangle-style (AAA) are carefully investigated when the overlapping degree in x-axis (ηx) is below 50%. Surface roughness of isosceles-right-triangle-style attains its minimum value at ηx of 29.3%, and attains its maximum value at ηx of 43.6%. Surface roughness of equilateral-triangle-style attains its minimum value at ηx of 42.3%, and attains its maximum value at ηx of 32%. Experimental results are well consistent with theoretical analysis.

  11. On the interpretation of wave function overlaps in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneous emission rate of excitons strongly confined in quantum dots (QDs) is proportional to the overlap integral of electron and hole envelope wave functions. A common and intuitive interpretation of this result is that the spontaneous emission rate is proportional to the probability...... that the electron and the hole are located at the same point or region in space, i.e., they must coincide spatially to recombine. Here, we show that this interpretation is not correct even loosely speaking. By general mathematical considerations we compare the envelope wave function overlap, the exchange overlap...... integral, and the probability of electrons and holes coinciding, and find that the frequency dependence of the envelope wave function overlap integral is very different from that expected from the common interpretation. We show that these theoretical considerations lead to predictions for measurements. We...

  12. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or toxins that meet any of the following criteria are excluded... Equine Encephalitis virus (c) Genetic Elements, Recombinant Nucleic Acids, and Recombinant Organisms:...

  13. Phenotype of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Chin Kook

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a ...

  14. Regional security overlaps in EU-Turkey affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Cramer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout this project I analyze how the EU security community operates to secure dependable expectations of peaceful outcomes through its security cooperation with Turkey. This is done by examining EU security overlaps in the Turkey-EU security cooperation, Turkey EU-accession and the EU-Turkish energy security cooperation in the Caspian region with a focus on the Nabucco project. I conclude that the integration of Turkey into the EU security community reveals overlapping security concerns ...

  15. A novel symbol overlapping FFH-OCDMA system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengbin Shen(沈成彬); Chen Wu(吴琛); Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A novel symbol overlapping optical fast frequency-hop code-division multiple access(FFH-OCDMA)sys-tem is proposed,and its bit error rate(BER)performance is investigated under consideration of avalanchephotonic diode(APD)noise auid thermal noise.An experimental symbol overlapping(SO)FFH-OCDMAtestbed is developed and some experimental results axe given.The theoretical and experimental resultsshow that the system is apt to implement and has larger throughput.

  16. Evaluating Overlapping Communities with the Conductance of their Boundary Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Frank; Gläser, Jochen; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Usually the boundary of a community in a network is drawn between nodes and thus crosses its outgoing links. If we construct overlapping communities by applying the link-clustering approach nodes and links interchange their roles. Therefore, boundaries must drawn through the nodes shared by two or more communities. For the purpose of community evaluation we define a conductance of boundary nodes of overlapping communities analogously to the graph conductance of boundary-crossing links used to...

  17. Cooperative Games with Overlapping Coalitions: Charting the Tractability Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Zick, Yair; Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Elkind, Edith; Markakis, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    In many multiagent scenarios, agents distribute resources, such as time or energy, among several tasks. Having completed their tasks and generated profits, task payoffs must be divided among the agents in some reasonable manner. Cooperative games with overlapping coalitions (OCF games) are a recent framework proposed by Chalkiadakis et al. (2010), generalizing classic cooperative games to the case where agents may belong to more than one coalition. Having formed overlapping coalitions and div...

  18. Detecting overlapping protein complexes in protein-protein interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nepusz, Tamás; Yu, Haiyuan; Paccanaro, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We introduce clustering with overlapping neighborhood expansion (ClusterONE), a method for detecting potentially overlapping protein complexes from protein-protein interaction data. ClusterONE-derived complexes for several yeast data sets showed better correspondence with reference complexes in the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequence (MIPS) catalog and complexes derived from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) than the results of seven popular methods. The results also showed a...

  19. Satisfying assignments of Random Boolean CSP: Clusters and Overlaps

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of overlaps of solutions of a random CSP is an indicator of the overall geometry of its solution space. For random $k$-SAT, nonrigorous methods from Statistical Physics support the validity of the ``one step replica symmetry breaking'' approach. Some of these predictions were rigorously confirmed in \\cite{cond-mat/0504070/prl} \\cite{cond-mat/0506053}. There it is proved that the overlap distribution of random $k$-SAT, $k\\geq 9$, has discontinuous support. Furthermore, Achliop...

  20. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and juvenile polyposis: an overlap of syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletto, Erica D.; Levin, Terry L. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Trinh, Angela M. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Loizides, Anthony M. [Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) is a syndrome characterized by multiorgan telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. A subset of patients with a mutation in the MADH4 gene on chromosome 18 exhibits an overlapping syndrome of HHT and juvenile polyposis (JPS). We present one such family. Genetic testing is warranted when either HHT or JPS is diagnosed, as early recognition of this syndrome overlap allows appropriate management of these patients. (orig.)

  1. A Bayesian variable selection procedure to rank overlapping gene sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarman Axel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression profiling using microarrays or sequence-based technologies allows us to identify genes and genetic pathways whose expression patterns influence complex traits. Different methods to prioritize gene sets, such as the genes in a given molecular pathway, have been described. In many cases, these methods test one gene set at a time, and therefore do not consider overlaps among the pathways. Here, we present a Bayesian variable selection method to prioritize gene sets that overcomes this limitation by considering all gene sets simultaneously. We applied Bayesian variable selection to differential expression to prioritize the molecular and genetic pathways involved in the responses to Escherichia coli infection in Danish Holstein cows. Results We used a Bayesian variable selection method to prioritize Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We used our data to study how the variable selection method was affected by overlaps among the pathways. In addition, we compared our approach to another that ignores the overlaps, and studied the differences in the prioritization. The variable selection method was robust to a change in prior probability and stable given a limited number of observations. Conclusions Bayesian variable selection is a useful way to prioritize gene sets while considering their overlaps. Ignoring the overlaps gives different and possibly misleading results. Additional procedures may be needed in cases of highly overlapping pathways that are hard to prioritize.

  2. Management Model of Resources Equilibrium Distribution among Overlapping-Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Li Ling

    2004-01-01

    The overlapping generation models the western scholars have designed from various perspectives to address different kinds of issues do not reflect Chinese emerging political and economic problems, and cannot be entirely and blindly applied to Chinese practical situation. In this paper the authors endeavor to incorporate some western scholars' research results into their own research findings to present overlapping generations model theory in a new perspective through establishing an overlapping generations theory on population including articulation of concepts and theorems of biological generation, economic generation and social generation and the overlapping periods in biological generation and two overlapping periods in economic generation among three generations. This management model with equilibrium distribution of resource wealth includes overlapping generations length model (δ),equilibrium transfer model (θ) and a complete model on equilibrium distribution among generations (δ-θ).The model provides quantitative basis for the creation of resource management system, and fills in a theoretical gap in this discipline in China. Besides,it furnishes a new methodology and manipulable tool for Chinese government to establish a comprehensive management information bank for many sectors such as economic trade, population, science and technology, education, human resource, natural resource and environment, agriculture, forestry,industry, mining and energy.

  3. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  4. Hierarchical Overlapping Clustering of Network Data Using Cut Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Fernando; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain hierarchical and overlapping clusters from network data -i.e., a set of nodes endowed with pairwise dissimilarities- is presented. The introduced method is hierarchical in the sense that it outputs a nested collection of groupings of the node set depending on the resolution or degree of similarity desired, and it is overlapping since it allows nodes to belong to more than one group. Our construction is rooted on the facts that a hierarchical (non-overlapping) clustering of a network can be equivalently represented by a finite ultrametric space and that a convex combination of ultrametrics results in a cut metric. By applying a hierarchical (non-overlapping) clustering method to multiple dithered versions of a given network and then convexly combining the resulting ultrametrics, we obtain a cut metric associated to the network of interest. We then show how to extract a hierarchical overlapping clustering structure from the aforementioned cut metric. Furthermore, the so-called overlappi...

  5. Increasing efficiency in intermediate band solar cells with overlapping absorptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akshay; Krich, Jacob J.

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are promising candidates for realizing high efficiency solar cells. In IB photovoltaics, photons are absorbed in one of three possible electronic transitions—valence to conduction band, valence to intermediate band, or intermediate to conduction band. With fully concentrated sunlight, when the band gaps have been chosen appropriately, the highest efficiency IB solar cells require that these three absorptions be non-overlapping, so absorbed photons of fixed energy contribute to only one transition. The realistic case of overlapping absorptions, where the transitions compete for photons, is generally considered to be a source of loss. We show that overlapping absorptions can in fact lead to significant improvements in IB solar cell efficiencies, especially for IB that are near the middle of the band gap. At low to moderate concentration, the highest efficiency requires overlapping absorptions. We use the detailed-balance method and indicate how much overlap of the absorptions is required to achieve efficiency improvements, comparing with some known cases. These results substantially broaden the set of materials that can be suitable for high-efficiency IB solar cells.

  6. Resource niche overlap promotes stability of bacterial community metabolism in experimental microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Hunting; M.G. Vijver; H.G. van der Geest; C. Mulder; M.H.S. Kraak; A.M. Breure; W. Admiraal

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter is an important ecosystem process governed in part by bacteria. The process of decomposition is expected to benefit from interspecific bacterial interactions such as resource partitioning and facilitation. However, the relative importance of resource niche breadth (me

  7. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  8. Detection of multiple velocity components in partially overlapping emitting regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, F

    2016-01-01

    Velocity measurements made from multiple-epoch astronomical images of evolving objects with optically thin continuum emission (e.g. as relativistic jets or expanding supernova shells) may be confused as a result of the overlap of semi-transparent features moving at different speeds. Multi-scale wavelet decomposition can be effectively applied to identify and track such overlapping features, provided that their respective structural responses can be separated over the spatial scales used for the decomposition. We developed a new method that combines the stacked cross-correlation with the wavelet-based image segmentation and evaluation (WISE) technique of decomposition of two-dimensional structures, to separate and track dominant spatial responses of overlapping evolving features. The method is tested on a set of simulated images of a stratified relativistic jet, demonstrating the robust detection of both the faster spine and the slower sheath speeds. The method is applied to mutliple-epoch images from the MOJA...

  9. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, T. [Univ. di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Nagai, K.I. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Papinutto, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy); Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  10. Overlapped flowers yield detection using computer-based interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture has always dealt with the accuracy and timely information about agricultural products. With the help of computer hardware and software technology designing a decision support system that could generate flower yield information and serve as base for management and planning of flower marketing is made so easy. Despite such technologies, some problem still arise, for example, a colour homogeneity of a specimen which cannot be obtained similar to actual colour of image and overlapping of image. In this paper implementing a new ‘counting algorithm’ for overlapped flower is being discussed. For implementing this algorithm, some techniques and operations such as colour image segmentation technique, image segmentation, using HSV colour space and morphological operations have been used. In this paper used two most popular colour space; those are RGB and HSV. HSV colour space decouples brightness from a chromatic component in the image, by which it provides better result in case for occlusion and overlapping.

  11. The eigSUMR inverter for overlap fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Cundy, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the usage and applicability of deflation methods for the overlap lattice Dirac operator, focussing on calculating the eigenvalues using a method similar to the eigCG algorithm used for other Dirac operators. The overlap operator, which contains several theoretical advantages over other formulations of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, is more computationally expensive because it requires the computation of the matrix sign function. The principle change made compared to deflation methods for other formulations of lattice QCD is that it is necessary for best performance to tune or relax the accuracy of the matrix sign function as the computation proceeds. We adapt the eigCG algorithm for two inversion algorithms for overlap fermions, GMRESR(relCG) and GMRESR(relSUMR). Before deflation, the rate of convergence of these routines in terms of iterations is similar, but, since the Shifted Unitary Minimal Residual (SUMR) algorithm only requires one call to the matrix sign function compared to the two calls r...

  12. Overlap between empathy, teamwork and integrative approach to patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Bianco, Joseph A; Mann, Douglas; Massello, David; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2014-10-14

    Abstract Background: Empathy, teamwork and an integrative approach to patient care share common denominators such as interpersonal skills and understanding patients' concerns. Thus, a significant overlap among measures of empathy, teamwork and integrative approach to patient care is expected. Aim: This study examined the magnitude of overlap (shared variance) among three measures of empathy, teamwork and an integrative approach to patient care. Methods: Three-hundred seventy-three medical students completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) and Integrative Patient Care (IPC). Results: Significant overlaps were found among the three measures (p teamwork and IPC support the common denominator assumption. The findings that IPC shares common variance with empathy and teamwork have implications for medical education curriculum, suggesting that implementation of integrative patient care can improve empathic engagement in patient care and orientation toward teamwork.

  13. The Second Harmonic Current Suppressed by Two Band-Pass Filters and Current Sharing Control Method of Bi-Directional Energy Storage Converters in DC Micro-grid%直流微电网双向储能变换器的两带通滤波器二次纹波电流抑制与均分控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苓; 罗安; 陈燕东; 周乐明; 怀坤山; 伍文华; 陈智勇

    2016-01-01

    含多双向储能变换器的直流微电网通过逆变器接入交流负荷时,会引起直流母线侧产生二次纹波电流,并影响变换器输出电流均分效果。对此,该文提出了双向储能变换器的两带通滤波器二次纹波电流抑制方法,解决了传统电压电流双闭环控制中因限制外环电压的截止频率引起的动态响应速度慢的问题,并增强了二次纹波电流抑制效果。提出了串联微调虚拟电阻的自适应下垂控制方法,减少了储能变换器间输出电压偏差,改善了并联均流效果。在允许的电压偏差范围内,分析了虚拟电阻对输出损失功率和环流的影响,并选取使二者之和达到最小值时合适的控制参数。仿真和实验结果验证了所提方法的有效性。%DC micro-grid with bi-directional energy storage converters accesses AC loads by inverters, generating the second harmonic current in DC bus side, and influences the sharing effect of converters output current. For this reason, the second harmonic current suppressed method by two band-pass filters of the bi-directional energy storage converter was proposed, solving the problem that a very low cut-off frequency of voltage outer loop results in poor dynamic performance in traditional dual loop control strategy, and enhances the suppressed effect of the second harmonic current. An adaptive droop control strategy of series fine tuning virtual resistors was proposed, which can reduce the deviation of energy storage converters output voltage, and improve the sharing effect of parallel converters output current. Within the allowed range of voltage deviation, we analyzed virtual resistors impacting on the output power loss and circulating current, and selected the appropriate control parameters under the condition of the minimum value of both sum. Simulation and experiment results verify the validity of the proposed strategy.

  14. Numerical simulation and experimental research of large-tonnage-damping-force bi-directional cylinder viscous fluid dampers%大吨位双出杆粘滞阻尼器开发的数值模拟与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 陈彦北; 唐璐; 许明杰; 郭红锋

    2012-01-01

    Large-tonnage-damping-force bi-directional-cylinder viscous fluid dampers was studied experimentally arid numerically. Based on the power-law characteristic of silicone oil,the flow pattern of silicone oil was analyzed, the non-Newtonian fluid power-law model' s influence on the energy dissipation characteristic and the damping force of viscous dampers was discussed, and the calculation formulas were presented. The damping force of the viscous damper samples was simulated by professional CFD software based on the moving mesh technology; Based on comprehensive analysis of results, the experiential design method of large-tonnage-damping-force viscous fluid dampers was finally established. Comparison shows that, the numerical curves are in good agreement with experimental curves, which validates the feasibility of numerical method of preliminary design of the large-tonnage-damping-force bi-directional-cylinder viscous fluid dampers. The numerical method helps to enhance the engineering precision, guide the design, and shorten the development cycle.%阐述了大吨位双出杆粘滞阻尼器开发的数值与实验研究结果.基于硅油的幂律特性,通过对硅油介质的流态分析,介绍了非牛顿幂律流体模型对粘滞阻尼器耗能和阻尼出力的影响,与粘滞阻尼器的分析模型和计算公式.在商用流体软件平台上利用动网格技术对样品粘滞阻尼器阻尼出力进行了计算;综合实验研究结果,最终确定了大吨位土木用粘滞阻尼器设计的经验方法.另一方面,实验曲线和数值曲线基本吻和,验证了通过数值手段对粘滞阻尼器的出力特性进行预分析,从而提高开发精度、指导产品设计和缩短产品的开发周期的可行性.

  15. Interaction of spatially overlapping standing electromagnetic solitons in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical investigations on mutual interactions between two spatially overlapping standing electromagnetic solitons in a cold unmagnetized plasma are reported. It is found that an initial state comprising of two overlapping standing solitons evolves into different end states, depending on the amplitudes of the two solitons and the phase difference between them. For small amplitude solitons with zero phase difference, we observe the formation of an oscillating bound state whose period depends on their initial separation. These results suggest the existence of a bound state made of two solitons in the relativistic cold plasma fluid model.

  16. Detect overlapping and hierarchical community structure in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Huawei; Cai, Kai; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Clustering and community structure is crucial for many network systems and the related dynamic processes. It has been shown that communities are usually overlapping and hierarchical. However, previous methods investigate these two properties of community structure separately. This paper propose an algorithm (EAGLE) to detect both the overlapping and hierarchical properties of complex community structure together. This algorithm deals with the set of maximal cliques and adopts an agglomerative framework. The quality function of modularity is extended to evaluate the goodness of a cover. The examples of application to real world networks give excellent results.

  17. Construction of a bidirectional promoter and its transient expression in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxiao ZHANG; Ying GAI; Yanyan ZHU; Xuemei CHEN; Xiangning JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous introduction of multiple genes into plants is a critical step in plant genetic engineering to manipulate multiple functional genes in metabolic engineering and trait stacking. It is important to construct a bidirectional promoter for transforming two or more genes into plants simultaneously. The widely used unidirectional CaMV35S promoter has been mod-ified to a bidirectional promoter in this work by fusing a CaMV35S minimal promoter (Pmini) at its end in opposite orientation to the original promoter. To test its bi-directional transcriptional activities, two widely used histochemically visible reporter genes, gusA (β-glucuronidase) from Escherichia coli and gfp (Green Fluorescent Protein) from Aequorea victoria, were fused to the terminus of the bidirectional promoter in different orientations ending with NOS terminator sequences. The transient expression of the gusA and gfp genes were detected by histochemical staining for GUS and by fluorescence microscopy for GFP. The direction of transient expression of GUS and GFP in Agro-bacterium mediated 3-4 days transformed leaf discs of Populus tomentosa, indicating that the promoter did have bidirectional transcriptional activities simultaneously in cells and tissues. It was discussed that this bidirectional promoter could possibly be applied in woody plant engineering.

  18. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  19. Locality and topology with fat link overlap actions

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, T G

    2003-01-01

    We study the locality and topological properties of fat link clover overlap (FCO) actions. We find that a small amount of fattening (2-4 steps of APE or 1 step of HYP) already results in greatly improved properties compared to the Wilson overlap (WO). We present a detailed study of the localisation of the FCO and its connection to the density of low modes of $A^\\dagger A$. In contrast to the Wilson overlap, on quenched gauge backgrounds we do not find any dependence of the localization of the FCO on the gauge coupling. This suggests that the FCO remains local in the continuum limit. The FCO also faithfully reproduces the zero mode wave functions of typical lattice instantons, not like the Wilson overlap. After a general discussion of different lattice definitions of the topological charge we also show that the FCO together with the Boulder charge are likely to satisfy the index theorem in the continuum limit. Finally, we present a high statistics computation of the quenched topological susceptibility with the...

  20. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundin, Knut E. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity ha

  1. Track with overlapping links for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D

    2014-01-21

    A chain for a particulate material extrusion pump includes a plurality of links, each of the plurality of links having a link body and a link ledge, wherein each link ledge of the plurality of links at least partially overlaps the link body of an adjacent one of the plurality of links.

  2. A Laser Lock System using Multiple Overlapping Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Stuart; Francis, Ben; Erickson, Christopher; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-10-01

    We describe a system wherein the lock of trapping, ionizing, and ion resonance lasers for a Sr experiment are bootstrapped together in a single neutral atom vapor cell. This is done by overlapping beams to optically pump the atoms into the necessary states.

  3. Two Fractal Overlap Time Series: Earthquakes and Market Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Arnab Chatterjee; Pratip Bhattacharyya

    2007-01-01

    We find prominent similarities in the features of the time series for the (model earthquakes or) overlap of two Cantor sets when one set moves with uniform relative velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations.

  4. Two-fractal overlap time series: Earthquakes and market crashes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikas K Chakrabarti; Arnab Chatterjee; Pratip Bhattacharyya

    2008-08-01

    We find prominent similarities in the features of the time series for the (model earthquakes or) overlap of two Cantor sets when one set moves with uniform relative velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations.

  5. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in paragraph (b) of this section that have been genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS POSSESSION, USE... elements, recombinant nucleic acids, and recombinant organisms: (1) Nucleic acids that can...

  6. Market positioning: the shifting effects of niche overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruggeman; D. Grunow; M.A.A.M. Leenders; I. Vermeulen; J.G. Kuilman

    2012-01-01

    Organizational ecology models of market dynamics emphasize the competition-inducing role of inter-organizational niche overlap—targeting similar market niches increases competitive pressure and thus reduces organizations’ fitness. Recent studies, however, have suggested that moderate niche overlap m

  7. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%, between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h, depth during overlapping time (21-24 m, and foraging range (37.7%. Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during

  8. Spectral-overlap approach to multiframe superresolution image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Edward; Picard, Richard H; Crabtree, Peter N

    2016-05-20

    Various techniques and algorithms have been developed to improve the resolution of sensor-aliased imagery captured with multiple subpixel-displaced frames on an undersampled pixelated image plane. These dealiasing algorithms are typically known as multiframe superresolution (SR), or geometric SR to emphasize the role of the focal-plane array. Multiple low-resolution (LR) aliased frames of the same scene are captured and allocated to a common high-resolution (HR) reconstruction grid, leading to the possibility of an alias-free reconstruction, as long as the HR sampling rate is above the Nyquist rate. Allocating LR-frame irradiances to HR frames requires the use of appropriate weights. Here we present a novel approach in the spectral domain to calculating exactly weights based on spatial overlap areas, which we call the spectral-overlap (SO) method. We emphasize that the SO method is not a spectral approach but rather an approach to calculating spatial weights that uses spectral decompositions to exploit the array properties of the HR and LR pixels. The method is capable of dealing with arbitrary aliasing factors and interframe motions consisting of in-plane translations and rotations. We calculate example reconstructed HR images (the inverse problem) from synthetic aliased images for integer and for fractional aliasing factors. We show the utility of the SO-generated overlap-area weights in both noniterative and iterative reconstructions with known or unknown aliasing factor. We show how the overlap weights can be used to generate the Green's function (pixel response function) for noniterative dealiasing. In addition, we show how the overlap-area weights can be used to generate synthetic aliased images (the forward problem). We compare the SO approach to the spatial-domain geometric approach of O'Rourke and find virtually identical high accuracy but with significant enhancements in speed for SO. We also compare the SO weights to interpolated weights and find that

  9. Bi-directional Flooding Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs are getting more importance in the oceanic exploration. The planet earth is basically a planet of water with less than 30% land mass available for humans to live on. However, the areas covered with water are important to mankind for the various resources which have been proven to be valuable. Such resources are gas, oil, marine products which can be used as food and other minerals. In view of the vast area in which these resources can be found, a network of sensors is necessary so that they can be explored. However, sensor networks may not be helpful in the exploration of these resources if they do not have a sufficiently good routing mechanism. Node mobility, 3-D spaces and horizontal communication links are some critical challenges to the researcher in designing new routing protocols for UWSNs. In this study, we have proposed a novel routing protocol called Layer by Layer Angle-Based Flooding (L2-ABF to address the issues of continuous node movements, end-to-end delays and energy consumption. In L2-ABF, every node can calculate its flooding zone to forward data packets toward the sinks without using any explicit configuration or location information. The simulation results show that L2-ABF has some advantages over some existing flooding-based techniques and also can easily manage quick routing changes where node movements are frequent.

  10. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Priyvadan C.

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. ‘Meanings’ have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a bet...

  11. Impact of cloud inhomogeneity on bi-directional reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses SHDOM(Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method)to calculate the nadir bidirectionaI reflectanee distribution function(BRDF)of the cumulus and stratocumulus fields at the wavelengths of 0.67 μm and 2.13 μm,and discusses the impact of cloud inhomogeneity on BRDF.The cloud fields are adopted from 13RC Phase Ⅱ.which are used to compare 3D radiative transfer models.The simulation results show that the cu field has 6% abnormal BRDF values(BRDF>1)with the increase of solar zenith angle.Further analyses show that grid cells whose BRDF is greater than one gather together at the locaI trough of the top of cloud.These regions can receive not only the direct incident solar beam,but also the beam scattered by the higher cloud of its neighborhood.Hence,the BRDF of those regions is enhanced.The abnormal BRDF phenomenon shows that the cloud inhomogeneity can result in inconsistency between satellite observation and plane parallel theory,implying that the reflectance observed by high resolution satellite is maybe enhanced by the cloud 3D effects.Thus one should take this fact into account when using the product retrieved by these data.The dominant solar zenith angles are quite large in the mid-high altitude area,and the impact of cloud inhomogeneity on these areas may be more significant.

  12. Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast x-ray imaging is a promising improvement of conventional absorption-based mammography for early tumor detection. This potential has been demonstrated recently, utilizing structured gratings to obtain differential phase and dark-field scattering images. However, the inherently anisotropic imaging sensitivity of the proposed mono-directional approach yields only insufficient diagnostic information, and has low diagnostic sensitivity to highly oriented structures. To overcome these limitations, we present a two-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography approach and demonstrate its advantages by applying it to a freshly dissected, cancerous mastectomy breast specimen. We illustrate that the two-directional scanning procedure overcomes the insufficient diagnostic value of a single scan, and reliably detects tumor structures, independently from their orientation within the breast. Our results indicate the indispensable diagnostic necessity and benefit of a multi-directional approach for x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

  13. Bi-directional reflectance studies of prepared compact particulate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao

    Controlled laboratory BRDF and transmission measurements on layers of polymer and glass spheres have been carried out to investigate the connection between single particle optics and the optics of a packed surface. The measurements show that despite being closely packed, significant features of single scattering, such as the rainbow peaks, are preserved even in aggregated sphere layers. The measurements have been compared to 5 radiative transfer model predictions: the Hapke's model and its improved version, the Lumme-Bowell model, Mishchenko et al.'s BRF algorithm and DISORT. It has been found that strict numerical RTE models predict the measurements well in some regions, but have errors in both forward and backward scattering directions. The discrepancies have been attributed to the non-ideal factors such as internal inhomogeneity and surface roughness and may be corrected using Lumme-Bowell's roughness correction factor for oblique incident light. The inadequacy of the semi-empirical models can be partly attributed to the exclusion of a diffraction contribution in the models. In-situ BRDF measurements on submerged sediments with grain sizes ranging from 300 mum to over 1000 mum have been carried out. For normally illuminated small grain size samples the BRDF was nearly Lambertian, but samples with larger grain sizes are less Lambertian, with the BRDF decreasing with increasing view angles. Under oblique incident angles the samples become increasingly non-Lambertian; the dominant feature in the BRDF is enhanced backscattering. An empirical model is presented for each sediment type which represents the data within the standard deviation of the sample variation. This model is well behaved at angles out to 90°, and thus can be incorporated into the radiative transfer models to improve the light field predictions in shallow water. The BRDF of both dry and wet ooid sand layers with different particle size distributions and layer thicknesses on a reflecting mirror have been measured to determine the sensible depth in the optical region. The hemispherical reflectance (albedo) was evaluated from the BRDF data to quantify the subtle BRDF changes caused by the layer thickness. It was found that the depth that influences BRDF measurements is just a few particle diameters which is in qualitative agreement with radiative transfer calculations.

  14. Image Segmentation using bi directional of neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HimadriNath Moulick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a days image processing methods are widely used in medical science, to improve critical disease detection and fast treatment for recovery. Mainly this mechanism detects the disease as soon as possible and also find out the exact point of disorder and calculate the growth of this disease,especially in Squamous cell carcinoma in lower lip. Actinic keratosis which is 1/4 inch in diameter, isa pink or flesh coloured rough spot is one of the most important cause of squamous cell carcinoma,which is mainly grown in sun-exposed area. It is usually grow slowly and affects epidermis layer todermis layer. Our proposed method focuses on five different modules. These methods are including inImage Acquisition module and respective Pre-processing ,Segmentation , Filtering Phase and Edge Detection modules.

  15. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyvadan C Shastri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. ′Meanings′ have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades.

  16. Phenotype of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chin Kook

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a history of allergic disease, and smoke exposure are important components in the classification of ACOS. Each phenotype has a different underlying pathophysiology, set of characteristics, and prognosis. Medical treatment for ACOS should be tailored according to phenotype. A narrower definition of ACOS that includes both spirometric and clinical criteria is needed. PMID:26161009

  17. On Evaluation of Overlap Integrals with Noninteger Principal Quantum Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.I.Guseinov; B.A.Mamedov

    2004-01-01

    By use of complete orthonormal sets of ψα exponential-type orbitals (ψα-ETOs,α=1,0,-1,-2,...) the series expansion formulas for the noninteger n Slater-type orbitals (NISTOs) in terms of integer n Slater-type orbitals (ISTOs) are derived. These formulas enable us to express the overlap integrals with NISTOs through the overlap integrals over ISTOs with the same and different screening constants. By calculating concrete cases the convergence of the series for arbitrary values of noninteger principal quantum numbers and screening constants of NISTOs and internuclear distances is tested. The accuracy of the results is quite high for quantum numbers, screening constants and location of STOs.

  18. On Evaluation of Overlap Integrals with Noninteger Principal Quantum Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.I. Guseinov; B.A. Mamedov

    2004-01-01

    By use of complete orthonormal sets of ψα exponential-type orbitals (ψα-ETOs, α = 1, 0,-1,-2, ...) the series expansion formulas for the noninteger n* Slater-type orbitals (NISTOs) in terms of integer n Slater-type orbitals(ISTOs) are derived. These formulas enable us to express the overlap integrals with NISTOs through the overlap integrals over ISTOs with the same and different screening constants. By calculating concrete cases the convergence of the series for arbitrary values of noninteger principal quantum numbers and screening constants of NISTOs and internuclear distances is tested. The accuracy of the results is quite high for quantum numbers, screening constants and location of STOs.

  19. Hausdorff dimension of self-similar sets with overlaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG QiRong; John HARDING; HU TianYou

    2009-01-01

    We provide a simple formula to compute the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor of an overlapping iterated function system of contractive similarities satisfying a certain collection of assumptions. This formula is obtained by associating a non-overlapping infinite iterated function system to an iterated function system satisfying our assumptions and using the results of Moran to compute the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor of this infinite iterated function system,thus showing that the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor of this infinite iterated function system agrees with that of the attractor of the original iterated function system.Our methods are applicable to some iterated function systems that do not satisfy the finite type condition recently introduced by Ngai and Wang.

  20. Topology of dynamical lattice configurations including results from overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Gruber, Florian; Lippert, Thomas; Schäfer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how the topological charge density in lattice QCD simulations is affected by violations of chiral symmetry caused by the fermion action. To this end we compare lattice configurations generated with a number of different actions including first configurations generated with exact overlap quarks. We visualize the topological profiles after mild smearing. In the topological charge correlator we measure the size of the positive core, which is known to vanish in the continuum limit. To leading order we find the core size to scale linearly with the lattice spacing with the same coefficient for all actions, even including quenched simulations. In the subleading term the different actions vary over a range of about 10%. Our findings suggest that non-chiral lattice actions at current lattice spacings do not differ much for observables related to topology, both among themselves and compared to overlap fermions.

  1. Discriminating crop and other canopies by overlapping binary image layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    For optimal management of agricultural fields by remote sensing, discrimination of the crop canopy from weeds and other objects is essential. In a digital photograph, a rice canopy was discriminated from a variety of weed and tree canopies and other objects by overlapping binary image layers of red-green-blue and other color components indicating the pixels with target canopy-specific (intensity) values based on the ranges of means ±(3×) standard deviations. By overlapping and merging the binary image layers, the target canopy specificity improved to 0.0015 from 0.027 for the yellow 1× standard deviation binary image layer, which was the best among all combinations of color components and means ±(3×) standard deviations. The most target rice canopy-likely pixels were further identified by limiting the pixels at different luminosity values. The discriminatory power was also visually demonstrated in this manner.

  2. DEMON: a Local-First Discovery Method for Overlapping Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Coscia, Michele; Giannotti, Fosca; Pedreschi, Dino

    2012-01-01

    Community discovery in complex networks is an interesting problem with a number of applications, especially in the knowledge extraction task in social and information networks. However, many large networks often lack a particular community organization at a global level. In these cases, traditional graph partitioning algorithms fail to let the latent knowledge embedded in modular structure emerge, because they impose a top-down global view of a network. We propose here a simple local-first approach to community discovery, able to unveil the modular organization of real complex networks. This is achieved by democratically letting each node vote for the communities it sees surrounding it in its limited view of the global system, i.e. its ego neighborhood, using a label propagation algorithm; finally, the local communities are merged into a global collection. We tested this intuition against the state-of-the-art overlapping and non-overlapping community discovery methods, and found that our new method clearly ou...

  3. Aceclofenac induced Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaderthambi Hajamohideen Nooru Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a rare occurrence of Stevens-Johnson/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN overlap syndrome after the use of aceclofenac. A 38 year old healthy adult male presented with rapidly evolving rash over face and upper body with ulceration of buccal mucosa and breathlessness after taking aceclofenac tablet. Naranjo score for this adverse drug event was six, thereby making it a probable adverse drug reaction. Despite aggressive fluid resuscitation and use of antihistamines and systemic steroids, patient′s health rapidly worsened and died within six hours of presentation. Aceclofenac induced SJS/TEN overlap is an extremely rare clinical association previously reported only once in medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of such an association in the Indian population. We are presenting this case to highlight the serious adverse reactions possible from a routinely prescribed drug.

  4. Hausdorff dimension of self-similar sets with overlaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We provide a simple formula to compute the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor of an overlapping iterated function system of contractive similarities satisfying a certain collection of assumptions. This formula is obtained by associating a non-overlapping infinite iterated function system to an iterated function system satisfying our assumptions and using the results of Moran to compute the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor of this infinite iterated function system, thus showing that the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor of this infinite iterated function system agrees with that of the attractor of the original iterated function system. Our methods are applicable to some iterated function systems that do not satisfy the finite type condition recently introduced by Ngai and Wang.

  5. Auditing Complex Concepts in Overlapping Subsets of SNOMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wei, Duo; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A.; Hripcsak, George

    2008-01-01

    Limited resources and the sheer volume of concepts make auditing a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, a daunting task. It is essential to devise techniques that can aid an auditor by automatically identifying concepts that deserve attention. A methodology for this purpose based on a previously introduced abstraction network (called the p-area taxonomy) for a SNOMED CT hierarchy is presented. The methodology algorithmically gathers concepts appearing in certain overlapping subsets, defined exclusively with respect to the p-area taxonomy, for review. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy are presented. These results are compared against a control sample composed of concepts residing in subsets without the overlaps. With the use of the double bootstrap, the concept group produced by our methodology is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of error discoveries. PMID:18998838

  6. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  7. Multifunctional proteins revealed by overlapping clustering in protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Emmanuelle; Robisson, Benoît; Chapple, Charles E.; Guénoche, Alain; Brun, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Multifunctional proteins perform several functions. They are expected to interact specifically with distinct sets of partners, simultaneously or not, depending on the function performed. Current graph clustering methods usually allow a protein to belong to only one cluster, therefore impeding a realistic assignment of multifunctional proteins to clusters. Results: Here, we present Overlapping Cluster Generator (OCG), a novel clustering method which decomposes a network into overla...

  8. Unquenching the topological susceptibility with an overlap action

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, T G

    2002-01-01

    We estimate the quark-mass dependence of the topological susceptibility with dynamical overlap and clover fermions. Unquenching effects on the susceptibility turn out to be well approximated by a reweighting of a quenched ensemble with a low-eigenmode truncation of the fermionic determinant. We find that it is most likely due to the explicit chiral symmetry breaking of the fermion action that present day dynamical simulations do not show the expected suppression of the topological susceptibility.

  9. Pollination niche overlap between a parasitic plant and its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Stott, Adrian; Allnutt, Emma; Shove, Sam; Taylor, Chloe; Lamborn, Ellen

    2007-03-01

    Niche theory predicts that species which share resources should evolve strategies to minimise competition for those resources, or the less competitive species would be extirpated. Some plant species are constrained to co-occur, for example parasitic plants and their hosts, and may overlap in their pollination niche if they flower at the same time and attract the same pollinators. Using field observations and experiments between 1996 and 2006, we tested a series of hypotheses regarding pollination niche overlap between a specialist parasitic plant Orobanche elatior (Orobanchaceae) and its host Centaurea scabiosa (Asteraceae). These species flower more or less at the same time, with some year-to-year variation. The host is pollinated by a diverse range of insects, which vary in their effectiveness, whilst the parasite is pollinated by a single species of bumblebee, Bombus pascuorum, which is also an effective pollinator of the host plant. The two species therefore have partially overlapping pollination niches. These niches are not finely subdivided by differential pollen placement, or by diurnal segregation of the niches. We therefore found no evidence of character displacement within the pollination niches of these species, possibly because pollinators are not a limiting resource for these plants. Direct observation of pollinator movements, coupled with experimental manipulations of host plant inflorescence density, showed that Bombus pascuorum only rarely moves between inflorescences of the host and the parasite and therefore the presence of one plant is unlikely to be facilitating pollination in the other. This is the first detailed examination of pollination niche overlap in a plant parasite system and we suggest avenues for future research in relation to pollination and other shared interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts.

  10. An Overlapping Clustering Approach for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenquan Qin; Can Ma; Lei Wang; Jiaqi Xu; Bingxian Lu

    2013-01-01

    The design and analysis of routing algorithm is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most traditional geographical routing algorithms cannot achieve good performance in duty-cycled networks. In this paper, we propose a k-connected overlapping clustering approach with energy awareness, namely, k-OCHE, for routing in WSNs. The basic idea of this approach is to select a cluster head by energy availability (EA) status. The k-OCHE scheme adopts a sleep scheduling strategy of CKN,...

  11. The overlap between anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiolog...

  12. Node-Centric Detection of Overlapping Communities in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Yehonatan; Rubin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We present NECTAR, a community detection algorithm that generalizes Louvain method's local search heuristic for overlapping community structures. NECTAR chooses dynamically which objective function to optimize based on the network on which it is invoked. Our experimental evaluation on both synthetic benchmark graphs and real-world networks, based on ground-truth communities, shows that NECTAR provides excellent results as compared with state of the art community detection algorithms.

  13. A Case of Overlapping Choriocapillaritis Syndromes: Multimodal Imaging Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kuznetcova; Bruno Jeannin; Herbort, Carl P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present a patient with overlapping choriocapillaritis syndromes who first presented as a typical case of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) and later with characteristic findings compatible with multifocal choroiditis (MFC). Case Report: A 40-year-old myopic woman presented with a paracentral scotoma OS. Fundus examination revealed pale discolored areas around the optic disc corresponding to faintly hyperfluorescent areas on fluorescein angiography (FA). On indocya...

  14. Overlapping reliable control for a cable-stayed bridge benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Bakule, Lubomir; Paulet-Crainiceanu, Fideliu; Rodellar Benedé, José; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    The brief presents a reliable 1-out-2 reduced order control design strategy for a cable-stayed bridge benchmark using two overlapping subsystems and the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design. Reliability with regard to controller failures is considered. Local controllers are designed for reduced order subsystems of expanded system. They are implemented and evaluated on the original overall system model. Two different sets of numerical experiments of reliable control design within 1-out-2 con...

  15. Overlapping cusp ion injections: An explanation invoking magnetopause reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Mike

    1995-01-01

    An explanation of overlapping cusp ion injections is presented using the pulsating cusp model of the effects of magnetopause reconnection. It is shown that two populations of cusp ions, covering separated energy ranges, can be seen simultaneously by low- or mid-altitude satellites because of the combined effect of the acceleration and the straightening of newly-opened field lines as they evolve away from the reconnection site. Observations of such signatures, recently reported in data from th...

  16. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered Galapagos pinnipeds

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann; Jeglinski, Jana W.E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Robinson, Patrick W.; Fritz Trillmich

    2013-01-01

    Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Do...

  17. Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we tested three possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first two characters and the last two characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that wo...

  18. Direct evaluation of overlap integrals between Slater-type-orbitals

    CERN Document Server

    Caola, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We derive direct single-stage numerical evaluation of the electronic overlap integral between arbitrary atomic orbitals (including STOs). Integration is over cartesian co-ordinates, and replaces previous sums over 'special' functions. The results, in Mathematica 10 and Maple 18, agree with the literature to 8 digits. We briefly discuss possible use in quantum chemistry, including accuracy, algorithmic suitability and operating-system machine-implementation as an intrinsic function.

  19. Strong genetic overlap between executive functions and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Church, Jessica A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2016-09-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7 to 15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. A stochastic model for detecting overlapping and hierarchical community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Cao

    Full Text Available Community detection is a fundamental problem in the analysis of complex networks. Recently, many researchers have concentrated on the detection of overlapping communities, where a vertex may belong to more than one community. However, most current methods require the number (or the size of the communities as a priori information, which is usually unavailable in real-world networks. Thus, a practical algorithm should not only find the overlapping community structure, but also automatically determine the number of communities. Furthermore, it is preferable if this method is able to reveal the hierarchical structure of networks as well. In this work, we firstly propose a generative model that employs a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF formulization with a l(2,1 norm regularization term, balanced by a resolution parameter. The NMF has the nature that provides overlapping community structure by assigning soft membership variables to each vertex; the l(2,1 regularization term is a technique of group sparsity which can automatically determine the number of communities by penalizing too many nonempty communities; and hence the resolution parameter enables us to explore the hierarchical structure of networks. Thereafter, we derive the multiplicative update rule to learn the model parameters, and offer the proof of its correctness. Finally, we test our approach on a variety of synthetic and real-world networks, and compare it with some state-of-the-art algorithms. The results validate the superior performance of our new method.

  1. Detection of multiple velocity components in partially overlapping emitting regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, F.; Lobanov, A. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Velocity measurements made from multiple-epoch astronomical images of evolving objects with optically thin continuum emission (e.g. as relativistic jets or expanding supernova shells) may be confused as a result of the overlap of semi-transparent features moving at different speeds. Aims: Multi-scale wavelet decomposition can be effectively applied to identify and track such overlapping features, provided that their respective structural responses can be separated over the spatial scales used for the decomposition. Methods: We developed a new method that combines the stacked cross-correlation with the wavelet-based image segmentation and evaluation (WISE) technique of decomposition of two-dimensional structures, to separate and track dominant spatial responses of overlapping evolving features. Results: The method is tested on a set of simulated images of a stratified relativistic jet, demonstrating the robust detection of both the faster spine and the slower sheath speeds. The method is applied to mutliple-epoch images from the MOJAVE survey, revealing two different superluminal streams inside the jet in 3C 273 and the acceleration of the flow in 3C 120. Conclusions: The method can be applied to densely monitored objects with composite structural evolution such as the parsec-scale jet in M 87 or heavily resolved expanding supernova shells.

  2. Saccade plan overlap and cancellation during free viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Chua, Fook-Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, we examined how the saccadic system responds when visual information changes dynamically in our environment. Previous studies, using the double-step task, have shown that (a) saccade plans could overlap, such that saccade preparation to an object started even while the saccade preparation to another object was ongoing, and (b) saccade plans could be cancelled before they were completed. In these studies, saccade targets were restricted to a few, experimenter-defined locations. Here, we examined whether saccade plan overlap and cancellation mechanisms could be observed in free-viewing conditions. For each trial, we constructed sets of two images, each containing five objects. All objects have unique positions. Image 1 was presented for several fixations, before Image 2 was presented during a fixation, presumably while a saccade plan to an object in Image 1 was ongoing. There were two crucial findings: (a) First, the saccade immediately following the transition was sometimes executed towards objects in Image 2, and not an object in Image 1, suggesting that the earlier saccade plan to an Image 1 object had been cancelled. Second, analysis of the temporal data also suggested that preparation of the first post-transition saccade started before an earlier saccade plan to an Image 1 object was executed, implying that saccade plans overlapped.

  3. Cluster-enhanced sparse approximation of overlapping ultrasonic echoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Etai; Aladjem, Mayer; Azoulay, Amnon

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic pulse-echo methods have been used extensively in non-destructive testing of layered structures. In acoustic measurements on thin layers, the resulting echoes from two successive interfaces overlap in time, making it difficult to assess the individual echo parameters. Over the last decade sparse approximation methods have been extensively used to address this issue. These methods employ a large dictionary of elementary functions (atoms) and attempt to select the smallest subset of atoms (sparsest approximation) that represent the ultrasonic signal accurately. In this paper we propose the cluster-enhanced sparse approximation (CESA) method for estimating overlapping ultrasonic echoes. CESA is specifically adapted to deal with a large number of signals acquired during an ultrasonic scan. It incorporates two principal algorithms. The first is a clustering algorithm, which divides a set of signals comprising an ultrasonic scan into groups of signals that can be approximated by the same set of atoms. The second is a two-stage iterative algorithm, which alternates between update of the atoms associated with each cluster, and re-clustering of the signals according to the updated atoms. Because CESA operates on clusters of signals, it achieves improved results in terms of approximation error and computation time compared with conventional sparse methods, which operate on each signal separately. The superior ability of CESA to approximate highly overlapping ultrasonic echoes is demonstrated through simulation and experiments on adhesively bonded structures. PMID:25643086

  4. How do keratinizing disorders and blistering disorders overlap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Takahiro; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Fukuda, Shunpei; Ishii, Norito; Teye, Kwesi; Numata, Sanae; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Inherited keratinizing disorders are caused by mutations in the genes encoding cornified cell envelope proteins, enzymes and their inhibitors, adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal proteins and others in the epidermis. These molecules are known to regulate differentiation, proliferation and cell adhesions. Intriguingly, some keratinizing disorders show blistering skin lesions, while some inherited blistering disorders show abnormal keratinization. Therefore, hereditary keratinizing and blistering diseases are closely related and show overlapping genetic backgrounds. In this review, we overviewed keratinizing and blistering disorders in terms of overlapping of the two disease groups. Gene mutations in desmosomal components cause striate keratoderma, Naxos disease, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and plakophilin deficiency, which first show skin fragility and blisters and later hyperkeratosis. Gene mutations in hemidesmosomal components cause various forms of epidermolysis bullosa, some of which show hyperkeratosis on the nails, palms and soles, in addition to blister formation. Diseases with gene mutations in calcium pump proteins are Darier disease and Hailey-Hailey disease, which show clinicopathological overlaps and develop both keratinizing and blistering skin lesions. Finally, gene mutations in epidermal keratins cause epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic ichthyosis, superficial epidermolytic ichthyosis, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and pachyonychia congenita/focal palmoplantar keratoderma, which show thickening of the palms and soles with underlying blister formation. In general, responsible proteins for diseases developing both keratinizing and blistering conditions are adhesion molecules, calcium pump proteins and keratins, but not connexins, cornified cell envelop proteins, enzymes or inhibitors. It is still unknown how particular keratinizing diseases develop blisters and vice versa.

  5. Segmentation, Inference and Classification of Partially Overlapping Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chiwoo Park,

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a method that enables automated morphology analysis of partially overlapping nanoparticles in electron micrographs. In the undertaking of morphology analysis, three tasks appear necessary: separate individual particles from an agglomerate of overlapping nano-objects; infer the particle\\'s missing contours; and ultimately, classify the particles by shape based on their complete contours. Our specific method adopts a two-stage approach: the first stage executes the task of particle separation, and the second stage conducts simultaneously the tasks of contour inference and shape classification. For the first stage, a modified ultimate erosion process is developed for decomposing a mixture of particles into markers, and then, an edge-to-marker association method is proposed to identify the set of evidences that eventually delineate individual objects. We also provided theoretical justification regarding the separation capability of the first stage. In the second stage, the set of evidences become inputs to a Gaussian mixture model on B-splines, the solution of which leads to the joint learning of the missing contour and the particle shape. Using twelve real electron micrographs of overlapping nanoparticles, we compare the proposed method with seven state-of-the-art methods. The results show the superiority of the proposed method in terms of particle recognition rate.

  6. Robust Mosaicking of Uav Images with Narrow Overlaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, T.; Shin, D.; Kim, S. H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers fast and robust mosaicking of UAV images under a circumstance that each UAV images have very narrow overlaps in-between. Image transformation for image mosaicking consists of two estimations: relative transformations and global transformations. For estimating relative transformations between adjacent images, projective transformation is widely considered. For estimating global transformations, panoramic constraint is widely used. While perspective transformation is a general transformation model in 2D-2D transformation, this may not be optimal with weak stereo geometry such as images with narrow overlaps. While panoramic constraint works for reliable conversion of global transformation for panoramic image generation, this constraint is not applicable to UAV images in linear motions. For these reasons, a robust approach is investigated to generate a high quality mosaicked image from narrowly overlapped UAV images. For relative transformations, several transformation models were considered to ensure robust estimation of relative transformation relationship. Among them were perspective transformation, affine transformation, coplanar relative orientation, and relative orientation with reduced adjustment parameters. Performance evaluation for each transformation model was carried out. The experiment results showed that affine transformation and adjusted coplanar relative orientation were superior to others in terms of stability and accuracy. For global transformation, we set initial approximation by converting each relative transformation to a common transformation with respect to a reference image. In future work, we will investigate constrained relative orientation for enhancing geometric accuracy of image mosaicking and bundle adjustments of each relative transformation model for optimal global transformation.

  7. Density-based rough set model for hesitant node clustering in overlapping community detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jiaxu Peng; Ou Liu

    2014-01-01

    Overlapping community detection in a network is a chal enging issue which attracts lots of attention in recent years. A notion of hesitant node (HN) is proposed. An HN contacts with multiple communities while the communications are not strong or even accidental, thus the HN holds an implicit community structure. However, HNs are not rare in the real world network. It is impor-tant to identify them because they can be efficient hubs which form the overlapping portions of communities or simple attached nodes to some communities. Current approaches have difficul-ties in identifying and clustering HNs. A density-based rough set model (DBRSM) is proposed by combining the virtue of density-based algorithms and rough set models. It incorporates the macro perspective of the community structure of the whole network and the micro perspective of the local information held by HNs, which would facilitate the further“growth”of HNs in community. We offer a theoretical support for this model from the point of strength of the trust path. The experiments on the real-world and synthetic datasets show the practical significance of analyzing and cluste-ring the HNs based on DBRSM. Besides, the clustering based on DBRSM promotes the modularity optimization.

  8. Modulation of gene expression via overlapping binding sites exerted by ZNF143, Notch1 and THAP11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngondo-Mbongo, Richard Patryk; Myslinski, Evelyne; Aster, Jon C; Carbon, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    ZNF143 is a zinc-finger protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of both coding and non-coding genes from polymerase II and III promoters. Our study deciphers the genome-wide regulatory role of ZNF143 in relation with the two previously unrelated transcription factors Notch1/ICN1 and thanatos-associated protein 11 (THAP11) in several human and murine cells. We show that two distinct motifs, SBS1 and SBS2, are associated to ZNF143-binding events in promoters of >3000 genes. Without co-occupation, these sites are also bound by Notch1/ICN1 in T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells as well as by THAP11, a factor involved in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. We present evidence that ICN1 binding overlaps with ZNF143 binding events at the SBS1 and SBS2 motifs, whereas the overlap occurs only at SBS2 for THAP11. We demonstrate that the three factors modulate expression of common target genes through the mutually exclusive occupation of overlapping binding sites. The model we propose predicts that the binding competition between the three factors controls biological processes such as rapid cell growth of both neoplastic and stem cells. Overall, our study establishes a novel relationship between ZNF143, THAP11 and ICN1 and reveals important insights into ZNF143-mediated gene regulation. PMID:23408857

  9. Establishment of a large-scale bi-directional sequencing and genotyping platform for MICA gene exons 2 to 4%MICA基因第2~4外显子大规模双向测序及分子克隆检测平台的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高素青; 邓志辉; 徐筠娉; 王大明; 何柳媚; 金士正

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a stable and large-scale bi-directional sequencing platform for genotyping MICA gene exons 2 to 4,and to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) of the region.Methods Primers for particular alleles of MICA gene exons 2 to 5 were designed.Optimal conditions for PCR amplification and sequencing reaction were explored.A commercialized one-way sequencing kit for MICA allele was used as a parallel control.Four samples carrying a MICA * 010 allele were subjected to cloning and haplotype sequencing.Results Results of MICA allele typing of 100 samples for a parallel control group were confirmed by the establish method.Twenty-two SNP in MICA gene exons 2 to 4 were detected in Chinese population.Two novel allelic sequences were accepted by GenBank and IMGT/HLA database and officially named as MICA * 065 and MICA * 066 by the WHO Nomenclature Committee.A novel SNP in MICA gene intron 3 was discovered,with allelic sequence submitted to GenBank and IMGT/HLA database.Conclusion The bi-directional sequencing genotyping platform may be applied for largescale study of MICA allelic polymorphisms,tissue typing,organ transplantation and disease research.%目的 建立稳定的、大规模的MICA基因第2~4外显子双向测序分型检测技术平台,并分析其单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP).方法 自行设计MICA基因第2~5外显子扩增引物及测序引物,探索PCR扩增及测序的最佳反应条件.用商品化的MICA基因单向测序分型试剂盒作为平行对照,对4个包含MICA* 010等位基因的样本采用自行设计引物扩增,并进行分子克隆和单倍体测序.结果 采用自行建立的MICA基因双向测序分型方法验证了100人份平行对照组单向测序分型结果.应用本研究建立的方法获得了中国人群MICA基因第2~4外显子22个SNP位点.两个新等位基因MICA* 065、MICA* 066获得了世界卫生组织的正式命名.首次发现了MICA等位基因第3内含

  10. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    and their features, helping researchers who are investigating functional categories of promoters and their modes of regulation. Additional features of promoters that are being characterized include types of histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, RNA polymerase pausing and novel small RNAs. In this Review, we...

  11. Impact of Overlapping Fe/TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel and Dip-Coating Process on CO2 Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nishimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe/TiO2 film photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating process to extend its photoresponsivity to the visible spectrum. To promote the CO2 reduction performance with the photocatalyst, some types of base materials used for coating Fe/TiO2, which were netlike glass fiber and Cu disc, were investigated. The characterization of prepared Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass fiber and Cu disc was analyzed by SEM and EPMA. In addition, the CO2 reduction performance of Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass disc, Cu disc, and their overlap was tested under a Xe lamp with or without ultraviolet (UV light, respectively. The results show that the concentration of produced CO increases by Fe doping irrespective of base material used under the illumination condition with UV light as well as that without UV light. Since the electron transfer between two overlapped photocatalysts is promoted, the peak concentration of CO for the Fe/TiO2 double overlapping is approximately 1.5 times as large as the Fe/TiO2 single overlapping under the illumination condition with UV light, while the promotion ratio is approximately 1.1 times under that without UV light.

  12. Analysis of amplitude spectra with overlapping peaks from scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is proposed for resolution of overlapping peaks in amplitude spectra obtained by scintillation detectors. Based on the technique, a program was developed and is being used in practical measurements at Kozloduy NPP. The program works in environment of MathCAD, version 2, of the firm MathSoft, Inc. As regards the handling of amplitude spectra, a software emulation on an multichannel analyzer with a personal computer was developed. The language used for program emulation is QuickBASIC, version 4.0 of the firm Microsoft Corp. (author)

  13. FREQUENCY OVERLAPPED SIGNAL IDENTIFICATION USING BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junfeng; SHI Tielin; HE Lingsong; YANG Shuzi

    2006-01-01

    The concepts, principles and usages of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are interpreted. Then the algorithm and methodology of ICA-based blind source separation (BSS), in which the pre-whitened based on PCA for observed signals is used, are researched. Aiming at the mixture signals, whose frequency components are overlapped by each other, a simulation of BSS to separate this type of mixture signals by using theory and approach of BSS has been done. The result shows that the BSS has some advantages what the traditional methodology of frequency analysis has not.

  14. Overlap of Autism and Seizures: Understanding Cognitive Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetrapal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of 'cognitive comorbidity,' which lays emphasis on common cognitive deficits that cut across different disorders. The concept is illustrated with the help of two commonly reported overlapping conditions (autism and epilepsy. It is further explained by concentrating on two important cognitive processes of facial emotional recognition and emotional memory, shown to be compromised in both conditions; and their underlying neural substrates. Cognitive comorbidity is then contrasted with 'comorbidity,' a term which is more commonly used for describing cognitive disorders. The paper closes by providing directions for rehabilitative and theoretical efforts that could be inspired by the newly introduced concept.

  15. Group Lasso with Overlaps: the Latent Group Lasso approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obozinski, Guillaume; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We study a norm for structured sparsity which leads to sparse linear predictors whose supports are unions of prede ned overlapping groups of variables. We call the obtained formulation latent group Lasso, since it is based on applying the usual group Lasso penalty on a set of latent variables. A detailed analysis of the norm and its properties is presented and we characterize conditions under which the set of groups associated with latent variables are correctly identi ed. We motivate and discuss the delicate choice of weights associated to each group, and illustrate this approach on simulated data and on the problem of breast cancer prognosis from gene expression data.

  16. Chaotic scattering in the regime of weakly overlapping resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, B; Friedrich, T; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F; Weidenmüller, H A

    2008-11-01

    We measure the transmission and reflection amplitudes of microwaves in a resonator coupled to two antennas at room temperature in the regime of weakly overlapping resonances and in a frequency range of 3-16GHz . Below 10.1GHz the resonator simulates a chaotic quantum system. The distribution of the elements of the scattering matrix S is not Gaussian. The Fourier coefficients of S are used for a best fit of the autocorrelation function of S to a theoretical expression based on random-matrix theory. We find very good agreement below but not above 10.1GHz .

  17. A NON-OVERLAPPED PRINTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR UWB APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELHADI ASSIR; ABDELMAJID OUMNAD

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel small ultra-wideband (UWB) printed monopole antenna, designed to operate in 3.1-10.6 GHz frequency band, is presented. The antenna is composed of five non-overlapped rectangular patches, a partial ground plane and a standard 50-Ω microstrip feed line. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 22.8 mm  29.5 mm  0.813 mm. The design procedure that we have used is based on a mixed integer genetic algorithm (GA) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with u...

  18. Non-random retention of protein-coding overlapping genes in Metazoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bork Peer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the overlap of transcriptional units occurs frequently in eukaryotic genomes, its evolutionary and biological significance remains largely unclear. Here we report a comparative analysis of overlaps between genes coding for well-annotated proteins in five metazoan genomes (human, mouse, zebrafish, fruit fly and worm. Results For all analyzed species the observed number of overlapping genes is always lower than expected assuming functional neutrality, suggesting that gene overlap is negatively selected. The comparison to the random distribution also shows that retained overlaps do not exhibit random features: antiparallel overlaps are significantly enriched, while overlaps lying on the same strand and those involving coding sequences are highly underrepresented. We confirm that overlap is mostly species-specific and provide evidence that it frequently originates through the acquisition of terminal, non-coding exons. Finally, we show that overlapping genes tend to be significantly co-expressed in a breast cancer cDNA library obtained by 454 deep sequencing, and that different overlap types display different patterns of reciprocal expression. Conclusion Our data suggest that overlap between protein-coding genes is selected against in Metazoa. However, when retained it may be used as a species-specific mechanism for the reciprocal regulation of neighboring genes. The tendency of overlaps to involve non-coding regions of the genes leads to the speculation that the advantages achieved by an overlapping arrangement may be optimized by evolving regulatory non-coding transcripts.

  19. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment. PMID:27191928

  20. A Greedy Algorithm for Neighborhood Overlap-Based Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neighborhood overlap (NOVER of an edge u-v is defined as the ratio of the number of nodes who are neighbors for both u and v to that of the number of nodes who are neighbors of at least u or v. In this paper, we hypothesize that an edge u-v with a lower NOVER score bridges two or more sets of vertices, with very few edges (other than u-v connecting vertices from one set to another set. Accordingly, we propose a greedy algorithm of iteratively removing the edges of a network in the increasing order of their neighborhood overlap and calculating the modularity score of the resulting network component(s after the removal of each edge. The network component(s that have the largest cumulative modularity score are identified as the different communities of the network. We evaluate the performance of the proposed NOVER-based community detection algorithm on nine real-world network graphs and compare the performance against the multi-level aggregation-based Louvain algorithm, as well as the original and time-efficient versions of the edge betweenness-based Girvan-Newman (GN community detection algorithm.

  1. A Case of Overlapping Choriocapillaritis Syndromes: Multimodal Imaging Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kuznetcova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a patient with overlapping choriocapillaritis syndromes who first presented as a typical case of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS and later with characteristic findings compatible with multifocal choroiditis (MFC. Case Report: A 40-year-old myopic woman presented with a paracentral scotoma OS. Fundus examination revealed pale discolored areas around the optic disc corresponding to faintly hyperfluorescent areas on fluorescein angiography (FA. On indocyanine green angiography (ICGA there was extensive peripapillary hypofluorescence and confluent hypofluorescent dots superiorly. According to the clinical picture, a diagnosis of MEWDS was made. In 4 weeks, the visual field reverted to normal together with almost complete regression of hypofluorescence on ICGA. However, 4 months later fundus examination revealed some scars, a finding not typical for MEWDS. Besides, she developed another scotoma 12 months later accompanied by photopsia and the fundus illustrated more numerous scars than one year earlier. ICGA showed hypofluorescent areas corresponding to the scotoma delineated by visual field testing. The pattern of this recurrence clearly corresponded to MFC. Conclusion: This case illustrates an overlap between two entities, MEWDS and MFC in two sequential episodes. FA and fundus autofluorescence accounted for the lesions and optical coherence tomography showed damage to the photoreceptor outer segments, but only ICGA correlated well with functional evolution.

  2. Optimizing packing fraction in granular media composed of overlapping spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Leah K; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2016-01-28

    What particle shape will generate the highest packing fraction when randomly poured into a container? In order to explore and navigate the enormous search space efficiently, we pair molecular dynamics simulations with artificial evolution. Arbitrary particle shape is represented by a set of overlapping spheres of varying diameter, enabling us to approximate smooth surfaces with a resolution proportional to the number of spheres included. We discover a family of planar triangular particles, whose packing fraction of ϕ ∼ 0.73 is among the highest experimental results for disordered packings of frictionless particles. We investigate how ϕ depends on the arrangement of spheres comprising an individual particle and on the smoothness of the surface. We validate the simulations with experiments using 3D-printed copies of the simplest member of the family, a planar particle consisting of three overlapping spheres with identical radius. Direct experimental comparison with 3D-printed aspherical ellipsoids demonstrates that the triangular particles pack exceedingly well not only in the limit of large system size but also when confined to small containers. PMID:26592541

  3. Trophic overlap between native and invasive stream crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, Daniel D.; Piercey, Glenn L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined trophic dynamics of a stream food web where invasive Orconectes neglectusappear to be displacing native O. eupunctus in the Spring River drainage of the Ozark Highlands, Missouri and Arkansas, USA. We collected crayfish species and possible food sources seasonally from a site of sympatry on the South Fork Spring River. We determined diet overlap and potential for competition between O. eupunctus and O. neglectus, and investigated seasonal variation using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses and gut content analyses. Gut content analysis showed both species of crayfish consumed mainly detritus during summer and spring, with other prey categories varying by species and season. Stable isotope analysis showed that O. eupunctus and O. neglectus relied on invertebrates as a major energy and nutrient source throughout summer, autumn, and spring, and the two species showed differences in their stable isotope signatures during spring and summer, but not autumn. Given the trophic overlap between O. eupunctus and O. neglectus, there is a potential for the two species to compete for food and to be ecologically redundant. Ecological redundancy can lead to reduced effects on ecosystem function post-invasion, and therefore examining ecological redundancy of potential invaders should be a conservation priority.

  4. Optimizing packing fraction in granular media composed of overlapping spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Leah K; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2016-01-28

    What particle shape will generate the highest packing fraction when randomly poured into a container? In order to explore and navigate the enormous search space efficiently, we pair molecular dynamics simulations with artificial evolution. Arbitrary particle shape is represented by a set of overlapping spheres of varying diameter, enabling us to approximate smooth surfaces with a resolution proportional to the number of spheres included. We discover a family of planar triangular particles, whose packing fraction of ϕ ∼ 0.73 is among the highest experimental results for disordered packings of frictionless particles. We investigate how ϕ depends on the arrangement of spheres comprising an individual particle and on the smoothness of the surface. We validate the simulations with experiments using 3D-printed copies of the simplest member of the family, a planar particle consisting of three overlapping spheres with identical radius. Direct experimental comparison with 3D-printed aspherical ellipsoids demonstrates that the triangular particles pack exceedingly well not only in the limit of large system size but also when confined to small containers.

  5. Evaluation of a Highly Anticlastic Panel with Tow Overlaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Gurdal, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    A rectangular, variable-stiffness panel with tow overlaps was manufactured using an advanced tow placement machine. The cured panel had large anticlastic imperfections, with measured amplitudes of over two times the average panel thickness. These imperfections were not due to the overall steered-fiber layup or the tow overlaps, but instead resulted from local asymmetries in the laminate that were caused by a manufacturing oversight. In the nominal panel layup, fiber angles vary linearly from 60 degrees on the panel axial centerline to 30 degrees on the parallel edges. A geometrically nonlinear analysis was performed with a -280 degree Fahrenheit thermal load to simulate the postcure cooldown to room temperature. The predicted geometric imperfections correlated well with the measured panel shape. Unique structural test fixtures were then developed which greatly reduced these imperfections, but they also caused prestresses in the panel. Surface imperfections measured after the panel was installed in the test fixtures were used with nonlinear finite element analyses to predict these fixturing-induced prestresses. These prestresses were also included in structural analyses of panel end compression to failure, and the analytical results compared well with test data when both geometric and material nonlinearities were included.

  6. Short-range spin glasses and Random Overlap Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Arguin, Louis-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Properties of Random Overlap Structures (ROSt)'s constructed from the Edwards-Anderson (EA) Spin Glass model on $\\Z^d$ with periodic boundary conditions are studied. ROSt's are $\\N\\times\\N$ random matrices whose entries are the overlaps of spin configurations sampled from the Gibbs measure. Since the ROSt construction is the same for mean-field models (like the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model) as for short-range ones (like the EA model), the setup is a good common ground to study the effect of dimensionality on the properties of the Gibbs measure. In this spirit, it is shown, using translation invariance, that the ROSt of the EA model possesses a local stability that is stronger than stochastic stability, a property known to hold at almost all temperatures in many spin glass models with Gaussian couplings. This fact is used to prove stochastic stability for the EA spin glass at all temperatures and for a wide range of coupling distributions. On the way, a theorem of Newman and Stein about the pure state decompo...

  7. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment.

  8. Growing networks of overlapping communities with internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an intuitive model that describes both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in growing social networks. The model comprises two complementary mechanisms: One mechanism accounts for the evolution of the internal link structure of a single community, and the second mechanism coordinates the growth of multiple overlapping communities. The first mechanism is based on the assumption that each node establishes links with its neighbors and introduces new nodes to the community at different rates. We demonstrate that this simple mechanism gives rise to an effective maximal degree within communities. This observation is related to the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e., the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. The second mechanism is based on a recently proposed generalization of preferential attachment to community structure, appropriately called structural preferential attachment (SPA). The combination of these two mechanisms into a single model (SPA+) allows us to reproduce a number of the global statistics of real networks: The distribution of community sizes, of node memberships, and of degrees. The SPA+ model also predicts (a) three qualitative regimes for the degree distribution within overlapping communities and (b) strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belongs and its number of connections within each community. We present empirical evidence that support our findings in real complex networks. PMID:27627327

  9. Growing networks of overlapping communities with internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an intuitive model that describes both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in growing social networks. The model comprises two complementary mechanisms: One mechanism accounts for the evolution of the internal link structure of a single community, and the second mechanism coordinates the growth of multiple overlapping communities. The first mechanism is based on the assumption that each node establishes links with its neighbors and introduces new nodes to the community at different rates. We demonstrate that this simple mechanism gives rise to an effective maximal degree within communities. This observation is related to the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e., the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. The second mechanism is based on a recently proposed generalization of preferential attachment to community structure, appropriately called structural preferential attachment (SPA). The combination of these two mechanisms into a single model (SPA+) allows us to reproduce a number of the global statistics of real networks: The distribution of community sizes, of node memberships, and of degrees. The SPA+ model also predicts (a) three qualitative regimes for the degree distribution within overlapping communities and (b) strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belongs and its number of connections within each community. We present empirical evidence that support our findings in real complex networks.

  10. Fundamental frequency height as a resource for the management of overlap in talk-in-interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtic, E.; Brown, G J; Wells, B

    2009-01-01

    Overlapping talk is common in talk-in-interaction. Much of the previous research on this topic agrees that speaker overlaps can be either turn competitive or noncompetitive. An investigation of the differences in prosodic design between these two classes of overlaps can offer insight into how speakers use and orient to prosody as a resource for turn competition. In this paper, we investigate the role of fundamental frequency (F0) as a resource for turn competition in overlapping speech. Ou...

  11. Systemic Inflammation in Older Adults With Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    FU, JUAN-JUAN; Vanessa M. McDonald; Gibson, Peter G; Simpson, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The role of systemic inflammation on asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is unknown. This study aimed to examine systemic inflammation in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, and to identify associations between clinical characteristics and inflammatory mediators in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. Methods In 108 adults older than 55 years comprising healthy controls (n=29), asthma (n=16), COPD (n=21) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (n=42), serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin 6 ...

  12. Error analisis of passager flow based on the bi-directional flow ratio of the section in crowd gathering early-warning%人群聚集预警中基于断面双向流量比的客流误差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焘; 金龙哲; 刘建

    2013-01-01

    An early warning method for the risk of crowd gathering based on the bi-directional flow ratio of the section was proposed according to the characteristics of the opposite movement of pedestrian flow at the business street. Its error was analyzed in theory and verified by an example. It is found that using this method as a criterion of crowded events is feasible. Whether the measured values are greater or less than the true values, the error of the ratio between the inward and the outward flow across the section is less than that from a pedestrian flow statistic system, so the method is helpful for improving the accuracy of crowd statistic tools to some extent. In addition, the method can be used as a reference in selecting the type of a pedestrian flow statistic system according to requirements for the measuring accuracy of actual applications.%针对密集人群的安全预警管理,结合商业街人流相向运动的特点,提出通过断面双向流量比进行人群聚集风险预警的思路,并对该方法的误差进行了理论分析和实例验证.结果表明该方法用于商业街聚集人群的风险预警时,不论测量值大于真实值还是测量值小于真实值,经过断面进出比的比值误差均比客流统计系统本身误差更小,从而使客流统计产品在一定范围内精确度有所提高.此外,可应用此方法根据实际要求的测量精度为客流统计设备选型提供依据.

  13. Modeling Overlapping Laminations in Magnetic Core Materials Using 2-D Finite-Element Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Guest, Emerson David; Mecrow, Barrie C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for modeling overlapping laminations in magnetic core materials using two-dimensional finite-element (2-D FE) analysis. The magnetizing characteristic of the overlapping region is captured using a simple 2-D FE model of the periodic overlapping geometry and a comp...

  14. On frequency domain adaptive filters using the overlap-add method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommen, P.C.W.; Jayasinghe, J.A.K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors introduce a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) configuration using the overlap-add method which has the same complexity and convergence behavior as the overlap-save configuration. It is shown that an FDAF using the overlap-add method can be realized with the same number of DFTs (dis

  15. Clinical features of the overlap syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PBC-AIH overlap syndrome is an autoimmune liver disease between AIH (autoimmune hepatitis) and PBC (primary biliary cirrhosis). To investigate the characteristic of the PBC-AIH overlap syndrome, we have conducted a retros- pective study of 12 diagnosed overlap syndrome patients and compared them with typical PBC and AIH on the basis of clinical, biochemical, serological and histopathological findings.

  16. Genome classification by gene distribution: An overlapping subspace clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halgamuge Saman K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes of lower organisms have been observed with a large amount of horizontal gene transfers, which cause difficulties in their evolutionary study. Bacteriophage genomes are a typical example. One recent approach that addresses this problem is the unsupervised clustering of genomes based on gene order and genome position, which helps to reveal species relationships that may not be apparent from traditional phylogenetic methods. Results We propose the use of an overlapping subspace clustering algorithm for such genome classification problems. The advantage of subspace clustering over traditional clustering is that it can associate clusters with gene arrangement patterns, preserving genomic information in the clusters produced. Additionally, overlapping capability is desirable for the discovery of multiple conserved patterns within a single genome, such as those acquired from different species via horizontal gene transfers. The proposed method involves a novel strategy to vectorize genomes based on their gene distribution. A number of existing subspace clustering and biclustering algorithms were evaluated to identify the best framework upon which to develop our algorithm; we extended a generic subspace clustering algorithm called HARP to incorporate overlapping capability. The proposed algorithm was assessed and applied on bacteriophage genomes. The phage grouping results are consistent overall with the Phage Proteomic Tree and showed common genomic characteristics among the TP901-like, Sfi21-like and sk1-like phage groups. Among 441 phage genomes, we identified four significantly conserved distribution patterns structured by the terminase, portal, integrase, holin and lysin genes. We also observed a subgroup of Sfi21-like phages comprising a distinctive divergent genome organization and identified nine new phage members to the Sfi21-like genus: Staphylococcus 71, phiPVL108, Listeria A118, 2389, Lactobacillus phi AT3, A2

  17. The eigSUMR inverter for overlap fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Nigel; Lee, Weonjong

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the usage and applicability of deflation methods for the overlap lattice Dirac operator, focusing on calculating the eigenvalues using a method similar to the eigCG algorithm used for other Dirac operators. The overlap operator, which contains several theoretical advantages over other formulations of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, is more computationally expensive because it requires the computation of the matrix sign function. The principal change made compared to deflation methods for other formulations of lattice QCD is that it is necessary for best performance to tune the accuracy of the matrix sign function as the computation proceeds. We present two possible relaxation strategies, one which provides a rigorous bound for the eigenvalues but seems to be too conservative in practice, and a second which is less conservative but, while its stability is not guaranteed, seems to work well in practice. We adapt the original eigCG algorithm for two of the preferred inversion algorithms for overlap fermions, GMRESR(relCG) and GMRESR(relSUMR). Before deflation, the rate of convergence of these routines in terms of iterations is similar, but, since the Shifted Unitary Minimal Residual (SUMR) algorithm only requires one call to the matrix sign function compared to the two calls required for Conjugate Gradient (CG), SUMR is usually preferred for single inversions of the Dirac operator. We construct bounds for the required accuracy of the matrix sign function during the eigenvalue calculation. For the SUMR algorithm, we use a variant of the Galerkin projection to perform the deflation; while for the CG algorithm, we are able to use a considerably superior spectral pre-conditioner. The superior performance of the spectral pre-conditioner, and its need for less accurate eigenvalues, almost erodes SUMR's advantage over CG as an inversion algorithm. We see factor of three gains for the inversion algorithm from the deflation on our small test lattices; we expect

  18. Long memory analysis by using maximal overlapping discrete wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nur Amalina binti; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-05-01

    Long memory process is the asymptotic decay of the autocorrelation or spectral density around zero. The main objective of this paper is to do a long memory analysis by using the Maximal Overlapping Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) based on wavelet variance. In doing so, stock market of Malaysia, China, Singapore, Japan and United States of America are used. The risk of long term and short term investment are also being looked into. MODWT can be analyzed with time domain and frequency domain simultaneously and decomposing wavelet variance to different scales without loss any information. All countries under studied show that they have long memory. Subprime mortgage crisis in 2007 is occurred in the United States of America are possible affect to the major trading countries. Short term investment is more risky than long term investment.

  19. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  20. Geometric Quality Assessment of LIDAR Data Based on Swath Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, A.; Heidemann, H. K.; Stensaas, G. L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014) do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data). For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a) Median Discrepancy Angle b) Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c) RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5 degrees of slope

  1. An edge density definition of overlapping and weighted graph communities

    CERN Document Server

    Ronhovde, Richard K Darst David R Reichman Peter

    2013-01-01

    Community detection in networks refers to the process of seeking strongly internally connected groups of nodes which are weakly externally connected. In this work, we introduce and study a community definition based on internal edge density. Beginning with the simple concept that edge density equals number of edges divided by maximal number of edges, we apply this definition to a variety of node and community arrangements to show that our definition yields sensible results. Our community definition is equivalent to that of the Absolute Potts Model community detection method (Phys. Rev. E 81, 046114 (2010)), and the performance of that method validates the usefulness of our definition across a wide variety of network types. We discuss how this definition can be extended to weighted, and multigraphs, and how the definition is capable of handling overlapping communities and local algorithms. We further validate our definition against the recently proposed Affiliation Graph Model (arXiv:1205.6228 [cs.SI]) and sho...

  2. A Bayesian variable selection procedure for ranking overlapping gene sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarman, Axel; Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Janss, Luc;

    2012-01-01

    variable selection to differential expression to prioritize the molecular and genetic pathways involved in the responses to Escherichia coli infection in Danish Holstein cows. Results We used a Bayesian variable selection method to prioritize Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We used our......Background Genome-wide expression profiling using microarrays or sequence-based technologies allows us to identify genes and genetic pathways whose expression patterns influence complex traits. Different methods to prioritize gene sets, such as the genes in a given molecular pathway, have been...... described. In many cases, these methods test one gene set at a time, and therefore do not consider overlaps among the pathways. Here, we present a Bayesian variable selection method to prioritize gene sets that overcomes this limitation by considering all gene sets simultaneously. We applied Bayesian...

  3. Overlapping DSPP mutations cause dentin dysplasia and dentinogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D A; Simmer, J P; Hart, P S; Hart, T C; Fisher, L W

    2008-12-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and dentin dysplasia (DD) are allelic disorders due to mutations in DSPP. Typically, the phenotype breeds true within a family. Recently, two reports showed that 3 different net -1 bp frameshift mutations early in DSPP's repeat domain caused DD, whereas 6 more 3' frameshift mutations were associated with DGI. Here we identify a DD kindred with a novel -1 bp frameshift (c.3141delC) that falls within the portion of the DSPP repeat domain previously associated solely with the DGI phenotype. This new frameshift mutation shows that overlapping DSPP mutations can give rise to either DGI or DD phenotypes. Furthermore, the consistent kindred presentation of the DD or DGI phenotype appears to be dependent on an as-yet-undescribed genetic modifier closely linked to DSPP.

  4. A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, Massimo

    2010-06-22

    In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation constraint. To our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of addressing such a strategy for the nonlinear, nonadditive, and nonsmooth problem of total variation minimization. We provide several numerical experiments, showing the successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of 1D signals and 2D images in interpolation/inpainting problems, respectively, and in a compressed sensing problem, for recovering piecewise constant medical-type images from partial Fourier ensembles. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Vibration of composite beams with two overlapping delaminations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian N. Della; Dongwei Shu; Yapu Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Delaminations in composite laminates may develop from small cracks due to fabrication and impact loading, or from places of high stress concentration. The locations of the delaminations are not determinate. In this research, an analytical solution for the free vibration of a composite beam with two overlapping delaminations is presented. The delaminated beam is analyzed as seven interconnected beams using the delaminations as their boundaries. The continuity and equilibrium conditions are satisfied between the adjoining regions of the beams. Classical beam theory is applied to each of the beams. Complex vibration behaviors emerge for different sizes and locations of the delaminations. Comparison with analytical results reported in the literature verifies the validity of the present solution.

  6. Spike sorting in the frequency domain with overlap detection

    CERN Document Server

    Rinberg, D; Davidowitz, H; Tishby, N; Rinberg, Dima; Bialek, William; Davidowitz, Hanan; Tishby, Naftali

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of extracting the activity of individual neurons from multi-electrode recordings. Important aspects of this work are: 1) the sorting is done in two stages - a statistical model of the spikes from different cells is built and only then are occurrences of these spikes in the data detected by scanning through the original data, 2) the spike sorting is done in the frequency domain, 3) strict statistical tests are applied to determine if and how a spike should be classiffed, 4) the statistical model for detecting overlaping spike events is proposed, 5) slow dynamics of spike shapes are tracked during long experiments. Results from the application of these techniques to data collected from the escape response system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, are presented.

  7. Overlapping Communication and Computation with OpenMP and MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Machines comprised of a distributed collection of shared memory or SMP nodes are becoming common for parallel computing. OpenMP can be combined with MPI on many such machines. Motivations for combing OpenMP and MPI are discussed. While OpenMP is typically used for exploiting loop-level parallelism it can also be used to enable coarse grain parallelism, potentially leading to less overhead. We show how coarse grain OpenMP parallelism can also be used to facilitate overlapping MPI communication and computation for stencil-based grid programs such as a program performing Gauss-Seidel iteration with red-black ordering. Spatial subdivision or domain decomposition is used to assign a portion of the grid to each thread. One thread is assigned a null calculation region so it was free to perform communication. Example calculations were run on an IBM SP using both the Kuck & Associates and IBM compilers.

  8. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... for the first time, an acknowledgement to its debilitating nature. This article explores the overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: The bibliographic search was a computerized screen of PubMed databases from January 1990 to the present. Binge eating disorder, substance...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...

  9. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  10. Overlap Algorithms in Flexible Job-shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Gutierrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (fJSP considers the execution of jobs by a set of candidate resources while satisfying time and technological constraints. This work, that follows the hierarchical architecture, is based on an algorithm where each objective (resource allocation, start-time assignment is solved by a genetic algorithm (GA that optimizes a particular fitness function, and enhances the results by the execution of a set of heuristics that evaluate and repair each scheduling constraint on each operation. The aim of this work is to analyze the impact of some algorithmic features of the overlap constraint heuristics, in order to achieve the objectives at a highest degree. To demonstrate the efficiency of this approach, experimentation has been performed and compared with similar cases, tuning the GA parameters correctly.

  11. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  12. Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2014-06-01

    In 3 experiments, we tested 3 possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first 2 characters and the last 2 characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that words in different positions are processed simultaneously and independently, and the word segmentation ambiguity cannot be settled without the help of sentence context. The competition hypothesis assumes that all of the words compete for a single winner. The results support a competition account that the characters in the perceptual span activate all of the words they can constitute, and any word can win the competition if its activation is high enough. PMID:24417292

  13. Resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings based on maximum entropy model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong

    2006-01-01

    The resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings (OAS) is studied based on the maximum entropy model.There are two model outputs,where either the first two characters form a word or the last two characters form a word.The features of the model include one word in context of OAS,the current OAS and word probability relation of two kinds of segmentation results.OAS in training text is found by the combination of the FMM and BMM segmentation method.After feature tagging they are used to train the maximum entropy model.The People Daily corpus of January 1998 is used in training and testing.Experimental results show a closed test precision of 98.64% and an open test precision of 95.01%.The open test precision is 3,76% better compared with that of the precision of common word probability method.

  14. Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML parametric estimation of overlapped Doppler echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boyer

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the area of overlapped echo data processing. In such cases, classical methods, such as Fourier-like techniques or pulse pair methods, fail to estimate the first three spectral moments of the echoes because of their lack of resolution. A promising method, based on a modelization of the covariance matrix of the time series and on a Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML estimation of the parameters of interest, has been recently introduced in literature. This method has been tested on simulations and on few spectra from actual data but no exhaustive investigation of the SML algorithm has been conducted on actual data: this paper fills this gap. The radar data came from the thunderstorm campaign that took place at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center (NAIC in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in 1998.

  15. Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML) parametric estimation of overlapped Doppler echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E.; Petitdidier, M.; Larzabal, P.

    2004-11-01

    This paper investigates the area of overlapped echo data processing. In such cases, classical methods, such as Fourier-like techniques or pulse pair methods, fail to estimate the first three spectral moments of the echoes because of their lack of resolution. A promising method, based on a modelization of the covariance matrix of the time series and on a Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML) estimation of the parameters of interest, has been recently introduced in literature. This method has been tested on simulations and on few spectra from actual data but no exhaustive investigation of the SML algorithm has been conducted on actual data: this paper fills this gap. The radar data came from the thunderstorm campaign that took place at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center (NAIC) in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in 1998.

  16. Townes-Brocks syndrome with overlapping features of hemifacial microsomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple malformations and variable expression. Major findings include external ear anomalies, hearing loss, limb deformity, imperforate anus, and renal malformations. Intelligence is usually normal, although mild moderate mental retardation has been reported. It can be difficult to differentiate clinically between hemifacial microsomia (HFM and Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS. The distinction is important because TBS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, whereas HFM is sporadic. We report a classical case of TBS with overlapping features of hemifacial microsomia in an 11 year old boy who presented with unilateral anotia with hearing defect, renal agenesis and imperforate anus by birth.

  17. Non-overlapping domain decomposition methods in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gosselet, Pierre; 10.1007/BF02905857

    2012-01-01

    The modern design of industrial structures leads to very complex simulations characterized by nonlinearities, high heterogeneities, tortuous geometries... Whatever the modelization may be, such an analysis leads to the solution to a family of large ill-conditioned linear systems. In this paper we study strategies to efficiently solve to linear system based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods. We present a review of most employed approaches and their strong connections. We outline their mechanical interpretations as well as the practical issues when willing to implement and use them. Numerical properties are illustrated by various assessments from academic to industrial problems. An hybrid approach, mainly designed for multifield problems, is also introduced as it provides a general framework of such approaches.

  18. A NON-OVERLAPPED PRINTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR UWB APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELHADI ASSIR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel small ultra-wideband (UWB printed monopole antenna, designed to operate in 3.1-10.6 GHz frequency band, is presented. The antenna is composed of five non-overlapped rectangular patches, a partial ground plane and a standard 50-Ω microstrip feed line. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 22.8 mm  29.5 mm  0.813 mm. The design procedure that we have used is based on a mixed integer genetic algorithm (GA and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method with uniaxial perfectly matched layer(UPML absorbing boundary condition. The optimized printed monopole antenna is analyzed using our own FDTD code and the high frequency structure simulator (HFSS.

  19. Detecting overlapping instances in microscopy images using extremal region trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Carlos; Lempitsky, Victor; Noble, J Alison; Zisserman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In many microscopy applications the images may contain both regions of low and high cell densities corresponding to different tissues or colonies at different stages of growth. This poses a challenge to most previously developed automated cell detection and counting methods, which are designed to handle either the low-density scenario (through cell detection) or the high-density scenario (through density estimation or texture analysis). The objective of this work is to detect all the instances of an object of interest in microscopy images. The instances may be partially overlapping and clustered. To this end we introduce a tree-structured discrete graphical model that is used to select and label a set of non-overlapping regions in the image by a global optimization of a classification score. Each region is labeled with the number of instances it contains - for example regions can be selected that contain two or three object instances, by defining separate classes for tuples of objects in the detection process. We show that this formulation can be learned within the structured output SVM framework and that the inference in such a model can be accomplished using dynamic programming on a tree structured region graph. Furthermore, the learning only requires weak annotations - a dot on each instance. The candidate regions for the selection are obtained as extremal region of a surface computed from the microscopy image, and we show that the performance of the model can be improved by considering a proxy problem for learning the surface that allows better selection of the extremal regions. Furthermore, we consider a number of variations for the loss function used in the structured output learning. The model is applied and evaluated over six quite disparate data sets of images covering: fluorescence microscopy, weak-fluorescence molecular images, phase contrast microscopy and histopathology images, and is shown to exceed the state of the art in performance.

  20. Online monitoring of the laser brazing of titanium overlap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R.; Vielhaber, K.; Donst, D.; Klocke, F.

    2007-06-01

    Image processing and thermography for its own are very versatile and established measurement techniques for many years. However, the combination of these two measurement technologies opens a new field of applications. The online monitoring of the laser-brazing of titanium overlap joints is such a new application. The laser brazing process for overlap joining of formed titanium sheets for the production of heat exchangers is presently being investigated at the Fraunhofer IPT. In comparison to conventional furnace brazing the laser brazing technology decreases substantially the heat impact and thus reduces the thermal material damage in the parts due to local selective heating in a laser beam focal spot. Even though the process is stable, errors in the brazing seam such as pores or unacceptable material oxidation can occur. To ensure a high quality an online process monitoring or even process control is necessary. But since the surface remains unchanged during this brazing process no geometrical inspection of the surface can be conducted. Therefore today's quality assurance performs x-ray or destructive testing. This paper demonstrates how the use of thermography in combination with image processing allows a machine integrated online monitoring of the laser brazing process. First the basic principals are presented which cover the fields of heat coupling, heat transmission and heat distribution as well as the temperature emission of light and the spectral properties of the laser beam shaping optic and so lead to the optical set-up. Then analysis algorithms are derived which characterize the process, detect process failures and make a seam tracking possible.

  1. Detecting overlapping instances in microscopy images using extremal region trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Carlos; Lempitsky, Victor; Noble, J Alison; Zisserman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In many microscopy applications the images may contain both regions of low and high cell densities corresponding to different tissues or colonies at different stages of growth. This poses a challenge to most previously developed automated cell detection and counting methods, which are designed to handle either the low-density scenario (through cell detection) or the high-density scenario (through density estimation or texture analysis). The objective of this work is to detect all the instances of an object of interest in microscopy images. The instances may be partially overlapping and clustered. To this end we introduce a tree-structured discrete graphical model that is used to select and label a set of non-overlapping regions in the image by a global optimization of a classification score. Each region is labeled with the number of instances it contains - for example regions can be selected that contain two or three object instances, by defining separate classes for tuples of objects in the detection process. We show that this formulation can be learned within the structured output SVM framework and that the inference in such a model can be accomplished using dynamic programming on a tree structured region graph. Furthermore, the learning only requires weak annotations - a dot on each instance. The candidate regions for the selection are obtained as extremal region of a surface computed from the microscopy image, and we show that the performance of the model can be improved by considering a proxy problem for learning the surface that allows better selection of the extremal regions. Furthermore, we consider a number of variations for the loss function used in the structured output learning. The model is applied and evaluated over six quite disparate data sets of images covering: fluorescence microscopy, weak-fluorescence molecular images, phase contrast microscopy and histopathology images, and is shown to exceed the state of the art in performance. PMID:25980675

  2. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  3. Candidates in Astroviruses, Seadornaviruses, Cytorhabdoviruses and Coronaviruses for +1 frame overlapping genes accessed by leaky scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins John F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overlapping genes are common in RNA viruses where they serve as a mechanism to optimize the coding potential of compact genomes. However, annotation of overlapping genes can be difficult using conventional gene-finding software. Recently we have been using a number of complementary approaches to systematically identify previously undetected overlapping genes in RNA virus genomes. In this article we gather together a number of promising candidate new overlapping genes that may be of interest to the community. Results Overlapping gene predictions are presented for the astroviruses, seadornaviruses, cytorhabdoviruses and coronaviruses (families Astroviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae, respectively.

  4. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...

  5. Advances in Studies of Cloud Overlap and Its Radiative Transfer in Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 荆现文

    2016-01-01

    The latest advances in studies on the treatment of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in global climate models are summarized. Developments with respect to this internationally challenging problem are described from aspects such as the design of cloud overlap assumptions, the realization of cloud overlap assumptions within climate models, and the data and methods used to obtain consistent observations of cloud overlap structure and radiative transfer in overlapping clouds. To date, there has been an appreciable level of achievement in studies on cloud overlap in climate models, demonstrated by the development of scientific assumptions (e.g., e-folding overlap) to describe cloud overlap, the invention and broad application of the fast radiative transfer method for overlapped clouds (Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation), and the emergence of continuous 3D cloud satellite observation (e.g., CloudSat/CALIPSO) and cloud-resolving models, which provide numerous data valuable for the exact description of cloud overlap structure in climate models. However, present treatments of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer process are far from complete, and there remain many unsettled problems that need to be explored in the future.

  6. Disentangling the Overlap Between Employee Engagement and Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of positive psychology and the subsequent positive organizational behavior movement, focusing on the employee experience and factors of positive psychological states in employees has come to the forefront. In recent years, several studies have emphasized the practical value of employee engagement and passion (the dualistic model of passion; Vallerand et al., 2003 in predicting various positive individual and organizational outcomes (e.g., performance, well-being. Although engagement and passion seem relatively easy to spot at first glance, they are rather difficult to define and distinguish one from another. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to provide a comprehensive discussion on the shared aspects and conceptual differences between these two constructs within the work environment. The most noticeable overlap is proposed to exist between engagement and harmonious passion. It concerns the common underlying development mechanism, a very strong motivational force to engage in one's work, strong identification with work, and similar relationships with various antecedents and consequences. It is suggested that broader scope theories (such as the self-determination theory should be taken into consideration in order to unify common findings from both theoretical backgrounds and overcome redundancy and the risk of multiplication of concepts in positive psychology.

  7. CRISPR Detection From Short Reads Using Partial Overlap Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Ilan; Chor, Benny

    2016-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are structured regions in bacterial and archaeal genomes, which are part of an adaptive immune system against phages. CRISPRs are important for many microbial studies and are playing an essential role in current gene editing techniques. As such, they attract substantial research interest. The exponential growth in the amount of bacterial sequence data in recent years enables the exploration of CRISPR loci in more and more species. Most of the automated tools that detect CRISPR loci rely on fully assembled genomes. However, many assemblers do not handle repetitive regions successfully. The first tool to work directly on raw sequence data is Crass, which requires reads that are long enough to contain two copies of the same repeat. We present a method to identify CRISPR repeats from raw sequence data of short reads. The algorithm is based on an observation differentiating CRISPR repeats from other types of repeats, and it involves a series of partial constructions of the overlap graph. This enables us to avoid many of the difficulties that assemblers face, as we merely aim to identify the repeats that belong to CRISPR loci. A preliminary implementation of the algorithm shows good results and detects CRISPR repeats in cases where other existing tools fail to do so.

  8. Understanding asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Keele E; Kelly-Reif, Kaitlin; Bushnell, Greta A; Pascoe, Steven; Barnes, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a loosely-defined clinical entity referring to patients who exhibit characteristics of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical definitions and classifications for ACOS vary widely, which impacts our understanding of prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of the condition. This literature review was therefore conducted to characterize the prevalence of ACOS and the effect of different disease definitions on these estimates, as this has not previously been explored. From an analysis of English language literature published from 2000 to 2014, the estimated prevalence of ACOS ranges from 12.1% to 55.2% among patients with COPD and 13.3%-61.0% among patients with asthma alone. This variability is linked to differences in COPD and asthma diagnostic criteria, disease ascertainment methods (spirometry-based versus clinical or symptom-based diagnoses and claims data), and population characteristics including age, gender and smoking. Understanding the reasons for differences in prevalence estimates of ACOS across the literature may help guide decision making on the most appropriate criteria for defining ACOS and aid investigators in designing future ACOS clinical studies aimed at effective treatment.

  9. Expectation formation in an overlapping generation model with production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamic properties of an overlapping generations' model with capital accumulation, in which agents work in both periods of life. We compare three different expectation mechanisms: perfect foresight, myopic foresight, and adaptive expectations, focusing, in particular, on this last one. We show that the steady state is the same under each mechanism, and we prove its global stability for perfectly foresighted agents. After investigating local stability conditions under myopic expectations, we study in detail the case of adaptive expectations. We show that, under both reduced rationality mechanisms, if the share of time devoted to labor in the second period of life is large enough, periodic and complex dynamics can occur. Moreover, deepening the investigation through numerical simulations, we study the global stability behavior under adaptive expectations. Such complex scenarios also include the coexistence between the stable steady state and a periodic or chaotic attractor, giving rise to multistability, which does not arise under myopic expectations. Finally, we provide some considerations about the possibility for the agents to improve their forecasts by observing the forecasting error time series.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  11. Optical axis jitter rejection for double overlapped adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Luo, Xi; Li, Xinyang

    2016-04-01

    Optical axis jitters, or vibrations, which arise from wind shaking and structural oscillations of optical platforms, etc., cause a deleterious impact on the performance of adaptive optics systems. When conventional integrators are utilized to reject such high frequency and narrow-band disturbance, the benefits are quite small despite their acceptable capabilities to reject atmospheric turbulence. In our case, two suits of complete adaptive optics systems called double overlapped adaptive optics systems (DOAOS) are used to counteract both optical jitters and atmospheric turbulence. A novel algorithm aiming to remove vibrations is proposed by resorting to combine the Smith predictor and notch filer. With the help of loop shaping method, the algorithm will lead to an effective and stable controller, which makes the characteristics of error transfer function close to notch filters. On the basis of the spectral analysis of observed data, the peak frequency and bandwidth of vibrations can be identified in advance. Afterwards, the number of notch filters and their parameters will be determined using coordination descending method. The relationship between controller parameters and filtering features is discussed, and the robustness of the controller against varying parameters of the control object is investigated. Preliminary experiments are carried out to validate the proposed algorithms. The overall control performance of DOAOS is simulated. Results show that time delays are a limit of the performance, but the algorithm can be successfully implemented on our systems, which indicate that it has a great potential to reject jitters.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of isolated and overlapping resonance states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correction to nuclear structure calculations due to the finite life time of the excited states of a finite nucleus is investigated. An additional term to the Hamilton operator as well as to the wave function of a nuclear state is shown to appear. The analytical expressions of these terms are given and results of numerical calculations are discussed. The additional term to the Hamilton operator determines the life time of the decaying nuclear states. It violates charge symmetry of the nuclear forces. Its nondiagonal matrix elements describe the external mixing of the states via the continuum by which the properties of overlapping resonances are governed. Long-lived and short-lived states are described in a unified manner. The interplay between giant resonance and underlying levels is studied. The basic assumptions of the statistical nuclear reaction theories are discussed on the basis of numerical results obtained by taking into account the external mixing in a straight forward manner. The additional term to the wave function of a nuclear state describes virtual particles including clusters in the nuclear surface. It plays a role in most nuclear reactions. (author)

  13. An algorithm of image segmentation for overlapping grain image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi; JIN Guang; SUN Xiao-wei

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at measurement of granularity size of nonmetal grain, an algorithm of image segmentation and parameter calculation for microscopic overlapping grain image was studied. This algorithm presents some new attributes of graph sequence from discrete attribute of graph,and consequently achieves the geometrical characteristics from input graph, and the new graph sequence in favor of image segmentation is recombined. The conception that image edge denoted with "twin-point" is put forward, base on geometrical characters of point, image edge is transformed into serial edge, and on recombined serial image edge, based on direction vector definition of line and some additional restricted conditions, the segmentation twin-points are searched with, thus image segmentation is accomplished. Serial image edge is transformed into twin-point pattern, to realize calculation of area and granularity size of nonmetal grain. The inkling and uncertainty on selection of structure element which base on mathematical morphology are avoided in this algorithm, and image segmentation and parameter calculation are realized without changing grain's self statistical characters.

  14. The Resonance Overlap and Hill Stability Criteria Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, X S; Beaugé, C

    2015-01-01

    We review the orbital stability of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, in the case of massless particles initially located between both massive bodies. We present new estimates of the resonance overlap criterion and the Hill stability limit, and compare their predictions with detailed dynamical maps constructed with N-body simulations. We show that the boundary between (Hill) stable and unstable orbits is not smooth but characterized by a rich structure generated by the superposition of different mean-motion resonances which does not allow for a simple global expression for stability. We propose that, for a given perturbing mass $m_1$ and initial eccentricity $e$, there are actually two critical values of the semimajor axis. All values $a a_{\\rm unstable}$ are unstable in the Hill sense. The first limit is given by the Hill-stability criterion and is a function of the eccentricity. The second limit is virtually insensitive to the initial eccentricity, and closely resembles a new resonance over...

  15. 粘钢加固损伤混凝土箱型桥墩的抗震性能Ⅰ:双向拟静力试验%Anti-seismic properties of damaged concrete bridge piers with hollow box-section strengthened with adhering steel plates Ⅰ:bi-directional quasi-static test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗周红; 邓江东; 黎雅乐; 刘爱荣

    2013-01-01

    11 scaled models of reinforced concrete bridge piers with hollow box-section were de-signed and fabricated in the lab.Bi-directional quasi-static tests for these scaled pier models strength-ened with adhering steel plates were carried out.Several seismic performance indicators, such as load-displacement hysteretic and skeleton curves, ductility, degradation of rigidity, and energy dissi-pation were investigated.The experimental results show that all the strengthened piers present typical flexural failure modes, and plastic hinge appears in the superior margin of steel plates in stead of in the bottom for piers without strengthening.The improvement of anti-seismic properties exhibits that it was an effective method to change the plastic hinge position by adhering steel plates.The load ca-pacity and the lateral rigid along the strong axis direction are greater, while the energy dissipation a-long the weak axis direction is stronger.The hysteretic curves of the weak axis exhibit notable pinch effects.The initial damage only has small effect on the degradation of rigidity and energy dissipation of the strengthening piers.Meanwhile, the changes of axial compression ratio and slenderness ratio have a great impact on the seismic performance.With the increase of the axial compression ratio, the carrying capacity, the ductility performance and energy dissipation of models increase, but the ulti-mate displacement decreases.With the decrease of the slenderness ratio, the carrying capacity of piers strengthened with adhering steel plates increases;however the ultimate deformation capacity de-creases, while the degradation of rigidity becomes more serious.%设计制作了11个钢筋混凝土箱型截面桥墩缩尺模型,对其进行了粘钢加固后的双向拟静力试验,分析了加固桥墩的荷载位移滞回曲线、骨架曲线、延性能力、刚度退化和耗能能力等。结果表明,加固墩柱均发生以弯曲破坏为主的延性破坏,破坏塑性

  16. Application of the lamp mapping technique for overlap function for Raman lidar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N; Sakai, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the lidar water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) is corrected for overlap using data from another instrument, such as a radiosonde. Here we introduce a new experimental method to determine the overlap function using the lamp mapping technique (LMT), which relies on the lidar optics and detection system. The LMT discussed here involves a standard halogen lamp being scanned over the aperture of a Raman lidar telescope in synchronization with the lidar detection system [Appl. Opt.50, 4622 (2011)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.50.004622, Appl. Opt.53, 8538 (2014)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.53.008535]. In this paper, we show results for a LMT-determined overlap function for individual channels, as well as a WVMR overlap function. We found that the LMT-determined WVMR overlap functions deviate within 5% of the traditional radiosonde-determined overlap. PMID:27139656

  17. PSC, AIH and overlap syndrome in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, P J; Chapman, R W

    2012-10-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive, cholestatic disorder characterised by chronic inflammation and stricture formation of the biliary tree. Symptoms include pruritus, fatigue and in advanced cases ascending cholangitis, cirrhosis and end-stage hepatic failure. Patients are at an increased risk of malignancy arising from the bile ducts, gallbladder, liver and colon. The majority (>80%) of Northern European patients with PSC also have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), usually ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD commonly presents before the onset of PSC, although the opposite can occur and the onset of both conditions can be separated by many years. The colitis associated with PSC is characteristically mild although frequently involves the whole colon. Despite the majority of patients having relatively inactive colonic disease, paradoxically the risk of colorectal malignancy is substantially increased. Patients may also develop dominant, stenotic lesions of the biliary tree which may be difficult to differentiate from cholangiocarcinoma and the coexistence of IBD may influence the development of this complication. Ursodeoxycholic acid may offer a chemoprotective effect against colorectal malignancy and improve liver biochemical indices. Evidence of any beneficial effect on histological progression of hepatobiliary disease is less clear. High doses (∼25-30 mg/kg/d) may be harmful and should be avoided. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is less common in patients with IBD than PSC, however, an association has been observed. A small subgroup may have an overlap syndrome between AIH and PSC and management should be individualised dependant on liver histology, serum immunoglobulin levels, autoantibodies, degree of biochemical cholestasis and cholangiography.

  18. Morphological similarity and ecological overlap in two rotifer species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of cryptic species raises theoretically relevant questions regarding their coexistence and ecological similarity. Given their great morphological similitude and close phylogenetic relationship (i.e., niche retention, these species will have similar ecological requirements and are expected to have strong competitive interactions. This raises the problem of finding the mechanisms that may explain the coexistence of cryptic species and challenges the conventional view of coexistence based on niche differentiation. The cryptic species complex of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is an excellent model to study these questions and to test hypotheses regarding ecological differentiation. Rotifer species within this complex are filtering zooplankters commonly found inhabiting the same ponds across the Iberian Peninsula and exhibit an extremely similar morphology-some of them being even virtually identical. Here, we explore whether subtle differences in body size and morphology translate into ecological differentiation by comparing two extremely morphologically similar species belonging to this complex: B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas. We focus on three key ecological features related to body size: (1 functional response, expressed by clearance rates; (2 tolerance to starvation, measured by growth and reproduction; and (3 vulnerability to copepod predation, measured by the number of preyed upon neonates. No major differences between B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas were found in the response to these features. Our results demonstrate the existence of a substantial niche overlap, suggesting that the subtle size differences between these two cryptic species are not sufficient to explain their coexistence. This lack of evidence for ecological differentiation in the studied biotic niche features is in agreement with the phylogenetic limiting similarity hypothesis but requires a mechanistic explanation of the coexistence of these species not

  19. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Steeper, Richard R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  20. First numerical experiences with overlap fermions based on the Brillouin kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Durr, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Numerical experiences are reported with overlap fermions which employ the Brillouin action as a kernel. After discussing the dispersion relations of both the kernel and the resulting chiral action, some of the physics features are addressed on quenched backgrounds. We find that the overlap with Brillouin kernel is much better localized than the overlap with Wilson kernel. Also a preliminary account is given of the cost of the formulation, in terms of CPU time and memory.

  1. Resolution of overlapping skin auto-fluorescence for development of non-invasive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Zheng; Lin, Li-Wu; Chen, Chuen-Yau; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Skin auto-fluorescence spectra can provide useful biological information, but the obtained spectrum is overlapped and is difficult to distinguish each contributed component. We applied the genetic algorithm to decompose the overlapping spectrum. First, we simulate the overlapping spectral to confirm our feasible algorithm. The skin auto-fluorescence spectra were obtained from the normal human skin with 337 nm excitation light source. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotid (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are accurately decomposed and demonstrated. The developed algorithm can be widely applied to achieve qualitative and quantitative analysis for overlapping spectra.

  2. MetaProm: a neural network based meta-predictor for alternative human promoter prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Junwen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De novo eukaryotic promoter prediction is important for discovering novel genes and understanding gene regulation. In spite of the great advances made in the past decade, recent studies revealed that the overall performances of the current promoter prediction programs (PPPs are still poor, and predictions made by individual PPPs do not overlap each other. Furthermore, most PPPs are trained and tested on the most-upstream promoters; their performances on alternative promoters have not been assessed. Results In this paper, we evaluate the performances of current major promoter prediction programs (i.e., PSPA, FirstEF, McPromoter, DragonGSF, DragonPF, and FProm using 42,536 distinct human gene promoters on a genome-wide scale, and with emphasis on alternative promoters. We describe an artificial neural network (ANN based meta-predictor program that integrates predictions from the current PPPs and the predicted promoters' relation to CpG islands. Our specific analysis of recently discovered alternative promoters reveals that although only 41% of the 3' most promoters overlap a CpG island, 74% of 5' most promoters overlap a CpG island. Conclusion Our assessment of six PPPs on 1.06 × 109 bps of human genome sequence reveals the specific strengths and weaknesses of individual PPPs. Our meta-predictor outperforms any individual PPP in sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, we discovered that the 5' alternative promoters are more likely to be associated with a CpG island.

  3. Improved metagenome screening efficiency by random insertion of T7 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Haseong; Kim, Seo Hyeon; Rha, Eugene; Choi, Su-Lim; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sung; Lee, Seung-Goo

    2016-07-20

    Metagenomes constitute a major source for the identification of novel enzymes for industrial applications. However, current functional screening methods are hindered by the limited transcription efficiency of foreign metagenomic genes. To overcome this constraint, we introduced the 'Enforced Transcription' technique, which involves the random insertion of the bi-directional T7 promoter into a metagenomic fosmid library. Then the effect of enforced transcription was quantitatively assessed by screening for metagenomic lipolytic genes encoding enzymes whose catalytic activity forms halos on tributyrin agar plates. The metagenomic library containing the enforced transcription system yielded a significantly increased number of screening hits with lipolytic activity compared to the library without random T7 promoter insertions. Additional sequence analysis revealed that the hits from the enforced transcription library had greater genetic diversity than those from the original metagenome library. Enhancing heterologous expression using the T7 promoter should enable the identification of greater numbers of diverse novel biocatalysts from the metagenome than possible using conventional metagenome screening approaches. PMID:27239964

  4. MetaProm: a neural network based meta-predictor for alternative human promoter prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Junwen; Ungar Lyle H; Tseng Hung; Hannenhalli Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background De novo eukaryotic promoter prediction is important for discovering novel genes and understanding gene regulation. In spite of the great advances made in the past decade, recent studies revealed that the overall performances of the current promoter prediction programs (PPPs) are still poor, and predictions made by individual PPPs do not overlap each other. Furthermore, most PPPs are trained and tested on the most-upstream promoters; their performances on alternative promot...

  5. Large gene overlaps in prokaryotic genomes: result of functional constraints or mispredictions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington Eoghan D

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Across the fully sequenced microbial genomes there are thousands of examples of overlapping genes. Many of these are only a few nucleotides long and are thought to function by permitting the coordinated regulation of gene expression. However, there should also be selective pressure against long overlaps, as the existence of overlapping reading frames increases the risk of deleterious mutations. Here we examine the longest overlaps and assess whether they are the product of special functional constraints or of erroneous annotation. Results We analysed the genes that overlap by 60 bps or more among 338 fully-sequenced prokaryotic genomes. The likely functional significance of an overlap was determined by comparing each of the genes to its respective orthologs. If a gene showed a significantly different length from its orthologs it was considered unlikely to be functional and therefore the result of an error either in sequencing or gene prediction. Focusing on 715 co-directional overlaps longer than 60 bps, we classified the erroneous ones into five categories: i 5'-end extension of the downstream gene due to either a mispredicted start codon or a frameshift at 5'-end of the gene (409 overlaps, ii fragmentation of a gene caused by a frameshift (163, iii 3'-end extension of the upstream gene due to either a frameshift at 3'-end of a gene or point mutation at the stop codon (68, iv Redundant gene predictions (4, v 5' & 3'-end extension which is a combination of i and iii (71. We also studied 75 divergent overlaps that could be classified as misannotations of group i. Nevertheless we found some convergent long overlaps (54 that might be true overlaps, although an important part of convergent overlaps could be classified as group iii (124. Conclusion Among the 968 overlaps larger than 60 bps which we analysed, we did not find a single real one among the co-directional and divergent orientations and concluded that there had been an

  6. No evidence for translation of pog, a predicted overlapping gene of Solenopsis invicta virus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overlapping open reading frame (ORF) with a potential to encode a functional protein has been identified within the 3'-proximal ORF of Solenopsis invicta virus 1 (SINV-1) and three bee viruses. This ORF has been referred to as predicted overlapping gene (pog). Protein motif searches of pog reve...

  7. Identifying Overlapping Language Communities: The Case of Chiriquí and Panamanian Signed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I use a holographic metaphor to explain the identification of overlapping sign language communities in Panama. By visualizing Panama's complex signing communities as emitting community "hotspots" through social drama on multiple stages, I employ ethnographic methods to explore overlapping contours of Panama's sign language…

  8. The clinical and genetic features of the COPD asthma overlap syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Megan; Cho, Michael; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Beaty, Terri; Ramsdell, Joe; Bhatt, Surya; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with COPD and asthma are an important but poorly characterized group. The genetic determinants of COPD-asthma overlap have not been studied. Objective Identify clinical features and genetic risk factors for COPD-asthma overlap. Methods Subjects were current or former smoking non-Hispanic whites (NHW) or African-Americans (AA) with COPD. Overlap subjects reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma before the age of 40. We compared clinical and radiographic features between COPD and overlap subjects. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the NHW and AA populations, and combined these results in a meta-analysis. Results More women and African Americans reported a history of asthma. Overlap subjects had more severe and more frequent respiratory exacerbations, less emphysema, and greater airway wall thickness compared to subjects with COPD alone. The NHW GWAS identified SNPs in CSMD1 (rs11779254, P=1.57×10−6) and SOX5(rs59569785, P=1.61×10−6) and the meta-analysis identified SNPs in the gene GPR65 (rs6574978, P=1.18×10−7) associated with COPD-asthma overlap. Conclusions Overlap subjects have more exacerbations, less emphysema and more airway disease for any degree of lung function impairment compared to COPD alone. We identified novel genetic variants associated with this syndrome. COPD-asthma overlap is an important syndrome and may require distinct clinical management. PMID:24876173

  9. A Combinatorial Characterization of the Critical Itineraries of an Overlapping Dynamical System

    CERN Document Server

    Barnsley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A uniform overlapping function of the unit interval to itself is a piecewise continuous function with a single point of discontinuity and with two linear branches of the same slope. The itineraries of the point of discontinuity, which arise in the study of fractal transformations, are called the critical itineraries. A combinatorial characterization of the critical itineraries of uniform overlapping functions is provided.

  10. Application of the Chimera overlapped grid scheme to simulation of Space Shuttle ascent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Parks, Steven J.; Chan, William M.; Renze, Kevin J.

    1992-01-01

    Several issues relating to the application of Chimera overlapped grids to complex geometries and flowfields are discussed. These include the addition of geometric components with different grid topologies, gridding for intersecting pieces of geometry, and turbulence modeling in grid overlap regions. Sample results are presented for transonic flow about the Space Shuttle launch vehicle. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight measured pressures are shown.

  11. Decoding Overlapping Memories in the Medial Temporal Lobes Using High-Resolution fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is proposed to process overlapping episodes as discrete memory traces, although direct evidence for this in human episodic memory is scarce. Using green-screen technology we created four highly overlapping movies of everyday events. Participants were scanned using high-resolution fMRI while recalling the movies. Multivariate…

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  13. Analysis and correction of track overlapping on nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, D.; Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Avila, Y. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P. O. 89000 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Fusella, E. [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado 17606, Caracas 1015-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The problem of nuclear track overlapping is addressed assuming the stochastic character of charged particle registry and the fact that even monoenergetic beam perpendicularly impacting on detector surface will show a distribution for track radius values. Asymmetric distributions of overlapping tracks were obtained for very low or very high simulated track quantities, while for intermediate values the distributions were well described by Gaussian s. A model for the track overlapping process was developed, considering the dependence of the quantity of non overlapping tracks on the number of simulated tracks by a second order homogeneous differential lineal equation. Its solution contains only one free parameter that is related to track geometry and field view area. By successive approximation, the number of total induced tracks (which is proportional to particle fluence) is determined from the knowledge of the amount of non overlapping tracks, dimensions of the field view and average track radius. (Author)

  14. Instantaneous cloud overlap statistics in the tropical area revealed by ICESat/GLAS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likun; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2006-08-01

    This study uses ICESat/GLAS instantaneous observations from 29 September to 18 November 2003 to investigate cloud overlap statistics between 10°S-20°N. The results show that 75.1% of profiles detect clouds: 46.5% are single layer and 28.6% multilayer clouds (cloud layers are separated by 0.5km). Using a definition of cloud type based on cloud heights and laser attenuation information, cloud overlap statistics are derived by analyzing 96.4% of the cloudy profiles. The most frequent overlap occurs between cirrus clouds and boundary layer clouds, which accounts for 31.88% of boundary clouds. 23.8% of deep convection has overlying cirrus clouds. We find that differences exist between the cloud overlap fraction from the GLAS observations and one calculated from the random overlap assumption commonly used by climate models.

  15. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure.

  16. The Influence of Sex and Season on Conspecific Spatial Overlap in a Large, Actively-Foraging Colubrid Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, Javan M.; Breininger, David R.; Bolt, M. Rebecca; Legare, Michael L.; Jenkins, Christopher L.; Rothermel, Betsie B.; McGarigal, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing the degree of spatial overlap among conspecifics is important for understanding multiple ecological processes. Compared to terrestrial carnivores, relatively little is known about the factors influencing conspecific spatial overlap in snakes, although across snake taxa there appears to be substantial variation in conspecific spatial overlap. In this study, we described conspecific spatial overlap of eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon couperi) in peninsular Florida and examined how conspecific spatial overlap varied by sex and season (breeding season vs. non-breeding season). We calculated multiple indices of spatial overlap using 6- and 3-month utilization distributions (UD) of dyads of simultaneously adjacent telemetered snakes. We also measured conspecific UD density values at each telemetry fix and modeled the distribution of those values as a function of overlap type, sex, and season using generalized Pareto distributions. Home range overlap between males and females was significantly greater than overlap between individuals of the same sex and male home ranges often completely contained female home ranges. Male home ranges overlapped little during both seasons, whereas females had higher levels of overlap during the non-breeding season. The spatial patterns observed in our study are consistent with those seen in many mammalian carnivores, in which low male-male overlap and high inter-sexual overlap provides males with greater access to females. We encourage additional research on the influence of prey availability on conspecific spatial overlap in snakes as well as the behavioral mechanisms responsible for maintaining the low levels of overlap we observed. PMID:27490346

  17. The Influence of Sex and Season on Conspecific Spatial Overlap in a Large, Actively-Foraging Colubrid Snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, Javan M; Breininger, David R; Bolt, M Rebecca; Legare, Michael L; Jenkins, Christopher L; Rothermel, Betsie B; McGarigal, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing the degree of spatial overlap among conspecifics is important for understanding multiple ecological processes. Compared to terrestrial carnivores, relatively little is known about the factors influencing conspecific spatial overlap in snakes, although across snake taxa there appears to be substantial variation in conspecific spatial overlap. In this study, we described conspecific spatial overlap of eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon couperi) in peninsular Florida and examined how conspecific spatial overlap varied by sex and season (breeding season vs. non-breeding season). We calculated multiple indices of spatial overlap using 6- and 3-month utilization distributions (UD) of dyads of simultaneously adjacent telemetered snakes. We also measured conspecific UD density values at each telemetry fix and modeled the distribution of those values as a function of overlap type, sex, and season using generalized Pareto distributions. Home range overlap between males and females was significantly greater than overlap between individuals of the same sex and male home ranges often completely contained female home ranges. Male home ranges overlapped little during both seasons, whereas females had higher levels of overlap during the non-breeding season. The spatial patterns observed in our study are consistent with those seen in many mammalian carnivores, in which low male-male overlap and high inter-sexual overlap provides males with greater access to females. We encourage additional research on the influence of prey availability on conspecific spatial overlap in snakes as well as the behavioral mechanisms responsible for maintaining the low levels of overlap we observed. PMID:27490346

  18. Niche Overlap and Network Specialization of Flower-Visiting Bees in an Agricultural System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D M; Presley, S J; Santos, G M M

    2014-12-01

    Different resource use strategies manifest as differences in the realized niches of species. Niche segregation may involve several dimensions of the niche, such as diet, space, and time. We measured the level of redundancy and complementarity of a bee-plant interaction network in an agricultural system. Because flower resource diversity is high and resource abundance associated with flowering phenology varies throughout the year, we hypothesized that trophic overlap in the community would be low (i.e., high niche complementarity). In contrast, we expected a combination of physiological constraints and exploitation competition to create high temporal overlap, leading to high redundancy in the time of use of floral resources. Dietary overlap was low (NOih = 0.18): niches of 88% of species pairs had less than 30% overlap. In contrast, temporal overlap was intermediate (NOih = 0.49): niches of 65% of species pairs had 30% to 60% overlap. Network analysis showed that bees separated their dietary niches and had intermediate complementary specialization (H2' = 0.46). In terms of their temporal niches (H2' = 0.12), bees were generalists, with high temporal redundancy. Temperature was not a key factor in the determination of niche overlap, suggesting that environmental factors do not likely have a primary role in determining high redundancy in the temporal use of floral resources. Rather, temporal overlap is likely associated with the timing of nectar production by flowers. Our results suggest that bees partition a wide variety of available floral resources, resulting in low dietary overlap and intermediate temporal overlap. PMID:27194056

  19. Probing genetic overlap in the regulation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Danish and Chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng;

    2014-01-01

    with Danish twins. The estimated contribution from unique environmental factors suggests that promoting healthy lifestyles may provide an efficient way of controlling high blood pressure, particularly in the Chinese population.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 15 May 2014; doi:10......Although the phenotypic correlation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is well known, the genetic basis for the correlation has rarely been investigated. The aim of this paper is to examine the genetic overlap between SBP and DBP by fitting bivariate models to...... Danish and Chinese twins and comparing ethnic differences between the two samples. Our estimates revealed a high proportion of additive genetic components shared by both SBP and DBP in Danish (0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.75) and Chinese (0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.71) twins with no statistically...

  20. Overlaps and disconnects in reproductive health care: global policies, national programs, and the micropolitics of reproduction in northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 called for a global commitment to increasing women's agency and reproductive options by promoting a reproductive health agenda. Voluntary contraceptive use and the quality of reproductive health care have become the predominant emphases in family planning initiatives. Yet, many programs worldwide demonstrate a continued commitment to fertility reduction and slowing population growth. This article explores three arenas of contemporary discourse about reproductive health and family planning. Using Senegal as a case study, it highlights the significant overlaps and disconnects among global reproductive health policy, national priorities and programs, and the biopolitics of gender, marriage, and fertility that shape Senegalese women's reproductive behavior. The article points to the slow decline in national fertility rates to explore how family planning initiatives fail to address reproduction in the context of women's socio-economic challenges and cultural and religious fertility ideals.

  1. Overlapping protein-encoding genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silby, Mark W; Levy, Stuart B

    2008-06-13

    The annotated genome sequences of prokaryotes seldom include overlapping genes encoded opposite each other by the same stretch of DNA. However, antisense transcription is becoming recognized as a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes, and examples have been linked to important biological processes. Pseudomonas fluorescens inhabits aquatic and terrestrial environments, and can be regarded as an environmental generalist. The genetic basis for this ecological success is not well understood. In a previous search for soil-induced genes in P. fluorescens Pf0-1, ten antisense genes were discovered. These were termed 'cryptic' genes, as they had escaped detection by gene-hunting algorithms, and lacked easily recognizable promoters. In this communication, we designate such genes as 'non-predicted' or 'hidden'. Using reverse transcription PCR, we show that at each of six non-predicted gene loci chosen for study, transcription occurs from both 'sense' and 'antisense' DNA strands. Further, at least one of these hidden antisense genes, iiv14, encodes a protein, as does the sense transcript, both identified by poly-histidine tags on the C-terminus of the proteins. Mutational and complementation studies showed that this novel antisense gene was important for efficient colonization of soil, and multiple copies in the wildtype host improved the speed of soil colonization. Introduction of a stop codon early in the gene eliminated complementation, further implicating the protein in colonization of soil. We therefore designate iiv14 "cosA". These data suggest that, as is the case with eukaryotes, some bacterial genomes are more densely coded than currently recognized.

  2. Overlapping protein-encoding genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Silby

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotated genome sequences of prokaryotes seldom include overlapping genes encoded opposite each other by the same stretch of DNA. However, antisense transcription is becoming recognized as a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes, and examples have been linked to important biological processes. Pseudomonas fluorescens inhabits aquatic and terrestrial environments, and can be regarded as an environmental generalist. The genetic basis for this ecological success is not well understood. In a previous search for soil-induced genes in P. fluorescens Pf0-1, ten antisense genes were discovered. These were termed 'cryptic' genes, as they had escaped detection by gene-hunting algorithms, and lacked easily recognizable promoters. In this communication, we designate such genes as 'non-predicted' or 'hidden'. Using reverse transcription PCR, we show that at each of six non-predicted gene loci chosen for study, transcription occurs from both 'sense' and 'antisense' DNA strands. Further, at least one of these hidden antisense genes, iiv14, encodes a protein, as does the sense transcript, both identified by poly-histidine tags on the C-terminus of the proteins. Mutational and complementation studies showed that this novel antisense gene was important for efficient colonization of soil, and multiple copies in the wildtype host improved the speed of soil colonization. Introduction of a stop codon early in the gene eliminated complementation, further implicating the protein in colonization of soil. We therefore designate iiv14 "cosA". These data suggest that, as is the case with eukaryotes, some bacterial genomes are more densely coded than currently recognized.

  3. What pulmonologists think about the asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravitlles M

    2015-07-01

    de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, 18Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, 19Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario Lucus Augusti, Lugo, 20Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, 21Department of Pneumology, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrinxaca, Murcia, 22Department of Pneumology, Hospital Comarcal de Inca, Inca, 23Pneumology Department, Hospital Arnau de Vilanova-Lliria, Valencia, 24Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Institut d’Investigació Biomédica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau, Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Background: Some patients with COPD may share characteristics of asthma; this is the so-called asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. There are no universally accepted criteria for ACOS, and most treatments for asthma and COPD have not been adequately tested in this population. Materials and methods: We performed a survey among pulmonology specialists in asthma and COPD aimed at collecting their opinions about ACOS and their attitudes in regard to some case scenarios of ACOS patients. The participants answered a structured questionnaire and attended a face-to-face meeting with the Metaplan methodology to discuss different aspects of ACOS. Results: A total of 26 pulmonologists with a mean age of 49.7 years participated in the survey (13 specialists in asthma and 13 in COPD. Among these, 84.6% recognized the existence of ACOS and stated that a mean of 12.6% of their patients might have this syndrome. In addition, 80.8% agreed that the diagnostic criteria for ACOS are not yet well defined. The most frequently mentioned characteristics of ACOS were a history of asthma (88.5%, significant smoking exposure (73.1%, and postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7 (69.2%. The most accepted diagnostic criteria were eosinophilia in sputum (80.8%, a very

  4. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3rd harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with ∝ (400 fs)FWHM bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is ≤ (30 fs)FWHM. The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  5. Risk Factors for Dysmotility, Acid Reflux Symptoms, and Overlap Using FSSG in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Shiota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. FSSG {frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD} was developed as a diagnostic tool for dysmotility and acid reflux symptoms. We first used FSSG to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for dysmotility and acid reflux symptoms and overlap of the two symptoms in a Japanese population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed in Japanese underwent the routine medical examination. Dysmotility and acid reflux symptom were diagnosed by using FSSG. Subjects met both criteria were considered as overlap group. Results. Among 778 subjects, 395 persons were included in the final analyses. Dysmotility symptoms were found in 32.6% and acid reflux symptoms in 20.5%. Their overlap was found in 13.9% of all 395 subjects, which in 42.6% of dysmotility symptoms and 67.9% of acid reflux symptoms. Multiple logistic analysis showed that female gender was significantly associated with dysmotility symptoms compared with controls. Female gender, smoking, and hiatus hernia were significantly associated with overlap. Smoking was significantly associated with overlap compared with dysmotility symptoms alone and acid reflux symptoms alone. Conclusions. Overlap between dysmotility and acid reflux symptoms was common in Japan. Smoking was an independent risk factor for overlap among two symptoms.

  6. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana

    2012-02-15

    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3{sup rd} harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with {proportional_to} (400 fs){sub FWHM} bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is {<=} (30 fs){sub FWHM}. The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  7. Research on Some Bus Transport Networks with Random Overlapping Clique Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xu-Hua; WANG Bo; WANG Wan-Liang; SUN You-Xian

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigating the statistical data of bus transport networks of three big cities in China, we propose that each bus route is a clique (maximal complete subgraph) and a bus transport network (BTN) consists of a lot of cliques, which intensively connect and overlap with each other. We study the network properties, which include the degree distribution, multiple edges' overlapping time distribution, distribution of the overlap size between any two overlapping cliques, distribution of the number of cliques that a node belongs to. Naturally, the cliques also constitute a network, with the overlapping nodes being their multiple links. We' also research its network properties such as degree distribution, clustering, average path length, and so on. We propose that a BTN has the properties of random clique increment and random overlapping clique, at the same time, a BTN is a small-world network with highly clique-clustered and highly clique-overlapped. Finally, we introduce a BTN evolution model, whose simulation results agree well with the statistical laws that emerge in real BTNs.

  8. An ant colony based algorithm for overlapping community detection in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yanheng; Zhang, Jindong; Liu, Tuming; Zhang, Di

    2015-06-01

    Community detection is of great importance to understand the structures and functions of networks. Overlap is a significant feature of networks and overlapping community detection has attracted an increasing attention. Many algorithms have been presented to detect overlapping communities. In this paper, we present an ant colony based overlapping community detection algorithm which mainly includes ants' location initialization, ants' movement and post processing phases. An ants' location initialization strategy is designed to identify initial location of ants and initialize label list stored in each node. During the ants' movement phase, the entire ants move according to the transition probability matrix, and a new heuristic information computation approach is redefined to measure similarity between two nodes. Every node keeps a label list through the cooperation made by ants until a termination criterion is reached. A post processing phase is executed on the label list to get final overlapping community structure naturally. We illustrate the capability of our algorithm by making experiments on both synthetic networks and real world networks. The results demonstrate that our algorithm will have better performance in finding overlapping communities and overlapping nodes in synthetic datasets and real world datasets comparing with state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. Comparative transcriptional activity of five promoters in BAC-cloned MDV for the expression of the hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengtai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zhao, Peng; Duan, Luntao; Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhang, Fushou; Chen, Wenqing; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-09-01

    On the basis of recent studies, much attention has been given to recombinant MDV (rMDV)-based vaccines. During the construction of rMDV, the activity of promoters to transcribe foreign genes is one of the major factors that can affect protective efficacy. To investigate the transcription activity and efficacy of five different promoters, the advantage of an existing rMDV BAC infectious clone that had been previously constructed was used to construct rMDVs. The expression cassette of the hemagglutinin gene (HA) from a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2 strain was inserted into the US2 region under five selected promoters. These five promoters included three MDV endogenous promoters (the promoter for the gB gene and a bi-directional promoter in both directions for pp38 (ppp38) and 1.8 kb RNA transcripts (p1.8 kb)), and two exogenous promoters (CMV and SV40). Among these five promoters, the CMV promoter demonstrated the highest activity, followed by p1.8 kb and SV40, which had a similar transcriptional activity level. Two of the MDV endogenous promoters showed much lower transcriptional activities, particularly the promoter ppp38, which had the lowest activity. The results of the in vivo experiment proved that none of the three recombinant viruses of rGX-CMV-HA, rGX-SV40-HA and rGX-p1.8kb-HA provided protection in SPF chickens. Chickens vaccinated with rGX-pPP38-HA induced 50% and rGX-gB-HA induced 25% protection against the challenge with H9N2, respectively.

  10. Localized eigenmodes of the overlap operator and their impact on the eigenvalue distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Department of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-09-15

    In a system where chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, the low energy eigenmodes of the continuum Dirac operator are extended. On the lattice, due to discretization effects, the Dirac operator can have localized eigenmodes that affect physical quantities sensitive to chiral symmetry. While the infrared eigenmodes of the Wilson Dirac operator are usually extended even on coarse lattices, the chiral overlap operator has many localized eigenmodes in the physical region, especially in mixed action simulations. Depending on their density, these modes can introduce strong lattice artifacts. The effect can be controlled by changing the parameters of the overlap operator, in particular the clover improvement term and the center of the overlap projection. (orig.)

  11. Localized eigenmodes of the overlap operator and their impact on the eigenvalue distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Schaefer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In a system where chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, the low energy eigenmodes of the continuum Dirac operator are extended. On the lattice, due to discretization effects, the Dirac operator can have localized eigenmodes that affect physical quantities sensitive to chiral symmetry. While the infrared eigenmodes of the Wilson Dirac operator are usually extended even on coarse lattices, the chiral overlap operator has many localized eigenmodes in the physical region, especially in mixed action simulations. Depending on their density, these modes can introduce strong lattice artifacts. The effect can be controlled by changing the parameters of the overlap operator, in particular the clover improvement term and the center of the overlap projection.

  12. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Forzati, Marco; Martensson, Jonas; Mussolin, Marco; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T

    2016-01-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  13. PLAIN CASCADE RESEARCH ON A REVERSIBLE COMBINED BLADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new type fully reversible combined blade is presented, which can fully reverse airflow during the inverse ventilation by simply reversion. It is suitable for reversible axial flow fans used in tunnel and mine ventilation. The optimal parameters such as overlap ratio and pitch ratio are determined through cascade experiment. Experiment results also show a big promotion of maximum lift coefficient Cl,max and stall attack angle (l,max compared to the existing bi-directional symmetry airfoils.

  14. FEM SIMULATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES INDUCED BY LASER SHOCK WITH OVERLAPPING LASER SPOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.X. Hu; Z.Q. Yao

    2008-01-01

    The finite element method is presented to attain the numerical simulation of the residual stresses field in the material treated by laser shock processing. The distribution of residual stresses generated by a single laser shock with square and round laser spot is predicted and validated by experimental results. With the Finite Element Method (FEM) model, effects of different overlapping rates and impact sequences on the distribution of residual stresses are simulated. The results indicate that: (1) Overlapping laser shock can increase the compressive residual stresses. However, it is not effective on the growth of plastically affected depth; (2) Overlapping rate should be optimized and selected carefully for the large area treatment. Appropriate overlapping rate is beneficial to obtain a homogeneous residual stress field; (3) The impact sequence has a great effect on the residual stress field. It can greatly attenuate the phenomenon of the "residual stress hole" to obtain a homogeneous residual stress field.

  15. A lattice determination of gA and left angle x right angle from overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results for the nucleon's axial charge gA and the first moment left angle x right angle of the unpolarized parton distribution function from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions. (orig.)

  16. The probabilistic determination of intensities of completely overlapping reflections in powder diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two techniques are presented for the extraction of the individual intensities of completely overlapping reflections in a powder diffraction pattern. The first is analogous to Sayre's squaring method while the second is based upon maximizing the entropy of the Patterson function subject to the constraints imposed by the observed intensities of single and overlapping groups of reflections. Although both methods are superior to a simple equipartition of intensities amongst overlapping reflections, the maximum-entropy (ME) technique is the more robust and scientifically justifiable. The ME Patterson map extracts the maximum amount of information from the available observed intensities and is thus optimal for Patterson-technique structure determination from powder diffraction patterns. The agreement between true vertical strokeFvertical stroke2 values of overlapping reflections and the values obtained by maximum entropy is, in most simulated cases, excellent. (orig.)

  17. An empirical assessment of the overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2014-12-01

    There has been a recent proliferation in the number of studies that are investigating the phenomenon that has been coined the victim-offender overlap. There has been noticeably less attention toward examining the sexual victimization and sex offending overlap. Acknowledging this gap in the literature, the present study provides an assessment of this overlap among a large sample of male prisoners with a focus on the cycle of violence hypothesis. Bivariate results reveal a considerable degree of overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending, and multivariate results estimated from a series of bivariate probit models simultaneously assessing both outcomes suggest that experiencing emotional abuse early on in the life-course is a robust risk factor for experiencing sexual victimization and demonstrating sex offending behavior. Furthermore, being physically neglected and witnessing family violence also emerged as significant risk factors for sexual victimization. Study limitations and policy implications are also discussed. PMID:23864522

  18. Low Self-Control and the Victim-Offender Overlap: A Gendered Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexon, Jamie L; Meldrum, Ryan C; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    The overlap between victimization and offending is well documented. Yet, there have been fewer investigations of the reasons underlying this relationship. One possible, but understudied, explanation lies with Gottfredson and Hirschi's arguments regarding self-control. The current study adds to this line of inquiry by assessing whether low self-control accounts for the victim-offender overlap in a sample of young adults and whether self-control accounts for the observed overlap similarly across gender. Results from a series of bivariate probit regression models indicate that low self-control is positively related to both victimization and offending. However, only among males does low self-control account for a substantive portion of the victim-offender overlap. Limitations of the study and implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25711616

  19. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS): current literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaiwannou, Antonis; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Arikas, Stamatis; Mpakas, Andreas; Tsiouda, Theodora; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Siminelakis, Stavros; Kolettas, Alexander; Kessis, George; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic diseases, very common in general population. These obstructive airway illnesses are manifested with chronic inflammation affecting the whole respiratory tract. Obstruction is usually intermittent and reversible in asthma, but is progressive and irreversible in COPD. Asthma and COPD may overlap and converge, especially in older people [overlap syndrome—asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS)]. Although ACOS accounts approximately 15-25% of the obstructive airway diseases, is not well recognised because of the structure of clinical trials. COPD studies exclude asthma patients and asthma studies exclude COPD patients, respectively. It is crucial to define asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome (ACOS), as notable clinical entities, which they share common pathologic and functional features, but they are characterized from differences in lung function, acute exacerbations, quality of life, hospital impact and mortality. PMID:24672688

  20. Identifying Overlapping and Hierarchical Thematic Structures in Networks of Scholarly Papers: A Comparison of Three Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Frank; Gläser, Jochen; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess three algorithms for the identification of overlapping thematic structures in networks of papers. We implemented three recently proposed approaches to the identification of overlapping and hierarchical substructures in graphs and applied the corresponding algorithms to a network of 492 information-science papers coupled via their cited sources. The thematic substructures obtained and overlaps produced by the three hierarchical cluster algorithms were compared to a content-based categorisation, which we based on the interpretation of titles, abstracts, and keywords. We defined sets of papers dealing with three topics located on different levels of aggregation: h-index, webometrics, and bibliometrics. We identified these topics with branches in the dendrograms produced by the three cluster algorithms and compared the overlapping topics they detected with one another and with the three predefined paper sets. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of applying the three approaches to paper networks in research fields. PMID:22479376

  1. GRAPH-DIRECTED STRUCTURES OF SELF-SIMILAR SETS WITH OVERLAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some kinds of the self-similar sets with overlapping structures are studied by introducing the graph-directed constructions satisfying the open set condition that coincide with these sets. In this way, the dimensions and the measures are obtained.

  2. Fuzzy overlapping community detection based on local random walk and multidimensional scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Liu, Dong; Liu, Xiao; Pan, Lin

    2013-12-01

    A fuzzy overlapping community is an important kind of overlapping community in which each node belongs to each community to different extents. It exists in many real networks but how to identify a fuzzy overlapping community is still a challenging task. In this work, the concept of local random walk and a new distance metric are introduced. Based on the new distance measurement, the dissimilarity index between each node of a network is calculated firstly. Then in order to keep the original node distance as much as possible, the network structure is mapped into low-dimensional space by the multidimensional scaling (MDS). Finally, the fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to find fuzzy communities in a network. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient to identify the fuzzy overlapping communities in both artificial networks and real-world networks.

  3. Design and Performance of Overlap FFT Filter-Bank for Dynamic Spectrum Access Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Motohiro; Umehira, Masahiro

    An OFDMA-based (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access-based) channel access scheme for dynamic spectrum access has the drawbacks of large PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) and large ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference). To solve these problems, a flexible channel access scheme using an overlap FFT filter-bank was proposed based on single carrier modulation for dynamic spectrum access. In order to apply the overlap FFT filter-bank for dynamic spectrum access, it is necessary to clarify the performance of the overlap FFT filter-bank according to the design parameters since its frequency characteristics are critical for dynamic spectrum access applications. This paper analyzes the overlap FFT filter-bank and evaluates its performance such as frequency characteristics and ACI performance according to the design parameters.

  4. Probing the topological structure of the QCD vacuum with overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlap fermions implement exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects on Luescher-Weisz-type quenched gauge field configurations using overlap fermions as a probe. Particular emphasis is placed upon the analysis of the spectral density and the localisation properties of the eigenmodes as well as on the local structure of topological charge fluctuations. (orig.)

  5. Probing the topological structure of the QCD vacuum with overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlap fermions implement exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects on Luescher-Weisz-type quenched gauge field configurations using overlap fermions as a probe. Particular emphasis is placed upon the analysis of the spectral density and the localisation properties of the eigenmodes as well as on the local structure of topological charge fluctuations

  6. Puppets Fight as Puppet Masters Wish : The Influence of Shareholder Overlap on Interfirm Rivalry

    OpenAIRE

    山野井 順一

    2015-01-01

    If two competing firms receive influence from the same large shareholders, how do they compete? From the viewpoint of competitive dynamics and agency theory, I investigate the impact of overlapping shareholders of two competing firms on their competitive behavior. The overlapping shareholders of two competing firms will attempt to reduce the intensity of their competitive activity because they can increase economic surpluses from the competing firms by intentionally creating the stability of ...

  7. Overlapping Sets of Priors and the Existence of Efficient Allocations and Equilibria for Risk Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Dana, Rose-Anne; Le Van, Cuong

    2010-01-01

    The overlapping expectations and the collective absence of arbitrage conditions introduced in the economic literature to insure existence of Pareto optima and equilibria with short-selling when investors have a single belief about future returns, is reconsidered. Investors use measures of risk. The overlapping sets of priors and the Pareto equilibrium conditions introduced by Heath and Ku for coherent risk measures are respectively reinterpreted as a weak no-arbitrage and a weak collective ab...

  8. Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine tre...

  9. Genetics, Cognition and Neurobiology of Schizotypal Personality: A Review of the Overlap with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich eEttinger; Inga eMeyhöfer; Maria eSteffens; Michael eWagner; Nikolaos eKoutsouleris

    2014-01-01

    Schizotypy refers to a set of temporally stable traits that are observed in the general population and that resemble the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review evidence from studies on genetics, cognition, perception, motor and oculomotor control, brain structure, brain function and psychopharmacology in schizotypy. We specifically focused on identifying areas of overlap between schizotypy and schizophrenia. Evidence was corroborated that significant overlap exists between the t...

  10. Crystallization kinetics of overlapping phases in Se70Te15Sb15 using isoconversional methods

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Abdel-Rahim; M.M. Hafiz; A.Z. Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of Se70Te15Sb15 chalcogenide glass was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. This glass was found to have a double glass transition and double overlapped crystalline phases. The overlapped crystalline phases were successfully separated using the Gaussian fit model. The activation energy, Ec, and Avrami index, n, were determined by analyzing the data using the Matausita et. al. method. A strong heating rate depending on...

  11. The clinical and genetic features of COPD-asthma overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Megan; Cho, Michael; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Beaty, Terri; Ramsdell, Joe; Bhatt, Surya; van Beek, Edwin J R; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are an important but poorly characterised group. The genetic determinants of COPD and asthma overlap have not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features and genetic risk factors for COPD and asthma overlap. Subjects were current or former smoking non-Hispanic whites or African-Americans with COPD. Overlap subjects reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma before the age of 40 years. We compared clinical and radiographic features between COPD and overlap subjects. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the non-Hispanic whites and African-American populations, and combined these results in a meta-analysis. More females and African-Americans reported a history of asthma. Overlap subjects had more severe and more frequent respiratory exacerbations, less emphysema and greater airway wall thickness compared to subjects with COPD alone. The non-Hispanic white GWAS identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes CSMD1 (rs11779254, p=1.57 × 10(-6)) and SOX5 (rs59569785, p=1.61 × 10(-6)) and the meta-analysis identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene GPR65 (rs6574978, p=1.18 × 10(-7)) associated with COPD and asthma overlap. Overlap subjects have more exacerbations, less emphysema and more airway disease for any degree of lung function impairment compared to COPD alone. We identified novel genetic variants associated with this syndrome. COPD and asthma overlap is an important syndrome and may require distinct clinical management. PMID:24876173

  12. Impact of overlapping resonances on magnetoassociation of cold molecules in tight traps

    OpenAIRE

    Jachymski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Overlapping Feshbach resonances are commonly observed in experiments with ultracold atoms and can influence the molecule production process. We derive an effective approach to describe magnetoassociation in an external trap in the presence of multiple overlapping resonances. We study how the strength and shape of the trap affects the energy level structure and demonstrate the existence of a regime in which the conventional two-channel Landau-Zener description of the molecule production proces...

  13. Impact of overlapping resonances on magnetoassociation of cold molecules in tight traps

    CERN Document Server

    Jachymski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Overlapping Feshbach resonances are commonly observed in experiments with ultracold atoms and can influence the molecule production process. We derive an effective approach to describe magnetoassociation in an external trap in the presence of multiple overlapping resonances. We study how the strength and shape of the trap affects the energy level structure and demonstrate the existence of a regime in which the conventional two-channel Landau-Zener description of the molecule production process breaks down.

  14. Separation and sequence detection of overlapped fingerprints: experiments and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärgel, Rainer; Giebel, Sascha; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-11-01

    Latent fingerprints provide vital information in modern crime scene investigation. On frequently touched surfaces the fingerprints may overlap which poses a major problem for forensic analysis. In order to make such overlapping fingerprints available for analysis, they have to be separated. An additional evaluation of the sequence in which the fingerprints were brought onto the surface can help to reconstruct the progression of events. Advances in both tasks can considerably aid crime investigation agencies and are the subject of this work. Here, a statistical approach, initially devised for the separation of overlapping text patterns by Tonazzini et al.,1 is employed to separate overlapping fingerprints. The method involves a maximum a posteriori estimation of the single fingerprints and the mixing coefficients, computed by an expectation-maximization algorithm. A fingerprint age determination feature based on corrosion is evaluated for sequence estimation. The approaches are evaluated using 30 samples of overlapping latent fingerprints on two different substrates. The fingerprint images are acquired with a non-destructive chromatic white light surface measurement device, each sample containing exactly two fingerprints that overlap in the center of the image. Since forensic investigations rely on manual assessment of acquired fingerprints by forensics experts, a subjective scale ranging from 0 to 8 is used to rate the separation results. Our results indicate that the chosen method can separate overlapped fingerprints which exhibit strong differences in contrast, since results gradually improve with the growing contrast difference of the overlapping fingerprints. Investigating the effects of corrosion leads to a reliable determination of the fingerprints' sequence as the timespan between their leaving increases.

  15. Impact of overlapping resonances on magnetoassociation of cold molecules in tight traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachymski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Overlapping Feshbach resonances are commonly observed in experiments with ultracold atoms and can influence the molecule production process. We derive an effective approach to describe magnetoassociation in an external trap in the presence of multiple overlapping resonances. We study how the strength and shape of the trap affects the energy level structure and demonstrate the existence of a regime in which the conventional two-channel Landau-Zener description of the molecule production process breaks down.

  16. Exploiting spatial overlap to efficiently compute appearance distances between image windows.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexe, Bogdan; Petrescu, Viviana; Ferrari, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    We present a computationally efficient technique to compute the distance of high-dimensional appearance descriptor vectors between image windows. The method exploits the relation between appearance distance and spatial overlap. We derive an upper bound on appearance distance given the spatial overlap of two windows in an image, and use it to bound the distances of many pairs between two images. We propose algorithms that build on these basic operations to efficiently solve tasks relevant to m...

  17. Genetics, Cognition, and Neurobiology of Schizotypal Personality: A Review of the Overlap with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ulrich; Meyhöfer, Inga; Steffens, Maria; Wagner, Michael; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Schizotypy refers to a set of temporally stable traits that are observed in the general population and that resemble the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review evidence from studies on genetics, cognition, perception, motor and oculomotor control, brain structure, brain function, and psychopharmacology in schizotypy. We specifically focused on identifying areas of overlap between schizotypy and schizophrenia. Evidence was corroborated that significant overlap exists between the ...

  18. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  19. Lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Jin Kim; Nam-Jong Paik

    2014-01-01

    Global aphasia without hemiparesis is a striking stroke syndrome involving language impairment without the typically manifested contralateral hemiparesis, which is usually seen in patients with global aphasia following large left perisylvian lesions. The objective of this study is to elucidate the speciifc areas for lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by retrospectively studying the brain magnetic resonance images of six patients with global aphasia without hemi-paresis to deifne global aphasia without hemiparesis-related stroke lesions before overlapping the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Lesions where the images of more than three patients overlapped were considered significant. The overlapped global aphasia without hemiparesis related stroke lesions of six patients revealed that the signiifcantly involved anatomi-cal lesions were as follows:frontal lobe, sub-gyral, sub-lobar, extra-nuclear, corpus callosum, and inferior frontal gyrus, while caudate, claustrum, middle frontal gyrus, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, uncus, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal, amygdala, and subcallosal gyrus were seen less signiifcantly involved. This study is the ifrst to demonstrate the heteroge-neous anatomical involvement in global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images.

  20. [Application of the racial algorithm in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence overlapped spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Luo, Yao-Yao; Ge, Liang-Quan; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-02-01

    In the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, scintillation detector such as NaI (Tl) detector usually has a low energy resolution at around 8%. The low energy resolution causes problems in spectral data analysis especially in the high background and low counts condition, it is very limited to strip the overlapped spectrum, and the more overlapping the peaks are, the more difficult to peel the peaks, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis can't be carried out because we can't recognize the peak address and peak area. Based on genetic algorithm and immune algorithm, we build a new racial algorithm which uses the Euclidean distance as the judgment of evolution, the maximum relative error as the iterative criterion to be put into overlapped spectrum analysis, then we use the Gaussian function to simulate different overlapping degrees of the spectrum, and the racial algorithm is used in overlapped peak separation and full spectrum simulation, the peak address deviation is in +/- 3 channels, the peak area deviation is no more than 5%, and it is proven that this method has a good effect in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence overlapped spectrum analysis.

  1. PairWise Neighbours database: overlaps and spacers among prokaryote genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prokaryotes live in a variety of habitats and possess different metabolic and genomic complexity, they have several genomic architectural features in common. The overlapping genes are a common feature of the prokaryote genomes. The overlapping lengths tend to be short because as the overlaps become longer they have more risk of deleterious mutations. The spacers between genes tend to be short too because of the tendency to reduce the non coding DNA among prokaryotes. However they must be long enough to maintain essential regulatory signals such as the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, which is responsible of an efficient translation. Description PairWise Neighbours is an interactive and intuitive database used for retrieving information about the spacers and overlapping genes among bacterial and archaeal genomes. It contains 1,956,294 gene pairs from 678 fully sequenced prokaryote genomes and is freely available at the URL http://genomes.urv.cat/pwneigh. This database provides information about the overlaps and their conservation across species. Furthermore, it allows the wide analysis of the intergenic regions providing useful information such as the location and strength of the SD sequence. Conclusion There are experiments and bioinformatic analysis that rely on correct annotations of the initiation site. Therefore, a database that studies the overlaps and spacers among prokaryotes appears to be desirable. PairWise Neighbours database permits the reliability analysis of the overlapping structures and the study of the SD presence and location among the adjacent genes, which may help to check the annotation of the initiation sites.

  2. Overlapping Spreading Centers: Implications from Crack Growth Simulation by the Displacement Discontinuity Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, Jean-Christophe; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1986-02-01

    Overlapping spreading centers (OSC's) are a fundamental aspect of accretionary processes at intermediate and fast-spreading centers and typically occur at deep points along the axial depth profile. They have a characteristic geometry consisting of two en echelon overlapping, curving ridges separated by an elongated depression. The length to width ratio of this overlap basin is typically 3∶1. We have been successful in reproducing the overlapping spreading center geometry by modelling the growth of two initially parallel elastic cracks of given length and offset in a tensile stress field at infinity. A boundary element displacement discontinuity method was used to solve this problem. Our calculated results are compared with seafloor observations in terms of the size and shape of the overlap region. For small OSC's, there is a very good agreement between calculations and observations but, for large ones, the overlap basin tends to be longer than our predicted results indicate. This suggests that the assumptions made in the model (i.e., perfectly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous medium) are perhaps valid for the brittle lid above the magma chamber that underlies OSC's with small offsets (OSC's with large offsets. Our modelling shows that the initial interaction of closely spaced surface ruptures along spreading centers is to deflect away from one another as they approach. The deflection will be the greatest for small misalignments of the fracture systems, thus even minor misalignments of the spreading centers may result in the development of OSC's. Where the misalignment is less than the width of the cracking front, the fracture systems may meet head-on creating a saddle point along the axial depth profile. Our results support the hypothesis suggested by Macdonald et al. [1984] in which overlapping spreading centers develop where two magmatic pulses migrate toward each other along the strike of the spreading center following fracture systems and magmatic conduits

  3. On the radiative properties of soot aggregates part 1: Necking and overlapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a strong interest in accurately modelling the radiative properties of soot aggregates (also known as black carbon particles) emitted from combustion systems and fires to gain improved understanding of the role of black carbon to global warming. This study conducted a systematic investigation of the effects of overlapping and necking between neighbouring primary particles on the radiative properties of soot aggregates using the discrete dipole approximation. The degrees of overlapping and necking are quantified by the overlapping and necking parameters. Realistic soot aggregates were generated numerically by constructing overlapping and necking to fractal aggregates formed by point-touch primary particles simulated using a diffusion-limited cluster aggregation algorithm. Radiative properties (differential scattering, absorption, total scattering, specific extinction, asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo) were calculated using the experimentally measured soot refractive index over the spectral range of 266–1064 nm for 9 combinations of the overlapping and necking parameters. Overlapping and necking affect significantly the absorption and scattering properties of soot aggregates, especially in the near UV spectrum due to the enhanced multiple scattering effects within an aggregate. By using correctly modified aggregate properties (fractal dimension, prefactor, primary particle radius, and the number of primary particle) and by accounting for the effects of multiple scattering, the simple Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory for fractal aggregates can reproduce reasonably accurate radiative properties of realistic soot aggregates. - Highlights: • We determine the radiative properties of realistic virtual soot aggregates. • We consider the primary sphere polydispersity, their necking and overlapping. • Scattering and absorption are decreased by considering these effects in the UV. • The single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor are also deeply

  4. Study of the structure of the QCD vacuum by means of overlap fermions; Untersuchung der Struktur des QCD-Vakuums mit Hilfe von Overlap-Fermionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Volker

    2008-12-15

    In this thesis the structure of the QCD vacuum and the nature of the chiral phase transition were studied by means of overlap fermions. The main topic of the theiss lies in the study of the infrared long-range aspects shown by the low-lying eigenmodes of the overlap operator. For the characterization of the structure and dimension of an arbitray density embedded in the four-dimensional space-time diverse analysis tools were developed. These are applied both at low temperature (T=0) in the valence-quark approximation of QCD and in the environment of the high-temperature phase transition of the full QCD for the description of the structure of the modes and the topological density, as well as for the analysis of the local self-duality of the basing gauge fields.

  5. On the Evaluation of Two-Center Overlap Integrals over Integer and Noninteger -Center Overlap Integrals over Integer and Noninteger n-Slater-Type Orbitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Ozdogan, M. Orbay; S. Gümüs

    2002-01-01

    In this study, two-center overlap integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) with integer and noninteger principal quantum numbers in unaligned coordinate systems have been calculated using formulas for overlap integrals in aligned coordinate systems obtained by the author's previous work (T. Ozdogan and M. Orbay, Int. J. Quant. Chem. 87(2002) 15). The obtained results for integer case have been found to be in excellent agreement with the prior literature.On the other hand, to the best of authors knowledge, because of the scarcity of the literatures on the use of noninteger n-STOs in unaligned coordinate systems, the results for noninteger case have been tested with the limit of integer case,and good agreement has been obtained too.

  6. A new approach to study of seabird-fishery overlap: Connecting chick feeding with parental foraging and overlap with fishing vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Sugishita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries bycatch is recognised as a major threat to albatross populations worldwide. However, fishery discards and offal produced in large quantities might benefit some scavenging seabirds. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to better understand the ecological ramifications of fine-scale overlap between seabirds and fisheries. As a case study, we examined whether foraging in association with a fishing vessel is advantageous for chick provisioning in terms of quantity of food delivered to chicks, in northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand. Fine-scale overlap between albatrosses and vessels was quantified by integrating GPS tracking and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS. Meal size delivered to chicks was measured using custom-designed nest balances, and monitoring of attendance of adults fitted with radio transmitters was used in conjunction with time-lapse photography at the nest allowed us to allocate each feeding event to a specific parent. The combination of these techniques enabled comparison of meal sizes delivered to chicks with parental foraging trip durations with or without fishing vessels association. A total of 45 foraging trips and associated chick feeding events were monitored during the chick-rearing period in 2012. Differences in the meal size and foraging trip duration relative to foraging overlap with fisheries were examined using a linear mixed-effect model, adjusted for chick age. Our results, based on three birds, suggest that foraging in association with vessels does not confer an advantage for chick feeding for this population that demonstrated low rates of overlap while foraging. The integrated research design presented can be applied to other seabird species that are susceptible to bycatch, and offers a valuable approach to evaluate habitat quality by linking habitat use and foraging success in terms of total amount of food delivered to offspring.

  7. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells.

  8. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells. PMID:21790010

  9. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. PMID:27129758

  10. Has primary overlap replaced end-to-end repair for anal sphincter rupture during vaginal delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Abd El-Ghaffar Mohamed

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty primigravidae women were included in this study. Their age ranged from (20-32 years. They were requiring primary repair for third degree tear occurring during vaginal delivery. All repairs were performed immediately after obstetric disruption. A ruptured internal sphincter was repaired separately and the torn ends of the external sphincter were overlaped in 10 women and approximated as end-to-end in the other 10 women, and sutured with 3/0 polydioxanone sulphate sutures. Sixteen women were followed up, and for all bowel function, clinical assessement, and anal endosonography were performed at a mean of 120 days after delivary. Eleven percent had persistent sonographic external sphincter defects with overlap, and 57% with end to end repair. Also, we found similar percent of internal sphincter defects with overlap, and end-to-end repair. There was no significant difference between the two techniques with regard to the clinical outcome. Based on the preceding results it would appear that sonographic image for external sphincter is better with overlap than end-to-end repair, but we can not conclusively prove that overlap is superior to the end-to-end repair for better clinical outcome obtained from both techniques.

  11. Separation of overlapping linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals using the fractional fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Linear frequency modulated (LFM) excitation combined with pulse compression provides an increase in SNR at the receiver. LFM signals are of longer duration than pulsed signals of the same bandwidth; consequently, in many practical situations, maintaining temporal separation between echoes is not possible. Where analysis is performed on individual LFM signals, a separation technique is required. Time windowing is unable to separate signals overlapping in time. Frequency domain filtering is unable to separate signals with overlapping spectra. This paper describes a method to separate time-overlapping LFM signals through the application of the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT), a transform operating in both time and frequency domains. A short introduction to the FrFT and its operation and calculation are presented. The proposed signal separation method is illustrated by application to a simulated ultrasound signal, created by the summation of multiple time-overlapping LFM signals and the component signals recovered with ±0.6% spectral error. The results of an experimental investigation are presented in which the proposed separation method is applied to time-overlapping LFM signals created by the transmission of a LFM signal through a stainless steel plate and water-filled pipe.

  12. Overlapping consensus versus discourse in climate change policy: The case of Norway's Sovereign Wealth Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is motivated by the mismatch between emission of greenhouse gases and effective mitigation policies. Science now calls for every tool to be considered in order for radical changes to mitigate the situation more effectively. This paper considers Norway's huge Sovereign Wealth Fund which, although withdrawing investment from firms causing severe environmental damage, does not categorize climate change as 'severe environmental damage'. The main reason is a basis of overlapping consensus, which also hinders argumentation for this practice. Overlapping consensus is part of the broader theory 'Justice as Fairness' as conceived by John Rawls. The consensus is with regard to having a socially just system. The word 'overlapping' refers to people having different reasons for supporting the system. However using overlapping consensus for investment-strategies represents an extension beyond its original intention, and moreover, removes mitigating climate change from the agenda. Removing the basis of overlapping consensus opens up scope for value-based discourse conceived by Habermas' communicative action and discourse ethics. The immense severity of climate change demands value-based and substantial arguments from powerful sovereign wealth funds, to consider the acceptability of their practice.

  13. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies; Association with Overlap Myositis and Syndromes: Classification, Clinical Characteristics, and Associated Autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Basharat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM are traditionally identified as a group of disorders that target skeletal muscle due to autoimmune dysfunction. The IIM can be divided into subtypes based on certain clinical characteristics, and several classification schemes have been proposed. The predominant diagnostic criteria for IIM is the Bohan and Peter criteria, which subdivides IIM into primary polymyositis (PM, primary dermatomyositis (DM, myositis with another connective tissue disease, and myositis associated with cancer. However, this measure has been criticised for several reasons including lack of specific criteria to help distinguish between muscle biopsy findings of PM, DM, and immune-mediated necrotising myopathy, as well as the lack of identification of cases of overlap myositis (OM. Because of this issue, other classification criteria for IIM have been proposed, which include utilising myositis-associated antibodies and myositis-specific antibodies, as well as overlap features such as Raynaud’s phenomenon, polyarthritis, oesophageal abnormalities, interstitial lung disease, small bowel abnormalities such as hypomotility and malabsorption, and renal crises, amongst others. Indeed, the identification of autoantibodies associated with certain clinical phenotypes of myositis, in particular connective tissue disease-myositis overlap, has further helped divide IIM into distinct clinical subsets, which include OM and overlap syndromes (OS. This paper reviews the concepts of OM and OS as they pertain to IIM, including definitions in the literature, clinical characteristics, and overlap autoantibodies.

  14. Oscillating Evolution of a Mammalian Locus with Overlapping Reading Frames: An XLalphas/ALEX Relay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available XLalphas and ALEX are structurally unrelated mammalian proteins translated from alternative overlapping reading frames of a single transcript. Not only are they encoded by the same locus, but a specific XLalphas/ALEX interaction is essential for G-protein signaling in neuroendocrine cells. A disruption of this interaction leads to abnormal human phenotypes, including mental retardation and growth deficiency. The region of overlap between the two reading frames evolves at a remarkable speed: the divergence between human and mouse ALEX polypeptides makes them virtually unalignable. To trace the evolution of this puzzling locus, we sequenced it in apes, Old World monkeys, and a New World monkey. We show that the overlap between the two reading frames and the physical interaction between the two proteins force the locus to evolve in an unprecedented way. Namely, to maintain two overlapping protein-coding regions the locus is forced to have high GC content, which significantly elevates its intrinsic evolutionary rate. However, the two encoded proteins cannot afford to change too quickly relative to each other as this may impair their interaction and lead to severe physiological consequences. As a result XLalphas and ALEX evolve in an oscillating fashion constantly balancing the rates of amino acid replacements. This is the first example of a rapidly evolving locus encoding interacting proteins via overlapping reading frames, with a possible link to the origin of species-specific neurological differences.

  15. Differential control by IHF and cAMP of two oppositely oriented genes, hpt and gcd, in Escherichia coli: significance of their partially overlapping regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, H; Ito, S; Elias, M D; Yamada, M

    2002-01-01

    The hpt gene, which encodes hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, is located next to, but transcribed in the opposite direction to, the gcd gene, which codes for a membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase, at 3.1 min on the Escherichia coli genome. In their promoter-operator region, putative regulatory elements for integration host factor (IHF) and for the complex comprising 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and its receptor protein (CRP) are present, and they overlap the promoters for hpt and gcd, respectively. The involvement of IHF and cAMP-CRP, as well as the corresponding putative cis-acting elements, in the expression of the two genes was investigated by using lacZ operon fusions. In an adenylate cyclase-deficient strain, addition of cAMP increased the expression of hpt and reduced the expression of gcd. In agreement with this observation, the introduction of mutations into the putative binding element for the cAMP-CRP complex enhanced the expression of gcd. In contrast, mutations introduced into the putative IHF-binding elements increased the level of hpt expression. Similar results were obtained with IHF-defective strains. Thus, the expression of the two genes is regulated in a mutually exclusive manner. Additional experiments with mutations at the -10 sequence of the gcd promoter suggest that the binding of RNA polymerase to the hpt promoter interferes with the interaction of RNA polymerase with the gcd promoter, and vice versa.

  16. Message passing theory for percolation models on multiplex networks with link overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Cellai, Davide; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems including infrastructures, transportation networks and biological systems. Most of these networks feature a significant link overlap. It is therefore of particular importance to characterize the mutually connected giant component in these networks. Here we provide a message passing theory for characterizing the percolation transition in multiplex networks with link overlap and an arbitrary number of layers $M$. Specifically we propose and compare two message passing algorithms, that generalize the algorithm widely used to study the percolation transition in multiplex networks without link overlap. The first algorithm describes a directed percolation transition and admits an epidemic spreading interpretation. The second algorithm describes the emergence of the mutually connected giant component, that is the percolation transition, but does not preserve the epidemic spreading interpretation. We obtain the phase diagrams for the percolation and direc...

  17. Analytical Approximation of the Deconvolution of Strongly Overlapping Broad Fluorescence Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovkin, J. M.; Tomin, V. I.; Ushakou, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    A method for deconvoluting strongly overlapping spectral bands into separate components that enables the uniqueness of the deconvolution procedure to be monitored was proposed. An asymmetric polynomial-modified function subjected to Fourier filtering (PMGFS) that allowed more accurate and physically reasonable band shapes to be obtained and also improved significantly the deconvolution convergence was used as the band model. The method was applied to the analysis of complexation in solutions of the molecular probe 4'-(diethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone with added LiCl. Two-band fluorescence of the probe in such solutions was the result of proton transfer in an excited singlet state and overlapped strongly with stronger spontaneous emission of complexes with the ions. Physically correct deconvolutions of overlapping bands could not always be obtained using available software.

  18. Genetic overlap between salt and low-temperature tolerance loci at germination stage of soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Pengcheng; Du Yongchun; Song Mangang; Jiang Hongwei; Zhang Wenbo; Chang Guoyou; Kong Guodong; Hu Guohua; Chen Qingshan

    2013-01-01

    Salt and low temperature were both very important factors for soybean production. It was necessary to improve the salt stress and low-temperature tolerance of soybean. The main purpose of this paper was to map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related with salt tolerance and low-temperature tolerance at germination stage with backcross introgression lines (BILs),and analyze the genetic overlap between them. There were 22 QTL located with BC2F4 introgression populations after salt stress,and 15 QTL were mapped after low-temperature stress. Sev-en overlapping QTLs between salt tolerance and low-temperature tolerance were detected on 6 linkage groups at germination stage. In total,there were 31.81%of salt tolerance and low-temperature tolerance loci existed genetic overlap.

  19. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  20. Microelectrode Arrays with Overlapped Diffusion Layers as Electroanalytical Detectors: Theory and Basic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tomčík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution contains a survey of basic literature dealing with arrays of microelectrodes with overlapping diffusion layers as prospective tools in contemporary electrochemistry. Photolithographic thin layer technology allows the fabrication of sensors of micrometric dimensions separated with a very small gap. This fact allows the diffusion layers of single microelectrodes to overlap as members of the array. Various basic types of microelectrode arrays with interacting diffusion layers are described and their analytical abilities are accented. Theoretical approaches to diffusion layer overlapping and the consequences of close constitution effects such as collection efficiency and redox cycling are discussed. Examples of basis applications in electroanalytical chemistry such as amperometric detectors in HPLC and substitutional stripping voltammetry are also given.