Sample records for bhutan

  1. Bhutan at CERN

    CERN Document Server


    On Tuesday 12 March, CERN received an extraordinary visitor, a very great representative of a very tiny country. His Royal Highness, Dasho Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk, Crown Prince of Bhutan, visited the assembly site of CMS. For those whose geographical knowledge is weak, Bhutan is a tiny bhuddist kingdom, nestled in the Himalayas and surrounded by two giants, India and China.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Alexander R O'Neill


    Full Text Available Hirondelle Chatelard (director, producer. 2013. Made in Bhutan. Thimpu: The Loden Foundation. 33 mins. Color. With the new idea, it's not necessary that you have to forgo or forget your old tradition. You can have your old tradition, you can practice whatever you've been doing all along, and at the same time be open to new ideas and new thinking that new people bring in. - Nawang Tshering, The Bhutan Association of Women Entrepreneurs Bhutan, well recognized for its Gross National Happiness (GNH Index, has pursued growth strategies that integrate heritage preservation with UN Sustainable Development Goals. Buttressed by isolationist policies, however, its efforts have resulted in both a lagging national economy and rampant youth unemployment. Made in Bhutan is a short documentary that highlights local responses to these conditions since 2010. Set in the capital, Thimphu, it follows Bhutanese entrepreneurs as they navigate private sector ventures with potential for social impact. The film opens with a discussion of market liberalization in the Eastern Himalayas. For centuries, kings dictated Bhutan's economy with absolute authority; civil service was a common career path for many Bhutanese. In modern times, regional markets and population expansion have placed significant stress on these ancient institutions. Rural poverty, substance abuse, and rampant unemployment threaten the heritage of this Himalayan state. Made in Bhutan is refreshingly candid about many of these issues, even though it provides but cursory context for its economic woes. Karma Phunthsho, Founder of The Loden Foundation, comments on some of these challenges: There are many villages around here, in Western Bhutan, that are nearly vacant because children come to live in Thimpu and work in Thimphu. Parents then follow their children to live in Thimpu. As a result, we rely more on India for these products and for the commodities that we consume daily. And

  3. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides essential insights into Bhutan’s developmental challenges. It analyzes and scrutinizes the sovereign state’s developmental approach, including the idea of Gross National Happiness (GNH), which has replaced Gross National Product (GNP) as a measurement of prosperity. The authors...... also explore and deconstruct ideational and cultural aspects of knowledge production and present a critical overall assessment of the political economy of education policy, health, ICT and migration in Bhutan. The book is divided into five parts all taking a critical approach towards inequality: Part...

  4. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  5. Energy, environment and development in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Sk Noim; Taplin, Ros [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Yu, Xiaojiang [Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (China)


    Bhutan's energy and environmental situation and approaches to development are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Conservation of natural resources and human happiness have been placed as central strategic policy themes and have been given high priority in the national development plans of Bhutan. Bhutan's unique approach to development via Gross National Happiness (GNH) or the Middle Path of development is being facilitated by the Royal Government of Bhutan as a tool to balance poverty alleviation, environmental conservation and development. However, challenges exist due to the constraints of resources, good governance, legal frameworks, and human capacity. This paper reviews selected sustainable energy projects (e.g. energy from renewables or energy conservation) in Bhutan and finds that in fact, Bhutan's renewable energy resources (e.g. water and forests) which have proved to be indispensable for development are vulnerable due to the adverse impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Appropriate measures in order to reduce potential environmental degradation and mitigate climate change impacts have been acknowledged globally and these have potential for application in Bhutan. For example, implementation of sustainable energy projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol could offer an opportunity for mitigating climate change impacts and also contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  6. Child labour in Bhutan : the challenges of implementing child rights in Bhutan


    Chhetri, Kishore Kumar


    This dissertation attempts to contextualize the practice of child labour in Bhutan by examining various socio-economic and cultural aspects. By reviewing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, this dissertation looks into the policies, Acts and strategies adopted by the Royal Government of Bhutan in reducing child labour. It describes various characteristics of child labour in Bhutan. It also provides an analysis of domestic child labour in the country. The study is mo...

  7. Challenges in India and Bhutan. (United States)

    Zaman, W


    While India is making overall progress in maternal and child health and reproductive health (MCH/RH), all states are not moving ahead. In fact, it is the states with the larger populations which are lagging behind. Primary education, women's status, and literacy remain problematic. UNFPA has worked in India for a long time, helping to realize the decline in total fertility rate from 6 to 3.5 over the past 20-30 years. India's population, however, is still growing at the annual rate of 1.8%. UNFPA's program in India for the period 1997-2001 will stress women's health as a matter of overall reproductive health, a new approach in India which has long relied upon sterilization. Attention must be given to meeting the needs of the poor in India as the country continues to grow in size and wealth. While Bhutan's estimated population is just over 1 million, the annual population growth rate of 3.1% threatens development over the long term. With a mountainous terrain and a low resource base, Bhutan cannot sustain a high population growth rate. Significant improvements have been made and women's status is good, the infant mortality rate has been reduced, and the health infrastructure is not bad. UNFPA's 5-year program beginning in 1998 will mainly address RH, especially adolescent RH.

  8. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh


    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  9. Market performance of potato auctions in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, van A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Swinkels, R.


    Market performance with respect to a main horticultural export commodity in Bhutan is the subject of this paper. Imperfections in (market) infrastructure and market structure and conduct may prevent an optimal price for farmers. Market performance is assessed by testing the law of one price for this

  10. Market Performance of Potato Auctions in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, van A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Swinkels, R.


    Market performance with respect to a main horticultural export commodity in Bhutan is the subject of this paper. Imperfections in (market) infrastructure and market structure and conduct may prevent an optimal price for farmers. Market performance is assessed by testing the law of one price for this

  11. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan


    Dubgyur, Lungten


    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  12. Culture matters: indigenizing patient safety in Bhutan. (United States)

    Pelzang, Rinchen; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison M


    Studies show that if quality of healthcare in a country is to be achieved, due consideration must be given to the importance of the core cultural values as a critical factor in improving patient safety outcomes. The influence of Bhutan's traditional (core) cultural values on the attitudes and behaviours of healthcare professionals regarding patient care are not known. This study aimed to explore the possible influence of Bhutan's traditional cultural values on staff attitudes towards patient safety and quality care. Undertaken as a qualitative exploratory descriptive inquiry, a purposeful sample of 94 healthcare professionals and managers were recruited from three levels of hospitals, a training institute and the Ministry of Health. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis strategies. The findings of the study suggest that Bhutanese traditional cultural values have both productive and counterproductive influences on staff attitudes towards healthcare delivery and the processes that need to be in place to ensure patient safety. Productive influences encompassed: karmic incentives to avoid preventable harm and promote safe patient care; and the prospective adoption of the 'four harmonious friends' as a culturally meaningful frame for improving understanding of the role and importance of teamwork in enhancing patient safety. Counterproductive influences included: the adoption of hierarchical and authoritative styles of management; unilateral decision-making; the legitimization of karmic beliefs; differential treatment of patients; and preferences for traditional healing practices and rituals. Although problematic in some areas, Bhutan's traditional cultural values could be used positively to inform and frame an effective model for improving patient safety in Bhutan's hospitals. Such a model must entail the institution of an 'indigenized' patient safety program, with patient safety research and reporting systems framed around local

  13. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014. (United States)

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John


    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August-October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  14. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014


    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John


    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August?October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  15. Bhutan: Educational Challenges in the Land of the Thunder Dragon (United States)

    Gordon, June A.


    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, where images of magical splendor obscure its challenges, provides a viewpoint from which to understand the contradictions that emerging economies face as they move towards mass education. Isolated from the outside world in every sense except for the mythologies that surround it, Bhutan is attempting to move from a…

  16. A Study on the Type of School during the Dawn of Modern Education in Bhutan (United States)

    Hirayama, Takehiro


    This study aims to clarify the state of school education in the Bhutan during the 1940-50s, a period of dawn of the modern education in Bhutan, by classifying schools and identifying their contrasting characteristics. The origins of modern education in Bhutan can be traced back approximately 100 years. Bhutan's modern period began in 1907 when…

  17. Quality of life in epilepsy in Bhutan. (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Patenaude, Bryan; Nirola, Damber Kumar; Deki, Sonam; Tshering, Lhab; Clark, Sarah; Shaull, Lance; Sorets, Tali; Fink, Guenther; Mateen, Farrah


    To assess the quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE) among adults in the lower middle-income country of Bhutan and assess the potential demographic and clinical associations with better QOLIE. People with clinically diagnosed epilepsy were prospectively enrolled at the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital in Thimphu (2014-2015). Regression models were constructed to assess the potential impact of age, sex, residence in the capital city, wealth quintile, educational attainment, seizure in the prior year, seizures with loss of consciousness, self-reported stigma score, and need for multiple antiepileptic drugs. The mean Bhutanese QOLIE-31 score among 172 adults (mean age 31.1 years, 93 female) was 48.9/100±17.7. Younger age, lower educational attainment level, and increased self-perceived stigma were each observed to have an independent, negative association with QOLIE (pEducation appeared to be most strongly associated with QOL at the high school and college levels. There are potentially modifiable associations with low QOLIE. Addressing the educational level and self-perceived stigma of PWE may have an especial impact. The low QOLIE in Bhutan may reflect cultural approaches to epilepsy, health services, or other factors including those outside of the health sector. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Earth construction: traditional building techniques of Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Guedes


    Full Text Available NCREP – Consultancy in Rehabilitation of Built Heritage Ltd., surveyed the constructive features of Bhutan's vernacular rammed earth built heritage, as part of a project financed by the World Bank and commissioned by the Division for the Conservation of Heritage Sites (DCHS of the Department of Culture - Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs of Bhutan. This work, which aimed at better understanding the structural behaviour of this heritage and, based on this information, proposing measures to mitigate its seismic risk, included the study of 18 traditional rammed earth buildings in two villages in the Punakha district. The surveys were conducted house-to-house, based on a DCHS script, and included surveys of artisans responsible for building these constructive typologies, supported by a questionnaire integrated within the project, to collect information on the procedures, rites and practices followed in these constructions. This article focuses only on the first part of the work; it presents the main constructive characteristics assessed from the survey carried out on this built heritage and compiles the results of the surveys of the artisans.

  19. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder


    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  20. Opening doors to knowledge in Bhutan. (United States)


    School girls, teachers, and health school students were surveyed, using 3 different questionnaires, in January 1993. Catherine Payne, former research associate of the Family Planning Council of Southeastern Pennsylvania, visited Bhutan from August 18 through September 4, 1993, to assist with the interpretation of results and to interview teachers in schools where the new curriculum would be introduced and officials who were writing it. Results were released in October 1993. 160 young women (10-20 years of age) from 5 schools were surveyed and another 60 were interviewed by Payne. 25% of the surveyed girls understood the connection between menstruation and reproduction. Of those who had heard of menstruation, 60% had heard about it from their friends; 30%, from siblings; 27%, from mothers; and 10%, from schools. Teachers in the survey were supportive of the study and recognized the importance of reproductive health education. Also, officials of the education and health ministries, epidemiologists, experts in information, education, and communication (IEC), and district health officers attended a 2-day workshop directed at local data collection and analysis of this type. Although teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing in Bhutan, family planning services are not reaching youth, particularly those who do not attend school or do not have children. Hospitals provide contraceptives mainly to those over 21, and outreach clinics are not catering to the family planning needs of minors. One of the recommendations of this survey/workshop was to provide correct information on reproductive health to youth.

  1. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.


    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  2. Bhutan tõrjus India oma asjade ajamiselt / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan


    Bhutani kuningas Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk ja India president Abdul Kalam allkirjastasid lepingu, mille kohaselt saab Bhutan endale suuremad õigused ja vabadused iseseisvamalt välis- ja kaitsepoliitikat ajada

  3. Convergence of Monastic and Modern Education in Bhutan? (United States)

    Denman, Brian D.; Namgyel, Singye


    In the 1960s, the Royal Government of Bhutan began developing its modern educational system. Over time, a strategic plan was formulated to meet Education for All and Millennium Development Goals. In 2003, the Royal University of Bhutan, the country's first university, opened its doors. This paper uses comparative analysis to describe and explore the impact on the development of The Royal University of Bhutan of the national consciousness termed ‹Gross National Happiness'. It is proposed that the university is likely to become a catalyst for development, and an influential representative of and for a cultural identity. Will it become an elite institution? Will the institution offer formal degrees for all who qualify? It is suggested that the issues considered in Bhutan may be of significance for other new universities attempting to establish themselves in the developing world.

  4. Taxonomic review of the superfamily Pyraloidea in Bhutan (Lepidoptera

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    Jatishwor Singh Irungbam


    Full Text Available The result of an investigation of the lepidopteran fauna of Central and Southern Bhutan (Bumthang, Dagana, Trongsa, Tsirang, and Sarpang districts is presented in this study. The investigation was the part of the Invertebrate Documentation Project of Bhutan initiated by the National Biodiversity Center, Thimphu, funded by the Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Thimphu. The checklist was based on the systematic collections by light trapping at nine locations and the occasional collections from native forest and gardens within the five districts of Central and Southern Bhutan. The specimens were photographed and collected as specimens for future identification and reference. A list of 182 species belonging to families Crambidae and Pyralidae is presented, including 92 species as new records for the country. All the studied specimens are deposited at “Invertebrate Referral Collection Center” at the National Biodiversity Center, Thimphu.

  5. CERN visit of His Excellency Mr.Kinga Singye / Bhutan

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael


    CERN visit of His Excellency Mr Kinga Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  6. Impact analysis of e-tourism in Bhutan


    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Zinner Henriksen, Helle


    Bhutan is in economic terms highly dependent of tourism. E-tourism is in this report assessed as a mean to maintain the current positive development in tourism and as a driver for extending tourism to new markets. Effective use of information, communication, distribution and transactions through the new media, such as the Internet, can lead to an increased level of economic activity in the tourism sector in Bhutan. Also, the indirect economic impacts on transportation, accommodation and the r...

  7. In Pursuit of Happiness, Bhutan Opens to Globalization and Business


    Kimberly A. Freeman, Ph.D.; Katherine C. Jackson


    The Kingdom of Bhutan, a small country situated on the border between China and India, has in recent years become a constitutional democratic monarchy. As part of its 2008 constitution, Bhutan committed to promote conditions that would enable the pursuit of Gross National Happiness. The countrythus initiated an effort to improve the quality of life and happiness for its citizens and has embraced globalization far more than previouslythrough attracting business, tourism, and communications. Th...

  8. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing


    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  9. Teaching in the Land of Happiness: The Canada-Bhutan Connection (United States)

    Scott, Kristen


    Classrooms in Bhutan overflow with eager students; however, the teacher supply is often not enough to meet demand. The Bhutan Canada Foundation (BCF) is a Canadian charity working with the Ministry of Education in Bhutan, providing Canadian teachers to remote areas, where they work for a local salary and live in basic conditions The feature of…

  10. In Pursuit of Happiness, Bhutan Opens to Globalization and Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Freeman, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Bhutan, a small country situated on the border between China and India, has in recent years become a constitutional democratic monarchy. As part of its 2008 constitution, Bhutan committed to promote conditions that would enable the pursuit of Gross National Happiness. The countrythus initiated an effort to improve the quality of life and happiness for its citizens and has embraced globalization far more than previouslythrough attracting business, tourism, and communications. The author’s hereinaddress some of the initiatives provide the context within which these efforts have arisen.

  11. Allele frequency distribution for 21 autosomal STR loci in Bhutan. (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; van Driem, George L; Tshering of Gaselô, Karma; de Knijff, Peter


    We studied the allele frequency distribution of 21 autosomal STR loci contained in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems), the Powerplex 16 (Promega) and the FFFL (Promega) multiplex PCR kits among 936 individuals from the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan. As such these are the first published autosomal DNA results from this country.

  12. Kingdom of Bhutan VIP visit at CERN / CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hoch, Michael


    His Excellency Mr Yeshey Zimba Member of Parliament and His Excellency Daw Penjo Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan visiting at CERN the LHC tunnel and the CMS experiment. Further guests were : Mrs Daw Zam, Mrs Thuji Zangmo, Mr. Rinchen Dorji, Mrs Dechen Wangmo, Ms Choni Ome Guided by R. Voss, Michael Hoch, Tiziano Camporesi

  13. Lessons from Bhutan: Embrace Cultural Differences to Effect Change (United States)

    Levine, Laurie; Telsey, Alison; McCormack, Kim


    Nestled in the Himalayan Mountains, Bhutan, a Buddhist country, is one of the most isolated nations in the world. After spending a month there, the authors all agreed it deserved its title of "The Last Shangri-La." Their team of professional development specialists spent the summer of 2010 providing professional development in the basic…

  14. Land of the thunder dragon is on the move. Bhutan. (United States)

    Molitor, C


    A small and landlocked country in the Himalayas, the size of Switzerland, Bhutan or Druk Yul, Land of the Thunder Dragon, had for centuries been isolated from the outside world. Finally, its tradition-bound people are beginning to pick up new trades and vocations. Penjore Timber Industries & Exports Ltd. is one of the 1st modern wood-processing complexes in Bhutan still with a predominantly subsistence and barter agriculture economy. The company, set up with the financial support of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is producing broomsticks, handles for tools, wooden doors, and window frames mainly for export. The industrial sector is small and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Most of the 125 private enterprises in the country are small. A development bank, the Bhutan Development Finance Corporation (BDFC), was established in 1988 with ADB support for the development of private industry. A general education system was established and schools were opened only in the early 1960s. The government had given the development of trained manpower high priority in its 5th Economic and Social Development Plan (FY 1981/82-FY 1986/87). The Royal Institute of Management (RIM) was established in 1986. About 40 trainees each in secretarial, accounting, and basic management training programs and 150 managerial personnel from public and private agencies are trained each year by RIM which the ADB supports under the Second Multiproject Loan to Bhutan with cofinancing by the Norwegian Development Agency. So far RIM has designed 12 different training courses, 92 students graduated in 1989, and by 1995 about 30 training courses are envisioned. According to 1987 data in a recent UN report Bhutan is the only one of the world's 42 least-developed countries with a more than 10% agricultural production growth rate where real GDP growth has outspaced population growth.

  15. Alcohol and economic development: Observations on the kingdom of Bhutan. (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Dorji, Gampo; Dalton, Craig


    Bhutan is a small country undergoing rapid social change arising from income growth, urbanisation and Western cultural influence. Markers of poverty, namely infectious disease and infant mortality, have improved dramatically. The attention of health authorities is now focused on the non-communicable disease and injury burdens, to which alcohol consumption is a major contributor. The paper draws on official data to characterise the consumption of alcohol and related harm, and the nature of the alcohol market, with commentary on crucial aspects of availability policies and drink-driving regulation that need reform. Kypri K, Dorji G, Dalton C. Alcohol and economic development: Observations on the kingdom of Bhutan. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:333ȃ336.]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Conflicting hydropower development and aquatic ecosystem conservation in Bhutan (United States)

    Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.


    Hydropower is one of the clean energy sources that many Himalayan countries are eager to develop to solve their domestic energy deficit issue such as India, Nepal and Pakistan. Like other Himalayan countries, Bhutan also has a great potential for hydropower development. However, Bhutan is one of few countries that has a domestic energy surplus and export its hydropower generation to neighboring countries (mainly to India). Exporting hydropower is one of the major economic sources in Bhutan. However, constructions of dams and reservoirs for hydropower development inevitably involve habitat fragmentation, causing a conflict of interest with the pursuit of value in aquatic ecosystem conservation. The objectives of this study is to 1) develop a distributed hydrologic model with snow and glacier module to simulate the hydrologic regimes of seven major watersheds in Bhutan; 2) apply the hydrologic model to compute hydropower generation for all existing and potential dams; 3) evaluate cascade impacts of each individual dam on downstream regions by employing three hydro-ecological indicators: the River Connectivity Index (RCI), Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), total affected river stretch (ARS), and 4) analyze the tradeoffs between hydropower generation and river connectivity at the national scale by means of a multiple objective genetic algorithm. Modeling results of three Pareto Fronts between ecological indicators and hydropower generation accompany with future energy export targets from the government can inform dam selections that maximizing hydropower generation while minimizing the impact on the aquatic ecosystem (Figure 1a). The impacts of climate change on these Pareto front are also explored to identify robust dam selection under changing temperature and precipitation (Figure 1b).

  17. Delegation from the Royal Government and the Permanent Mission of Bhutan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Photoa 01,02: Mr Yeshey Dorji, Chargé d'affaires, a. i., Permanent Mission of Bhutan in New York (3rd from left), visiting the ATLAS underground cavern with Dr Diether Blechschmidt, CERN Non-Member States Relations (4th from left) and Representatives of the Bhutan Royal Government and Permanent Mission in Geneva.

  18. On the Middle Path, The Social Basis for Sustainable Development in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzin, C.


    Religion, culture and polity have largely influenced what is unique about Bhutan today. As a Mahayana Buddhist Kingdom, Bhutan has inherited a philosophy of life that is deeply rooted in religious traditions and institutions. Basic values such as compassion, faith, respect for all life forms and

  19. Seroprevalence of rickettsial infections and Q fever in Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshokey Tshokey


    Full Text Available With few studies conducted to date, very little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsioses in Bhutan. Due to two previous outbreaks and increasing clinical cases, scrub typhus is better recognized than other rickettsial infections and Q fever.A descriptive cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted from January to March 2015 in eight districts of Bhutan. Participants were 864 healthy individuals from an urban (30% and a rural (70% sampling unit in each of the eight districts. Serum samples were tested by microimmunofluorescence assay for rickettsial antibodies at the Australian Rickettsial Reference Laboratory.Of the 864 participants, 345 (39.9% were males and the mean age of participants was 41.1 (range 13-98 years. An overall seroprevalence of 49% against rickettsioses was detected. Seroprevalence was highest against scrub typhus group (STG (22.6% followed by spotted fever group (SFG rickettsia (15.7%, Q fever (QF (6.9% and typhus group (TG rickettsia (3.5%. Evidence of exposure to multiple agents was also noted; the commonest being dual exposure to STG and SFG at 5%. A person's likelihood of exposure to STG and SFG rickettsia significantly increased with age and farmers were twice as likely to have evidence of STG exposure as other occupations. Trongsa district appeared to be a hotspot for STG exposure while Punakha district had the lowest STG exposure risk. Zhemgang had the lowest exposure risk to SFG rickettsia compared to other districts. People living at altitudes above 2000 meters were relatively protected from STG infections but this was not observed for SFG, TG or QF exposure.This seroprevalence study highlights the endemicity of STG and SFG rickettsia in Bhutan. The high seroprevalence warrants appropriate public health interventions, such as diagnostic improvements and clinical treatment guidelines. Future studies should focus on vector profiles, geospatial, bio-social and environmental risk assessment and preventive and control

  20. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus ortleppi in Bhutan. (United States)

    Thapa, Nirmal Kumar; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Kinzang, Dukpa; Gurung, Ratna B; Wangdi, Phuntsho; Deplazes, Peter


    In this pilot study, fecal samples were collected from community dogs around slaughterhouses and from the city of Thimphu (n=138) as well as from carnivores in the forest area around a farm in Bhutan (n=28). Samples were analyzed microscopically for the presence of taeniid eggs by the floatation and sieving method. Further molecular analyses of 20 samples of community dogs positive for taeniid eggs confirmed 10 Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and one Taenia hydatigena case. From 14 environmental fecal samples from the forest area positive for taeniid eggs, one contained E. granulosus s.l., six T. hydatigena and one Taenia taeniaeformis DNA. In the remaining samples considered positive for taeniid eggs, no molecular confirmation could be achieved. Additionally, Echinococcus cysts were collected from locally slaughtered cattle and imported cattle organs. Seven Echinococcus cysts (one fertile) from the local animals and 35 (four fertile) from imported cattle organs were confirmed as E. granulosus (G1-3) by PCR/sequencing. One Echinococcus cyst each from a local animal and from an imported cattle organ (both fertile) were confirmed to be Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). Sterile Echinococcus cysts were also collected from local yaks (n=10), and all revealed to be E. granulosus (G1-G3). Hospital records of cystic echinococcosis in humans and the presence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs and ungulates indicate the existence of local transmission for both E. ortleppi and E. granulosus in Bhutan. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Quality of Life Among Senior Citizens in Bhutan. (United States)

    Dorji, Nidup; Dunne, Michael P; Seib, Charrlotte; Deb, Sibnath


    This study explored associations between quality of life (QOL), spirituality, social integration, chronic diseases, and lifetime adversity among people aged 60 years and older in Bhutan. Adults aged 60 to 101 years (n = 337) completed face-to-face interviews. The main measure included the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire and Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire. The social relationships domain of QOL had the highest mean. Frequent back pain, memory decline, depression, mobility impairment, insomnia, and lung diseases were commonly reported and negatively related to QOL. Compared with women, men reported fewer physical and mental health problems and better QOL. Multivariate analysis revealed that cumulative health problems, psychological distress, and social connectedness contributed significantly to overall QOL. The measure of spirituality was negatively associated with QOL, which is not conclusive and suggests the need for more research especially when the influence of spiritualism is highly visible in the everyday lives of Bhutanese people. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to care for elderly people in Bhutan.

  2. Current distribution and conservation status of Bhutan Takin Budorcas whitei Lydekker, 1907 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

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    Tiger Sangay


    Full Text Available The Bhutan Takin Budorcas whitei Lydekker, 1907 is endemic to Bhutan and it is categorized as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. While the other Takin species have been studied in China (Golden Takin B. bedfordi; Sichuan Takin B. tibetana and India (Mishmi Takin B. taxicolor, only one study has focused on the Bhutan Takin.  In this paper, we report the current distribution and conservation status of the Bhutan Takin using the information gathered through field surveys, interviews and unpublished reports.  Bhutan Takin are seasonal migrants, occurring between 1500–5550 m, preferring areas in close proximity to river valleys and geothermal outlets (hot springs.  Takin avoid areas that are disturbed by road construction and power transmission lines, and where they have to compete for forage with domestic livestock.  Takin conservation in Bhutan requires: (1 a commitment to reduce disturbances from domestic livestock through better herding and animal husbandry practices, (2 environmentally friendly road construction, inclusive of wildlife corridors, (3 establishment of satellite offices and regularizing anti-poaching patrol systems, (4 development of education programs to enlist support for Takin conservation, and (5 encouragement of more research on the ecology and management needs of the species.

  3. Twenty-two years of HIV infection in Bhutan: epidemiological profile. (United States)

    Tshering, Pandup; Lhazeen, Karma; Wangdi, Sonam; Tshering, Namgay


    To describe the HIV epidemiology in Bhutan. Data from the database of people living with HIV infection in Bhutan, survey reports from the National STI and HIV/AIDS Control Programme from the Ministry of Health and published literature on HIV in Bhutan were reviewed. Bhutan continues to have a low HIV prevalence with only 470 cases reported by the end of 2015. However, there is a slow but steady recent increase in the number of cases. The main mode of transmission is unsafe heterosexual practice in the general population and is occurring mostly in urban and business districts. More than half of cases have been diagnosed in only three districts. Although the number of cases among key populations such as sex workers and intravenous drug users remains significantly low, the information available remains very limited. There is only scarce published literature on HIV in Bhutan and an absence of a strategic surveillance system. A high level of sexually transmitted infections and multiple sexual relationships represent the existing threats that may fuel a larger epidemic. Bhutan has a maintained a low HIV prevalence over the past two decades, which is reflected in the national response to HIV. However, with the presence of existing and newly emerging risk factors, this response needs to adapt continually. To ensure that HIV prevalence remains low, it is crucial to invest in a strategic information system to monitor rates of infections to guide the public health response.

  4. Kebijakan Pemerintah Bhutan Dalam Pemberdayaan Sektor Pariwisata Untuk Memasuki Safta (South Asian Free Trade Area) Tahun 2002-2007


    Azela, Rizki; ", Pazli


    This research describes the Government Policies In Empowerment Bhutan TourismSector to Enter SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Area) 2002-2007. Bhutan's tourism industrybegan in 1974 It was introduced with the main objective to increase revenue, especiallyforeign exchange and publish unique culture and traditions of the country to the outsideworld, and contribute to socio-economic development of the country. In the tourism sector,tourism policy of Bhutan also developed in accordance with the prin...

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

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    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/ The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  6. Development of deforestation and land cover database for Bhutan (1930-2014). (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Satish, K V; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Murthy, Y V N Krishna; Dadhwal, V K


    Bhutan is a mountainous country located in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This study has quantified the total area under land cover types, estimated the rate of forest cover change, analyzed the changes across forest types, and modeled forest cover change hotpots in Bhutan. The topographical maps and satellite remote sensing images were analyzed to get the spatial patterns of forest and associated land cover changes over the past eight decades (1930-1977-1987-1995-2005-2014). Forest is the largest land cover in Bhutan and constitutes 68.3% of the total geographical area in 2014. Subtropical broad leaved hill forest is predominant type occupies 34.1% of forest area in Bhutan, followed by montane dry temperate (20.9%), montane wet temperate (18.9%), Himalayan moist temperate (10%), and tropical moist sal (8.1%) in 2014. The major forest cover loss is observed in subtropical broad leaved hill forest (64.5 km 2 ) and moist sal forest (9.9 km 2 ) from 1977 to 2014. The deforested areas have mainly been converted into agriculture and contributed for 60.9% of forest loss from 1930 to 2014. In spite of major decline of forest cover in time interval of 1930-1977, there is no net rate of deforestation is recorded in Bhutan since 1995. Forest cover change analysis has been carried out to evaluate the conservation effectiveness in "Protected Areas" of Bhutan. Hotspots that have undergone high transformation in forest cover for afforestation and deforestation were highlighted in the study for conservation prioritisation. Forest conservation policies in Bhutan are highly effective in controlling deforestation as compared to neighboring Asian countries and such service would help in mitigating climate change.

  7. Tectonic controls of transient landscapes in the Bhutan Himalaya (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Whipple, K. X.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heimsath, A. M.


    Previous research has identified many landscapes within the Himalaya that are not easily explained by classical critical taper models of orogenic wedges. One of the most striking examples is the sharp physiographic transition between the more subdued landforms of the Lower Himalayan ranges and the Higher Himalayan ranges to the north in Nepal. This transition has been attributed to several potential causes: changes in the rheology of rocks at depth, a ramp in the basal detachment of the orogenic wedge, a blind duplex, or a north-dipping, surface-breaking thrust fault. A similar, but more subdued transition marks the northern margin of perched, low-relief landscape patches found at ca. 3000 m in Bhutan. These low-relief surfaces, characterized by bogs and thick saprolites at the surface, overlie piggyback basins within the evolving orogenic wedge, filled with hundreds of meters of colluvial and alluvial deposits. The southern boundaries of the low-relief surfaces are less regular than the physiographic transition at their northern boundaries. The surfaces occur at similar elevations but are not continuous geographically, having been dissected by a series of river systems draining southward from the crest of the range. Pronounced knickpoints have formed at the southern margins of the low-relief surfaces. Our work suggests that there is a young (Pliocene-Pleistocene) fault system coincident with the physiographic transition in Bhutan. This high-angle, north-dipping structure, the Lhuentse fault, has minor normal-sense offset and could not have been responsible for differential uplift of the rugged terrain (in the hanging wall) relative to the low-relief landscape (in the footwall). The Lhuentse fault is coincident with the back limb of a previously inferred blind duplex at depth, and thus may be associated with active deformation on a rotated horse within the duplex. This duplex may also be responsible for the creation of the low-relief landscapes to the south of the

  8. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

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    A.P. Singh


    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  9. Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan: A SWOT Analysis

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    Sonam Tashi


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the prospects of organic agriculture (OA in Bhutan from the experts’ perspective, particularly the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat aspect. Thirty-five Bhutanese experts were interviewed. The strengths of OA were (i good alignment of the principles of OA with Bhutan’s development philosophy, (ii strong policy and political support, (iii pristine environment, (iv OA practices similar to traditional farming, and (v compatibility of OA with the local farming knowledge. The major weaknesses were (i a lack of awareness of the benefits of OA, (ii lack of incentives, (iii shortage of farm labor, (iv small and irregular supply of organic product, (v lack of clarity in policy, (vi limited plant protection materials, and (vii a lack of coordination between agencies. Opportunities were (i a huge regional and global organic market, (ii promoting healthy lifestyle, (iii sustainable use of resources, (iv lowering dependence on food and input imports, (v development of local organic manure suppliers, (vi creating seed sovereignty, (vii conserving local crops, (viii building soil fertility, (ix introducing premium price for organic products, and (x addressing unemployment. Threats included (i increasing incidences of pests and diseases, (ii decline in sources of organic manure, and (iii limited sources of organic manures and fertilizers.

  10. Piecing Together Past and Present in Bhutan: Narration, Silence and Forgetting in Conflict

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    Line Kikkenborg Christensen


    Full Text Available What happens when conflict is silenced in official narratives but not forgotten among a population? This article explores this question using interview data from anthropological fieldwork in Bhutan. In Bhutan, the ethnic conflict of the early 1990s is surrounded by silence and is not openly discussed. Despite this silence, young Bhutanese have formed a multiplicity of narratives about the conflict. The article highlights three different narratives of conflict, as well as the oblivion found among informants. The main argument is that the silence surrounding the conflict in Bhutan has contributed to two forms of societal rift: between the authorities and the people, and between people themselves. The article contributes to the discussion about what role social memories play in conflicts, by suggesting that silence may cause wariness and hinder processes that help societies to move past conflict in a constructive way.

  11. Design and Implementation of the National Seismic Monitoring Network in the Kingdom of Bhutan (United States)

    Ohmi, S.; Inoue, H.; Chophel, J.; Pelgay, P.; Drukpa, D.


    Bhutan-Himalayan district is located along the plate collision zone between Indian and Eurasian plates, which is one of the most seismically active region in the world. Recent earthquakes such as M7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake in April 25, 2015 and M6.7 Imphal, India earthquake in January 3, 2016 are examples of felt earthquakes in Bhutan. However, there is no permanent seismic monitoring system ever established in Bhutan, whose territory is in the center of the Bhutan-Himalayan region. We started establishing permanent seismic monitoring network of minimum requirements and intensity meter network over the nation. The former is composed of six (6) observation stations in Bhutan with short period weak motion and strong motion seismometers as well as three (3) broad-band seismometers, and the latter is composed of twenty intensity meters located in every provincial government office. Obtained data are transmitted to the central processing system in the DGM office in Thimphu in real time. In this project, DGM will construct seismic vault with their own budget which is approved as the World Bank project, and Japan team assists the DGM for site survey of observation site, designing the observation vault, and designing the data telemetry system as well as providing instruments for the observation such as seismometers and digitizers. We already started the operation of the six (6) weak motion stations as well as twenty (20) intensity meter stations. Additionally, the RIMES (Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia) is also providing eight (8) weak motion stations and we are keeping close communication to operate them as one single seismic monitoring network composed of fourteen (14) stations. This network will be definitely utilized for not only for seismic disaster mitigation of the country but also for studying the seismotectonics in the Bhutan-Himalayan region which is not yet precisely revealed due to the lack of observation data in the

  12. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

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    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  13. Seismotectonics of Bhutan: Evidence for segmentation of the Eastern Himalayas and link to foreland deformation (United States)

    Diehl, Tobias; Singer, Julia; Hetényi, György; Grujic, Djordje; Clinton, John; Giardini, Domenico; Kissling, Edi; Gansser Working Group


    The instrumental record of Bhutan is characterized by a lower seismicity compared to other parts of the Himalayan arc. To understand this low activity and its impact on the seismic hazard, a seismic network was installed in Bhutan for 22 months between 2013 and 2014. Recorded seismicity, earthquake moment tensors and local earthquake tomography reveal along-strike variations in structure and crustal deformation regime. A thickened crust imaged in western Bhutan suggests lateral differences in stresses on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), potentially affecting the interseismic coupling and deformation regime. Sikkim, western Bhutan and its foreland are characterized by strike-slip faulting in the Indian basement. Strain is particularly localized along a NW-SE striking mid-crustal fault zone reaching from Chungthang in northeast Sikkim to Dhubri at the northwestern edge of the Shillong Plateau in the foreland. The dextral Dhubri-Chungthang fault zone (DCF) causes segmentation of the Indian basement and the MHT between eastern Nepal and western Bhutan and connects the deformation front of the Himalaya with the Shillong Plateau by forming the western boundary of the Shillong block. The Kopili fault, the proposed eastern boundary of this block, appears to be a diffuse zone of mid-crustal seismicity in the foreland. In eastern Bhutan we image a seismogenic, flat portion of the MHT, which might be either related to a partially creeping segment or to increased background seismicity originating from the 2009 MW 6.1 earthquake. In western-central Bhutan clusters of micro-earthquakes at the front of the High-Himalayas indicate the presence of a mid-crustal ramp and stress buildup on a fully coupled MHT. The area bounded by the DCF in the west and the seismogenic MHT in the east has the potential for M7-8 earthquakes in Bhutan. Similarly, the DCF has the potential to host M7 earthquakes as documented by the 2011 Sikkim and the 1930 Dhubri earthquakes, which were potentially

  14. Status of Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Carnivora: Felidae in Bhutan

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    Tashi Dhendup


    Full Text Available The Asiatic Golden Cat is a Near Threatened wild cat species as listed by the IUCN. Being a lesser studied species, there is a general paucity of data and hence, global assessment of its true status has been very difficult. In Bhutan, available information on this species is mainly from biodiversity surveys on big mammals such as Tiger and Snow Leopard. A modest attempt has been made to review all available literature on Asiatic Golden Cat in Bhutan and abroad to describe the current status of the species in the country and the need for further studies. 

  15. Petrography and rank of the Bhangtar coals, southeastern Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareek, H S [BH23, Meerut (India)


    In Bhutan, a potential coal deposit is exposed at Bhangtar in the 'landslide zone'. Nineteen coal seams are encountered in this area, and occur in the Lower Gondwana Supergroup preserved in between the Main Boundary Fault and the Thrust. The coal is low in moisture, {lt}1.76%, but the coal cores show moisture values of 3.16%. The ash content is up to 48.87% and increases substantially in the younger seams. The volatile content (on a pure coal basis) ranges from 23.38% to 41.02%. The sulphur content is less than 0.61%. The coals are non-coking. The amount of trace elements in the coal is quite low. The average petrographic composition of the Bhangtar coal is vitrinite - 31%, exinite - 2%, inertinite - 31%, and mineral and shaly matter - 36%, the vitrinite proportion decreases from the older to the younger seams, which are shaly. an age can be assigned to the Bhangtar coal. Based on oil reflectance, the rank of the coal is metalignitous to hypobituminous. The average microlithotype composition of the coal is vitrite - 30%, clarite - 1%, vitrinertite V - 14%, vitrinertite I - 11%, durite - 3%, fusite - 14%, and carbominerite - 27%. Vitrite decreases in proportion towards the younger seams, 'intermediates' show a concomitant increase, while durite and fusite remain constant. Carbonaceous shale contains fragmentary inertinite and vitrinite macerals and is interlayered with micro-bands of shaly coal which is characterised by abundant fragments of fusinite and vitrinite. The coal is very fragile and thus amenable to economic beneficiation. The coal is used as fuel in electric power plants. The Bhangtar coal is characteristically distinct from the Gondwana coals of India in petrography and rank, but correlates petrographically with the Kameng coals of Arunachal Pradesh, India. 18 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs., 3 plates.

  16. Road Expansion and Its Influence on Trail Sustainability in Bhutan

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    Taiichi Ito


    Full Text Available Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of people from India, benefitting both the Bhutanese and foreign tourists. At the same time, dependence on imported automobiles and fossil fuel has risen, and roadless areas have begun to shrink. This brought an inevitable loss of traditional environmental knowledge, such as the care of mules for packing, and reduction in physical and mental health among the Bhutanese. People who lost jobs as horsemen moved into towns to find jobs. Road extension is also a double-edged sword for visitors. It has resulted in shrinking trekking areas and loss of traditional culture, both of which have been sacrificed for easy access. Protected areas often function as fortifications against mechanical civilization. However, protected-area status or its zoning does not guarantee that an area will remain roadless where there is considerable resident population. An analysis in Jigme Dorji National Park showed the gradual retreat of trailheads and increasing dependence on automobiles among residents and trekkers. B. MacKaye, a regional planner in the Eastern United States, proposed using trails as a tool to control such mechanical civilization. His philosophy of regional planning suggests two measures; one is consolidated trailheads as dams, and the other is confinement of roads by levees, consisting of new trails and wilderness belts. According to case studies, the author proposed six options for coexistence of trails with roads.

  17. National Profiles in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific: Bhutan. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This technical and vocational education (TVE) profile on Bhutan is one in a series of profiles of UNESCO member countries. It is intended to be a handy reference on TVE systems, staff development, technical cooperation, and information networking. Part I, Policy Concern, provides general information on the education delivery system, the role of…

  18. The Paradox of Happiness: Health and Human Rights in the Kingdom of Bhutan. (United States)

    Mason Meier, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Averi


    The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction." Under this development paradigm of Gross National Happiness, the Bhutanese health system meets select normative foundations of the right to health, seeking to guarantee the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care and underlying determinants of health. However, where Bhutan continues to restrict the rights of minority populations-failing to address the ways in which human rights are indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated-additional reforms will be necessary to realize the right to health. Given the continuing prevalence of minority rights violations in the region, this study raises research questions for comparative studies in other rights-denying national contexts and advocacy approaches to advance principles of non-discrimination, participation, and accountability through health policy.

  19. The Drayang Girls of Thimphu: sexual network formation, transactional sex and emerging modernities in Bhutan. (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Dorji, Gampo; Bradley, Janet; Ramesh, B M; Isaac, Shajy; Blanchard, James


    Bhutan's sustained low HIV prevalence can be attributed to its political commitment to maintain isolation from foreign cultural influence. Recently, rising HIV prevalence has coincided with the increase in human traffic along Bhutan's borders. The majority of infections, occurring primarily through sexual contact, have appeared in the urban environments that are situated along the main transport routes. This qualitative study explored the sexual networks that form at entertainment venues in the capital city of Thimphu. To more fully understand sexual network formation at theses venues, one must take into account an emerging modernity that reflects a convergence of cultural, economic and political influences emanating from Bhutan's unique 'middle-path' modernisation scheme. The growing appearance of transactional sex in Thimphu not only points to an emergent form of exploitation wrought by larger economic transformations and widening social inequalities; the power inequalities that surround its practice are also significantly exacerbated by the local cultural politics and moral ideologies that arise as Bhutan proceeds along the path towards global capitalism. Discourses of Bhutanese sexual morality articulate with broader political economic transformations to forcefully position village women engaging in transactional sex within a field of power relations that leaves them open to various forms of subjugation.

  20. The ICT-Integrated Pedagogy in the Colleges of Royal University of Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choeda, Par-Ola Zander; Penjor, Tandin; Dukpa, Dorji


    This paper reports a research study on the integration of ICT and pedagogy in the colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan. It investigates whether ICT is integrated into the pedagogy, and if so, in what way. The samples (Faculty members) of the study were picked up randomly from ten colleges u...

  1. Water balance in the complex mountainous terrain of Bhutan and linkages to land use

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    Ugyen Dorji


    Study Focus: Located in the Himalayas with elevation ranging 100–7550 m and with an area equivalent to Switzerland, Bhutan has great biodiversity despite its small area. A monsoon-dominated climate causes generally wet summer and dry winter. Bhutan is highly dependent of climatic conditions for its developmental activities. Using multiple regression analysis we have established models to predict the evapotranspiration (ETo and water balance and test the linkage to vegetation and land cover using meteorological data from 70 weather stations across Bhutan. Temperature-based ETo equations were evaluated in reference to the Penman-Monteith (PM method and a calibrated Hargreaves (H equation was used for computing the ETo. New Hydrological Insights for the Region. The calibrated Hargreaves equation gave good estimates of average daily ETo comparable to the PM ETo. The spatial variation in PM ETo is linked to variation in sunshine hours in summer and temperature in other seasons. Seasonal and annual ETo was mainly affected by elevation and latitude, which is linked to temperature and sunshine duration. Precipitation and water balance correlated positively with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI while ETo correlated negatively. Our models for predicting ETo and water balances performed clearly better than the global CRU gridded data for Bhutan. A positive water balance is found in broadleaf forest areas and small or negative water balance for coniferous forests.

  2. Notes on the occurrence of Chitoria sordica sordica (Moore, 1866) (Nymphalidae: Apaturinae) in Tsirang District, Bhutan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor; Chib, M. S.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk


    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2016), s. 8814-8817 ISSN 0974-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Barsong * Mendrelgang * southern Bhutan Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Tracking Poverty Reduction in Bhutan: Income Deprivation Alongside Deprivation in Other Sources of Happiness (United States)

    Santos, Maria Emma


    This paper analyses poverty reduction in Bhutan between two points in time--2003 and 2007--from a multidimensional perspective. The measures estimated include consumption expenditure as well as other indicators which are directly (when possible) or indirectly associated to valuable functionings, namely, health, education, access to electricity,…

  4. Practical Solutions for Addressing Labor-Related Barriers to Bhutan's Private Employment Growth


    World Bank Group


    This note provides practical solutions for addressing the labor-related barriers that impede Bhutan's private sector employment growth: (i) lack of workers with relevant experience and skills, (ii) restrictions on employing non-Bhutanese workers, and (iii) lack of interest among Bhutanese workers in private sector employment opportunities (Enterprise Survey 2015). This note draws on intern...

  5. A new range record of Comostola hauensteini Smetacek, 2004 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae from Bhutan

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    Irungbam Jatishwor Singh


    Full Text Available Comostola hauensteini was described by Smetacek in 2004 on the basis of a holotype and paratype from Bhimtal, Uttarakhand (the western Himalaya. There seems to be no further record and description of this species. The present record extends the known distribution of C. hauensteini to Tsirang District of Bhutan (the eastern Himalaya. 

  6. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

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    Yangzom Thinley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  7. Helicobacter pylori bab characterization in clinical isolates from Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Bangladesh.

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    Shamshul Ansari

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori BabA is an important outer membrane protein that involves in the attachment to the gastric mucosa and enhances the virulence property of the bacterium. This study was aimed to characterize the bab genotypes, to evaluate its association with cagA, vacA and clinical diseases as well as degree of gastric inflammation.H. pylori isolates from four countries were subjected for the characterization of bab. The locus specific forward and bab specific reverse primers were used to get the specific products by PCR, which could distinguish the three locus (A, B and C. The histological activities were evaluated according to the Updated Sydney system.In patients from high risk countries (Bhutan and Myanmar relatively higher frequencies of strains with babA-positivity (91.8% and 90.7%, respectively, babA at locus A (98% and 91.2%, respectively and with single babA (96.8% and 91.2%, respectively were found. Strains with two loci occupied were the most prevalent in Bhutan (84.6%, Myanmar (74.7%, Nepal (58.3% and Bangladesh (56.9%. The genotype babA at locus A/babB at locus B/bab-negative at locus C (babA/babB/- was the most common genotype isolated from Bhutan (82.7%, Myanmar (58.7%, Nepal (32% and Bangladesh (31.4% among all genotypes assessed. This genotype was also associated with the peptic ulcer disease (P = 0.013 when compared to gastritis. babA-positive characteristics and the genotype babA/babB/- exhibited the enhanced histological activities.The higher prevalence of virulence associated babA-positive characteristics and enhanced histological activities in Bhutan than in Myanmar, Nepal and Bangladesh might partly explain why the peoples in Bhutan are at higher risk for developing severe gastric complications.

  8. Helicobacter pylori bab characterization in clinical isolates from Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Bangladesh. (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Kabamba, Evariste Tshibangu; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Aftab, Hafeza; Myint, Thein; Tshering, Lotay; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Ni, Nwe; Aye, Than Than; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Akada, Junko; Yamaoka, Yoshio


    Helicobacter pylori BabA is an important outer membrane protein that involves in the attachment to the gastric mucosa and enhances the virulence property of the bacterium. This study was aimed to characterize the bab genotypes, to evaluate its association with cagA, vacA and clinical diseases as well as degree of gastric inflammation. H. pylori isolates from four countries were subjected for the characterization of bab. The locus specific forward and bab specific reverse primers were used to get the specific products by PCR, which could distinguish the three locus (A, B and C). The histological activities were evaluated according to the Updated Sydney system. In patients from high risk countries (Bhutan and Myanmar) relatively higher frequencies of strains with babA-positivity (91.8% and 90.7%, respectively), babA at locus A (98% and 91.2%, respectively) and with single babA (96.8% and 91.2%, respectively) were found. Strains with two loci occupied were the most prevalent in Bhutan (84.6%), Myanmar (74.7%), Nepal (58.3%) and Bangladesh (56.9%). The genotype babA at locus A/babB at locus B/bab-negative at locus C (babA/babB/-) was the most common genotype isolated from Bhutan (82.7%), Myanmar (58.7%), Nepal (32%) and Bangladesh (31.4%) among all genotypes assessed. This genotype was also associated with the peptic ulcer disease (P = 0.013) when compared to gastritis. babA-positive characteristics and the genotype babA/babB/- exhibited the enhanced histological activities. The higher prevalence of virulence associated babA-positive characteristics and enhanced histological activities in Bhutan than in Myanmar, Nepal and Bangladesh might partly explain why the peoples in Bhutan are at higher risk for developing severe gastric complications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri


    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water quality was analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes (LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro- invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri


    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  11. Scale dependence of felid predation risk: Identifying predictors of livestock kills by tiger and leopard in Bhutan (United States)

    Susana Rostro-Garcia; Lhendup Tharchen; Leandro Abade; Christos Astaras; Samuel A. Cushman; David W. Macdonald


    Livestock predation by tiger and leopard in Bhutan is a major threat to the conservation of these felids. Conflict mitigation planning would benefit from an improved understanding of the spatial pattern of livestock kills by the two predators.

  12. Progress and delivery of health care in Bhutan, the Land of the Thunder Dragon and Gross National Happiness. (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Pelzom, Dorji; Gibbons, Robert V


    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is rapidly changing, but it remains relatively isolated, and it tenaciously embraces its rich cultural heritage. Despite very limited resources, Bhutan is making a concerted effort to update its health care and deliver it to all of its citizens. Healthcare services are delivered through 31 hospitals, 178 basic health unit clinics and 654 outreach clinics that provide maternal and child health services in remote communities in the mountains. Physical access to primary health care is now well sustained for more than 90% of the population. Bhutan has made progress in key health indicators. In the past 50 years, life expectancy increased by 18 years and infant mortality dropped from 102.8 to 49.3 per 1000 live births between 1984 and 2008. Bhutan has a rich medical history. One of the ancient names for Bhutan was 'Land of Medicinal Herbs' because of the diverse medicinal plants it exported to neighbouring countries. In 1967, traditional medicine was included in the National Health System, and in 1971, formal training for Drungtshos (traditional doctors) and sMenpas (traditional compounders) began. In 1982, Bhutan established the Pharmaceutical and Research Unit, which manufactures, develops and researches traditional herbal medicines. Despite commendable achievements, considerable challenges lie ahead, but the advances of the past few decades bode well for the future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The voice conveys emotion in ten globalized cultures and one remote village in Bhutan. (United States)

    Cordaro, Daniel T; Keltner, Dacher; Tshering, Sumjay; Wangchuk, Dorji; Flynn, Lisa M


    With data from 10 different globalized cultures and 1 remote, isolated village in Bhutan, we examined universals and cultural variations in the recognition of 16 nonverbal emotional vocalizations. College students in 10 nations (Study 1) and villagers in remote Bhutan (Study 2) were asked to match emotional vocalizations to 1-sentence stories of the same valence. Guided by previous conceptualizations of recognition accuracy, across both studies, 7 of the 16 vocal burst stimuli were found to have strong or very strong recognition in all 11 cultures, 6 vocal bursts were found to have moderate recognition, and 4 were not universally recognized. All vocal burst stimuli varied significantly in terms of the degree to which they were recognized across the 11 cultures. Our discussion focuses on the implications of these results for current debates concerning the emotion conveyed in the voice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Water balance in the complex mountainous terrain of Bhutan and linkages to land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig


    Bhutan is located in the Himalayas with extreme variation in elevation, climatic conditions and land use. The high dependency of the economy on agriculture and natural resources emphasizes the importance of understanding inter- and intra-seasonal variation in water balance linked to monsoonal...... precipitation and evapotranspiration. We used data from 71 meteorological stations across Bhutan, each encompassing data series ranging from a few years till two decades. The temperature-based Hargreaves (H) equation for reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculation was calibrated in reference to the FAO...... Penman-Monteith (PM) equation giving good estimates of average monthly ETo. Various published versions of the H equations consistently computed average ETo around 32% higher than the average ETo computed by PM. The difference could be largely attributed to higher mean relative humidity and a lower...

  15. A Distribution Survey for Otters along a River in Central Bhutan


    Prakash Chettri; Melissa Savage


    We report the findings of a survey for otters along a major river in central Bhutan. The river bears various names in different stretches along its run, including Mochhu, Phochhu, Punatsangchhu and Sunkosh. We report: 1) the distribution and density of otter sign, including tracks, scats, latrines and dens, 2) the correlation between sign abundance and vegetation and substrate characteristics, and 3) the correlation of otter sign with human disturbance. Five of the six 5.5 km transects sample...

  16. Notes on the occurrence of Chitoria sordida sordida (Moore, 1866 (Nymphalidae: Apaturinae in Tsirang District, Bhutan

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    Jatishwor Singh Irungbam


    Full Text Available Observations on the distribution of Nymphalid butterfly, Sordid Emperor (Chitoria sordida sordida (Moore, 1866 in southern Bhutan are presented in this paper.  The confirmation is based on four years of observation of species in the warm broadleaf forest of Tsirang during July to October.  The species is legally protected under Schedule II of the Indian (Wildlife Protection Act, 1997. 

  17. Urine testing to monitor the impact of HPV vaccination in Bhutan and Rwanda. (United States)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Chantal Umulisa, M; Tshomo, Ugyen; Gheit, Tarik; Baussano, Iacopo; Tenet, Vanessa; Tshokey, Tshokey; Gatera, Maurice; Ngabo, Fidele; Van Damme, Pierre; Snijders, Peter J F; Tommasino, Massimo; Vorsters, Alex; Clifford, Gary M


    Bhutan (2010) and Rwanda (2011) were the first countries in Asia and Africa to introduce national, primarily school-based, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. These target 12 year-old girls and initially included catch-up campaigns (13-18 year-olds in Bhutan and ninth school grade in Rwanda). In 2013, to obtain the earliest indicators of vaccine effectiveness, we performed two school-based HPV urine surveys; 973 female students (median age: 19 years, 5th-95th percentile: 18-22) were recruited in Bhutan and 912 (19 years, 17-20) in Rwanda. Participants self-collected a first-void urine sample using a validated protocol. HPV prevalence was obtained using two PCR assays that differ in sensitivity and type spectrum, namely GP5+/GP6+ and E7-MPG. 92% students in Bhutan and 43% in Rwanda reported to have been vaccinated (median vaccination age = 16, 5th-95th: 14-18). HPV positivity in urine was significantly associated with sexual activity measures. In Rwanda, HPV6/11/16/18 prevalence was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated students (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.51 by GP5+/GP6+, and 0.45, CI: 0.23-0.90 by E7-MPG). For E7-MPG, cross-protection against 10 high-risk types phylogenetically related to HPV16 or 18 was of borderline significance (PR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-1.01). In Bhutan, HPV6/11/16/18 prevalence by GP5+/GP6+ was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated students but CIs were broad. In conclusion, our study supports the feasibility of urine surveys to monitor HPV vaccination and quantifies the effectiveness of the quadrivalent vaccine in women vaccinated after pre-adolescence. Future similar surveys should detect increases in vaccine effectiveness if vaccination of 12 year-olds continues. © 2016 UICC.

  18. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

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    Tshering Nidup


    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan

  19. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Coveropen access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Bøcher, Peder Klith


    Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions....... The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being...... a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations....

  20. Predicting summer monsoon of Bhutan based on SST and teleconnection indices (United States)

    Dorji, Singay; Herath, Srikantha; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Chophel, Ugyen


    The paper uses a statistical method of predicting summer monsoon over Bhutan using the ocean-atmospheric circulation variables of sea surface temperature (SST), mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), and selected teleconnection indices. The predictors are selected based on the correlation. They are the SST and MSLP of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea and the MSLP of Bangladesh and northeast India. The Northern Hemisphere teleconnections of East Atlantic Pattern (EA), West Pacific Pattern (WP), Pacific/North American Pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia Pattern (EA/WR). The rainfall station data are grouped into two regions with principal components analysis and Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm. A support vector machine for regression model is proposed to predict the monsoon. The model shows improved skills over traditional linear regression. The model was able to predict the summer monsoon for the test data from 2011 to 2015 with a total monthly root mean squared error of 112 mm for region A and 33 mm for region B. Model could also forecast the 2016 monsoon of the South Asia Monsoon Outlook of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for Bhutan. The reliance on agriculture and hydropower economy makes the prediction of summer monsoon highly valuable information for farmers and various other sectors. The proposed method can predict summer monsoon for operational forecasting.

  1. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugyen Dorji


    Full Text Available Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions in Bhutan. It assesses the spatial variation of temperature and precipitation across the country and evaluates the causes for this variation based on daily data from 70 meteorological stations that have been recording data for time spans ranging from 3 to 21 years. Temperature and precipitation show contrasting spatial variation, with temperature primarily affected by elevation and precipitation by latitude. Models were developed using mixed linear regression models to predict seasonal and annual mean temperature and precipitation based on geographical location. Using linear regression we found that temperatures changed by about 0.5°C for every 100 m of change in elevation, with lapse rates being highest in February, March, and November and lowest from June to August. The lapse rate was highest for minimum temperatures and lowest for maximum temperatures, with the greatest difference during winter. The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations.

  2. Validation of the Smartphone Brain Scanner for the Detection of Epileptiform Discharges a among Epilepsy Outpatients in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mc Kenzie, Erica; Lim, Andrew; Leung, Edward


    Objective: To assess the Smartphone Brain Scanner-2 (SBS2)’s ability to detect abnormal and epileptiform cortical discharges compared to standard electroencephalogram (EEG) among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Bhutan. Background: The SBS2 is a software application, utilizing a 14-lead headset...

  3. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence

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    Tran Thi Huyen Trang


    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3galT(jhp0563 was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer.

  4. Social capital, outpatient care utilization and choice between different levels of health facilities in rural and urban areas of Bhutan. (United States)

    Herberholz, Chantal; Phuntsho, Sonam


    This study examines the factors that explain outpatient care utilization and the choice between different levels of health facilities in Bhutan, focusing on individual social capital, given Bhutan's geography of remote and sparsely populated areas. The more isolated the living, the more important individual social capital may become. Standard factors proposed by the Andersen model of healthcare utilization serve as control variables. Data for 2526 households from the 2012 Bhutan Living Standards Survey, which contains a social capital module covering structural, cognitive and output dimensions of social capital, are used. The results from the logistic regression analysis show that individual social capital is positively related with the probability of seeking treatment when ill or injured. Informal social contacts and perceived help and support are most important in rural areas, whereas specific trust matters in urban areas. The explanatory power of the model using a subset of the data for urban areas only, however, is very low as most predisposing and enabling factors are insignificant, which is not surprising though in view of better access to health facilities in urban areas and the fact that healthcare is provided free of charge in Bhutan. Multinomial regression results further show that structural and output dimensions of social capital influence the likelihood of seeking care at secondary or tertiary care facilities relative to primary care facilities. Moreover, economic status and place of residence are significantly associated with healthcare utilization and choice of health facility. The findings with respect to social capital suggest that strategizing and organizing social capital may help improve healthcare utilization in Bhutan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Bhutan destined for 100% organic? Assessing the economy-wide effects of a large-scale conversion policy. (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Arndt; Luckmann, Jonas; Boysen, Ole; Zikeli, Sabine; Grethe, Harald


    Organic agriculture (OA) is considered a strategy to make agriculture more sustainable. Bhutan has embraced the ambitious goal of becoming the world's first 100% organic nation. By analysing recent on-farm data in Bhutan, we found organic crop yields on average to be 24% lower than conventional yields. Based on these yield gaps, we assess the effects of the 100% organic conversion policy by employing an economy-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with detailed representation of Bhutan's agricultural sector incorporating agroecological zones, crop nutrients, and field operations. Despite a low dependency on agrochemicals from the onset of this initiative, we find a considerable reduction in Bhutan's GDP, substantial welfare losses, particularly for non-agricultural households, and adverse impacts on food security. The yield gap is the main driver for a strong decline in domestic agricultural production, which is largely compensated by increased food imports, resulting in a weakening of the country's cereal self-sufficiency. Current organic by default farming practices in Bhutan are still underdeveloped and do not apply the systems approach of organic farming as defined in the IFOAM organic farming standards. This is reflected in the strong decline of nitrogen (N) availability to crops in our simulation and bears potential for increased yields in OA. Improvement of soil-fertility practices, e.g., the adoption of N-fixing crops, improved animal husbandry systems with increased provision of animal manure and access to markets with price premium for organic products could help to lower the economic cost of the large-scale conversion.

  6. Along-Strike Differences of the Main Himalayan Thrust and Deformation within the Indian Crust: Insights from Seismicity and Seismic Velocities in Bhutan and its Foreland (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Singer, J.; Hetényi, G.; Kissling, E. H.; Clinton, J. F.


    The seismicity of Bhutan is characterized by the apparent lack of great earthquakes and a significantly lower activity compared to most other parts of the Himalayan arc. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this anomalously low activity and to relate it with possible along-strike differences in the structure of the orogenic belt, a temporary network with up to 38 broadband seismometers was installed in Bhutan between January 2013 and November 2014. In this work we present a catalog of local and regional earthquakes detected and located with the GANSSER network complemented by regional stations in India, Bangladesh, and China. State-of-the-art data analysis and earthquake location procedures were applied to derive a high-precision earthquake catalog of Bhutan and surrounding regions. Focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor inversions and first-motion polarities complement the earthquake catalog. In the vicinity of the Shumar-Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, seismicity forms a moderately dipping structure at about 12 km depth, which we associate with the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). North of 27.6°N the dip of the structure steepens, which can be interpreted as a ramp along the MHT. In West Bhutan seismicity occurs at depths of 20 to 40 km and receiver function images indicate that seismicity occurs in the underthrusting Indian crust rather than on the MHT. The highest seismic activity is clustered along the Goalpara Lineament, a dextral NE-SW striking shear zone in southwest Bhutan, which appears to connect to the western edge of the Shillong Plateau in the foreland. Focal depths indicate that this shear zone is located at depths of 20-30 km and therefore in the underthrusting Indian crust. Preliminary results of a 3D local earthquake tomography show substantial differences in the uppermost crust between east and west Bhutan. Consistent with our receiver function images, the results also indicate a thinning of the crustal root towards eastern Bhutan.

  7. Donor-assisted Ethno-Nationalism and Education Policy in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    , Bhutanization, decentralization and guided democracy. The first part gives an overview of what can be defined as ‘dependency through self-reliance and selection’. The second part deals with the vernaculars of ethnic nationalism as a means to establish Drukpa national and cultural unity as a vehicle......This chapter aims to give an elaborate understanding of the raison d’être of the vertical and horizontal links between the overall planning and policy-making ideology and objectives. This is exemplified with reference to an analysis of education policies and government promotion of GNH...... for modernization and progress. This section also looks at the ideology of Bhutanisation and how it is linked with GNH, decentralization and the introduction of democracy and good governance. The third focuses on the function of education policies and analyzes links and synergies at the level of discursive input...

  8. Species composition of the vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jamtsho


    Full Text Available An investigation of the riparian vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan was conducted from April to December 2015 to explore the plant communities in terms of species composition. A total number of 18 plots were placed within the remnant patches of the vegetation on either side of the river. In total, 172 species of vascular plant has been recorded. The cluster analysis suggested four types of plant communities in the study area viz., the MallotusDesmodium-Rhus shrubland and the Syzygium venosum woodland communities, which are located in V-shaped valleys and the Albizia-Flueggea woodland and Quercus glauca woodland communities located in U-shaped valleys. In broad-spectrum, the topographic features and environmental variables i.e. litter accumulation and flooding condition might also have some impact on the species composition of the plant communities of this vegetation.

  9. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog


    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer......, popular among the farmers, was investigated using the 15N isotope dilution technique. No differences were found between cultivars with respect to the uptake of NDFS and NDFF, but the improved cultivar yielded 27% more (P¿=¿0.05) grain compared with the traditional cultivar. This was largely due to its...

  10. An Exploratory Study On Bank Lending To SME Sector In Bhutan

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    Chokey Wangmo


    Full Text Available This study examines the factors used by the banks to determine the outcome of loan applications of Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in Bhutan. Inaccessibility to financing is one of the biggest challenges faced by the Bhutanese SMEs. This exploratory study is built on in-depth interview of 6 credit officials to understand the lending behaviour of banks towards SMEs. Thematic Analysis revealed that the bank loan accessibility was a function of firm and owner characteristics. The collateral and internal finance was found to be vital in determining SMEs accessibility to bank loans. SMEs inadequate financial information was a serious problem for the banks. Firm age size and industry sector had a positive correlation with bank loan accessibility. The age and educational qualification of borrowers were also found to have a positive relationship while the gender of the owner did not have any effect on bank loan accessibility.

  11. Companion Modeling, Conflict Resolution, and Institution Building: Sharing Irrigation Water in the Lingmuteychu Watershed, Bhutan

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    Tayan Raj. Gurung


    Full Text Available We used multi-agent systems (MAS, following the companion modeling method, to facilitate water management negotiations in Bhutan. We show how this methodology helped resolve a conflict over the sharing of water resources by establishing a concrete agreement and creating an institution for collective watershed management. The conceptual model begins with a role-playing game (RPG. The stakeholders play the game, thus validating the proposed environment, the behavioral rules, and the emergent properties of the game. It is then relatively easy to translate the RPG into computerized MAS that allow different scenarios to be explored. After this first step in the MAS model, stakeholders then create an institution. A second model is developed to facilitate this process. We conclude by discussing the relationship between the models and reality, as well as the use of MAS as a mediation tool and the social process.

  12. Exploring the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan: a case study from the Merak Himalaya. (United States)

    Jamtsho, Karma; Sridith, Kitichate


    A survey was conducted from March to September 2012 along the altitudinal gradient of the Jomokungkhar trail in the Merak Himalaya of Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary to study the floristic compositions and the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan. The vegetation of the sampled plots is classified into five types of communities based on the hierarchical cluster analysis at similarity index 63% viz., (1) Riverine Community; (2) Abies-Rhododendron Woodland Community; (3) Juniperus Scrub Community; (4) Rhododendron Krummholz and (5) Alpine Meadow, based on the floristic compositions. In addition, it was noticed that the fragile alpine environment of the Merak Himalaya has high plant diversity and important plants that are susceptible to the anthropogenic pressures.

  13. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

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    I.J. Singh


    Full Text Available The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euthalia durga durga Moore, Pea Blue Lampides boeticus Linnaeus and Chocolate Albatross Appias lyncida Cramer are listed in Schedule II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act (IWPA 1972. This study provides the baseline data of butterfly species richness of Mendrelgang.

  14. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan. (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi


    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  15. Moths of the family Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from Bhutan with six new generic and 12 new species records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor; Chib, M. S.; Solovyev, A. V.


    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), s. 9795-9813 ISSN 0974-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bhutan * Limacodidae * new record Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  16. It’s a Dog’s Life: International Tourists’ Perceptions of the Stray Dog Population of Bhutan.

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    Paul C Strickland


    Full Text Available This study investigates the international tourists’ perception of the stray dog population of Bhutan as little or no mention of the increasing stray dog population and their impact on tourism has been documented. After personally visiting the Kingdom on many occasions, it is evident that the stray dog population is increasing in dog numbers in major cities. The problems arising are negative comments by tourists relating to the stray dog population that are starting to appear in social media that may impact the visitor experience and the perception of Bhutan’s tourism industry. Veterinary science is aware of both increasing dog populations and the control of diseases such as Rabies however the author can find no evidence regarding challenges for the tourism industry. The problem is aided by no local veterinary clinics, no laws regarding dog governance, little funding for sterilization programs and being predominately a Buddhist country that cannot ‘cull’ animals. Using qualitative analysis from international tourist focus groups who were visiting Bhutan, this study highlights the perceptions of tourists regarding the stray dog population and how it may impact on visitor expectations. The paper suggests options that local government, Bhutanese nationals and visitors can do to assist the issue based on visitor feedback. Future research may include comparisons with other cities or countries to examine if it is a global issue or unique to Bhutan.

  17. Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan. (United States)

    Dorji, Gampo; DeJong, William; Bor, Jacob; Bachman DeSilva, Mary; Sabin, Lora; Feeley, Frank Rich; Udon, Pema; Wangchuk, Nima; Wangdi, Ugyen; Choden, Tshering; Gurung, Mongal Singh; Chogyel, Tandin; Wangchuk, Dorji; Kypri, Kypros


    Bhutan is a low-middle income country that, like many others, experiences significant alcohol-related harm and low compliance with laws restricting availability and promotion. This study assessed changes in compliance of alcohol outlets with sales restrictions following a multi-sector programme aimed at improving this. Pre-post design with covert observation of service practices. Thimphu, Bhutan, June-November 2013. Alcohol is not permitted for sale except from 1 to 10 p.m. Wednesday-Monday. Serving minors (increased from 20 to 34% [difference: 14%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7-22%]. Improvement was found in refusals of service before 1 p.m.: 10-34% (difference(adj) = 24%; 95% CI = 12-37%) and on Tuesdays: 43-58% (difference(adj) = 14%; 95% CI = 1-28%). Differences in refusal to serve alcohol: after 10 p.m. (difference(adj) = 15%; 95% CI = -8 to 37%); to underage patrons (difference(adj) = -5%; 95% CI = 14 to 4%); and to intoxicated patrons (difference(adj) = 7%; 95% CI = -7-20%) were not statistically significant. Younger servers, stand-alone bars and outlets permitting indoor smoking were each less likely to comply with the alcohol service laws. A multi-sector programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan appeared to have a modest effect but even after the programme, in two-thirds of the occasions tested, the laws were broken. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Dynamic interactions between glacier and glacial lake in the Bhutan Himalaya (United States)

    Tsutaki, S.; Fujita, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Komori, J.; Takenaka, S.; Tshering, P.


    A number of supraglacial lakes formed on the termini of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya as a result of glacier retreat due to climate change. The terminal part of the lake-terminating glaciers flow faster than that of the land-terminating glaciers because the basal ice motion is enhanced by high subglacial water pressure generated by lake water. Increased ice flux caused by the accelerated glacier flow could be dissipated through the calving process which reduced the glacier thickness. It is important to understand the interaction between lake formation and glacier dynamics. Although glacier flow velocity has been measured by remote-sensing analysis in several regions of the Himalayas, glacier thinning rates have not been observed by neither in-situ nor remote-sensing approaches. The lack of field data raises limitation to interpretations for glacier dynamics. We investigate the influence of the presence/absence of glacial lakes on glacier dynamics and changes in surface elevation. We study two debris-covered glaciers in the Lunana region, the Bhutan Himalaya. Thorthormi Glacier is a land-terminating glacier with some supraglacial lakes while Lugge Glacier is a lake-terminating glaciers. We surveyed the surface elevation of debris-covered areas of the two glaciers in 2004 and 2011 by a differential GPS. Change in surface elevation of the lake-terminating Lugge Glacier (-5.4--2.4 m yr-1) was much more negative than that of the land-terminating Thorthormi Glacier (-3.3-0.6 m yr-1). Surface flow speed of the Thorthormi Glacier measured during 2002-2004 was faster in the upper reaches (~90 m yr-1) and reduced toward the downstream (40 m yr-1). In contrast, the surface flow speed at the Lugge Glacier measured in the same periods was 40-55 m yr-1 and the greatest at the lower most part. Observed spatial distribution of surface flow velocity at both glaciers were evaluated by a two-dimensional numerical flow model. Calculated emergence velocities are 1

  19. P-T data from central Bhutan imply distributed extensional shear at the Black Mountain "klippe" (United States)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Long, S. P.; McQuarrie, N.; Tobgay, T.


    The Southern Tibetan Detachment system (STDS) occurs along the entire length of the Himalayan orogen, and extensionally emplaces low-grade to unmetamorphosed Tethyan Himalayan (TH) rocks over highly metamorphosed Greater Himalayan sequence (GH) rocks. The base of TH remnants preserved in northern Bhutan all have top-to-the-north shear sense indicators (C'-type shear bands, asymmetric folds, and boudinaged leucogranite dikes) that are interpreted to reflect a discrete shear zone. In contrast, the GH-TH contact in the southernmost TH remnant (the Black Mountain region, central Bhutan) has been interpreted as depositional. A depositional contact limits the magnitude of displacement along the early STDS to 10's of km. If the GH-TH contact in the Black Mountain region is instead a discrete shear zone, as observed farther north, displacement on the STDS could be as high as 100's of km. To discriminate between these two interpretations, we determined peak metamorphic P-T conditions through the GH and TH sections, reasoning that a discrete shear zone would produce a distinct jump in metamorphic temperature, pressure or both. Thin section-scale kinematic indicators reveal pervasive top-to-the-north shear from 2-3 km structurally above the Main Central thrust (MCT) through the rest of the 11 km thick GH and TH sections. P-T conditions were determined from immediately above the MCT to 4 km above the GH-TH contact, with 19 samples from the GH, 6 from the overlying Chekha Fm (TH), and 9 from the overlying Maneting Fm (TH). We applied standard Fe-Mg exchange thermometers and Ca net-transfer barometers involving garnet. P-T conditions range from 700 °C and 11 kbar in migmatitic GHS to 600 °C and 8 kbar at the GH-Chekha contact, and 500 °C and 5 kbar at the top of the Maneting. We found no jumps in either temperature or pressure at any level, but a steeper than lithostatic pressure gradient, which we interpret to result from distributed extensional shear. The average thermal

  20. Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential. (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Namgay, Kuenga; Gayleg, Karma; Dorji, Yeshi


    The traditional hospitals in Bhutan uses more than 100 polyingredient medicines that are manufactured by the Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP). The MSP has been collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi region for about 48 years and therefore the ecological pressure on these plants have increased. It is MSP's top priority to identify an alternative collection site to ease the problem. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether Dagala region could potentially be an alternative collection site for MSP. First the multidisciplinary research team generated a tentative plant list by reviewing a body of ancient literature, current formulations, and the MSP medicinal plants inventory documents. Second, the research team visited the study areas in Dagala region for spot identification of medicinal plants. Third, we confirmed our traditional and botanical identification by crosschecking the descriptions with the series of books on traditional texts, Flora of Bhutan, scientific papers on medicinal plants, and the plant databases. We have identified 100 species of high altitude medicinal plants from Dagala region. Of these, 24 species grow abundantly, 29 species grow in moderate numbers and 47 species were scarce. More than 85 species belonged to the herbaceous life form and 51 of them are used as a whole plant. A total of 68 species grow in between 4000 and 4999 meter above sea level. These 100 medicinal plants represented 39 different families and 80 genera and the maximum number of plants belonged to the family Asteraceae. Of 60 species that are currently used for formulating medicines at MSP, 16 species have economic importance with potential for commercial collection. Out of seven areas covered by the survey, Kipchen hosted maximum number of medicinal plants (21 species). Our survey identified 100 medicinal plants from Dagala region and of these, 16 species has economic potential that could benefit both MSP and Dagala

  1. Chewing of betel quid: why do health careproviders in Thimphu, Bhutan, do it? (United States)

    Dorji, Nidup; Pacheun, Oranut; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon


    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of betel quid chewing and related factors including general characteristics, behavioral pattern, perception and social influences among health care providers in Thimphu, Bhutan. A self-administered questionnaire was handed to 478 health care providers working in different units of health care centers in Thimphu during June-July 2010. A total of 391 (81.8%) questionnaires were returned. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of current betel quid chewers among this group was 26.6%. Males chewed betel quid more than females (29.5%, 23.9% respectively). Forty-two percent of current chewers had no specific reasons for chewing betel quid, although 18.2% declared that they were addicted. Both friends and family members were key persons involved in influencing betel quid chewing. Marital status was significantly associated with betel quid chewing, married health care providers being 2 times more likely to chew betel quid (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.02-4.28) than those of single marital status. Similarly, those coming from West Bhutan, were 2 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.32-5.55) than other regions. Health care providers from families with more than half of their members chewing betel quid were 14 times more likely to be currently chewing it (OR = 14.52, 95% CI = 6.02-35.04) than families having none of their members chewing it. Health care smokers were more likely to chew betel quid than non-smoking ones (p-value = 0.012). Also occasional drinkers were 3 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.78-6.96). Those who perceived a high barrier to quit chewing were about 2.6 times more likely to be current chewers of betel quid, than those who perceived less of a barrier to quit (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21-5.67). The present study revealed betel quid chewing prevalence rate of 26.6%. Of the various factors

  2. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan. (United States)

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay


    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands.

  3. Construction Claim Types and Causes for a Large-Scale Hydropower Project in Bhutan

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    Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo


    Full Text Available Hydropower construction projects are complex and uncertain, have long gestational periods and involve several parties. Furthermore, they require the integration of different components (Civil, Mechanical and Electrical to work together as a single unit. These projects require highly specialised designs, detailed plans and specifications, high-risk construction methods, effective management, skilful supervision and close coordination. Thus, claims are common in such projects. These claims are undesirable because they require significant time and resources to resolve and cause adversarial relationships among the parties involved. Therefore, it is in the common interest of all involved parties to prevent, minimise, or resolve claims as amicably as possible. Identifying common claim types and their causes is essential in devising techniques to minimise and avoid them in future projects. This report details a case study performed on a large-scale hydropower project in Bhutan. The findings of this case study indicate that differing site conditions are the major contributor of impact and change claims and 95% of total claims can be settled by negotiation, whereas 5% of claims can be settled by arbitration.

  4. PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries. (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Roduit, Nicolas; Nidup, Dechen; De Geer, Gerard; Rosset, Antoine; Geissbuhler, Antoine


    This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communication system connected to analysis workstations equipped with a FDA-certified version of the highly popular Open-Source software. The whole system was implemented on standard off-the-shelf hardware. The system was installed in three days, and training of the radiologists as well as the technical and IT staff was provided onsite to ensure full ownership of the system by the local team. Radiologists were rapidly capable of reading and interpreting studies on the diagnostic workstations, which had a significant benefit on their workflow and ability to perform diagnostic tasks more efficiently. Furthermore, images were also made available to several clinical units on standard desktop computers through a web-based viewer. • Open source imaging informatics platforms can provide cost-effective alternatives for PACS • Robust and cost-effective open architecture can provide adequate solutions for emerging countries • Imaging informatics is often lacking in hospitals equipped with digital modalities.

  5. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan. (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Yeshi, Karma; Jamphel, Kinga


    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region. The botanical identification of each medicinal plant was confirmed using The Plant List , eFloras , and TROPICOS . Data mining for reported pharmacological activities was performed using Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and SciFinder Scholar. We identified 61 subtropical plants as the medicinal plants used in BSM. Of these, 17 plants were cultivated as edible plant species, 30 species grow abundantly, 24 species grow in moderate numbers, and only seven species were scarce to find. All these species grow within the altitude range of 100-1800 m above sea level. A total of 19 species were trees, and 13 of them were shrubs. Seeds ranked first in the parts usage category. Goshing Gewog (Block) hosted maximum number of medicinal plants. About 52 species have been pharmacologically studied and only nine species remain unstudied. Lower Kheng region is rich in subtropical medicinal plants and 30 species present immediate economic potential that could benefit BSM, Lower Kheng communities and other Sowa Rigpa practicing organizations.

  6. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan (United States)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.


    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  7. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control. (United States)

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian


    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  8. PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries

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    Osman Ratib


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communication system connected to analysis workstations equipped with a FDA-certified version of the highly popular Open-Source software. The whole system was implemented on standard off-the-shelf hardware. The system was installed in three days, and training of the radiologists as well as the technical and IT staff was provided onsite to ensure full ownership of the system by the local team. Radiologists were rapidly capable of reading and interpreting studies on the diagnostic workstations, which had a significant benefit on their workflow and ability to perform diagnostic tasks more efficiently. Furthermore, images were also made available to several clinical units on standard desktop computers through a web-based viewer. Messages/teaching points • Open source imaging informatics platforms can provide cost-effective alternatives for PACS • Robust and cost-effective open architecture can provide adequate solutions for emerging countries • Imaging informatics is often lacking in hospitals equipped with digital modalities

  9. Comparison of GPS and GRACE hydrological loading signatures in Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan (United States)

    Materna, K.; Feng, L.; Lindsey, E. O.; Hill, E.; Burgmann, R.


    The elastic response of the lithosphere to surface mass redistributions produces significant deformation that can be observed in geodetic time series. This deformation is especially pronounced in Southeast Asia, where the annual monsoon produces large-amplitude hydrological loads. The MIBB network of 20 continuous GPS stations in Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, operational since 2012, provides an opportunity to study the earth's response to these loads. In this study, we use GRACE gravity products as an estimate of surface water distribution, and input these estimates into an elastic loading calculation. We compare the predicted deformation with that observed with GPS. We find that elastic loading from the GRACE gravity field is able to explain the phase and the peak-to-peak amplitude (typically 2-3 cm) of the vertical GPS oscillations in northeast India and central Myanmar. GRACE-based corrections reduce the RMS scatter of the GPS data by 30%-45% in these regions. However, this approach does not capture all of the variation in central Bangladesh and southern Myanmar. Local hydrological effects, non-tidal ocean loads, poroelastic deformation, or differences in elastic properties may explain discrepancies between the GPS and GRACE signals in these places. The results of our calculations have practical implications for campaign GPS measurements in Myanmar, which make up the majority of geodetic measurements at this point. We may be able to reduce errors in campaign measurements and increase the accuracy of velocity estimates by correcting for hydrologic signals with GRACE data. The results also have potential implications for crustal rheology in Southeast Asia.

  10. Assessment of knowledge on sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan. (United States)

    Norbu, Kunzang; Mukhia, Sontosh; Tshokey


    The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. The study population included residents aged 15-49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnaires assessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p > 0.05). The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour.

  11. What Discourses Relating to the Purpose of Early Childhood Are Shaping the Work of Early Childhood Practitioners in Three Different Contexts: UK, Bhutan and Fiji? (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Alexander, Elise; Pedey, Karma; Tausere-Tiko, Lavinia


    We explore the way dominant political discourses are perceived to influence developing professionalisation of early childhood in three contexts. The UK is strongly influenced by the neoliberal agenda which positions managerialism, bureaucracy, accountability and control as necessary to drive quality improvement. Bhutan has been exposed to western…

  12. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan. (United States)

    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley


    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m -2 . Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m -2 , respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m -2 ). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  13. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.


    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  14. 26 August 2016 - K. Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the CERN Guest book with Adviser P. Fassnacht

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth


    His Excellency Mr Kinga Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva Friday 26 August 2016

  15. The epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Sarpang and Zhemgang districts of Bhutan. (United States)

    Dukpa, K; Robertson, I D; Ellis, T M


    This study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of Sarpang and Zhemgang in Bhutan. Zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to Sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). The case fatality for cattle in Zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in Sarpang (3.3%). A total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of FMD in Zhemgang, whereas only 21 cattle died in Sarpang. Although all four species were affected in Sarpang, no sheep or goats were affected in Zhemgang. Spatiotemporal analyses showed the existence of four significant clusters, a primary one in Sarpang and three secondary clusters in Zhemgang. The virus belonged to the PanAsia strain of the Middle-East South-Asia topotype (O serotype), and the strain was closely related to the PanAsia strain that circulated in Bhutan during the 2003/2004 outbreaks. The severity of FMD infection in Zhemgang district could be attributed to low vaccination coverage (36.5% in 2006 when compared to 87.6% in Sarpang), inadequate biosecurity, poor nursing care of the sick animals and delayed reporting to the livestock centre. This study highlights the ability of the PanAsia strain of the O serotype to cause unprecedented morbidity and mortality, especially in a naïve population. The study also highlights the benefits of maintaining good herd immunity in the susceptible population, through adequate vaccination coverage, to minimize the severity of infection and limit the spread of disease from infected to non-infected herds. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Performance and user acceptance of the Bhutan febrile and malaria information system: report from a pilot study. (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Samdrup, Pema; Jamtsho, Thinley; Mannion, Kylie; Ortega, Leonard; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Price, Ric N; Thriemer, Kamala; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit


    Over the last decade, Bhutan has made substantial progress in controlling malaria. The country is now in an elimination phase, aiming to achieve no locally transmitted malaria by 2018. However, challenges remain and innovative control strategies are needed to overcome these. The evaluation and user acceptance of a robust surveillance tool applicable for informing malaria elimination activities is reported here. The Bhutan Febrile and Malaria Information System (BFMIS) is a combination of web-based and mobile technology that captures malariometric surveillance data and generates real time reports. The system was rolled out at six sites and data uploaded regularly for analysis. Data completeness, accuracy and data turnaround time were accessed by comparison to traditional paper based surveillance records. User acceptance and willingness for further roll out was assessed using qualitative and quantitative data. Data completeness was nearly 10 % higher using the electronic system than the paper logs, and accuracy and validity of both approaches was comparable (up to 0.05 % in valid data and up to 3.06 % inaccurate data). Data turnaround time was faster using the BFMIS. General user satisfaction with the BFMIS was high, with high willingness of health facilities to adopt the system. Qualitative interviews revealed several areas for improvement before scale up. The BFMIS had numerous advantages over the paper-based system and based on the findings of the survey the Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme has taken the decision to incorporate the BMFIS and expand its use throughout all areas at risk for malaria as a key surveillance tool.

  17. Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECP) Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Women Working in the Entertainment Industry and Men in the Trucking Industry, Bhutan. (United States)

    Pem, Deki; Nidup, Tshewang; Wangdi, Ugyen; Pelzom, Dorji; Mirzazadeh, Ali; McFarland, Willi


    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) were recently made available over the counter in Bhutan. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning ECP in 2 populations at risk for HIV and STI (sexually transmitted infections): entertainment women (drayang) and male truck drivers and helpers (truckers). Of 179 drayang and 437 truckers intercepted at venues, 73.7 and 21.1%, respectively, had heard of ECP; 47.0% of drayang had used them. Their concerns about ECP use included harm to the body, impact on future pregnancy, side effects, and HIV/STI risk. Education programs are needed in Bhutan to increase awareness of ECP for unplanned pregnancy and condoms to prevent HIV and STI.

  18. The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka: an annotated provisional catalogue, regional checklist and bibliography. (United States)

    Price, Benjamin Wills; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh


    The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows.

  19. Using a Policy of ‘Gross National Happiness’ to Guide the Development of Sustainable Early Learning Programs in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Aspirations and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ball


    Full Text Available A national study on demand for early childhood care and development programs in Bhutan found strong support for development of a new early childhood care and development (ECCD sector. A wide range of stakeholders participating in the study, including ministries of education and health, post-secondary institutions, private preschool providers, community management committees, parents and children, emphasized the goal of preschool to promote success in English-medium formal education. Promoting cultural traditions was also a priority, while developing children’s proficiency in home languages was hardly mentioned. The study highlighted the changing needs of Bhutanese families in the current context of increasing urbanization, dual career parents, and a shift from extended to nuclear family homes. Recommendations derived from the study encouraged a made in Bhutan approach to ECCD policy, programs, and professional education. Subsequent to the study, the national education policy included plans for implementation of ECCD covering children from birth to 8 years old. To ensure the sustainability and cultural congruence of new programs and investments with the Kingdom’s Gross National Happiness Policy, a Gross National Happiness Commission screened and approved the new National Education Policy, which the Ministry of Education is charged with implementing. The emergence of an ECCD sector in Bhutan points to the role that national aspirations and value-driven policies and review processes could play in maintaining language diversity and transmitting culturally based knowledge.

  20. Mobile assessment of on-road air pollution and its sources along the East-West Highway in Bhutan (United States)

    Wangchuk, Tenzin; Knibbs, Luke D.; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia


    Human exposures in transportation microenvironments are poorly represented by ambient stationary monitoring. A number of on-road studies using vehicle-based mobile monitoring have been conducted to address this. Most previous studies were conducted on urban roads in developed countries where the primary emission source was vehicles. Few studies have examined on-road pollution in developing countries in urban settings. Currently, no study has been conducted for roadways in rural environments where a substantial proportion of the population live. This study aimed to characterize on-road air quality on the East-West Highway (EWH) in Bhutan and identify its principal sources. We conducted six mobile measurements of PM10, particle number (PN) count and CO along the entire 570 km length of the EWH. We divided the EWH into five segments, R1-R5, taking the road length between two district towns as a single road segment. The pollutant concentrations varied widely along the different road segments, with the highest concentrations for R5 compared with other road segments (PM10 = 149 μg/m3, PN = 5.74 × 104 particles/cm-3, CO = 0.19 ppm), which is the final segment of the road to the capital. Apart from vehicle emissions, the dominant sources were road works, unpaved roads and roadside combustion activities. Overall, the highest contributions above the background levels were made by unpaved roads for PM10 (6 times background), and vehicle emissions for PN and CO (5 and 15 times background, respectively). Notwithstanding the differences in instrumentation used and particle size range measured, the current study showed lower PN concentrations compared with similar on-road studies. However, concentrations were still high enough that commuters, road maintenance workers and residents living along the EWH, were potentially exposed to elevated pollutant concentrations from combustion and non-combustion sources. Future studies should focus on assessing the dispersion patterns of

  1. Traditional Knowledge in the Time of Neo-Liberalism: Access and Benefit-Sharing Regimes in India and Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Barpujari


    Full Text Available In a neoliberal world, traditional knowledge (TK of biodiversity possessed by Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs in the global South has become a valuable "commodity" or "bio-resource," necessitating the setting up of harmonized ground rules (international and national in the form of an access and benefitsharing regime to facilitate its exchange in the world market. Despite criticisms that a regime with a neo-liberal orientation is antithetical to the normative ethos of ILCs, it could also offer a chance for developing countries and ILCs to generate revenue for socioeconomic development—to which they are gradually becoming open, but only under fair and equitable terms. Based on this context, this article proposes to look into the legal and policy frameworks and institutional regimes governing access and benefit sharing of TK associated with biological resources in two countries of South Asia: India and Bhutan. The article seeks to examine how such regimes are reconciling the imperatives of a neo-liberal economy with providing a just and equitable framework for ILCs and TK holders, which is truly participatory and not top-down.

  2. On the examination of out-of-pocket health expenditures in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imlak Shaikh


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the healthcare expenditures in seven South Asian countries namely, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The longitudinal data has been taken for 19 years from 1995 to 2013. We specifically examine the out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure in these countries. The per-capita health expenditure differences have been compared. We also develop panel data pooled OLS model for out-of-pocket expenditure with the factors affecting it, i.e. per capita health expenditure, household final consumption expenditure and public health expenditure. The work is in line with the earlier studies of determinants of out-of-pocket health expenditures. The results suggest that Maldives has the highest per capita health expenditure while out-of-pocket health expenditure as a percentage of total expenditure on health is highest for the India. The fixed and random effect is evidenced on health expenses across the years and cross section based on various determinants. The novel aspect of the work is that, this is an attempt to explain healthcare financing in the developing economies. The key determinant of out-of-pocket expenditure is the final household expenditures as the percentage of gross domestic product.

  3. La mise à jour du traité de 1949 entre l’Inde et le Bhutan : l’amorce d’une nouvelle politique indienne de voisinage ? The Revision of the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty, 1949: a new Diplomacy towards India's Neighbours ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sermet


    Full Text Available Le traité de voisinage, de 1949, entre l'Inde et le Bhutan a été réécrit et corrigé dans ses aspects les plus discutables. Ce renouvellement intervient alors que le Bhutan connaît des réformes politiques visant à introduire des éléments de parlementarisme constitutionnel au sein de son régime monarchique. Du côté indien, faut-il considérer que cette initiative diplomatique pourrait retentir sur le traité indo-népalais de 1950, et surtout sur les relations difficiles entretenues avec la Chine et le Pakistan ?

  4. Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in-depth analysis of nationally representative data (United States)

    Aguayo, Victor M; Badgaiyan, Nina; Paintal, Kajali


    Stunting is associated with poor survival and development in children. Our analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of 2085 children 0–23 months old. We find that 27.5% of children were stunted and almost half (42.6%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Children's mean height-for-age z-score deteriorated significantly with age (from −0.23 in infants 0–5 months old to −1.60 in children 18–23 months old) and levels of severe stunting were significantly higher among boys. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that children from the Eastern/Western regions had a 64% higher odds of being stunted than children from the Central region (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.07); similarly, children from the two lower wealth quintiles had 37% higher odds of being stunted than children from the two upper wealth quintiles (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00–1.87). Children whose mothers received three or fewer antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy had a 31% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01–1.69) while children whose mothers did not receive antenatal care from a doctor, nurse or midwife had a 51% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.18–1.92). Recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower odds of stunting, particularly in the first year of life. Specifically, children who were not fed complementary foods at 6–8 months had about threefold higher odds of being severely stunted than children who were fed complementary foods (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.06–7.02). PMID:25536283

  5. Testing the effects of topography, geometry, and kinematics on modeled thermochronometer cooling ages in the eastern Bhutan Himalaya (United States)

    Gilmore, Michelle E.; McQuarrie, Nadine; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Ehlers, Todd A.


    In this study, reconstructions of a balanced geologic cross section in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt of eastern Bhutan are used in flexural-kinematic and thermokinematic models to understand the sensitivity of predicted cooling ages to changes in fault kinematics, geometry, topography, and radiogenic heat production. The kinematics for each scenario are created by sequentially deforming the cross section with ˜ 10 km deformation steps while applying flexural loading and erosional unloading at each step to develop a high-resolution evolution of deformation, erosion, and burial over time. By assigning ages to each increment of displacement, we create a suite of modeled scenarios that are input into a 2-D thermokinematic model to predict cooling ages. Comparison of model-predicted cooling ages to published thermochronometer data reveals that cooling ages are most sensitive to (1) the location and size of fault ramps, (2) the variable shortening rates between 68 and 6.4 mm yr-1, and (3) the timing and magnitude of out-of-sequence faulting. The predicted ages are less sensitive to (4) radiogenic heat production and (5) estimates of topographic evolution. We used the observed misfit of predicted to measured cooling ages to revise the cross section geometry and separate one large ramp previously proposed for the modern décollement into two smaller ramps. The revised geometry results in an improved fit to observed ages, particularly young AFT ages (2-6 Ma) located north of the Main Central Thrust. This study presents a successful approach for using thermochronometer data to test the viability of a proposed cross section geometry and kinematics and describes a viable approach to estimating the first-order topographic evolution of a compressional orogen.

  6. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Benson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L. One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities.

  7. Policy or poverty trap? Attitude of goat farmers towards the conservation rule on goat rearing in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk


    Full Text Available Abstract The study objectives were to gather feedback and opinions of goat farmers on the Forest and Nature Conservation Rule on goat rearing in Bhutan and identify field constraints arising from the conservation rule. Focus group and individual farmer survey methods were employed, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 180 goat farmers of six districts. All respondents were aware of the conservation rule. Majority of respondents knew goats as a threat to forest and crops. The vast majority of respondents felt that the conservation rule is not relevant in modern times, and all respondents felt the need to revise the rule. The main problem faced by farmers was difficulty in maintaining their goat numbers to four. The other problems faced were frequent conflicts with Forest personnel and restricted opportunities to earn more income. While the expected changes in the conservation rule included provisions to allow a farmer to rear more number of goats under stall-fed conditions, the additional rule suggested by farmers was allowing goats to browse freely in the forest. Majority of farmers reared goats under stall-fed conditions. The most common practice of managing goat populations was selling goats to fellow farmers. Despite the constraints, a majority of farmers expressed their willingness to continue goat rearing in the future, mainly to generate more income. The study findings suggest revision of the rule on goat rearing, with strong consideration of the needs of the modern farming system and growing economic demands. In revising the rule, the study recommends balanced representation from stakeholders and technical experts from both forest and livestock disciplines.

  8. School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? : exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Dolkar, Dechen


    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE)

  9. Medicinal Plants in the Broad-Leaf Mixed Coniferous Forest of Tshothang Chiwog, Bhutan: Floristic Attributes, Vegetation Structure, Ethnobotany, and Socioeconomic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngawang Jamba


    Full Text Available The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, located in one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is endowed with abundant floral wealth, including a wide array of medicinal plants (MPs. However, over-exploitation of these resources is widespread, and only a few studies have assessed the richness and diversity of Bhutanese forests and in particular about the MP resources. A vegetation survey was conducted in Tshothang Chiwog, south-eastern Bhutan to characterize the floristic structure of the broad-leaf mixed coniferous forests with a special focus on MPs. A questionnaire survey involving 40 farmers was also conducted to assess the ethnobotanical and socioeconomic aspects of MP extraction. A total of 157 plant species (38 trees, 19 shrubs, 85 herbs and ferns, and 15 climbers, representing 74 families and 137 genera were identified from the study area, of which 69 species (14 trees, 10 shrubs, 38 herbs and ferns, and seven climbers, belonging to 41 families and 69 genera were medicinally important. The most species-rich families of medicinal plants were: Asteraceae (eight spp., Apiaceae (four spp., Polygonaceae, Brassicaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Urticaceae (three species each. Herbaceous flora exhibited the highest diversity (Simpson diversity index, D = 0.97 and Shannon-Weiner index, H′ = 5.82, followed by trees and shrubs (D = 0.95 and 0.92 and H′ = 4.86 and 3.97, respectively. All but one herb showed abundance-to-frequency ratio (A/F ≥0.05, signifying a contagious distribution pattern (large aggregated distribution. Girth class distribution of trees followed an inverse J-shaped pattern. Results of the ethnobotanic study documented 55 MPs. MP collection, as reported by the interviewees, generally improved the socioeconomic status of the people of Tshothang Chiwog. Apart from improving the livelihood security of the local people, aspects relating to health care and culture are also important. Respondents were also concerned about the declining MP wealth

  10. Development of temporal modelling for forecasting and prediction of malaria infections using time-series and ARIMAX analyses: a case study in endemic districts of Bhutan. (United States)

    Wangdi, Kinley; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Silawan, Tassanee; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; White, Nicholas J; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit


    Malaria still remains a public health problem in some districts of Bhutan despite marked reduction of cases in last few years. To strengthen the country's prevention and control measures, this study was carried out to develop forecasting and prediction models of malaria incidence in the endemic districts of Bhutan using time series and ARIMAX. This study was carried out retrospectively using the monthly reported malaria cases from the health centres to Vector-borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP) and the meteorological data from Meteorological Unit, Department of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs. Time series analysis was performed on monthly malaria cases, from 1994 to 2008, in seven malaria endemic districts. The time series models derived from a multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) was deployed to identify the best model using data from 1994 to 2006. The best-fit model was selected for each individual district and for the overall endemic area was developed and the monthly cases from January to December 2009 and 2010 were forecasted. In developing the prediction model, the monthly reported malaria cases and the meteorological factors from 1996 to 2008 of the seven districts were analysed. The method of ARIMAX modelling was employed to determine predictors of malaria of the subsequent month. It was found that the ARIMA (p, d, q) (P, D, Q)s model (p and P representing the auto regressive and seasonal autoregressive; d and D representing the non-seasonal differences and seasonal differencing; and q and Q the moving average parameters and seasonal moving average parameters, respectively and s representing the length of the seasonal period) for the overall endemic districts was (2,1,1)(0,1,1)12; the modelling data from each district revealed two most common ARIMA models including (2,1,1)(0,1,1)12 and (1,1,1)(0,1,1)12. The forecasted monthly malaria cases from January to December 2009 and 2010 varied from 15 to 82 cases in 2009

  11. Livelihood asset maps: a multidimensional approach to measuring risk-management capacity and adaptation policy targeting—a case study in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor


    to the fact that some areas facing increased level of climate-related risks lack access to productive and human capital, while other areas facing a similar situation have relatively insufficient access to financial assets. This again shows that any non-targeted policy aiming at improving households’ risk-management......The application of a livelihood asset-based approach to adaptation policy targeting is presented through the creation of maps highlighting the spatial contrasts of access to various types of livelihood assets utilizing primary household data. Thus, the livelihood maps provide policy......-makers with a tool to quickly identify areas with limited access to certain types of assets, making the latter less able to react to a changing level of climaterelated risks. In the case of Bhutan, distinct spatial patterns of asset endowments is identified using five different asset indicators drawing attention...

  12. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    of problems and potential contradictions. The objective is to give an overall critical insight into issues related to nation-building, GNH and inequality understood not only as a material or socio-economic term relating to income, assets, land, resources, health and gender but also as a political cultural...

  13. IDRC in Bhutan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in rice seed selection, water management ... Among other outcomes, ... evaluate the impact of these laws on, for ... eastern Himalayas so that soil can regain its fertility. Others argue the practice harms forests and wildlife because it often leads.

  14. African Journals Online: Bhutan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  15. IDRC in Bhutan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and students, and developed its own website. It also established nine regional study centres in schools. ... development into school curricula. IDRC ... mental and natural resource economics. ... the health of ecosystems and enhance the.

  16. An Evaluation of the National Malaria Surveillance System of Bhutan, 2006-2012, as it Approaches the Goal of Malaria Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole West


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bhutan is progressing towards malaria elimination. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the ability of the surveillance system from 2006-2012 to meet the objectives of the Bhutan Vector-borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP and to highlight priorities requiring attention as the nation transitions to elimination.Methods: The evaluation was conducted using the Center for Disease Control guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Data sources included a search of publically available literature, VDCP program data, and interviews with malaria surveillance personnel. Blood slide quality assurance and control through formal assessment of slide preparation and measures of between reader correlation was performed. Results: Total malaria cases declined from 2006-2012. The average slide positivity rate decreased from 3.4% in 2006 to 0.2% in 2012. The proportion of non-residents in all cases increased to its highest value of 22.6% in 2012, and significant clustering in the border regions of India was noted, with Sarpang accounting for more cases than any other district from 2009 onward. Case detection was almost exclusively passive, but flexibility and sensitivity was demonstrated by the later addition of active case detection and specification of imported and locally-acquired cases. Spatial data was limited to the village level, not allowing identification of transmission hotspots. For blood smears, statistical measures of between reader agreement and predictive value were not computed. Blood smear quality was suboptimal by at least one criteria in over half of evaluated smears. Timeliness in reporting of cases was on a weekly to monthly basis, and did not meet the WHO goal of immediate notification.Conclusions: As of 2012, the national malaria surveillance system demonstrated flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, and stability. The full potential for data analysis was not yet realized. Attaining the goal of

  17. The GridShare solution: a smart grid approach to improve service provision on a renewable energy mini-grid in Bhutan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetchenbach, T G; Harper, M J; Jacobson, A E; Robinson IV, J; Hervin, K K; Chase, N A; Dorji, C


    This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems. (letter)

  18. 24th August 2010 - Bhutan Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office, Ambassador Y. Dorji signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the source and linacs and the CMS control centre, building 354, with Austrian Physicist M. Hoch.

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer


    24th August 2010 - Bhutan Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office, Ambassador Y. Dorji signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the source and linacs and the CMS control centre, building 354, with Austrian Physicist M. Hoch.

  19. Is diabetes and hypertension screening worthwhile in resource-limited settings? An economic evaluation based on a pilot of a Package of Essential Non-communicable disease interventions in Bhutan. (United States)

    Dukpa, Wangchuk; Teerawattananon, Yot; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Srinonprasert, Varalak; Tongsri, Watsamon; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Wangchuk, Dorji; Dorji, Tandin; Wangmo, Kinzang


    In response to a lack of cost-effective data on screening and early treatment of diabetes and hypertension in resource-limited settings, a model-based economic evaluation was performed on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Package of Essential Non-communicable (PEN) disease interventions for primary health care in Bhutan. Both local and international data were applied in the model in order to derive lifetime costs and outcomes resulting from the early treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The results indicate that the current screening option (where people who are overweight, obese or aged 40 years or older who visit primary care facilities are screened for diabetes and hypertension) represents good value for money compared to 'no screening'. The study findings also indicate that expanding opportunistic screening (70% coverage of the target population) to universal screening (where 100% of the target population are screened), is likely to be even more cost-effective. From the sensitivity analysis, the value of the screening options remains the same when disease prevalence varies. Therefore, applying this model to other healthcare settings is warranted, since disease prevalence is one of the major factors in affecting the cost-effectiveness results of screening programs. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  20. Statistical and Hydrological Evaluation of TRMM-Based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis over the Wangchu Basin of Bhutan: Are the Latest Satellite Precipitation Products 3B42V7 Ready for Use in Ungauged Basins? (United States)

    Xue, Xianwu; Hong, Yang; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Gourley, Jonathan; Huffman, George J.; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Dorji, Chhimi; Chen, Sheng


    The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the successive Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products and further to explore the improvements and error propagation of the latest 3B42V7 algorithm relative to its predecessor 3B42V6 using the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) hydrologic model in the mountainous Wangchu Basin of Bhutan. First, the comparison to a decade-long (2001-2010) daily rain gauge dataset reveals that: 1) 3B42V7 generally improves upon 3B42V6s underestimation both for the whole basin (bias from -41.15 to -8.38) and for a 0.250.25 grid cell with high-density gauges (bias from -40.25 to 0.04), though with modest enhancement of correlation coefficients (CC) (from 0.36 to 0.40 for basin-wide and from 0.37 to 0.41 for grid); and 2) 3B42V7 also improves its occurrence frequency across the rain intensity spectrum. Using the CREST model that has been calibrated with rain gauge inputs, the 3B42V6-based simulation shows limited hydrologic prediction NSCE skill (0.23 in daily scale and 0.25 in monthly scale) while 3B42V7 performs fairly well (0.66 in daily scale and 0.77 in monthly scale), a comparable skill score with the gauge rainfall simulations. After recalibrating the model with the respective TMPA data, significant improvements are observed for 3B42V6 across all categories, but not as much enhancement for the already well-performing 3B42V7 except for a reduction in bias (from -26.98 to -4.81). In summary, the latest 3B42V7 algorithm reveals a significant upgrade from 3B42V6 both in precipitation accuracy (i.e., correcting the underestimation) thus improving its potential hydrological utility. Forcing the model with 3B42V7 rainfall yields comparable skill scores with in-situ gauges even without recalibration of the hydrological model by the satellite precipitation, a compensating approach often used but not favored by the hydrology community, particularly in ungauged basins.

  1. Quality of School Education in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utha, Karma; Giri, Krishna; Gurung, Bhupen

    This book is a product of a collaborative Bhutanese-Danish research project concerning the quality of school education in Bhutanese secondary schools. The empirical investigations that were at the center of the project took part in 2012-2014 and consisted in case study of seven selected schools...... findings and interpretations to global debate and development of school educational quality....

  2. Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 2, 2016 ... Work began by training village women and the polytechnic faculty at the Barli Development Institute for Rural Women in Madhya Pradesh, India. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety of ...

  3. CASE STUDY: Bhutan — Learning together to share resources in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 14, 2010 ... Shyly at first, because the participatory research methods were as new to them ... linked to other resource systems as well as to socioeconomic factors. .... use and maintenance of the forest by the entire watershed community.

  4. Essential oils of Curcuma longa L. from Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, R.K.; Misra, B.P.; Sarma, T.C.; Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Leclercq, P.A.


    The essential oils of Curcuma tonga L. (Zingiberaceae) were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. The oils were analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS. The rhizome oils contained more than 40 constituents, of which the major ones were ot-turmerone (30-32%), ar-turmerone

  5. Educators and Education at a Crossroad in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yezer, Yezer; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    This paper discusses the much contested issue regarding the social status and work conditions of educators and asks whether decline is inevitable or can be reversed. It also touches on the paradox or the contrast between GNH and the government provision of free education and health...

  6. World Culture and ICT use – a Study from Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Choeda, Choeda; Dukpa, Dorji


    The HCI community has recognized the importance of culture and to be culturally sensitive when designing interaction. Local culture should not be overlooked when designing. On the other hand, recent advances in theorizing of cultural patterns have reported that in some sectors, World Cultures has...

  7. Happiness and progress: Measuring human wellbeing in Bhutan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 31, 2011 ... In modern times, human prosperity and wellbeing have been ... income distribution; and levels of health and education, the costs of crime, human ... One problem with traditional indicators, he said, is that they address only a ...

  8. Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur sécurité alimentaire et à améliorer leurs moyens de subsistance, ceux-ci vivant de la vente de leurs produits.

  9. Taxonomic review of the superfamily Pyraloidea in Bhutan (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor; Chib, M. S.; Wangdi, K.


    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 355-382 ISSN 2287-884X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Crambidae * investigation * light trapping Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  10. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van F.


    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The

  11. Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 juin 2016 ... Augmentation de l'égalité entre les sexes chez les producteurs de petits mils en Asie du Sud. La baisse de la production de petits mils est attribuable, entre autres, au fait que leur transformation nécessite de longs et pénibles travaux qui. Voir davantageAugmentation de l'égalité entre les sexes chez les ...

  12. Emotional climate of a pre-service science teacher education class in Bhutan (United States)

    Rinchen, Sonam; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Bellocchi, Alberto


    This study explored pre-service secondary science teachers' perceptions of classroom emotional climate in the context of the Bhutanese macro-social policy of Gross National Happiness. Drawing upon sociological perspectives of human emotions and using Interaction Ritual Theory this study investigated how pre-service science teachers may be supported in their professional development. It was a multi-method study involving video and audio recordings of teaching episodes supported by interviews and the researcher's diary. Students also registered their perceptions of the emotional climate of their classroom at 3-minute intervals using audience response technology. In this way, emotional events were identified for video analysis. The findings of this study highlighted that the activities pre-service teachers engaged in matter to them. Positive emotional climate was identified in activities involving students' presentations using video clips and models, coteaching, and interactive whole class discussions. Decreases in emotional climate were identified during formal lectures and when unprepared presenters led presentations. Emotions such as frustration and disappointment characterized classes with negative emotional climate. The enabling conditions to sustain a positive emotional climate are identified. Implications for sustaining macro-social policy about Gross National Happiness are considered in light of the climate that develops in science teacher education classes.

  13. Exploring Health-Promotion and Policy Synergies in Education in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yezer, Yezer; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Christensen, Line Kikkenborg

    and the actual wish for keeping up tradition and a specific culturalized understanding of knowledge and well-being production by the government? The paper is divided into five sections. The introduction has outlined the context and the nexus between health and education; some theoretical remarks about the links......Paper for the International Workshop “Development Challenges in Bhutan”, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, 29-30 May, 2013 Abstract This contribution focuses on how the existing resources and policy objectives for social development activities within the area of health promotion through education...... is utilized and whether intentions conflict with outcomes. It will furthermore explore whether there are relevant synergies in the policy flow from center to local levels in terms of delivering efficient health through educational policies. The focus lies on the implementation level of health in education...

  14. Evolution of tourism approaches for poverty reduction impact in SNV Asia: Cases from Lao PDR, Bhutan and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J.A.; Gujadhur, T.; Ritsma, N.


    Development agencies are facing a growing demand to demonstrate larger impacts on poverty, which has resulted in a questioning of tourism as an effective intervention strategy. Tourism has been employed as an agent of economic development, job creation, and environmental and cultural conservation.

  15. The nutritional status of children in Bhutan: results from the 2008 National nutrition survey and trends over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangmo Ugyen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports on the nutritional status of Bhutanese children. The objective of this paper is to summarize results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and to describe progress achieved during the last two decades. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2376 children aged 6 to 59 months was conducted during November-December 2008 to provide national and regional estimates. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was applied and 40 gewogs/thromdes were selected from each region (Western, Central, Eastern. Guidelines on how to measure length/height and weight followed WHO standardized procedures. Data were analysed for consistency and validation using the software WHO Anthro and the WHO SPSS macro. Underweight, stunting, overweight, wasting and thinness were defined based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. Data from 1986-88 and 1999 national surveys were reanalysed using the WHO standards to describe trends in nutritional status. Results Nationally, 34.9% Bhutanese preschool children are stunted and 10.4% are underweight. Wasting is 4.7%, with severe wasting close to 2% in rural areas, while overweight affects 4.4% of preschool children. While underweight rates are similar across regions, wasting is substantially more prevalent in the Western region and stunting in the Eastern region. Stunting shows a steep rise during the first two years of life, as high as 40%, and levels off thereafter, while wasting is greatest among children aged 6-24 months and subsequently decreases. The prevalence of stunting fell from 60.9% in 1986-88 to 34.9% in 2008, and underweight declined from 34.0% to 10.4% during same period. The percentage of wasted children dropped from 5.2% in 1986-88 to 2.5% in 1999 but then increased to 4.7% in 2008. Conclusions There have been major improvements in the nutritional status of Bhutanese children over the past two decades, however, linear growth retardation remains a significant concern. Early identification of growth faltering is essential for improving the effectiveness of public health programs to prevent stunting. Similarly, wasting rates indicate the need for a system to identify children with severe malnutrition in the isolated communities so that they can receive appropriate care.

  16. Community Perspectives on the On-Farm Diversity of Six Major Cereals and Climate Change in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirtha Bdr. Katwal


    Full Text Available Subsistence Bhutanese farmers spread across different agro-ecological zones maintain large species and varietal diversity of different crops in their farm. However, no studies have been undertaken yet to assess why farmers conserve and maintain large agro-biodiversity, the extent of agro-ecological richness, species richness, estimated loss of traditional varieties and threats to the loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. Information on the number of varieties cultivated by the farmers for six important staple crops were collected from nine districts and twenty sub-districts spread across six different agro-ecological zones of the country to understand farmers reasons for maintaining on-farm crop diversity, estimate agro-ecological richness, species richness and the overall loss of traditional varieties, to know the famers’ level of awareness on climate change and the different threats to crop diversity. The results from this study indicated that an overwhelming 93% of the respondents manage and use agro-biodiversity for household food security and livelihood. The average agro-ecological richness ranged from 1.17 to 2.26 while the average species richness ranged from 0.50 to 2.66. The average agro-ecological richness indicates a large agro-ecological heterogeneity in terms of the different species of staple crops cultivated. The average species richness on the other hand shows that agro-ecological heterogeneity determines the type and extent of the cultivation of the six different staple cereals under consideration. The overall loss of traditional varieties in a time period of 20 years stands at 28.57%. On climate change, 94% of the farmers recognize that local climate is changing while 86% responded that they are aware of the potential impacts of climate change on their livelihoods. Climate change and associated factors was considered the most imminent threat to the management and loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. The results from this study indicate that on-farm agro-biodiversity conservation, development and utilization programs have to be more specific to the different agro-ecological zones considering the agro-ecological heterogeneity. Attention has to be given to individual crops that have low average species richness and high percentage of loss of traditional varieties. The impact of climate change could offset the traditional seed system which primarily supports the persistence of on-farm agro-biodiversity in several ways.

  17. Search Results | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 21 - 30 of 30 ... Remove Bhutan filter Bhutan; India 909 Apply India filter · Nepal ... Since its inception, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North American culture. But, only about 5% of Asia's population understands English. ... southeastern Bhutan's remote villages increase their food security ...

  18. L'initiative Samdrup Jongkhar, un modèle de développement intégré ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brown Cloud penetrates Bhutan : ambient air quality and trans-boundary pollution in Bhutan. Download PDF. Reports. Samdrup Jongkhar Initiative (SJI), Bhutan : final technical report (1 December 2010 - 31 March 2015). Download PDF. Reports. Investigation of agricultural systems and ways of knowing in Samdrup ...

  19. Activité antérieure – En Inde, le système pénal manque de services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 avr. 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Solar-powered fruit and vegetable driers are helping residents of southeastern Bhutan's remote villages increase their food security and improve li. View moreSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan ...

  20. NREL: International Activities - Assessments and Tools (United States)

    Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, and Philippines. We have also mapped alternative fueling stations and energy poverty, and solar and wind energy resource assessments. Training Courses NREL training courses

  1. Strengthening National and International Collaboration to End ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Samdrup Jongkhar Initiative : a Model of Integrated Ecologically-friendly Development. The Samdrup Jongkhar Initiative is a civil society project in southeastern Bhutan designed to foster ecologically friendly development in harmony with Bhutan's holistic philosophy, which... View moreSamdrup Jongkhar Initiative : a Model ...

  2. Continuity and Change in India’s Foreign Policy: The Next Five Years, (United States)


    34ghosts" of IBM and Coca Cola , which left India during the period of the Janata Government, continue to trouble potential American investors, and the...reaffirm Bhutan’s position within India’s defense perimeter. With India’s sponsorship , Bhutan became a member of the United Nations, and though its entry

  3. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cPresent address: Department of Chemistry, Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan, Kanglung,. Trashigang, Bhutan e-mail: Birinchi.Das@gmail. ... Solubility of ionic salts and coordination complexes of metal ions presents complex ..... The spectra recorded for the cobalt complex is shown in figure 5. We expect three ...

  4. All projects related to | Page 498 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    SANDEE) seeks to build research capacity in the area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Start Date: January 9, 2008. End Date: January 1, 2011.

  5. All projects related to | Page 499 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    SANDEE) seeks to build research capacity in the area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Start Date: January 9, 2008. End Date: January 1, 2011.

  6. All projects related to | Page 639 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    End Date: June 26, 2012. Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Central Asia, South Asia.

  7. All projects related to | Page 320 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SANDEE) is a regional network that seeks to strengthen research capacity in the area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in seven countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Maldives and Sri Lanka).

  8. : tous les projets | Page 281 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Environmental economics, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, Poverty alleviation. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé.

  9. Samdrup Jongkhar Initiative : a Model of Integrated Ecologically ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Samdrup Jongkhar Initiative : a Model of Integrated Ecologically-friendly ... which endeavors to integrate social, economic, cultural and environmental objectives. ... Brown Cloud penetrates Bhutan : ambient air quality and trans-boundary ...

  10. All projects related to | Page 308 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality ... area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in seven ... Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan.

  11. The Case of India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    based programs for Afghanistan, Bhutan, and Nepal, the MEA also funds general ... Figure 1: Organizational chart for Indian development assistance ... percent to provide loans to enable foreign governments to purchase Indian equipment and.

  12. Genomewide survey and characterization of metacaspase gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oryza sativa). Likai Wang and Hua .... IND. Bangladesh. Ta Hung Ku. 1107_TEJ. TEJ. China. Darmali. 27630_TEJ. TEJ. Nepal. Phudugey. 32399_TEJ. TEJ. Bhutan. Haginomae Mochi. 2540_TEJ. TEJ. Japan. Norin 20. 418_TEJ. TEJ. Japan.

  13. South Asian Network for Development and Environmental ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SANDEE) seeks to build research capacity in the area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. It does so through research, training, policy dialogue, ...

  14. All projects related to | Page 638 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    End Date: June 26, 2012. Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Central Asia, South Asia.

  15. Some comments on the ‘Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan’

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor


    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2016), s. 8846-8848 ISSN 0974-7893 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : forest butterflies * western Bhutan * comments Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. Indo-US Relations for a Symbiotic World Order (United States)


    which is Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar , Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Nepal and sometimes Afghanistan), the Far East (which is China, Taiwan...extremist affiliates in Afghanistan, Pakistan and around the globe.123 This strategy includes preventing attacks on the homeland, preventing of aviation ...interests abroad is a major concern for India. India shares a border with China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka and to

  17. The Art of Ore: Chinese Strategy in Africa (United States)


    multitude of other countries, including Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos , Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia...76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km...Mineral Production in 2005 Source: W. David Menzie and Pui-Kwan Tse , Made in China: China‟s Growing Appetite for Minerals, US Geological Survey, 2006

  18. Notes on the Eastern Comma Polygonia c-album agnicula Moore, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi


    Full Text Available The Comma, Polygonia c-album ranges across W.Himalaya up to Sikkim-Bhutan but not reported from North East India. Altogether, three subspecies occur within Indian region.This sighting is not surprising as Tawang dist. shares boundary with Bhutan. This sighting shows that more survey is needed in W. Himalaya to know the butterfly fauna of the region.

  19. Les femmes et la militarisation en Asie du Sud : bourses de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 mai 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur. Voir davantageSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan ...

  20. Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur. Voir davantageSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan ...

  1. Protection de la vie privée dans un monde numérique en Asie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juin 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur. Voir davantageSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan · Ce que nous faisons · Financement ...

  2. Activité antérieure – Assurer la sécurité alimentaire grâce à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 avr. 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur. Voir davantageSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan ...

  3. Activité antérieure – Le Dr David Butler-Jones discute de la lutte ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 avr. 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur. Voir davantageSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan ...

  4. The usage of ICT for teaching at a Bhutanese college

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinley, Kinley; Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne


    students in the world. The number of internet users has been on the rise in Bhutan, and is recognized by the country's political leadership. In line with this development, Bhutan is embarking on a comprehensive process of education reform with teachers and teacher education at the centre. Samtse College...... by the lecturers of SCE, a preliminary investigation was carried out. The study consists of a survey and a focus group interview dealing with the broad themes skills and competence, attitude and motivation, and access to resources and internet. The findings from this investigation reveal a general agreement...

  5. South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Country(s). Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Pakistan. Project Leader. Priya Shyamsundar. Institution. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Institution Country. Nepal. Institution Website. ...

  6. A grammar of Lepcha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Heleen


    This book is a descriptive grammar of Lepcha, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Sikkim, Darjeeling district in West Bengal in India, in Ilam district in Nepal, and in a few villages of Samtsi district in south-western Bhutan. The data for this study were collected during several sojourns amongst

  7. National Target for South Asia Specialists. A Report. (United States)

    National Council on Foreign Language and International Studies, New York, NY.

    The South Asia Panel of the National Council on Foreign Languages and International Studies reports on the need for specialists in the languages and cultures of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives. Two categories of specialists are discussed: (1) individuals in government, mission, etc., in…

  8. New contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (III): Revision of Meishania Chen & Wang with description of five new species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) (United States)

    The flea beetle genus Meishania Chen & Wang is revised and five new species - M. cangshanensis sp. nov., M. flavipennis sp. nov., M. fulvotigera sp. nov., and M. sichuanica sp. nov. from China and M. bhutanensis sp. nov. from Bhutan - are described. All species of Meishania are illustrated and a key...

  9. High altitude organic gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Pyakurel, Dipesh; Smith-Hall, Carsten


    Ethnopharmacological relevance Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years...

  10. : tous les projets | Page 458 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS, ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS, CLIMATE CHANGE, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Pakistan. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 688,200.00.

  11. Investigating the Alignment of Bhutanese Mathematics Teachers' Planned Approaches within the Context of a Reformed Curriculum (United States)

    Dolma, Phuntsho; Nutchey, David; Watters, James J.; Chandra, Vinesh


    Reform of mathematics education has been in focus in many countries including those in major economic transition. This paper reports a segment of a study which was conducted in Bhutan, where a reformed elementary mathematics curriculum has been recently introduced. The reformed curriculum is based on social constructivism and its design has been…

  12. The Effect of Using Cooperative Learning Method on Tenth Grade Students' Learning Achievement and Attitude towards Biology (United States)

    Rabgay, Tshewang


    The study investigated the effect of using cooperative learning method on tenth grade students' learning achievement in biology and their attitude towards the subject in a Higher Secondary School in Bhutan. The study used a mixed method approach. The quantitative component included an experimental design where cooperative learning was the…

  13. All projects related to Nepal | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Nepal ... and embarked on a process of development have often started with strong political settlements, or elite pacts. ... RESEARCH NETWORKS, POLICY MAKING, PEACE, Capacity building ... As countries in South Asia move toward greater economic integration, ...

  14. Mile-A-Minute (Pest Alert) (United States)

    Denise Binion; William Jackson


    Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, formerly Polygonum perfoliatum, L.) is an annual vine in the Polygonaceae or Buckwheat family. It is native to eastern Asia including India, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Burma, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Siberia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Malay peninsula and the...

  15. Participatory Publics - Examples from Higher Education in Fragile Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola

    This paper presents two cases of local communities, defined by being constituted by students in higher education in polities that have a relatively short tradition of democracy. The first case is a college in Bhutan. The second example is a Madrasa in Bangladesh, a privately run institution...

  16. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  17. Nepal : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bhutan ... NUTRITION, WATER QUALITY, WATER BORNE DISEASES, PESTICIDES ... de préservation de la biodiversité, d'amélioration des cultures et de gestion des ...

  18. Three Essays on Terrorism, its Relationship with Natural Disasters, and its Effect on Female Labor Force Participation (United States)


    3 Belize M Yes 20 Mali L Yes 11 Bermuda H No 20 Mauritania L Yes 18 Bhutan L Yes 3 Mexico H Yes 15 Bolivia M Yes 7 Moldova Rep L Yes 19 Bosnia...of protesters hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails at treatment centers out of fear that foreign aid workers had been the source of the cholera

  19. Better resilience to disasters and improved livelihoods on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... MSSRF Saving Lives Panel. MSSRF. Michelle Hibler. Research supported by IDRC and the former Canadian International Development Agency ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du ...

  20. Search Results | Page 17 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 161 - 170 of 201 ... ... Story filter · Training materials 5 Apply Training materials filter .... and environmental change in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, ... Urban Ecosystem Health in Kathmandu (Nepal) - Phase III ... Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina Faso - Phase II.

  1. Karma and Human Rights: Bhutanese Teachers' Perspectives on Inclusion and Disability (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, Leda; Dukpa, Dawa


    The Sustainable Development Goals call on countries to ensure that all children, especially the most vulnerable, are included in education. The small kingdom of Bhutan has made attempts to embrace inclusion in education at the policy level. However, research on inclusion and disability in this context is limited, and there are few studies focusing…

  2. Active tectonics in the Assam Seismic Gap between the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    movement due to the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Earlier, few ... occurs in patches but are absent near Galephu town. This is ... Heim and Gansser (1939) described these gaps as a result of 'relief ...... Biswas SK, Ahuja A D, Saproo MK, Basu B 1979 Geology of Himalayan foot hills of Bhutan;. Him. Geol.

  3. All projects related to | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pilot project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  4. Genetic differentiation of the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina in Pakistan and genetic relationship to other worldwide populations (United States)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust pathogen, were obtained from Pakistan in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2014. Collections were also obtained from Bhutan in 2013. Single uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ fo...

  5. Variation of radon concentration in Guwahati, Assam due to six earthquakes (Magnitude >5) occurred in N.E. India: a comparative study with baseline disparity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, I.; Goswami, A.K.; Chetry, G.; Roy, U.C.; Mahanta, Kashyap; Chowdhury, Jyotirmoy Das; Laskar, J.


    Six earthquakes (M>5) have occurred in N.E. India within a time span of forty two days from August 11, 2009 to September 21, 2009. The minimum and maximum values of magnitudes of these earthquakes are 5.0 and 6.3 respectively in Richter Scale (RS). The origins of these earthquakes are reported to be Indo-Myanmar border, Sonitpur dist of Assam and neighboring Bhutan (USGS report). We, in our lab in Guwahati, Assam, have observed prominent radon peaks in the continuously monitored Alpha-GUARD, which can be regarded as precursor peaks for these earthquakes except the one that has origin in Bhutan. The post -effect of this earthquake was observed as a radon peak one day later. This may be due to the fact that the Bhutan tectonic plate and the tectonic plate on which Guwahati along with Shillong shield do not lie on the same plate. The extended part of the Kopili Fault has separated the Bhutan tectonic plate and makes the region more seismic. Continuous seven years GPS data analysis has given a remarkable depiction. The baseline analysis between IISC, Bangalore and some of our campaign mode GPS stations near Guwahati have made the picture clear. An analysis of available data is reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Analysis of solid waste management strategies in Thimphu with reference to its detrimental effect and remission approach (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bidisha; Murshed, Warefta E.; Chakraborty, Saikat


    Bhutan is a small landlocked country with an area of 38,394 km2 and population of 797,765 which is considered as the world's leading carbon negative country. Since Bhutan is a developing nation which is thriving to expand its social, cultural and economic boundaries, the country is facing increasing number of rural-urban migration as well as rapidly changing life style which are the major driving forces of increased waste generation in the cities especially at the urban centers like Thimphu. Irregular management and improper dumping leads to an unhealthy community, disturbs the natural ecosystem and dismantles the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a product. This study basically assessed the constraints of the present strategies used in waste management practices in Thimphu associated with the increasing population pressure and the importance of having modern landfill and incinerator facilities with the use of innovative technologies which would help to develop the concept of Eco-city. Bhutan being a carbon negative country which could be a leading sign of eco-city might be questionable in near future for its improper management techniques. South Asian countries such as Bhutan need to be concerned about proper management of waste. It also contends that the current trend of using only landfills, cannot solve the waste management problem, but rather then that incinerators have the potential to be a better choice, if maintained properly for the development of an eco-city. Solid waste management (SWM) and partaking greener policy is a matter of concern for the eco-city. Use of proper waste management approaches is essential for having sustainable eco-city in the long run.

  7. World Epidemiology Review, Number 96 (United States)


    examination. Dr Matthew said that since mid-April, the start of the local breeding season for mosquitoes carrying the malarial parasite , the Medical Com...the list just three months ago, when Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya were declared free of the disease; India, Bhutan and Nepal were declared safe in...enterotoxigenic and produce symptoms similar to those of cholera because they release toxins in the intestine . The president of the State Cholera Commission

  8. South Asia Economic Focus, Spring 2017 : Globalization Backlash


    World Bank


    South Asia remains the fastest growing region in the world. With a strong performance in the eastern part of the region – in particular in Bhutan, Bangladesh and India – the region defied disappointing world growth in 2016. Inflation slowed down in the second half of 2016, mainly due to lower food prices, but appears to be turning up again. Despite recent real exchange rate appreciation, current account balances are mostly in order throughout the region. After a sharp decline triggered by low...

  9. Area Handbook Series: Mongolia: a Country Study (United States)


    after the 1960s included a woodworking combine, a glue factory, and two distilleries built by Poland; a clothing mill and flour mill built by Hungary; a...consumed a certain amount of millet, barley, and wheat flour ; and used cooking pots and steel tools produced by non- nomadic smiths, some of whom...Bhutan; published a journal for inter- national circulation; and maintained contacts with such groups as the Christian Peace Conference, the Afro-Asian

  10. Genetic analysis of hair samples attributed to yeti, bigfoot and other anomalous primates. (United States)

    Sykes, Bryan C; Mullis, Rhettman A; Hagenmuller, Christophe; Melton, Terry W; Sartori, Michel


    In the first ever systematic genetic survey, we have used rigorous decontamination followed by mitochondrial 12S RNA sequencing to identify the species origin of 30 hair samples attributed to anomalous primates. Two Himalayan samples, one from Ladakh, India, the other from Bhutan, had their closest genetic affinity with a Palaeolithic polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Otherwise the hairs were from a range of known extant mammals.

  11. Causes of Severe Visual Impairment and Blindness: Comparative Data From Bhutanese and Laotian Schools for the Blind. (United States)

    Farmer, Lachlan David Mailey; Ng, Soo Khai; Rudkin, Adam; Craig, Jamie; Wangmo, Dechen; Tsang, Hughie; Southisombath, Khamphoua; Griffiths, Andrew; Muecke, James


    To determine and compare the major causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in Bhutan and Laos. Independent cross-sectional surveys. This survey consists of 2 cross-sectional observational studies. The Bhutanese component was undertaken at the National Institute for Vision Impairment, the only dedicated school for the blind in Bhutan. The Laotian study was conducted at the National Ophthalmology Centre and Vientiane School for the Blind. Children younger than age 16 were invited to participate. A detailed history and examination were performed consistent with the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record. Of the 53 children examined in both studies, 30 were from Bhutan and 23 were from Laos. Forty percent of Bhutanese and 87.1% of Laotian children assessed were blind, with 26.7% and 4.3%, respectively, being severely visually impaired. Congenital causes of blindness were the most common, representing 45% and 43.5% of the Bhutanese and Laotian children, respectively. Anatomically, the primary site of blinding pathology differed between the cohorts. In Bhutan, the lens comprised 25%, with whole globe at 20% and retina at 15%, but in Laos, whole globe and cornea equally contributed at 30.4%, followed by retina at 17.4%. There was an observable difference in the rates of blindness/severe visual impairment due to measles, with no cases observed in the Bhutanese children but 20.7% of the total pathologies in the Laotian children attributable to congenital measles infection. Consistent with other studies, there is a high rate of blinding disease, which may be prevented, treated, or ameliorated.

  12. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments (United States)


    Taliban militants on the one hand, and an indigenous Swati movement on the other, as part of a “pragmatic” strategy “to turn our native populations...November 15, 2009. 96 Late May reports suggested that Swati insurgent leader Fazlullah was killed in a clash with police in Afghanistan’s Nuristan...perpetrators to justice. Yet, at month’s end, Prime Minister Gilani met with Indian Prime Minister Singh on the sidelines of a regional summit in Bhutan

  13. Culture, Liberty and Happiness


    Ura, Karma


    The author's intention here is to explore mainly the relationship between culture and globalization, and also to a limited extent the ties and differences, if any, between cultural liberty and happiness. This paper attempts to relate the concept of cultural liberty to the idea of Gross National Happiness. The author underlines strongly that the culture discussed is not about the particular culture of Bhutan; it is about culture in general and in abstract. Likewise happiness referred to here i...

  14. Une mesure différente du bien-être : l'indice du bonheur national ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À la lumière de ces données, le Centre for Bhutan Studies publiera, en 2011, un indice du BNB quantitatif. Cette subvention permettra à l'OPHI d'assister le Centre dans la synthèse et l'analyse des résultats de l'enquête de 2010. L'objectif : assurer la validité et la reconnaissance internationale de l'indice du BNB de sorte ...

  15. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. 540pp. (DS35.2 .M65 2011) Myers, Stephen C. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address... Undesirable Multilateral Security Order?" Pacific Review 24, no. 2 (May 2011): 137-158. Taylor & Francis "The Quality of Democracy in Asia Pacific...2009): 205-219. Sage Turner, Mark, Sonam Chuki, and Jit Tshering. "Democratization by Decree: The Case of Bhutan." Democratization 18, no. 1 (February

  16. A psychological look at economic growth : an omni-political manifesto


    Elle, J. J.


    This master's thesis is an attempt to synthesize the psychological theory of self-esteem, as formulated by Nathaniel Branden, with economic thought in order to provide an innovative way of analyzing historical economic data. The nations of examination are The United States of America and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Initially there will be an exploration of why this type of analysis may be useful at this time in the procession of economic and psychological history. Branden's six pill...

  17. Emerging Scenario of Trade Potentialities of North-East India: Challenges and Opportunities


    Ram Krishna Mandal


    The North-East Region (NER) of India which comprises of eight states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura shares most of its boundary with China, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar. The NER accounts for about eight per cent of the country's geographical area and about four per cent of population. Tribals account for more than 30 per cent of the total population of NER. Inadequate and poor infrastructure, inhospitable terrain and a com¬parativ...

  18. A Gendered Analysis of the Brahmaputra Dialogue : A study of the relation between transboundary water management and gender norms


    Lexén, Tove


    Transboundary water management (TWM) regards how internationally shared waters are managed. Recently, TWM processes have been researched from the perspective of gender inclusivity. In line with this trend, this thesis is investigating to what extent the Transboundary Policy Dialogue for Improved Water Governance in Brahmaputra River (the Brahmaputra Dialogue) about the Brahmaputra River is gender sensitive. The Brahmaputra River is shared by China, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The management...



    Hilary Howes


    This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, h...

  20. Military Post Office Location List (MPOLL) (United States)



  1. Swimming with the Shoal (United States)

    Childs, Ann


    This article responds to Yuli Rahmawati and Peter Charles Taylor's piece and explores my role as a science teacher, science teacher educator and researcher in two contexts, Sierra Leone and Bhutan. In the first part of the article I reflect on my 3 years as a science teacher in Sierra Leone and demonstrate resonances with Yuli's accounts of culture shock and with her positioning of herself in a third space. I also reflect on the importance of colleagues in helping me reshape my identity as a science teacher in this new context. The second part of the article reflects on much shorter periods of time in Bhutan and my work as a teacher educator and researcher where, unlike Sierra Leone, it was not possible because of the short periods I worked there, to occupy a third space. I close by discussing how in Bhutan, but also Sierra Leone, collaboration with colleagues allowed me to contribute my own expertise, despite my lack of a deep understanding of the cultural context, in a way that was as valuable as possible. I liken this way of collaborative working in my professional life as `swimming with the shoal'.

  2. Animal-derived natural products of Sowa Rigpa medicine: Their pharmacopoeial description, current utilization and zoological identification. (United States)

    Yeshi, Karma; Morisco, Paolo; Wangchuk, Phurpa


    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses animal parts in the preparation of numerous polyingredient traditional remedies. Our study reports the taxonomical identification of medicinal animals and the description of traditional uses in English medical terminologies. To taxonomically identify the medicinal animals and their derived natural products used as a zootherapeutic agents in BSM. First, the traditional textbooks were reviewed to generate a list of animal products described as ingredients. Second, animal parts that are currently used in Bhutan were identified. Third, the ethnopharmacological uses of each animal ingredients were translated into English medical terminologies by consulting Traditional Physicians, clinical assistants, pharmacognosists, and pharmacists in Bhutan. Fourth, the animal parts were taxonomically identified and their Latin names were confirmed by crosschecking them with online animal databases and relevant scientific literature. The study found 73 natural products belonging to 29 categories derived from 45 medicinal animals (36 vertebrates and 9 invertebrates), comprising of 9 taxonomic categories and 30 zoological families. Out of 116 formulations currently produced, 87 of them contain one or more extracts and products obtained from 13 medicinal animals to treat more than 124 traditionally classified illnesses. Only five animal ingredients were found available in Bhutan and rest of the animal parts are being imported from India. Out of 73 natural products described in the traditional textbooks, only 13 of them (some omitted and few substituted by plants) are currently included in 87 formulations of BSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  4. Electricity as a traded good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan


    Electric power has traditionally been classified as a non-traded good, produced and consumed within the country of origin. More recently, electricity has been traded across national borders and in certain cases, viz., Bhutan, has been the dominant export; in other situations, it is used to repay debts owed to neighboring countries. This paper investigates the role of electricity as the primary export, analyzes its valuation, and then goes on to evaluate the impact on the terms of trade. We conclude that in the medium-term, the electric power exporting economy would be better off developing its manufacturing sector to diversify its exposure and to protect its trade interests. The case of Bhutanese hydro-electricity exports to India is studied and the change in trade advantage with every increase in power tariff is ascertained. It is found that a 1.26% annual increase in (non-food) consumer prices is correlated with a 1% increase in electricity export tariff. While the causality from electric power tariff to Indian manufactures prices is not established statistically, a change in manufactures prices feeding back into consumer prices in Bhutan is statistically significant. Suggestions are offered for Bhutan to reduce dependence on Indian imports and to diversify its export market exposure. - Highlights: • Electricity as principal export of small economy. • Bilateral trade with large economy. • Tourism as major income generator for small economy. • Partial equilibrium model involving key variables. • Small economy would need to diversify. • Important subject for inter-temporal and inter-regional trade of power

  5. The Pivot Toward Asia: A Balanced Approach (United States)


    power parity.8 In addition, Cambodia, Laos , Papua Guinea, Timor-Leste, and Bhutan expect 5-10% growth through 2017.9 These statistics indicate the...39 Mao Tse -Tung, On Protracted War (China, 1938). 40 General Nguyên Giáp Võ, People’s War, People’s Army (Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific...Vietnam leading to the independence of Laos , Cambodia, and Vietnam.15 Thailand fought a communist insurgency followed by an Islamic insurgency.16 In

  6. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India


    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel


    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Enrico Beltramini


    Full Text Available Markus Viehbeck (ed., 2017. Transcultural Encounters in the Himalayan Borderlands - Kalimpong as a "Contact Zone." Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, viii + 350 pp, ISBN 978-3-946054-58-0 (paperback 55.37USD. This volume is both a story of the hill station of Kalimpong, in the Eastern Himalayan region, and a study of transcultural dynamics seen through the prism of the local story of Kalimpong. A collaborative work, the book is the result of a conference that brought together various international scholars on the cultural history of Kalimpong. Scholars from Europe (Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Heidelberg, Manchester, Oxford, Roskilde, North America (Los Angeles, Toronto, Oceania (Melbourne, and India (Sikkim met in Kalimpong 6-8 March 2015, to discuss the topic from a variety of disciplinary viewpoints, including social history, Tibetan studies, anthropology, ethnography, religious studies, and postcolonial literature. The publisher, Heidelberg University Publishing, has included this anthology in its prestigious Heidelberg Studies on Transculturality. The history of Kalimpong, the other mountain town of Darjeeling and, more generally the entire Eastern Himalayan region, has been the focus of a specialized yet expanding scholarly field. Works center on Kalimpong (Hilker, 2005, Darjeeling (Besky, 2014; Sharma, 2011 and 2014; Warner, 2014, and the entire area of the Himalayan territories of Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan, as well as parts of Northern-Eastern India (Huber and Blackburn, 2012; McKay, 2007; Mullard, 2011; Phuntsho, 2013; Shneiderman, 2015. In this context, scholars note how Kalimpong and Darjeeling shared the same destiny: originally sparsely populated settlements in the foothills of the Himalayas, both villages were acquired in the nineteenth century by the English East India Company (Kalimpong was annexed in 1865 from the kingdom of Bhutan, and Darjeeling from the kingdom of Sikkim in 1835 to become British-ruled towns and

  8. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik


    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  9. Investigation of the key determinants of Asian nurses’ quality of life (United States)

    MAKABE, Sachiko; KOWITLAWAKUL, Yanika; NURUMAL, Mohd Said; TAKAGAI, Junko; WICHAIKHUM, Orn-Anong; WANGMO, Neyzang; YAP, Suk Foon; KUNAVIKTIKUL, Wipada; KOMATSU, Junko; SHIRAKAWA, Hideko; KIMURA, Yutaka; ASANUMA, Yoshihiro


    The study aimed to compare nurses’ quality of life and investigate key determinants among Asian countries with different economic status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across five Asian countries (Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Bhutan). Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), job stress (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health questionnaire), and demographic data were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the key determinants of quality of life. Participants were 3,829 nurses (response rate: 82%) with a mean age of 33 ± 10 yr and majority were women (92%). Regarding quality of life, Bhutan yielded the highest scores, followed by Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Japan, and these results were statistically significant. The key determinants that were significantly related to quality of life were “stress coping ability,” “life satisfaction,” “Japan,” “social support,” “job stress,” and “Singapore” (adjusted R2=0.46). In conclusion, nurses’ quality of life differs across Asian countries and is not linked to the country’s economic development. To maintain a good quality of life for nurses, an international exchange program like international nursing conferences for work environment and staff coping strategies is recommended to broaden institution’ minds and share experiences and exchange views to be able to realize their own problems and discover global solutions to them. PMID:29491251

  10. Blindness and Visual Impairment Profile and Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in South East Asia: Analysis of New Data. 2017 APAO Holmes Lecture. (United States)

    Das, Taraprasad


    The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards). These include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Cataract is the principal cause of blindness and severe visual impairment in all countries. Refractive error is the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 countries: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka; cataract continues to be the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 other countries: Bhutan, Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Outcome of cataract surgery is suboptimal in the Maldives and Timor Leste. Rigorous focus is necessary to improve cataract surgery outcomes and correction of refractive error without neglecting the quality of care. At the same time allowances must be made for care of the emerging causes of visual impairment and blindness such as glaucoma and posterior segment disorders, particularly diabetic retinopathy. Copyright 2018 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  11. Diabetes and hypertension in urban bhutanese men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Raj Giri


    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan is a mountainous country with 31% urban population. There is no information on prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in Bhutan yet. This was the first study of its kind conducted in the capital city. Objective: To determine prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and hypertension in urban Bhutanese population aged 25 to 74 years. Materials and Methods: Stratified two-stage sampling was adopted to include 2474 respondents (Males: 1132, Females: 1342 equally distributed among different age and sex groups. A questionnaire containing demographic, educational and social details and history of diabetes and hypertension was administered on the sampled population the previous evening and blood pressure measured the next morning in nearby camp where fasting blood samples were collected and an oral glucose tolerance test done. Results: Age and sex standardized prevalence of diabetes, IGT and IFG were 8.2.0, 21.6 and 4%, respectively. Only 66.5% of the population had normal blood sugar. Prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased progressively with increasing age. Prevalence of hypertension was 26% (Males: 28.3%, Females: 23.2%. It was observed that 54.1% of diabetes population had hypertension. Conclusion: The study shows that not only is prevalence of diabetes and hypertension high in the urban Bhutanese but also there is a high diagnosis and treatment gap in these disorders.

  12. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products. (United States)

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash


    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  13. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

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    Kesang Wangchuk


    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  14. Investigation of the key determinants of Asian nurses' quality of life. (United States)

    Makabe, Sachiko; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Nurumal, Mohd Said; Takagai, Junko; Wichaikhum, Orn-Anong; Wangmo, Neyzang; Yap, Suk Foon; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Komatsu, Junko; Shirakawa, Hideko; Kimura, Yutaka; Asanuma, Yoshihiro


    The study aimed to compare nurses' quality of life and investigate key determinants among Asian countries with different economic status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across five Asian countries (Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Bhutan). Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), job stress (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health questionnaire), and demographic data were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the key determinants of quality of life. Participants were 3,829 nurses (response rate: 82%) with a mean age of 33 ± 10 yr and majority were women (92%). Regarding quality of life, Bhutan yielded the highest scores, followed by Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Japan, and these results were statistically significant. The key determinants that were significantly related to quality of life were "stress coping ability," "life satisfaction," "Japan," "social support," "job stress," and "Singapore" (adjusted R 2 =0.46). In conclusion, nurses' quality of life differs across Asian countries and is not linked to the country's economic development. To maintain a good quality of life for nurses, an international exchange program like international nursing conferences for work environment and staff coping strategies is recommended to broaden institution' minds and share experiences and exchange views to be able to realize their own problems and discover global solutions to them.

  15. Phylogeography of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and its primary endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii': an evolutionary approach to host-endosymbiont interaction. (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Lu, Jinming; Beattie, George Ac; Islam, Mohammad R; Om, Namgay; Dao, Hang T; Van Nguyen, Liem; Zaka, Syed M; Guo, Jun; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Tan, Shunyun; Holford, Paul; He, Yurong; Cen, Yijing


    In insects, little is known about the co-evolution between their primary endosymbionts and hosts at the intraspecific level. This study examined co-diversification between the notorious agricultural pest Diaphorina citri and its primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbiont), 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' at the population level. Maximum likelihood, haplotype network, principal components and Bayesian clustering identified three lineages for D. citri and its P-endosymbiont: a Western clade containing individuals from Pakistan, Bhutan (Phuentsholing), Vietnam (Son La), USA, Myanmar and China (Ruili, Yunnan); a Central clade, with accessions originating from Southwest China, Bhutan (Tsirang) and Bangladesh; and an Eastern clade containing individuals from Southeast Asia, and East and South China. A more diverse genetic structure was apparent in the host mitochondrial DNA than their P-endosymbionts; however, the two sets of data were strongly congruent. This study provides evidence for the co-diversification of D. citri and its P-endosymbiont during the migration from South Asia to East and Southeast Asia. We also suggest that the P-endosymbiont may facilitate investigations into the genealogy and migration history of the host. The biogeography of D. citri and its P-endosymbiont indicated that D. citri colonized and underwent a secondary dispersal from South Asia to East and Southeast Asia. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. An Overview Of Weaving- Bodo Women In The Present Context.

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    Bibungsar Swargiary


    Full Text Available The Bodos are the early settler of the North-east India basically of Assam and the Bodos are also inhabitants of neighboring country outside of India like Nepal Bhutan and Bangladesh etc. The Bodos are most rich in their cultural activities. The weaving is the integral part of Bodos or women folk of the Bodo society. The women folk of the Bodo society are very expert in their weaving and the weaving is the small scale industry of the Bodo society. They weave their essential clothes in the loom with beautiful designing. In the present perspective they also earn money with selling their weaving clothes and make strong their family economy. The beautiful design clothes of women folk of the Bodo society not only popular among them but also getting memorable in other community also. Today their weaving activity comes to in commercial purpose and every woman have known to weave clothes very beautifully.

  17. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization among Children after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

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    Manoochehr Karami


    Full Text Available World Health Organization has recommended all countries to introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV in routine immunization schedule, especially those countries with higher rate of mortality in children. However, Islamic Republic of Iran and more than 50 other countries including Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Cabo Verde, Chad, China, Comoros, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Gabon, Grenada, Guinea, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Montenegro, Nauru, Poland, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovenia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, and Viet Namhave not introduced PCV till April 2016.

  18. 20 years of cleft lip and palate missions. (United States)

    Lambrecht, J Thomas; Kreusch, Thomas; Marsh, Jeff L; Schopper, Christian


    Volunteer missions for cleft lip and palate (CLP) care in Indonesia (1991-1992), India (1994-2003), Bhutan (2005-2010), and Kenya (2011), took place always at the same Hospital in each country. Altogether over a thousand patients were operated using a conservative protocol: Safety first - no experiments. Five months and 5 kg were the basic rules. For the native doctors, training help for self-help was priority. In the announcements, patients with CLP were primarily addressed. Burns, contractions, tumors, and trauma-cases were the second priority. Fresh trauma was done in night shifts with the local surgeons in order not to interfere. Besides facial esthetics speech was the number one issue, following priorities fell into place. Cultural aspects played a certain role in the different countries and continents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK


    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  20. Review of the comb-tailed spider genus Hahnia C.L. Koch 1841 (Hahniidae) from Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan, China. (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Ying-Hong


    Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan, China are famous for the biodiversity and are part of Indo-Burmese hotspot. We present a review on the comb-tailed spider genus Hahnia C.L. Koch 1841 based on newly collected specimens. Four new species of Hahnia are described: H. biapophysis sp. nov. (male), H. dongi sp. nov. (male), H. subsaccata sp. nov. (male, female) and H. wangi sp. nov. (male, female). Two additional known species are redescribed: H. himalayaensis Hu & Zhang, 1990 and H. musica Brignoli, 1978. Hahnia musica previously known from Bhutan is recorded from China for the first time. Photos of habitus and genitalia of all species and additionally illustrations of new species are given.

  1. Chaudhuriomyia, a new tanypod genus of Macropelopiini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from the Eastern Himalaya. (United States)

    Paul, Nilotpol; Mazumdar, Abhijit


    A new genus, Chaudhuriomyia in the tribe Macropelopiini belonging to subfamily Tanypodinae is described and illustrated in all life stages. The genus can be distinguished from all the other known Macropelopiini by the presence of a blunt claw on fore leg and a smooth surface of tibial spur in adult male, seminal capsules without proper neck in adult female, round anal lobe in pupa, and slightly inwardly bent inner tooth of ligula in larva. Generic diagnoses for larva, pupa and adult are provided. Taxonomic position and distribution of the genus are discussed along with a new adult key of tribe Macropelopiini. The specimens were collected from a stream in Indo-Bhutan border area of Eastern Himalaya in Indian Subcontinent. A note on the ecology and biology of the new genus is included.

  2. Biogeography of the ‘water flea’ Daphnia O. F. Müller (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anomopoda on the Indian subcontinent

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    Sameer M. Padhye


    Full Text Available Studies on Daphnia distribution in Indian subcontinent have been few and regionally restricted despite Daphnia being by far the most studied cladoceran. We here present a first biogeographical assessment of the genus on the Indian subcontinent (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We collected all pertinent literature and considered nineteen bioclimatic variables along with latitude, longitude, and altitude for statistical analysis of factors governing distribution in space. Significant variables (determined by Kruskal Wallis test were tested by nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA to clarify whether Daphnia species had specific environmental requirements. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to understand how environmental variables affected distribution.  Eight Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia and 4 Daphnia s.str. occurred at 100 different localities. The variables temperature, altitude and latitude differed among species and so did their bio-climatic requirements. Daphnia distribution responded positively to altitude and negatively to a decrease in latitude and temperature.

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sikkim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Sikkim is a country in the eastern Himalayas and is bound on the west by Nepal, on the north by Tibet, on the east by Bhutan and on the south by India. Precambrian Darjeeling gneiss forms the rim of the amphitheatre while schists of Late Precambrian to Lower Paleozoic rocks form tee habital interior. A small outcrop of carboniferous to Permain methomorphic rocks is preserved in the Tista Basin as well in a thin outcrop trust upon fluvitile beds of Sivalik which is mostly of Pliestocene age. Imbricate thrusts have stacked the rocks in a vast heap where reverse metamorphism is common. Ni information is available concerning uranium occurrences and resources as well as past and present explorations. The uranium potential of Sikkim is almost zero

  4. Influence of Personality on Perception of Psychological Contract Breach

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    Hassan Jafri


    Full Text Available The present research aimed to investigate the influence of personality (Five-Factor Model on Psychological Contract Breach. Using random sampling procedure, data were collected from 90 faculties of colleges of Royal University of Bhutan. Personality scales by John, Naumann, and Soto (2008 and Robinson and Morrison’s (2000 Psychological Contract Breach scale were used in this study. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out to analyze the obtained data. Results revealed that Extraversion and Neuroticism dimensions of the personality model have been found to be positively associated with the perception of breach. Employees who are by nature Agreeable and Conscientiousness are less likely to perceive breach in their psychological contract. Organization should look into the personality aspect while recruiting employees. If employees are hired with certain personality traits, they may focus on their performance and organizational growth.

  5. 20 years of cleft lip and palate missions (United States)

    Lambrecht, J. Thomas; Kreusch, Thomas; Marsh, Jeff L.; Schopper, Christian


    Volunteer missions for cleft lip and palate (CLP) care in Indonesia (1991-1992), India (1994-2003), Bhutan (2005-2010), and Kenya (2011), took place always at the same Hospital in each country. Altogether over a thousand patients were operated using a conservative protocol: Safety first - no experiments. Five months and 5 kg were the basic rules. For the native doctors, training help for self-help was priority. In the announcements, patients with CLP were primarily addressed. Burns, contractions, tumors, and trauma-cases were the second priority. Fresh trauma was done in night shifts with the local surgeons in order not to interfere. Besides facial esthetics speech was the number one issue, following priorities fell into place. Cultural aspects played a certain role in the different countries and continents. PMID:25593861

  6. Implementation of Teaching Skills and Strategies in the Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choeda, Choeda; Kinley, Kinley


    ‘Teaching Skills’ and ‘Teaching Strategies’ are two core (professional) modules offered at the two colleges of education in Bhutan to develop pedagogical knowledge and skills of student teachers. However, a tracer study (in press) done by Samtse College of Education [SCE] revealed teacher graduates...... of teaching skills and strategies in the schools. Teacher graduates, both male and female having working experience of three years and above, teaching in Middle Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools, were selected as the participants in the study. Samples were drawn from the different parts of the country...... covering seventeen Dzongkhags. The study revealed adequate understanding of the concepts of professional modules. However, teachers were found to be grappling with the extra responsibilities affecting their planning to integrate skills and strategies into their teaching. Key words: Teaching skills...

  7. Traditional medicine: a rare cause of lead poisoning in Western countries [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Halima Muller


    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man from Bhutan was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced abdominal CT scan was found negative, however laboratory tests showed hemolytic anemia and basophilic stippling which are often seen in lead and heavy metal poisoning. Additional tests revealed a high level of lead in blood and urine. The patient was administered a chelator treatment with rapid improvement of the symptoms. A detailed interview revealed that the patient had been taking daily Bhutanese traditional medicines to treat a Bell’s palsy from which he had been suffering for a few months. The analysis of these medicines confirmed the presence of a high level of lead.

  8. Predicting Virtual Learning Environment Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penjor, Sonam; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael


    This study investigates the significance of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory with regard to the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). The focus is on different adoption types and characteristics of users. Rogers’ DOI theory is applied...... to investigate the influence of five predictors (relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability and observability) and their significance in the perception of academic staff at the RUB in relation to the probability of VLE adoption. These predictors are attributes of the VLE that determine the rate...... of adoption by various adopter group memberships (Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards). Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were deployed to analyse adopter group memberships and predictor significance in VLE adoption and use. The results revealed varying attitudes...

  9. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Sanjay Sondhi


    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  10. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees. (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J; Wieling, Elizabeth; McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Becher, Emily


    We explored the mental health effects of war trauma and torture as described by 111 refugees newly arrived in the United States. We used ethnocultural methodologies to inform 13 culture-specific focus groups with refugees from Bhutan (34), Burma (23), Ethiopia (27), and Somalia (27). Contrary to the belief that stigma prevents refugees from discussing mental health distress, participants readily described complex conceptualizations of degrees of mental health distress informed by political context, observation of symptoms, cultural idioms, and functional impairment. Recommendations for health care providers include assessment processes that inquire about symptoms in their political context, the degree of distress as it is culturally conceptualized, and its effect on functioning. Findings confirm the cross-cultural recognition of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; however, refugees described significant cultural variation in expressions of distress, indicating the need for more research on culture-bound disorders and idioms of distress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Congenital Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis in a Neonate: A Case Report. (United States)

    Lhadon, Tenzin; Jullien, Sophie


    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a well-identified raising public health concern worldwide. However, the data available on MDR-TB in children and particularly in the neonate age group are limited. Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare, and its diagnosis is challenging because of non-specific manifestations. The choice of anti-tubercular drugs is difficult because of the lack of international consensus as a consequence of the scarcity of evidence-based data on this age group. We hereby present a case from Bhutan of a 23-day-old male neonate with congenital MDR-TB. His mother was diagnosed with disseminated TB, and treatment was commenced 11 days post-partum. Congenital transmission of TB was suspected, as direct postnatal transmission was unlikely and thorough screening of contacts for TB was negative. In this case, the mother's MDR-TB status was revealed only after her newborn's MDR-TB diagnosis.

  12. Atmospheric Science Without Borders (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan


    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  13. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

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    Shada Elalem


    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  14. Next power generation-mix for Bangladesh: Outlook and policy priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul; Tanin, Fahian


    Bangladesh's strategy for economic development relies heavily on its energy and power policy, searching for an efficient implementation of planned power generation-mix of gas, oil, coal and hydro. At present, the contribution of gas is around 83% of total power generation, which is much higher than other traditional fuel sources. To reduce this single-source dependency on gas, Bangladesh needs to initiate alternative option to sustain its mid-term power generation-mix in addition to achieve its long-term energy security. Government of Bangladesh has already initiated a new master plan for the development of power generation under fuel-diversification scenario. In this view, local coal production and imported coal would assist the power planners to reduce the sole dependency on gas-driven power plants. In addition, cross-border hydropower import from Bhutan, Myanmar and Nepal would also be a vital policy imperative to maintain the country's long-term energy security. Nonetheless, adding extra power to production side is certainly essential, demand side management through efficient energy use and energy conservation could also be of assistance to the release the existing crisis to a greater extent. - Highlights: • In 2010, the contribution of gas in power generation is about 88% in Bangladesh. • Installed capacity (4.29%) and actual power generation (3.75%) from coal is very low. • Local coal-based power plants would be an alternative for next generation-mix. • Cross-border hydropower trade with Bhutan, Myanmar and Nepal would be another alternative. • Public-private partnership (PPP) could solve financing constraints to install new plants

  15. CHARIS (Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow) Lessons Learned in Capacity-Building for Hydrological Sciences with Asian Partner Communities (United States)

    Brodzik, M. J.; Armstrong, R. L.; Armstrong, B. R.; Barrett, A. P.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hill, A. F.; Hughes, H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A. M.


    Funded by USAID and based at the University of Colorado, the Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice & Snow (CHARIS) project has among its objectives both scientific and capacity-building goals. We are systematically assessing the role of glaciers and seasonal snow in the freshwater resources of High Asia to better forecast future availability and vulnerability of water resources in the region. We are collaborating with Asian partner institutions in eight nations across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan). Our capacity-building activities include data-sharing, training, supporting field work and education and infrastructure development, which includes creating the only water-chemistry laboratory of its kind in Bhutan. We have also derived reciprocal benefits from our partners, learning from their specialized local knowledge and obtaining access to otherwise unavailable in situ data. Our presentation will share lessons learned in our annual training workshops with our Asian collaborators, at which we have interspersed remote sensing and hydrological modelling lectures with GIS and python programming, and hands-on applications using remote sensing data. Our challenges have included technological issues such as: power incompatibilities, reliable shipping methods to remote locations, bandwidth limitations to transferring large remote sensing data sets, cost of proprietary software, choosing among free software alternatives, and negotiating the formats and jargon of remote sensing data to get to the science as quickly as possible. We will describe successes and failures in training methods we have used, what we look for in training venue facilities, and how our approach has changed in response to student evaluations and partner feedback.

  16. Projections of Rainfall and Temperature from CMIP5 Models over BIMSTEC Countries (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Kar, S. C.; Ragi, A. R.


    Rainfall and surface temperature are the most important climatic variables in the context of climate change. Thus, these variables simulated from fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models have been compared against Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observed data and projected for the twenty first century under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios. Results for the seven countries under Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand have been examined. Six CMIP5 models namely GFDL-CM3, GFDL-ESM2M, GFDL-ESM2G, HadGEM2-AO, HadGEM2-CC and HadGEM2-ES have been chosen for this study. The study period has been considered is from 1861 to 2100. From this period, initial 145 years i.e. 1861 to 2005 is reference or historical period and the later 95 years i.e. 2005 to 2100 is projected period. The climate change in the projected period has been examined with respect to the reference period. In order to validate the models, the mean annual rainfall and temperature has been compared with CRU over the reference period 1901 to 2005. Comparison reveals that most of the models are able to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature over most of the regions of BIMSTEC countries. Therefore these model data can be used to study the future changes in the 21st Century. Four out six models shows that the rainfall over Central and North India, Thailand and eastern part of Myanmar shows decreasing trend and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka shows an increasing trend in both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. In case of temperature, all of the models show an increasing trend over all the BIMSTEC countries in both scenarios, however, the rate of increase is relatively less over Sri Lanka than the other countries. Annual cycles of rainfall and temperature over Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand

  17. Projections of Rainfall and Surface Temperature from CMIP5 Models under RCP4.5 and 8.5 over BIMSTEC Countries (United States)

    Charan Pattnayak, Kanhu; Kar, Sarat Chandra; Kumari Pattnayak, Rashmita


    Rainfall and surface temperature are the most important climatic variables in the context of climate change. Thus, these variables simulated from fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models have been compared against Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observed data and projected for the twenty first century under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios. Results for the seven countries under Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand have been examined. Six CMIP5 models namely GFDL-CM3, GFDL-ESM2M, GFDL-ESM2G, HadGEM2-AO, HadGEM2-CC and HadGEM2-ES have been chosen for this study. The study period has been considered is from 1861 to 2100. From this period, initial 145 years i.e. 1861 to 2005 is reference or historical period and the later 95 years i.e. 2005 to 2100 is projected period. The climate change in the projected period has been examined with respect to the reference period. In order to validate the models, the mean annual rainfall and temperature has been compared with CRU over the reference period 1901 to 2005. Comparison reveals that most of the models are able to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature over most of the regions of BIMSTEC countries. Therefore these model data can be used to study the future changes in the 21st Century. Four out six models shows that the rainfall over Central and North India, Thailand and eastern part of Myanmar shows decreasing trend and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka shows an increasing trend in both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. In case of temperature, all of the models show an increasing trend over all the BIMSTEC countries in both scenarios, however, the rate of increase is relatively less over Sri Lanka than the other countries. Annual cycles of rainfall and temperature over Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand

  18. Evaluation and Characterization of Health Economics and Outcomes Research in SAARC Nations. (United States)

    Mehta, Manthan; Nerurkar, Rajan


    To identify, evaluate, and characterize the variety, quality, and intent of the health economics and outcomes research studies being conducted in SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) nations. Studies published in English language between 1990 and 2015 were retrieved from Medline databases using relevant search strategies. Studies were independently reviewed as per Cochrane methodology and information on the type of research and outcomes were extracted. Quality of reporting was assessed. Of the 2638 studies screened from eight SAARC nations, a total of 179 were included for review (India = 140; Bangladesh = 12; Sri Lanka = 8; Pakistan = 7; Afghanistan = 5; Nepal = 4; Bhutan = 2; Maldives = 1). The broad study categories were cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs = 76 studies), cost analyses (35 studies), and burden of illness (BOI=26 studies). The outcomes evaluated were direct costs, indirect costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Cost of medicines, consultation and hospital charges, and monitoring costs were assessed as direct medical costs along with non-direct medical costs such as travel and food for patients and caregivers. The components of indirect costs were loss of income of patients and caregivers and loss of productivity. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed in 48 studies. The most commonly used instrument for assessing QoL was the WHO-Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire (76%). The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) score was used for quality assessment of full economic studies (44 studies). The mean QHES score was 43.76. This review identifies various patterns of health economic studies in eight SAARC nations. The quality of economic evaluation studies for health care in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Maldives needs improvement. There is a need to generate the capacity of researchers

  19. Determinants of intra-household food allocation between adults in South Asia - a systematic review. (United States)

    Harris-Fry, Helen; Shrestha, Niva; Costello, Anthony; Saville, Naomi M


    Nutrition interventions, often delivered at the household level, could increase their efficiency by channelling resources towards pregnant or lactating women, instead of leaving resources to be disproportionately allocated to traditionally favoured men. However, understanding of how to design targeted nutrition programs is limited by a lack of understanding of the factors affecting the intra-household allocation of food. We systematically reviewed literature on the factors affecting the allocation of food to adults in South Asian households (in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka) and developed a framework of food allocation determinants. Two reviewers independently searched and filtered results from PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases by using pre-defined search terms and hand-searching the references from selected papers. Determinants were extracted, categorised into a framework, and narratively described. We used adapted Downs and Black and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklists to assess the quality of evidence. Out of 6928 retrieved studies we found 60 relevant results. Recent, high quality evidence was limited and mainly from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. There were no results from Iran, Afghanistan, Maldives, or Bhutan. At the intra-household level, food allocation was determined by relative differences in household members' income, bargaining power, food behaviours, social status, tastes and preferences, and interpersonal relationships. Household-level determinants included wealth, food security, occupation, land ownership, household size, religion / ethnicity / caste, education, and nutrition knowledge. In general, the highest inequity occurred in households experiencing severe or unexpected food insecurity, and also in better-off, high caste households, whereas poorer, low caste but not severely food insecure households were more equitable. Food allocation also varied

  20. Breast and cervical cancer screening among South Asian immigrants in the United States. (United States)

    Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura A; Prabhughate, Abhijit


    South Asian (SA) immigrants (from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) constitute the fastest growing of all Asian American immigrants to the United States, with a growth rate of 106% from 1990 to 2001. Data are lacking on health behaviors of this population subgroup, including cancer-related information. : The purpose of this study was to assess rates and correlates of breast and cervical cancer screening in a community sample of SAs. Participants were recruited from among attendees of 3 community-based agency programs. Data were collected in English, Hindi, and Gujarati from a convenience sample of 198 participants. Two-thirds of the sample (n = 127, 65.5%) had ever had a mammogram, whereas only a third (n = 65, 32.8%) had ever had a Papanicolaou smear or vaginal examination. Several predisposing factors (eg, country of birth, years in the United States, acculturation, age, and acknowledged barriers to screening) were significant predictors of breast and cervical screening, whereas the only enabling factor was past screening behavior. Additional study is warranted on cultural aspects of cancer screening behaviors. These data are formative on facilitators and barriers to mammogram and Papanicolaou test completion among these understudied minority women. Nurses who practice in primary care may begin to target health education based on sociodemographics of SA women and emphasize discussion of barriers to screening.

  1. Developing IEC prototypes for adolescents. IEC workshop. (United States)


    Participants of the IEC Workshop for the Production of OHP Material on Reproductive Health for Adolescents and Young Adults held November 25-30 in Japan developed innovative, visually appealing overhead projector (OHP) transparencies to serve as prototype information, education, and communication (IEC) materials for the Asian Region. The materials cover a wide range of topics from early marriage to unwanted pregnancy. This paper briefly describes the prototypes. One group focused upon early marriage, an issue of considerable importance to the health and welfare of young women in countries such as Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Participants from China, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand focused upon the issue of gender equality, while a third group developed OHP material to teach a range of issues related to young people's sexual and reproductive health. Finally, the fourth group, drawn from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, focused upon the topic of menstruation with a prototype targeted to boys and girls aged 9-14 years. Boys were included to foster their understanding of menstruation as a natural phenomenon.

  2. Predicting Tunnel Squeezing Using Multiclass Support Vector Machines

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    Yang Sun


    Full Text Available Tunnel squeezing is one of the major geological disasters that often occur during the construction of tunnels in weak rock masses subjected to high in situ stresses. It could cause shield jamming, budget overruns, and construction delays and could even lead to tunnel instability and casualties. Therefore, accurate prediction or identification of tunnel squeezing is extremely important in the design and construction of tunnels. This study presents a modified application of a multiclass support vector machine (SVM to predict tunnel squeezing based on four parameters, that is, diameter (D, buried depth (H, support stiffness (K, and rock tunneling quality index (Q. We compiled a database from the literature, including 117 case histories obtained from different countries such as India, Nepal, and Bhutan, to train the multiclass SVM model. The proposed model was validated using 8-fold cross validation, and the average error percentage was approximately 11.87%. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed multiclass SVM model yields a better performance in predictive accuracy. More importantly, one could estimate the severity of potential squeezing problems based on the predicted squeezing categories/classes.

  3. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region. (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico


    To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country's Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations.


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    Reviewed by Konchok Gelek (Dkon mchog dge legs དཀོན་མཆོག་དགེ་ལེགས། (Gengqiu Gelai 更求格来


    Full Text Available Thomas K. Shor. 2012. A Step Away from Paradise: A Tibetan Lama's Extraordinary Journey to a Land of Immortality. [Kindle version]. ASIN B006TR0Y7W (7.03USD; ISBN 0999291890 (paperback 19.95USD. The author was fascinated by the account of Tulshuk Lingpa's disciple, Dorje Wangmo, a Bhutanese nun and a disciple who abandoned her worldly possessions to pursue the land of dreams and imagined paradise. The author dug deeper by interviewing Kungsang, Tulshuk Lingpa's son, and other key disciples who were participants in the search of the same hidden realm on the slope of a glacier. Elements of this tale resemble magical realism with its narration detailing participants' experiences of magic, a parallel world, and a portal to the hidden land. The story centers on a continuing search for locating this paradise with each step holding the possibility of drawing nearer to the destination. This holds readers' curiosity to the end. In 1962, Tulshuk Lingpa led 300 followers from Sikkim and Bhutan to an adjacent area along the Nepal-Sikkim border. He then took a few close disciples to Kangchenjunga, a remote area located on the border between Sikkim and Nepal, and attempted to pass through a gate that he believed led to a heavenly place, paralleling our own existence. At that moment, an avalanche enveloped them, killing Tulshuk and injuring the two others with him. ...

  5. Christchurch earthquakes: how did former refugees cope? (United States)

    Osman, Mohamud; Hornblow, Andrew; Macleod, Sandy; Coope, Pat


    This study investigated how former refugees now living in Christchurch (Canterbury Province, New Zealand) communities coped after the 4 September 2010 and subsequent earthquakes. A systematic sample of one in three former refugees from five ethnic groupings (Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Bhutan) was selected from a list of 317 refugees provided by the Canterbury Refugee Council and invited to participate in the study. Seventy-two out of 105 potential participants completed a 26 item questionnaire regarding the impact of the quakes, their concerns and anxieties, coping strategies and social supports. The methodology was complicated by ongoing aftershocks, particularly that of 22 February 2011. Three-quarters of participants reported that they had coped well, spirituality and religious practice being an important support for many, despite less then 20% receiving support from mainstream agencies. Most participants (72%) had not experienced a traumatic event or natural disaster before. Older participants and married couples with children were more likely to worry about the earthquakes and their impact than single individuals. There was a significant difference in the level of anxiety between males and females. Those who completed the questionnaire after the 22 February 2011 quake were more worried overall than those interviewed before this. Overall, the former refugees reported they had coped well despite most of them not experiencing an earthquake before and few receiving support from statutory relief agencies. More engagement from local services is needed in order to build trust and cooperation between the refugee and local communities.

  6. Midwifery education, regulation and association in six South Asian countries--a descriptive report. (United States)

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Wiseman, Anita; Berg, Marie


    To describe the situation of midwifery education, regulation and association in six South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Data were collected via three questionnaires, constructed by the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Investing in Midwives Programme, used at a regional workshop in Bangladesh, 2010. Selected for the purpose of this study were 55 out of 134 questions of which two were open-ended. The answers from structured closed-ended questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the open ended answers with a qualitative content analysis. There was a variation in midwifery education across South Asia, in terms of entry level, competencies and requirements for teachers. None of the countries had national legislation that recognized midwifery as an autonomous profession. Four of the countries had a midwifery association. Two countries had a curriculum based on ICM's essential competences for basic midwifery practice. Main recommendations for improving formal midwifery education across the countries were development of legislation, strengthened formal midwifery education, strengthened professional value, and an improved learning environment. The findings might benefit the future midwifery profession in South Asia and is an important step in addressing the MDGs to reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in the region. With assistance, the area of South Asia will be able to create autonomous midwives that comply with ICM's global standards for midwifery education and regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Connecting science, policy, and implementation for landscape-scale habitat connectivity. (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Paxton, Midori; Nagulendran, Kangayatkarasu; Balamurugan, G; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Reynolds, Glen; Jain, Anuj; Hon, Jason


    We examined the links between the science and policy of habitat corridors to better understand how corridors can be implemented effectively. As a case study, we focused on a suite of landscape-scale connectivity plans in tropical and subtropical Asia (Malaysia, Singapore, and Bhutan). The process of corridor designation may be more efficient if the scientific determination of optimal corridor locations and arrangement is synchronized in time with political buy-in and establishment of policies to create corridors. Land tenure and the intactness of existing habitat in the region are also important to consider because optimal connectivity strategies may be very different if there are few, versus many, political jurisdictions (including commercial and traditional land tenures) and intact versus degraded habitat between patches. Novel financing mechanisms for corridors include bed taxes, payments for ecosystem services, and strategic forest certifications. Gaps in knowledge of effective corridor design include an understanding of how corridors, particularly those managed by local communities, can be protected from degradation and unsustainable hunting. There is a critical need for quantitative, data-driven models that can be used to prioritize potential corridors or multicorridor networks based on their relative contributions to long-term metacommunity persistence. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Assessment and monitoring of deforestation and forest fragmentation in South Asia since the 1930s (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Vazeed Pasha, S.; Satish, K. V.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Rao, P. V. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.


    The present study, first of its kind, has analyzed the land cover and investigated the spatial patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation in South Asian region since the 1930's. This region comprises of eight countries: India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. In South Asia, agricultural land is predominant constituting 43% of the total geographical area followed by barren land (19.99%) and forests (14.72%). The long-term change analysis using the classified maps of 1930 and 2014 indicated a loss of 29.62% of the forest cover. Higher annual net deforestation rates were observed in the period from 1930-1975 (0.68%) followed by 1975-1985 (0.23%), 1985-1995 (0.12%), 1995-2005 (0.06%) and 2005-2014 (0.04%) for the region. Forest fragmentation had significant spatio-temporal variation across the South Asian countries. In 1930, 88.91% of the South Asian forest was classified as large core forest, 8.18% as edge forest and 1.18% as perforated forest. The large core forest category has decreased significantly in area over last eight decades. The results of the present study are expected to serve as a reference for the evaluation of globally agreed Aichi biodiversity target 5 for South Asian countries. This study will be a valuable basis for developing management strategies and restoration programs as it tracks the spatial changes in deforestation and forest fragmentation.

  9. Future Visions of the Brahmaputra - Establishing Hydrologic Baseline and Water Resources Context (United States)

    Ray, P. A.; Yang, Y. E.; Wi, S.; Brown, C. M.


    The Brahmaputra River Basin (China-India-Bhutan-Bangladesh) is on the verge of a transition from a largely free flowing and highly variable river to a basin of rapid investment and infrastructure development. This work demonstrates a knowledge platform for the basin that compiles available data, and develops hydrologic and water resources system models of the basin. A Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model of the Brahmaputra basin supplies hydrologic information of major tributaries to a water resources system model, which routes runoff generated via the VIC model through water infrastructure, and accounts for water withdrawals for agriculture, hydropower generation, municipal demand, return flows and others human activities. The system model also simulates agricultural production and the economic value of water in its various uses, including municipal, agricultural, and hydropower. Furthermore, the modeling framework incorporates plausible climate change scenarios based on the latest projections of changes to contributing glaciers (upstream), as well as changes to monsoon behavior (downstream). Water resources projects proposed in the Brahmaputra basin are evaluated based on their distribution of benefits and costs in the absence of well-defined water entitlements, and relative to a complex regional water-energy-food nexus. Results of this project will provide a basis for water sharing negotiation among the four countries and inform trans-national water-energy policy making.

  10. Past and present status of the Indian Tiger in northern West Bengal, India: an overview

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    J.K. Mallick


    Full Text Available Changes in the distribution range and the estimates of Tiger (Panthera tigris populations in northern West Bengal from the late 19th century to 2009 were examined in detail. According to a 2004 census there were 70 tigers in the region, while a 2008 estimate put the number at 8-12. The tiger survives only in protected areas of terai and duars extending over about 1000km2 of Buxa, Jaldapara, Neora Valley and Mahananda, the Panighat and Bamanpokhri Ranges of Kurseong Division and the Chilapata and Kodalbusty Ranges under Wildlife-III Division. Tigers became extinct in Chapramari Sanctuary about a decade back; Gorumara sightings were recorded up to the 1980s. The species has already lost about 1000km2 of its historic range in the territorial forest divisions of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Dinajpur and Malda Districts. The State Forest Department has undertaken efforts involving regular monitoring, protection measures and habitat improvements and tigers are now being sighted in areas where they were absent for years. Resident tigers appear to be expanding their ranges to new areas, sometimes at higher altitudes as in Neora Valley National Park and Buxa Tiger Reserve crossing into Bhutan and Sikkim.

  11. Transport of toxic metals through the major river systems of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A.M.S.; Islam, M.A.; Rahman, M.A.; Ahmed, E.; Islam, S.; Sultana, K.S.; Siddique, M.N.A.


    Bangladesh having an area of about 144,000 sq. km with a population of more than 120 millions is situated in the north eastern part of the south Asia subcontinent and a vast area to the south in the Bay of Bengal. The largest delta in the world has a largest catchment area of about 1554,000 sq. km spread over five countries namely Bhutan, Nepal, China, India and Bangladesh. Environmental pollution usually refers to biological, chemical and physical materials introduced largely as a result of human activities. Water is one of the main source of the environmental pollution and the contamination of water by the metal ions at the trace level is generally occurred through natural process or anthropogenic sources. Buriganga, Sitalaksma, Karnafully, Bramhaputra and Jamuna were selected for the present study. The toxic metal ions concentration in water samples of various regions of different rivers were determined by ASS and GFAAS. Higher concentration of different toxic metal ions have been observed at different location of various rivers. This observation demand the need of regular monitoring of toxic metals ion concentration in different rivers especially Buriganga, Sitalaksma and Karnafully. The results of further study will reveal some important information that will certainly be useful for the GOB to instruct DOE and DPHE for the remedial measures. (author)

  12. Bhutanese Students' Views of Nature of Science: a Case Study of Culturally Rich Country (United States)

    Das, Pabi Maya; Faikhamta, Chatree; Punsuvon, Vittaya


    This study is aimed at exploring ninth-grade Bhutanese students' views of nature of science (NOS). A total of 389 students from middle secondary and higher secondary schools from the eastern, western, southern and central regions of Bhutan took part in this study. To generate a representative population, a stratified random sampling technique was used. An adopted and adapted version of the Students Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry (SUSSI) comprised Likert-type items, and open-ended questions were used as a research tool. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analysed and categorized into naïve, transitional and informed views. The results indicated that the majority of the Bhutanese students held naïve views on sociocultural embeddedness, scientific laws, scientific theories and science as a body of knowledge. The study has an implication for curriculum developers and teaching professionals, particularly in culturally rich countries, that explicit instruction of NOS should be reframed based on students' cultural backgrounds and their indigenous knowledge.

  13. Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Density in Relation to Land Use/Cover, Altitude and Slope Aspect in the Eastern Himalayas

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    Tshering Dorji


    Full Text Available In-depth understanding about the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC density is crucial for carbon (C accounting, C budgeting and designing appropriate C sequestration strategies. We examined the vertical distribution of SOC density under different land use/land cover (LULC types, altitudinal zones and aspect directions in a montane ecosystem of Bhutan. Sampling sites were located using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS scheme. Soils were sampled based on genetic horizons. An equal-area spline function was fitted to interpolate the target values to predetermined depths. Linear mixed model was fitted followed by mean separation tests. The results show some significant effects of LULC, altitudinal zone and slope aspect on the vertical distribution of SOC density in the profiles. Based on the proportion of mean SOC density in the first 20 cm relative to the cumulative mean SOC density in the top meter, the SOC density under agricultural lands (34% was more homogeneously distributed down the profiles than forests (39%, grasslands (59% and shrublands (43%. Similarly, the SOC density under 3500–4000 m zone (35% was more uniformly distributed compared to 3000–3500 m zone (43% and 1769–2500 m and 2500–3000 m zones (41% each. Under different aspect directions, the north and east-facing slopes (38% each had more uniform distribution of SOC density than south (40% and west-facing slopes (49%.

  14. Atomic Resolution Structures of Human Bufaviruses Determined by Cryo-Electron Microscopy

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    Maria Ilyas


    Full Text Available Bufavirus strain 1 (BuV1, a member of the Protoparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae, was first isolated from fecal samples of children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso. Since this initial discovery, BuVs have been isolated in several countries, including Finland, the Netherlands, and Bhutan, in pediatric patients exhibiting similar symptoms. Towards their characterization, the structures of virus-like particles of BuV1, BuV2, and BuV3, the current known genotypes, have been determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction to 2.84, 3.79, and 3.25 Å, respectively. The BuVs, 65–73% identical in amino acid sequence, conserve the major viral protein, VP2, structure and general capsid surface features of parvoviruses. These include a core β-barrel (βB-βI, α-helix A, and large surface loops inserted between these elements in VP2. The capsid contains depressions at the icosahedral 2-fold and around the 5-fold axes, and has three separated protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes. Structure comparison among the BuVs and to available parvovirus structures revealed capsid surface variations and capsid 3-fold protrusions that depart from the single pinwheel arrangement of the animal protoparvoviruses. These structures provide a platform to begin the molecular characterization of these potentially pathogenic viruses.

  15. Humic acid from Shilajit – a physico-chemical and spectroscopic characterization

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    Full Text Available Shilajit is a blackish–brown exudation, consisting of organic substances, metal ions and minerals, from different formations, commonly found in the Himalayan region (1000–3000 m from Nepal to Kashmir. Shilajit can also be collected throughout the mountain regions in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Bajkal, throughout Ural, Caucasus and Altai mountains also, at altitudes between 1000 to 5000 m. The major physiological action of shilajit has been attributed to the presence of bioactive dibenzo-α-pyrones together with humic and fulvic acids, which act as carrier molecules for the active ingredients. In this work, the aim was to extract humic acid from Shilajit from various sources and characterised these humic acids based on their physicochemical properties, elemental analysis, UV/Vis and FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern and DSC thermograms. The spectral features obtained from UV/Vis, FTIR, XRD and DSC studies for samples of different origins showed a distinct similarity amongst themselves and in comparison to soil humic acids. The surfactant properties of the extracted fulvic acids were investigated by determining the effect of increasing concentration on the surface tension of water. The study demonstrated that humic acids extracted from shilajit indeed possessed surfactant properties.

  16. Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from Afghanistan in 2003-2005. (United States)

    Schumann, Kate R; Knowles, Nick J; Davies, Paul R; Midgley, Rebecca J; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Raoufi, Abdul Quader; McKenna, Thomas S; Hurtle, William; Burans, James P; Martin, Barbara M; Rodriguez, Luis L; Beckham, Tammy R


    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from various geographic locations in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 coding region. Three serotypes of FMDV (types A, O, and Asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in Afghanistan during this period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type A viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in Iran during 2002-2004. This is the first published report of serotype A in Afghanistan since 1975, therefore indicating the need for inclusion of serotype A in vaccine formulations that will be used to control disease outbreaks in this country. Serotype O virus isolates were closely related to PanAsia strains, including those that originated from Bhutan and Nepal during 2003-2004. The Asia 1 viruses, collected along the northern and eastern borders of Afghanistan, were most closely related to FMDV isolates collected in Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. Data obtained from this study provide valuable information on the FMDV serotypes circulating in Afghanistan and their genetic relationship with strains causing FMD in neighboring countries.

  17. Laos: development against all the odds. (United States)


    Laos, with a $90 per capita income, is one of the world's poorest 15 countries. In Asia, only Bhutan is poorer. The French, when they departed, left no infrastructure for development, and the Americans, during the Vietnam war, desolated most of the area known as the Plain of Jars by bombing. At present, 750,000 persons out of a total population of 3.3 million are officially termed "displaced." Nevertheless, the Pathet Lao government, with financial aid from the World Bank and from Sweden, has initiated development policies which are beginning to have some effect. Rice production is the first priority because last year the government had to buy 120,000 tons on the open market with precious foreign currency. Irrigation schemes are being vigorously promoted, and one of them is maintained by the American Friends Service. Literacy is another priority; Lao is the official language. The absence of good roads, however, continues to hamper communications, there is a shortage of transport, no railways, and large areas of arable land still remain unusable. The country is rich in mineral resources and forest products, especially teak, but much of the present development is confined to the area immediately around the capital, Vientiane.

  18. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

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    Gyanendra Gongal


    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  19. One Health in South Asia and its challenges in implementation from stakeholder perspective. (United States)

    Dahal, Rojan; Upadhyay, Atul; Ewald, Benjamin


    One Health is a concept which fosters collaborative relationships between human health, animal health and environmental health partners. Diseases are emerging and re-emerging in South Asia due to poor sanitation, close proximity of people to livestock, deforestation, porous borders, climate change, changes in human behaviour and unhygienic food preparation and consumption practices. This review was completed in two stages. First, we conducted a review of peer-reviewed literature and grey literature available in Google search engine related to One Health in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal). Second, we used a structured questionnaire completed by the key stakeholders working on One Health for the collection of information related to the challenges in implementing One Health. Most of the One Health activities in South Asia are determined by donor preferences. Bangladesh and India did considerable work in advancing One Health with limited support from the government agencies. Weak surveillance mechanisms, uncertain cost-effectiveness of One Health compared with the existing approach, human resources and laboratory capacity are some of the factors hindering implementation of the One Health concept. Implementation of One Health is growing in the South Asia region with limited or no government acceptance. To institutionalise it, there is a need for leadership, government support and funding. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake


    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  1. HIMALA: climate impacts on glaciers, snow, and hydrology in the Himalayan region (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Racoviteanu, Adina


    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world's population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  2. Decreasing Indian summer monsoon on the northern Indian sub-continent during the last 180 years: evidence from five tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotope chronologies (United States)

    Xu, Chenxi; Sano, Masaki; Priyadarshan Dimri, Ashok; Ramesh, Rengaswamy; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Shi, Feng; Guo, Zhengtang


    We have constructed a regional tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotope (δ18O) record for the northern Indian sub-continent based on two new records from northern India and central Nepal and three published records from northwestern India, western Nepal and Bhutan. The record spans the common interval from 1743 to 2008 CE. Correlation analysis reveals that the record is significantly and negatively correlated with the three regional climatic indices: all India rainfall (AIR; r = -0.5, p changes in the ISM. The record exhibits significant interannual and long-term variations. Interannual changes are closely related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which indicates that the ISM was affected by ENSO in the past. However, the ISM-ENSO relationship was not consistent over time, and it may be partly modulated by Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). Long-term changes in the regional tree-ring δ18O record indicate a possible trend of weakened ISM intensity since 1820. Decreasing ISM activity is also observed in various high-resolution ISM records from southwest China and Southeast Asia, and may be the result of reduced land-ocean thermal contrasts since 1820 CE.

  3. Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas (United States)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Lambin, Eric F.


    A topographic correction of optical remote sensing data is necessary to improve the quality of quantitative forest cover change analyses in mountainous terrain. The implementation of semi-empirical correction methods requires the calibration of model parameters that are empirically defined. This study develops a method to improve the performance of topographic corrections for forest cover change detection in mountainous terrain through an iterative tuning method of model parameters based on a systematic evaluation of the performance of the correction. The latter was based on: (i) the general matching of reflectances between sunlit and shaded slopes and (ii) the occurrence of abnormal reflectance values, qualified as statistical outliers, in very low illuminated areas. The method was tested on Landsat ETM+ data for rough (Ecuadorian Andes) and very rough mountainous terrain (Bhutan Himalayas). Compared to a reference level (no topographic correction), the ATCOR3 semi-empirical correction method resulted in a considerable reduction of dissimilarities between reflectance values of forested sites in different topographic orientations. Our results indicate that optimal parameter combinations are depending on the site, sun elevation and azimuth and spectral conditions. We demonstrate that the results of relatively simple topographic correction methods can be greatly improved through a feedback loop between parameter tuning and evaluation of the performance of the correction model.

  4. Health promotion in South East Asia. (United States)

    Mir, N S


    The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka."

  5. Faunal diversity in a semi-evergreen forest of Bornadi-Khalingduar Complex of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The Bornadi-Khalingduar Complex under the Manas Tiger Reserve, Assam is known to be an important area for wildlife movement to and from India and Bhutan. The contiguous landscape encompassing the two neighbouring countries provides a good habitat for diversity of wildlife and also as an important corridor area.  We carried out an opportunistic camera-trapping exercise to document the faunal diversity in the area. A month-long exercise photo-captured a total of 19 species belonging to 12 families, including the Leopard, Wild Dog, Leopard Cat, Binturong, Elephant, Sambar, Barking Deer and various birds. These findings of the study reveal the importance, threats and potential of the area and recommendations have been made to secure this corridor for continuous animal movement. Anthropogenic disturbance is a major deterrent to undisturbed animal movement in this area with resultant forest fragmentation and degradation. This indicates the need for effective conservation strategies in order to maintain the remnants of this corridor complex.  

  6. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking. (United States)


    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses).

  7. Identification of yeast strains isolated from marcha in Sikkim, a microbial starter for amylolytic fermentation. (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Naoko; Fudou, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Kozaki, Michio; Tamang, Namrata; Thapa, Saroj; Tamang, Jyoti P


    Marcha or murcha is a traditional amylolytic starter used to produce sweet-sour alcoholic drinks, commonly called jaanr in the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet (China). The aim of this study was to examine the microflora of marcha collected from Sikkim in India, focusing on yeast flora and their roles. Twenty yeast strains were isolated from six samples of marcha and identified by genetic and phenotypic methods. They were first classified into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV) based on physiological features using an API test. Phylogenetic, morphological, and physiological characterization identified the isolates as Saccharomyces bayanus (Group I); Candida glabrata (Group II); Pichia anomala (Group III); and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Saccharomycopsis capsularis, and Pichia burtonii (Group IV). Among them, the Group I, II, and III strains produced ethanol. The isolates of Group IV had high amylolytic activity. Because all marcha samples tested contained both starch degraders and ethanol producers, it was hypothesized that all four groups of yeast (Group I, II, III, and IV) contribute to starch-based alcohol fermentation.

  8. Technical Evaluation Report 61: The World-Wide Inaccessible Web, Part 2: Internet routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Klaas


    Full Text Available In the previous report in this series, Web browser loading times were measured in 12 Asian countries, and were found to be up to four times slower than commonly prescribed as acceptable. Failure of webpages to load at all was frequent. The current follow-up study compares these loading times with the complexity of the Internet routes linking the Web users and the Web servers hosting them. The study was conducted in the same 12 Asian countries, with the assistance of members of the International Development Research Centre’s PANdora distance education research network. The data were generated by network members in Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Additional data for the follow-up study were collected in China. Using a ‘traceroute’ routine, the study indicates that webpage loading time is linked to the complexity of the Internet routes between Web users and the host server. It is indicated that distance educators can apply such information in the design of improved online delivery and mirror sites, notably in areas of the developing world which currently lack an effective infrastructure for online education.

  9. The Importance of Context: Three Corrections to Cordaro, Keltner, Tshering, Wangchuk, & Flynn (2016) (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Gendron, Maria


    In their recently published paper, The Voice Conveys Emotion in Ten Globalized Cultures and One Remote Village in Bhutan, Cordaro and colleagues conclude that certain emotion categories are universally recognized by people around the world, barring illness and measurement error. The impact of Cordaro et al.’s paper, like the impact of all empirical papers, is determined not only by it’s research findings, but also by how the research findings are situated. Accuracy in characterizing the scientific context of new findings is as important as maintaining the highest standards for other aspects of the scientific method. In this regard, we point out three areas of concern in Cordaro et al.’s discussion of past research on remote samples, the use of more discovery-oriented (and less confirmatory) experimental methods in past research, and the use of manipulation checks in past research. Ultimately, a paper’s contribution to scientific progress is limited when ambiguities and oversights obscure the real value of its findings. PMID:27584725

  10. The importance of context: Three corrections to Cordaro, Keltner, Tshering, Wangchuk, and Flynn (2016). (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Gendron, Maria


    In their recently published article, "The Voice Conveys Emotion in Ten Globalized Cultures and One Remote Village in Bhutan," Cordaro, Keltner, Tshering, Wangchuk, and Flynn conclude that certain emotion categories are universally recognized by people around the world, barring illness and measurement error. The impact of Cordaro et al.'s article, like that of all empirical studies, is determined not only by its research findings but also by how the research findings are situated. Accuracy in characterizing the scientific context of new findings is as important as maintaining the highest standards for other aspects of the scientific method. In this regard, we point out three areas of concern in Cordaro et al.'s discussion of past research on remote samples, the use of more discovery-oriented (and less confirmatory) experimental methods in past research, and the use of manipulation checks in past research. Ultimately, a study's contribution to scientific progress is limited when ambiguities and oversights obscure the real value of its findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A new protoberberine alkaloid from Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers with potent antimalarial activity against a multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain. (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Phurpa, Wangchuk; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Lie, Wilford; Willis, Anthony C; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee


    The aerial components of Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers are indicated in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating malaria, coughs and colds, and the infections of the liver, lung and blood. This study is to validate the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant and also identify potent antimalarial drug leads through bioassays of its crude extracts and phytochemical constituents. Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers was collected from Bhutan and its crude MeOH extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation. Through repeated extractions, separations and spectroscopic analysis, the alkaloids obtained were identified and tested for their antimalarial and cytotoxicity activities. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of one new protoberberine type alkaloid which we named as simplicifolianine and five known alkaloids: protopine, norsanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, 6-methoxydihydrosanguinarine and oxysanguinarine. Among the five of the alkaloids tested, simplicifolianine showed the most potent antiplasmodial activities against the Plasmodium falciparum strains, TM4/8.2 (chloroquine-antifolate sensitive strain) and K1CB1 (multidrug resistant strain) with IC50 values of 0.78 μg/mL and 1.29 μg/mL, respectively. The compounds tested did not show any significant cytotoxicity activities against human oral carcinoma KB cells and normal Vero cells of African kidney epithelial cells. This study validated the traditional uses of the plant for the treatment of malaria and identified a new alkaloid, simplicifolianine as a potential antimalarial drug lead. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  13. Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, contains 11 chapters designated by the letters A through K. Chapter A provides a comprehensive, yet concise, review of the "State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments," and a "Map/Poster of the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere," and a set of eight "Supplemental Cryosphere Notes" about the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere and the Earth System. The next 10 chapters, B through K, are arranged geographically and present glaciological information from Landsat and other sources of historic and modern data on each of the geographic areas. Chapter B covers Antarctica; Chapter C, Greenland; Chapter D, Iceland; Chapter E, Continental Europe (except for the European part of the former Soviet Union), including the Alps, the Pyrenees, Norway, Sweden, Svalbard (Norway), and Jan Mayen (Norway); Chapter F, Asia, including the European part of the former Soviet Union, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan; Chapter G, Turkey, Iran, and Africa; Chapter H, Irian Jaya (Indonesia) and New Zealand; Chapter I, South America; Chapter J, North America (excluding Alaska); and Chapter K, Alaska. Chapters A–D each include map plates.

  14. Segmentation of the Himalayas as revealed by arc-parallel gravity anomalies (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Cattin, Rodolphe; Berthet, Théo; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Chophel, Jamyang; Lechmann, Sarah; Hammer, Paul; Drukpa, Dowchu; Sapkota, Soma Nath; Gautier, Stéphanie; Thinley, Kinzang


    Lateral variations along the Himalayan arc are suggested by an increasing number of studies and carry important information about the orogen’s segmentation. Here we compile the hitherto most complete land gravity dataset in the region which enables the currently highest resolution plausible analysis. To study lateral variations in collisional structure we compute arc-parallel gravity anomalies (APaGA) by subtracting the average arc-perpendicular profile from our dataset; we compute likewise for topography (APaTA). We find no direct correlation between APaGA, APaTA and background seismicity, as suggested in oceanic subduction context. In the Himalayas APaTA mainly reflect relief and erosional effects, whereas APaGA reflect the deep structure of the orogen with clear lateral boundaries. Four segments are outlined and have disparate flexural geometry: NE India, Bhutan, Nepal & India until Dehradun, and NW India. The segment boundaries in the India plate are related to inherited structures, and the boundaries of the Shillong block are highlighted by seismic activity. We find that large earthquakes of the past millennium do not propagate across the segment boundaries defined by APaGA, therefore these seem to set limits for potential rupture of megathrust earthquakes.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Structure among Isolated Populations of the Endangered Gees Golden Langur in Assam, India (United States)

    Biswas, Jihosuo; Nag, Sudipta; Shil, Joydeep; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy


    Gee’s golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered colobine primate, endemic to the semi-evergreen and mixed-deciduous forests of Indo-Bhutan border. During the last few decades, extensive fragmentation has caused severe population decline and local extinction of golden langur from several fragments. However, no studies are available on the impact of habitat fragmentation and the genetic diversity of golden langur in the fragmented habitats. The present study aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in the Indian population of golden langur. We sequenced and analyzed around 500 bases of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region-I from 59 fecal samples of wild langur collected from nine forest fragments. Overall, genetic diversity was high (h = 0.934, π = 0.0244) and comparable with other colobines. Populations in smaller fragments showed lower nucleotide diversity compared to the larger forest fragments. The median-joining network of haplotypes revealed a genetic structure that corresponded with the geographical distribution. The Aie and Champabati Rivers were found to be a barrier to gene flow between golden langur populations. In addition, it also established that T. geei is monophyletic but revealed possible hybridization with capped langur, T. pileatus, in the wild. It is hoped that these findings would result in a more scientific approach towards managing the fragmented populations of this enigmatic species. PMID:27564405

  16. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.


    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  17. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health. (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J


    About 45.2 million people were displaced from their homes in 2012 due to persecution, political conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. Refugees who endure violence are at increased risk of developing chronic psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. The primary care visit may be the first opportunity to detect the devastating psychological effects of trauma. Physicians and refugees have identified communication barriers that inhibit discussions about mental health. In this study, refugees offer advice to physicians about how to assess the mental health effects of trauma. Ethnocultural methodology informed 13 focus groups with 111 refugees from Burma, Bhutan, Somali and Ethiopia. Refugees responded to questions concerning how physicians should ask about mental health in acceptable ways. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic categorization informed by Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence. Refugees recommended that physicians should take the time to make refugees comfortable, initiate direct conversations about mental health, inquire about the historical context of symptoms and provide psychoeducation about mental health and healing. Physicians may require specialized training to learn how to initiate conversations about mental health and provide direct education and appropriate mental health referrals in a brief medical appointment. To assist with making appropriate referrals, physicians may also benefit from education about evidence-based practices for treating symptoms of refugee trauma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia. (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar


    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.

  19. Predicted Attenuation Relation and Observed Ground Motion of Gorkha Nepal Earthquake of 25 April 2015 (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Ahmad, R.


    A comparison of recent observed ground motion parameters of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 (Mw 7.8) with the predicted ground motion parameters using exitsing attenuation relation of the Himalayan region will be presented. The recent earthquake took about 8000 lives and destroyed thousands of poor quality of buildings and the earthquake was felt by millions of people living in Nepal, China, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. The knowledge of ground parameters are very important in developing seismic code of seismic prone regions like Himalaya for better design of buildings. The ground parameters recorded in recent earthquake event and aftershocks are compared with attenuation relations for the Himalayan region, the predicted ground motion parameters show good correlation with the observed ground parameters. The results will be of great use to Civil engineers in updating existing building codes in the Himlayan and surrounding regions and also for the evaluation of seismic hazards. The results clearly show that the attenuation relation developed for the Himalayan region should be only used, other attenuation relations based on other regions fail to provide good estimate of observed ground motion parameters.

  20. Quantitative estimation of orographic precipitation over the Himalayas by using TRMM/PR and a dense network of rain gauges (United States)

    Yatagai, A.


    Precipitation Radar (PR) data acquired by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over 10 years of observation were used to show the monthly rainfall patterns over the Himalayas. To validate and adjust these patterns, we used a dense network of rain gauges to measure daily precipitation over Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, and China. We then compared TRMM/PR and rain gauge data in 0.05-degree grid cells (an approximately 5.5-km mesh). Compared with the rain gauge observations, the PR systematically underestimated precipitation by 28-38% in summer (July-September).Significant correlation between TRMM/PR and RG data was found for all months, but the correlation is relatively low in winter. The relationship is investigated for different elevation zones, and the PR was found to underestimate RG data in most zones, except for certain zones in February (250-1000m), March (0-1000m), and April (0-1500m). Monthly PR climatology was adjusted on the basis of monthly regressions between the two sets of data and depicted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Howes


    Full Text Available This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, held in place only by the "Chicken's Neck" or Siliguri Corridor - bears no relation to the way in which this region was imagined by the British East India Company (EIC in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Having obtained revenuefarming rights and judicial duties over the North-Eastern Frontier, as it was then known, through a 1765 diwani grant from the Great Mughal in Delhi, the EIC aspired first and foremost to revive the administration of revenue in the region, adding a monopoly in territory to their existing monopolies in the eastern trade. Given these primarily commercial interests, it should come as no surprise that the EIC's map-makers, their eyes fixed on the web of lucrative trade routes crisscrossing the region, homed in on the North-Eastern Frontier as the central point in "a synoptic vision that connected Bengal to China" (72. ...

  2. Convocation address. (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S


    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  3. Experience of pico/micro hydro based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, S.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    Although India has approximately 150,000 megawatts of hydro potential, only a small portion is tapped. There is also significant untapped hydro potential in many developing countries such as Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam, Indonesia and regions in South America and Africa. Small-scale hydroelectric power systems with capacities of up to a few megawatts are eco-friendly and sustainable. They can be classified based on unit sizes as pico (u pto 10 kilowatts), micro (10-100 kilowatts) and mini (100 kilowatts to a few megawatts) hydro systems. Mini hydro systems are always grid connected while micro can be either grid connected or off grid. Pico is always off grid. In India, there are thousands of favorable sites in this range that should be tapped for distributed power generation to electrify local communities. This need is reflected by the global emphasis on distributed power generation as well as the Government of India's policy to promote this type of power generation. A working stand alone pico-hydro power generating system has been successfully installed in 5 sites in Karnataka. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the technical, managerial and economic feasibility of setting up small hydro projects in remote hilly areas of Karnataka, India and its positive environmental impact. The presentation discussed the site selection criteria; installed sites of pico hydro; system description; parts of the system; the electric load controller; types of electronic load controllers; and a description of the unit and control scheme. tabs., figs.

  4. HIMALA: Climate Impacts on Glaciers, Snow, and Hydrology in the Himalayan Region (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; hide


    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world s population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  5. On the economics of happiness: the influence of income and non-income factors on happiness

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    Darma Mahadea


    Full Text Available The quest for individual happiness and a better life for all is an important economic objective in countries as different as South Africa and France or Zimbabwe and Bhutan. Economists have focused attention on the effects of consumption, income and economic growth or development on well-being and whether economic growth can be the sole basis for delivering prosperity (Dutt & Radcliff , 2009; Jackson, 2010.  The search for happiness is an important individual and national economic goal.  In the Benthamite utilitarian tradition, happiness is the sum of all pleasures and pains. People often obtain or perceive their happiness from what they have in comparison with others.  At the macroeconomic level, more happiness may come from a sustained growth in GDP that enables households to enjoy an improved quality of life, with rising income, consumption and employment opportunities.  At the microeconomic or individual level, more income may also enable people to live happier and fuller lives relative to those who are poor.  But this accounts for only a small contribution to happiness. Life circumstances, such as marital status, health, having children and the nature of the working environment statistically make a greater contribution to happiness than income.

  6. Hayata glandulifera (Orchidaceae, New Genus and Species From Northern Vietnam

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    Leonid V. Averyanov


    Full Text Available New orchid related to Cheirostylis, Goodyera, Rhomboda and Zeuxine discovered in lowland central part of northern Vietnam is described in rank of separate genus Hayata. Proposed genus differs from Goodyera in 2 separate lateral stigmas; in not hairy hypochile; in massive, knob-like mesochile and in large 2-lobed, dentate epichile. It differs from Cheirostylis in large flowers with completely free sepals (newer forming tube; in peculiar bunches of capitate glands on lateral walls of hypochile and in not swollen succulent rhizome forming normal adventitious roots, not modified into ridges or pillows covered by root hairs. From Rhomboda discovered genus differs in absence of any keels on the lip; in specific papillae bunches inside hypochile and in not winged column. New genus may be also close to Zeuxine, from which it differs in plant habit, large flowers, large dentate lobes of epichile and in specific shape of stelidia and rostellar arms. Described plant not fits well with any genera of subtribe Goodyerinae and certainly desires generic segregation. Besides Vietnamese plant, described genus includes H. tabiyahanensis from Taiwan and H. sherriffii from Bhutan. Standard taxonomical treatment of new genus and key for its species identification is presented in the paper.

  7. The reasons for the different nest shapes of Megapis bees

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    Woyke Jerzy


    Full Text Available Over a 37-year period, we observed 1011 active bee nests and abandoned combs of Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa in Nepal, India, the Philippines, and Bhutan. This article focuses on the reasons for the different shapes of the nests. We discovered that differing ambient conditions were the reasons for the following three shapes of symmetrical nests: vertical semi-ellipse, semicircle, and the horizontal semi-ellipse. We noted that asymmetrical nests were constructed when there was lack of space to extend the comb equally in both external directions. An asymmetrical nest also appeared when remnants of a previous comb remained on one edge of the nest. Convex nests were constructed to avoid excess sun exposure. Concave nests appeared as a result of low temperatures during the night and part of the day (Nepal. An L-shape nest was constructed when there was lack of space available to extend the nest in a straight direction. The shape of the nests also determines the way the combs fall.

  8. Glacial hazards: communicating the science and managing the risk (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M.


    these scientific applications. Communicating the science to students and trying to excite them to the fun of applying these scientific disciplines in the field are important as part of science outreach. It is also important to communicate the science to those in government (local and national) within those countries affected by such hazards and to international funding agencies. There are two issues here: (a) using the media to a positive effect without alarming vulnerable and sensitive communities, and (b) providing the appropriate authorities with the necessary technical information about the hazards, their potential effects if catastrophe strikes, and how to manage the risk in an effective and timely fashion. For (a) where this is not handled correctly, the media are still ever too keen to headline potential catastrophes and unwittingly cause alarm among local communities. The so-called Palcacocha fiasco in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in April 2003 and the Imja Tsho media flurry of May 2008 in Nepal are but two recent examples. For (b) there needs to be a programme of interaction through workshops between the scientific community and key stakeholders in affected countries. Where these have been undertaken, such as in Bhutan, Nepal and Peru, the outcomes have been extremely productive and beneficial. However, much remains to be done in ensuring that authorities and funding agencies, for example, are aware of existing international guidelines on the assessment of glacial hazards that use objective methodologies, such as those funded by the British Government and published in 2003 (see hazards_group/dfid.htm from which the guidelines can be downloaded in PDF format). Similar workshops, for example, are also being developed separately in Austria by the Glacier and Permafrost Hazard (GAPHAZ) Working Group and in Bhutan by the UNDP.

  9. Paris in the spring: A review of the trade, conservation and opportunities in the shift from wild harvest to cultivation of Paris polyphylla (Trilliaceae). (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Bi, Y-F; Pei, S-J; Schippmann, U; Luo, P


    P. polyphylla Smith is used in traditional medicine in China, India and Nepal and is likely to be similarly used through most of its geographic range. China is at the centre of demand for P. polyphylla where it is used as an ingredient in several very successful Chinese medicinal herbal formulations. The Chinese e-commerce platform '', for example, lists 97 P. polyphylla items offered by 46 Asian suppliers, of which 21 are situated in the Chinese mainland, 12 in Nepal, 7 in India, 2 in Pakistan, and 1 each in Bhutan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Vietnam. Products offered include the crude drug (dried whole or cut rhizomes), extracts and formulations containing this herbal drug. The aims of this review were to assess the scale of the P. polyphylla trade, reviewing evidence on the impacts of wild harvest on P. polyphylla populations and on the role of cultivation as an alternative to wild harvest. Firstly, we reviewed published information on Paris population biology and studies on impacts of wild P. polyphylla harvest from across the geographic range of this species. Secondly, global trade data for P. polyphylla were analysed. Thirdly, we reviewed published information on P. polyphylla cultivation and made field visits to P. polyphylla cultivation areas in Yunnan and Sichuan. Since the 1980s, there has been a 400-fold increase in the market price paid in China for P. polyphylla rhizomes, from 2.7 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per kg in the 1980s to market prices up to 1100 CNY per kg in 2017. Cross-border trade in dried P. polyphylla rhizomes occurs at three different scales. Firstly, an internal, national trade of P. polyphylla rhizomes within countries (such as India, Nepal and China). Secondly, trade in P. polyphylla rhizomes from Nepal (and possibly from Bhutan) to the two range states that have the largest traditional medicine trade in the world: China and India. Thirdly, trade in processed herbal products. In China, for example, P. polyphylla is widely used as

  10. Quantitative precipitation climatology over the Himalayas by using Precipitation Radar on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and a dense network of rain-gauges (United States)

    Yatagai, A.


    Quantified grid observation data at a reasonable resolution are indispensable for environmental monitoring as well as for predicting future change of mountain environment. However quantified datasets have not been available for the Himalayan region. Hence we evaluate climatological precipitation data around the Himalayas by using Precipitation Radar (PR) data acquired by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over 10 years of observation. To validate and adjust these patterns, we used a dense network of rain gauges collected by the Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE Water Resources) project ( We used more than 2600 stations which have more than 10-year monthly precipitation over the Himalayan region (75E-105E, 20-36N) including country data of Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, and China. The region we studied is so topographically complicated that horizontal patterns are not uniform. Therefore, every path data of PR2A25 (near-surface rain) was averaged in a 0.05-degree grid and a 10-year monthly average was computed (hereafter we call PR). On the other hand, for rain-gauge, we first computed cell averages if each 0.05-degree grid cell has 10 years observation or more. Here we refer to the 0.05-degree rain-gauge climatology data as RG data. On the basis of comparisons between the RG and PR composite values, we defined the parameters of the regressions to correct the monthly climatology value based on the rain gauge observations. Compared with the RG, the PR systematically underestimated precipitation by 28-38% in summer (July-September). Significant correlation between TRMM/PR and rain-gauge data was found for all months, but the correlation is relatively low in winter. The relationship is investigated for different elevation zones, and the PR was found to underestimate RG data in most zones, except for certain zones in

  11. Chronological trends in maximum and minimum water flows of the Teesta River, Bangladesh, and its implications

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    Md. Sanaul H. Mondal


    Full Text Available Bangladesh shares a common border with India in the west, north and east and with Myanmar in the southeast. These borders cut across 57 rivers that discharge through Bangladesh into the Bay of Bengal in the south. The upstream courses of these rivers traverse India, China, Nepal and Bhutan. Transboundary flows are the important sources of water resources in Bangladesh. Among the 57 transboundary rivers, the Teesta is the fourth major river in Bangladesh after the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna and Bangladesh occupies about 2071 km2 . The Teesta River floodplain in Bangladesh accounts for 14% of the total cropped area and 9.15 million people of the country. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in both maximum and minimum water flow at Kaunia and Dalia stations for the Teesta River and the coping strategies developed by the communities to adjust with uncertain flood situations. The flow characteristics of the Teesta were analysed by calculating monthly maximum and minimum water levels and discharges from 1985 to 2006. Discharge of the Teesta over the last 22 years has been decreasing. Extreme low-flow conditions were likely to occur more frequently after the implementation of the Gozoldoba Barrage by India. However, a very sharp decrease in peak flows was also observed albeit unexpected high discharge in 1988, 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999 and 2004 with some in between April and October. Onrush of water causes frequent flash floods, whereas decreasing flow leaves the areas dependent on the Teesta vulnerable to droughts. Both these extreme situations had a negative impact on the lives and livelihoods of people dependent on the Teesta. Over the years, people have developed several risk mitigation strategies to adjust with both natural and anthropogenic flood situations. This article proposed the concept of ‘MAXIN (maximum and minimum flows’ for river water justice for riparian land.

  12. Humanitarian Cleft Lip/Palate Surgeries in Buddhist Thailand and Neighboring Countries. (United States)

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Preeyanont, Piyoros; Udnoon, Sopridee


    This study evaluates surgeries done on patients with cleft lip and/or palate in Thailand and its neighboring countries from 1988 to 2008. This 21-year-long volunteer surgical mission was sponsored by Duang-Kaew Foundation, a volunteer organization. Countries involved, besides Thailand, were Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, China, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and India. The same surgical method for primary and secondary repair of lip and/or palate was used throughout: Onizuka method by single surgeon, the second author mainly. We assessed, by way of the patients' medical records including their background, the results of surgeries. The healing rates and complication rates associated with patients for primary and secondary repair of lip and/or palate. The study consisted of a total of 6832 patients: 3120 with cleft lip (CL); 2190 with cleft palate (CP); and 1522 with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Their primary cases were 675 (CL), 799 (CP), and 301 (CLP). All CP operations were done under general anesthesia. Of the CL surgeries, 10% of adult cases were done under local anesthesia. Of all the patients, 78%, or 5329, had one surgery; and 22%, or 1503, had 2 or more surgeries. Good healing was seen in 73.3%, whereas wound infection was noted in 2.0% and healing by second intention was in 1.2% of all cases. It is important that the Onizuka method was the only method used in all the countries throughout the mission period. The method has an advantage over other methods in that its design is simple enough so that even a beginning plastic surgeon can easily master, and operative results are constantly good regardless of who did the operation. The Duang-Kaew Foundation's long-term surgical program helped reduce the number of untreated patients to manageable levels for local health care providers in Thailand and neighboring countries for as long as 21 years.

  13. Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from Asian countries. (United States)

    Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Boyle, Jacqueline; Cheng, I-Hao; East, Christine; Knight, Michelle; Teede, Helena


    To compare maternal health, prenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background (born in Asian humanitarian source countries [HSCs]) and non-refugee background (born in Asian non-HSCs) at Monash Health (Melbourne, VIC, Australia). In a retrospective study, data were obtained for women born in HSCs and non-HSCs from the same region who received government-funded health care for singleton pregnancies between 2002 and 2011. Multivariable regression analyses assessed associations between maternal HSC origin and pregnancy outcomes. Data were included for 1930 women from South Asian HSCs and 7412 from non-HSCs, 107 from Southeast Asian HSCs and 5574 from non-HSCs, 287 from West Asian HSCs and 990 from non-HSCs. Overweight, anemia, and teenage pregnancy were generally more common in the HSC groups. Birth in an HSC was independently associated with poor/no pregnancy care attendance (OR 4.2; 95% CI 2.5-7.3), late booking visit (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5), and post-term birth (OR 3.0; 95% CI 2.0-4.5) among women from South Asia. For Southeast Asia, HSC birth was independently associated with labor induction (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1-3.5). No independent associations were recorded for West Asia. Women born in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Iraq, and Myanmar had poorer general maternal health. Those from South Asian HSCs had increased risks of lower engagement in prenatal care, and post-term birth. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Qu, Kai-Xing; Yan, Shou-Qing; Yang, Min-Min; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Ping


    Abstract Gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithan or mithun, is a large endangered semi-domesticated bovine that has a limited geographical distribution in the hill-forests of China, Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan. Many questions about the gayal such as its origin, population history, and genetic basis of local adaptation remain largely unresolved. De novo sequencing and assembly of the whole gayal genome provides an opportunity to address these issues. We report a high-depth sequencing, de novo assembly, and annotation of a female Chinese gayal genome. Based on the Illumina genomic sequencing platform, we have generated 350.38 Gb of raw data from 16 different insert-size libraries. A total of 276.86 Gb of clean data is retained after quality control. The assembled genome is about 2.85 Gb with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 2.74 Mb and 14.41 kb, respectively. Repetitive elements account for 48.13% of the genome. Gene annotation has yielded 26 667 protein-coding genes, of which 97.18% have been functionally annotated. BUSCO assessment shows that our assembly captures 93% (3183 of 4104) of the core eukaryotic genes and 83.1% of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. We provide the first comprehensive de novo genome of the gayal. This genetic resource is integral for investigating the origin of the gayal and performing comparative genomic studies to improve understanding of the speciation and divergence of bovine species. The assembled genome could be used as reference in future population genetic studies of gayal. PMID:29048483

  15. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.


    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  16. Hepatitis B screening and prevalence among resettled refugees - United States, 2006-2011. (United States)

    Scott, Kevin C; Taylor, Eboni M; Mamo, Blain; Herr, Nathaniel D; Cronkright, Peter J; Yun, Katherine; Altshuler, Marc; Shetty, Sharmila


    Globally, more than two billion persons have been infected at some time with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and approximately 3.5 million refugees have chronic HBV infection. The endemicity of HBV varies by region. Because chronic hepatitis B is infectious and persons with chronic infection benefit from treatment, CDC recommends screening for HBV among all refugees who originate in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; a marker for acute or chronic infection) is ≥2% or who are at risk for HBV because of personal characteristics such as injection drug use or household contact with an individual with HBV infection. Currently, almost all refugees are routinely screened for hepatitis B. However, prevalence rates of HBV infection in refugee populations recently resettled in the United States have not been determined. A multisite, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of past HBV infection, current infection, and immunity among refugees resettled in the United States; to better characterize the burden of hepatitis B in this population; and to inform screening recommendations. The study incorporated surveillance data from a large state refugee health program and chart reviews from three U.S. sites that conduct medical screenings of refugees. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past as determined by available titer levels) varied among refugees originating in different countries and was higher among Burmese refugees than among refugees from Bhutan or Iraq. Current or past HBV infection was also higher among adults (aged >18 years) and male refugees. These data might help inform planning by states and resettlement agencies, as well as screening decisions by health care providers.

  17. Impact of land use change on the land atmosphere carbon flux of South and South East Asia: A Synthesis of Dynamic Vegetation Model Results (United States)

    Cervarich, M.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Stocker, B.; Arneth, A.; Viovy, N.; Kato, E.; Wiltshire, A.; Koven, C.; Sitch, S.; Zeng, N.; Friedlingstein, P.


    Understanding our present day carbon cycle and possible solutions to recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide is dependent upon quantifying the terrestrial carbon budget. Currently, global land cover and land use change is estimated to emit 0.9 PgC yr-1 compared to emissions due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production of 8.4 PgC yr-1. South and Southeast Asia (India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Singapore) is a region of rapid land cover and land use change due to the continuous development of agriculture, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, and the increased demand of land for people to live. In this study, we synthesize outputs of nine models participated in Global Carbon Budget Project to identify the carbon budget of South and southeast Asia, diagnose the contribution of land cover and land use change to carbon emissions and assess areas of uncertainty in the suite of models. Uncertainty is determined using the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of net ecosystem exchange and its component parts. Results show the region's terrestrial biosphere was a source of carbon emissions from the 1980 to the early 1990s. During the same time period, land cover and land use change increasingly contributed to carbon emission. In the most recent two decades, the region became a carbon sink since emission due to land cover land use changes. Spatially, the greatest total emissions occurred in the tropical forest of Southeast Asia. Additionally, this is the subregion with the greatest uncertainty and greatest biomass. Model uncertainty is shown to be proportional to total biomass. The atmospheric impacts of ENSO are shown to suppress the net biosphere productivity in South and Southeast Asia leading to years of increased carbon emissions.

  18. Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence. (United States)

    Mistry, S K; Puthussery, S


    To assess and synthesize the published evidence on risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asia. A systematically conducted narrative review. A systematic review was conducted of all primary studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives located through the following data bases: PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BioMed central, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and electronic libraries of the authors' institutions. Data extraction and quality appraisal of included studies was done independently by two authors and findings were synthesized in a narrative manner as meta-analysis was found to be inappropriate due to heterogeneity of the included studies. Eleven primary studies were included in the final review, all of which were conducted in school settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Prevalence of overweight and obesity showed wide variations in the included studies. The key individual risk factors with statistically significant associations to overweight and obesity included: lack of physical activities reported in six studies; prolonged TV watching/playing computer games reported in four studies; frequent consumption of fast food/junk food reported in four studies; and frequent consumption of calorie dense food items reported in two studies. Family level risk factors included higher socioeconomic status reported in four studies and family history of obesity reported in three studies. This review provides evidence of key contributors to the increasing burden of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in South Asia, and demonstrates the nutritional transition that characterizes other developing countries and regions around the world. The findings have implications for policy, practice and the development of interventions at various levels to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children and adolescents in

  19. International cryospheric science capacity building and its role in policy and management (United States)

    Wilson, A. M.; Armstrong, R. L.; Armstrong, B. R.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M. J.; Fetterer, F. M.; Fluri, J. L.; Hill, A. F.; Kayastha, R. B.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Khan, A. L.; Miller, H. A.; Minbaeva, C.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.


    The USAID-funded Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project has operated since 2012 with dual goals of research and capacity building. The scientific goal is to quantify snowmelt and ice melt and is tackled in tandem with capacity building activities for partner institutions in eight countries across High Asia. We held project workshops covering topics such as snow and glacier melt modeling, remote sensing of snow and ice, hydrochemistry-based hydrograph separation, and data management. CHARIS also facilitated the start of the first glacier mass balance program in Afghanistan, the first water chemistry laboratory in Bhutan, and supported eight students from four countries in earning Masters of Science by Research in Glaciology degrees from Kathmandu University. Capacity building outcomes are tracked through surveys and interviews with project partners. This feedback, both quantitative and qualitative, improves our understanding of how skills fostered by CHARIS are translated into different workplace contexts and in different political settings. Through this feedback, we document how CHARIS collaborations promote analytical skill development and provide the benefit of improved communication among colleagues across borders in a region where resource management requires a trans-boundary approach. Additionally, we are gathering feedback from partners on ways their hydrology and glaciology research is translated to the policy and management realms. Partners anecdotally report a range of policy relationships, especially with respect to management strategies for water intensive developments such as hydropower and mining. Here we present findings from these surveys, which will guide future development-oriented, science-driven resource management projects. Such endeavors must be tailored to large regional differences in expertise, capacities, policy settings, and research infrastructures, and CHARIS demonstrates ways this can be done effectively.

  20. Genetic and ecological insights into glacial refugia of walnut (Juglans regia L..

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    Mallikarjuna Aradhya

    Full Text Available The distribution and survival of trees during the last glacial maximum (LGM has been of interest to paleoecologists, biogeographers, and geneticists. Ecological niche models that associate species occurrence and abundance with climatic variables are widely used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict species distributions over space and time. The present study deals with the glacial history of walnut to address questions related to past distributions through genetic analysis and ecological modeling of the present, LGM and Last Interglacial (LIG periods. A maximum entropy method was used to project the current walnut distribution model on to the LGM (21-18 kyr BP and LIG (130-116 kyr BP climatic conditions. Model tuning identified the walnut data set filtered at 10 km spatial resolution as the best for modeling the current distribution and to hindcast past (LGM and LIG distributions of walnut. The current distribution model predicted southern Caucasus, parts of West and Central Asia extending into South Asia encompassing northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwestern Himalayan region, and southwestern Tibet, as the favorable climatic niche matching the modern distribution of walnut. The hindcast of distributions suggested the occurrence of walnut during LGM was somewhat limited to southern latitudes from southern Caucasus, Central and South Asian regions extending into southwestern Tibet, northeastern India, Himalayan region of Sikkim and Bhutan, and southeastern China. Both CCSM and MIROC projections overlapped, except that MIROC projected a significant presence of walnut in the Balkan Peninsula during the LGM. In contrast, genetic analysis of the current walnut distribution suggested a much narrower area in northern Pakistan and the surrounding areas of Afghanistan, northwestern India, and southern Tajikistan as a plausible hotspot of diversity where walnut may have survived glaciations. Overall, the findings suggest that

  1. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.


    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  2. Climatic Change over the 'Third Pole' from Long Tree-Ring Records (United States)

    Cook, E.


    Climatic change over the Greater Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, the 'Third Pole' of the world, is of great concern now as the Earth continues to warm at an alarming rate. While future climatic change over this region and its resulting impacts on humanity and the environment are difficult to predict with much certainty, knowing how climate has varied in the past can provide both an improved understanding of the range of variability and change that could occur in the future and the necessary context for assessing recent observed climatic change there. For this purpose, one of the best natural archives of past climate information available for study of the Third Pole environment is the changing pattern of annual ring widths found in long tree-ring chronologies. The forests of the Third Pole support many long-lived tree species, with some having life spans in excess of 1,000 years. This natural resource is steadily dwindling now due to continuing deforestation caused by human activity, but there is still enough remaining forest cover to produce a detailed network of long tree-ring chronologies for study of climate variability and change covering the past several centuries. The tree-ring records provide a mix of climate information, including that related to both temperature and precipitation. Examples of long drought-sensitive tree-ring records from the more arid parts of the Karakoram and Tibetan Plateau will be presented, along with records that primarily reflect changing temperatures in moister environments such as in Bhutan. Together they provide a glimpse of how climate of the Third Pole has changed over the past several centuries, the range of natural variability that could occur in the future independent of changes caused by greenhouse warming, and how changes during the latter part of the 20th century period of rapid global warming compare to the past.

  3. Using Morphological, Molecular and Climatic Data to Delimitate Yews along the Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Adjacent Regions (United States)

    Poudel, Ram C.; Möller, Michael; Gao, Lian-Ming; Ahrends, Antje; Baral, Sushim R.; Liu, Jie; Thomas, Philip; Li, De-Zhu


    Background Despite the availability of several studies to clarify taxonomic problems on the highly threatened yews of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) and adjacent regions, the total number of species and their exact distribution ranges remains controversial. We explored the use of comprehensive sets of morphological, molecular and climatic data to clarify taxonomy and distributions of yews in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 743 samples from 46 populations of wild yew and 47 representative herbarium specimens were analyzed. Principle component analyses on 27 morphological characters and 15 bioclimatic variables plus altitude and maximum parsimony analysis on molecular ITS and trnL-F sequences indicated the existence of three distinct species occurring in different ecological (climatic) and altitudinal gradients along the HKH and adjacent regions Taxus contorta from eastern Afghanistan to the eastern end of Central Nepal, T. wallichiana from the western end of Central Nepal to Northwest China, and the first report of the South China low to mid-elevation species T. mairei in Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Myanmar and South Vietnam. Conclusion/Significance The detailed sampling and combination of different data sets allowed us to identify three clearly delineated species and their precise distribution ranges in the HKH and adjacent regions, which showed no overlap or no distinct hybrid zone. This might be due to differences in the ecological (climatic) requirements of the species. The analyses further provided the selection of diagnostic morphological characters for the identification of yews occurring in the HKH and adjacent regions. Our work demonstrates that extensive sampling combined with the analysis of diverse data sets can reliably address the taxonomy of morphologically challenging plant taxa. PMID:23056501

  4. [Anxiety, Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Refugees - A Systematic Review]. (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Wehrwein, Annette; Brähler, Elmar; Schäfer, Ingo


    Anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are the main psychopathological symptoms shown by refugees. We conducted a systematic review. First, we identified key-words for a systematic search in PUBMED. We included original articles since 2009 with 1) a non-clinical sample of refugees, 2) refugees living at maximum 5 years in the host country, 4) with the outcomes anxiety, depression, and PTSD and 5) a sample with >100 participants. Then we read titles, abstracts and fulltexts. We identified 1 877 studies. Based on this screening procedure, we included in our review 15 studies. 52% of the refugees are from Africa (Somalia, Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra-Leon and Togo), 33% from Asia (Syria, Bhutan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Iraq) and 16% are from more than one continent. In those studies n=6 769 refugees participated in the studies. The number of participants varied from n=117 to n=1,422 (Median: n=366 refugees). Prevalence rates for PTBS varied from 5-71% (mean prevalence rate: 32%) rates for depression varied from 11-54% (mean prevalence rate: 35%). Sensitivity analyses suggest that refugees, which come from countries with intense human rights violations according to the Political Terror Scale, have an increased rate of psychopathological symptoms. Heterogeneity of prevalence rate is related both 1) to methodological and 2) to difference in the refugee populations according to the human rights violations in the countries of origin of refugees. It is necessary to include further databases in a systematic review. There is an urgent need for representative studies on refugees needs for psychosocial and medical care, especially for those refugees coming from countries with intense human rights violations. Psychosocial and medical services for these refugees are urgently needed to enhance and enable a perspective in the host country Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Near-surface air temperature lapse rate in a humid mountainous terrain on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas (United States)

    Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Yao, Tandong; Panday, Prajjwal Kumar


    Based on climatic data from 18 stations on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan for the period from 1996 to 2009, this paper investigates monthly characteristics of the near-surface air temperature lapse rate (TLR). The station elevations used in this study range from 300 to 2760 m a. s. l. TLRs were evaluated using a linear regression model. The monthly values of maximum TLRs were always smaller than those of the minimum TLRs, which is in contrast to results from the surrounding mountainous regions. In this study, annual patterns of TLRs were somewhat consistent, particularly in the summer; during the other seasons, patterns contrasted to results from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (China) and were almost comparable to results from Nepal. The shallowest observed values for TLRs in summer are due to intense latent heating at the higher elevation, associated with water vapor condensation from moist convection and evapotranspiration, and decreasing sensible heating at lower elevation, due to heavier rainfall, cloud, and forest cover. When compared to summer, the steeper TLRs in the non-monsoon season are due to sensible heating at the lower elevations, corresponding to dry and clear weather seasons, as well as increasing cooling at higher elevations, particularly in winter due to snow and cloud cover. Owing to lower albedo and higher aerodynamic roughness of forested areas, the TLRs were considerably reduced in daytime because of the dissipation of sensible heat to the atmospheric boundary layer. The distinct variation in diurnal TLR range is due to the diurnal variation in net radiation associated with reduced turbulent heating in the day and increased turbulent heating in the night, in addition to the effect of moisture and cloud cover. The shallower values of TLRs in this study when compared with the surrounding mountainous regions are due to high humidity, as well as the differing elevations and local climates.

  6. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna S. McKenzie


    Full Text Available Introduction: Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. Materials and methods: A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors’ professional networks. Results: Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Discussion: Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to

  7. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.


    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  8. Improving Understanding of Glacier Melt Contribution to High Asian River Discharge through Collaboration and Capacity Building with High Asian CHARIS Partner Institutions (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Armstrong, Betsy; Barrett, Andrew; Fetterer, Florence; Hill, Alice; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Racoviteanu, Adina; Raup, Bruce; Rittger, Karl; Williams, Mark; Wilson, Alana; Ye, Qinghua


    The Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice & Snow (CHARIS) project uses remote sensing data combined with modeling from 2000 to the present to improve proportional estimates of melt from glaciers and seasonal snow surfaces. Based at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), University of Colorado, Boulder, USA, the CHARIS project objectives are twofold: 1) capacity-building efforts with CHARIS partners from eight High Asian countries to better forecast future availability and vulnerability of water resources in the region, and 2) improving our ability to systematically assess the role of glaciers and seasonal snow in the freshwater resources of High Asia. Capacity-building efforts include working with CHARIS partners from Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Our capacity-building activities include training, data sharing, supporting fieldwork, graduate student education and infrastructure development. Because of the scarcity of in situ data in this High Asian region, we are using the wealth of available remote sensing data to characterize digital elevation, daily maps of fractional snow-cover, annual maps of glacier and permanent snow cover area and downscaled reanalysis temperature data in snow melt models to estimate the relative proportions of river runoff from glacierized and seasonally snow-covered surfaces. Current collaboration with Qinghua Ye, visiting scientist at NSIDC from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, focuses on remote sensing methods to detect changes in the mountain cryosphere. Collaboration with our Asian partners supports the systematic analysis of the annual cycle of seasonal snow and glacier ice melt across the High Mountain Asia region. With our Asian partners, we have derived reciprocal benefits, learning from their specialized local knowledge and obtaining access to their in situ data. We expect that the improved understanding of runoff from snow and glacier surfaces will

  9. Effects of national forest-management regimes on unprotected forests of the Himalaya. (United States)

    Brandt, Jodi S; Allendorf, Teri; Radeloff, Volker; Brooks, Jeremy


    Globally, deforestation continues, and although protected areas effectively protect forests, the majority of forests are not in protected areas. Thus, how effective are different management regimes to avoid deforestation in non-protected forests? We sought to assess the effectiveness of different national forest-management regimes to safeguard forests outside protected areas. We compared 2000-2014 deforestation rates across the temperate forests of 5 countries in the Himalaya (Bhutan, Nepal, China, India, and Myanmar) of which 13% are protected. We reviewed the literature to characterize forest management regimes in each country and conducted a quasi-experimental analysis to measure differences in deforestation of unprotected forests among countries and states in India. Countries varied in both overarching forest-management goals and specific tenure arrangements and policies for unprotected forests, from policies emphasizing economic development to those focused on forest conservation. Deforestation rates differed up to 1.4% between countries, even after accounting for local determinants of deforestation, such as human population density, market access, and topography. The highest deforestation rates were associated with forest policies aimed at maximizing profits and unstable tenure regimes. Deforestation in national forest-management regimes that emphasized conservation and community management were relatively low. In India results were consistent with the national-level results. We interpreted our results in the context of the broader literature on decentralized, community-based natural resource management, and our findings emphasize that the type and quality of community-based forestry programs and the degree to which they are oriented toward sustainable use rather than economic development are important for forest protection. Our cross-national results are consistent with results from site- and regional-scale studies that show forest-management regimes that

  10. Towards safe injection practices for prevention of hepatitis C transmission in South Asia: Challenges and progress. (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Butt, Zahid Ahmad; Mahmood, Bushra; Altaf, Arshad


    To summarize the available information about injection use and its determinants in the South Asian region. We searched published and unpublished literature on injection safety in South Asia published during 1995-2016 using the keywords "injection" "unsafe injection" and "immunization injection" and combined these with each of the countries and/or their respective states or provinces in South Asia. We used a standardized questionnaire to abstract the following data from the articles: the annual number of injections per capita, the proportion of injections administered with a reused syringe or needle, the distribution of injections with respect to prescribers and providers and determinants of injection use. Although information is very limited for certain countries (i.e., Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka), healthcare injection use is very common across South Asia, with cross-country rates ranging from 2.4 to 13.6 injections/person/year. Furthermore, recent studies show that 5% to 50% of these injections are provided with reused syringes, thus creating potential to transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Qualified and unqualified practitioners, especially in the private sector, are the major drivers behind injection use, but patients also prefer injections, especially among the rural, poor or uneducated in certain countries. According to available data, Pakistan and India have recently taken steps towards achieving safe injection. Potential interventions include the introduction of reuse prevention devices, and patient-, community- and patient/community and provider-centered interventions to change population and practitioner behavior. Injection use is common in South Asian countries. Multilevel interventions aiming at patients, providers and the healthcare system are needed to reduce injection use and reuse.

  11. Gross National Happiness Philosophy Manifested In The Selected Speeches Of His Excellency Tshering Tobgay

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    Maria Luisa A. Valdez


    Full Text Available A nation's progress has been measured in terms of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP throughout modern history. Suffice it to say that the higher a country's GDP, the more progressive a country is considered to be. An internationally used measure of a country's economic activity, GDP has undergone much thought as to its statistical and conceptual bases, but it mainly measures a country's market production. Clearly, there is a need for a coherent complement to a nation's GDP. Every nation can benef it from a fresh and transformational approach to defining and measuring their progress and this can be done by considering the country’s Gross National Happiness (GNH. It is a holistic and sustainable developmental approach targeted at achieving a healthy balance between material and non - material values while giving utmost priority to human happiness and well - being. This study is an analysis of Bhutan's Prime Minister His Excellency Tshering Tobgay’s Gross National Happiness philosophy, highlighting key in sights from the selections. Analysis revealed that His Excellency exemplified the core philosophy of Gross National Happiness in true adherence and embodiment of the pillars which constitute the said philosophical concept, and these are in terms of good go vernance, socio - economic development, cultural preservation and environment sustainability. Likewise, he achieved the efficiency of connecting with his audience and effectively sending his message across by utilizing rhetorical devices such as humor, ethos , logos and pathos. This paper likewise uncovered and discussed important insights which foster values essential to a nation's well - being and to appreciation of literature as manifested in his discourses, which in themselves can be considered as ample proo fs that a nation's well - being and the appreciation of literature can be secured by advocating the holistic approaches within the philosophy of Gross National Happiness.

  12. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia. (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas


    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  13. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

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    J.K. Mallick


    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  14. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

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    Dilip Saha


    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  15. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.


    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at


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    S. K.S. YADAV


    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  17. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia. (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanna S; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht


    Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors' professional networks. Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research and training and implementation of sustainably effective

  18. Transforming the Lives of Mountain Women Through the Himalayan Nettle Value Chain: A Case Study From Darchula, Far West Nepal

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    Lipy Adhikari


    Full Text Available Naugad is a remote rural municipality in the mountains of far west Nepal with poor accessibility and limited economic opportunities, especially for women and marginalized communities. Promotion of the natural resource-based value chain for allo (the Himalayan nettle, Girardinia diversifolia was identified as an innovative livelihood strategy by the local community. Value chain development started in 2014. The project was designed to focus on women and include participation by the private sector. This paper analyzes the impact of the project, especially on women's lives, using primary and secondary data. A community-owned enterprise was established with private-sector support from the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation's Business Association of Home Based Workers (SABAH Nepal. The enterprise now has 82 members (69 of them women, with 150 households benefiting directly and indirectly. SABAH Nepal provided training in sustainable harvesting and processing techniques and promotes the products in high-end international markets. A buyback guarantee scheme provides security to local artisans. The quality and range of allo products have increased markedly, as has the share in benefits for local people. Skills training and visits to trade fairs have helped women build their capacity and take a leading role in the value chain process. The community-owned enterprise members have earned up to NPR 4000 per month from sewing, more than the local rate for day labor and sufficient to cover general household expenses. More than 25 women entrepreneurs have started microbusinesses related to allo. Allo has become an important economic asset, transforming the lives of mountain women in this village area. The approach has potential for scaling up across the subtropical to temperate areas of the Himalayan region in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

  19. Predominance of genotype 1.1 and emergence of genotype 2.2 classical swine fever viruses in north-eastern region of India. (United States)

    Roychoudhury, P; Sarma, D K; Rajkhowa, S; Munir, M; Kuchipudi, S V


    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and the most important disease of pigs worldwide.CSF is enzootic in pig herds in India and continues to cause huge economic losses to pig farmers. Nearly 40% of the total pig population of India is present in the north-eastern (NE) states where pig husbandry plays an important role in the socio-economic development. Pigs reared in the backyards are the only source of livelihood for a majority of poor tribal population in the region. Hardly any CSF vaccination is currently being undertaken in the unorganized pig farming in the NE region due to economic reasons and vaccine unavailability. A thorough understanding of the current epidemiological status of CSF is essential for the effective control of the disease in the NE region. Hence, we carried out molecular characterization of CSFV isolates from field outbreaks during 2011-2012 in the entire north-eastern region of India to establish the genetic groups of prevalent CSF viruses in the region. A total of 17 CSFV isolates obtained from different parts of the NE region were characterized by comparing the sequences of three partial genomic regions of the virus, that is 150 nt of 5' UTR, 190 nt of E2 and 409 nt of NS5B. Of the 17 CSFV isolates, 15 isolates belonged to 1.1 (88.2%) and two isolates (11.8%) belonged to 2.2 subgenogroup. The genogroup 2.2 CSFV were associated with outbreaks in Arunachal Pradesh that shares international borders with Bhutan, Myanmar and China. Genogroup 2.2 CSFV isolated in the present study shared high level of sequence similarity with 2.2 viruses form China, raising the possibility of virus incursion from this region. In summary, we found a continued predominance of 1.1 subgroup and an emergence of 2.2 subgroup CSFV in NE region of India. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) in South Asia: a systematic review. (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Didar; Ahmed, Helal Uddin; Jalal Uddin, M M; Chowdhury, Waziul Alam; Iqbal, Mohd S; Kabir, Razin Iqbal; Chowdhury, Imran Ahmed; Aftab, Afzal; Datta, Pran Gopal; Rabbani, Golam; Hossain, Saima Wazed; Sarker, Malabika


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. The prevalence of ASD in many South Asian countries is still unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review available epidemiological studies of ASD in this region to identify gaps in our current knowledge. We searched, collected and evaluated articles published between January 1962 and July 2016 which reported the prevalence of ASD in eight South Asian countries. The search was conducted in line with the PRISMA guidelines. We identified six articles from Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka which met our predefined inclusion criteria. The reported prevalence of ASD in South Asia ranged from 0.09% in India to 1.07% in Sri Lanka that indicates up to one in 93 children have ASD in this region. Alarmingly high prevalence (3%) was reported in Dhaka city. Study sample sizes ranged from 374 in Sri Lanka to 18,480 in India. The age range varied between 1 and 30 years. No studies were found which reported the prevalence of ASD in Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Afghanistan. This review identifies methodological differences in case definition, screening instruments and diagnostic criteria among reported three countries which make it very difficult to compare the studies. Our study is an attempt at understanding the scale of the problem and scarcity of information regarding ASD in the South Asia. This study will contribute to the evidence base needed to design further research and make policy decisions on addressing this issue in this region. Knowing the prevalence of ASD in South Asia is vital to ensure the effective allocation of resources and services.

  1. Soils characterisation along ecological forest zones in the Eastern Himalayas (United States)

    Simon, Alois; Dhendup, Kuenzang; Bahadur Rai, Prem; Gratzer, Georg


    Elevational gradients are commonly used to characterise vegetation patterns and, to a lesser extent, also to describe soil development. Furthermore, interactions between vegetation cover and soil characteristics are repeatedly observed. Combining information on soil development and easily to distinguish forest zones along elevational gradients, creates an added value for forest management decisions especially in less studied mountain regions. For this purpose, soil profiles along elevational gradients in the temperate conifer forests of Western and Central Bhutan, ranging from 2600-4000m asl were investigated. Thereby, 82 soil profiles were recorded and classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Based on 19 representative profiles, genetic horizons were sampled and analysed. We aim to provide fundamental information on forest soil characteristics along these elevational transects. The results are presented with regard to ecological forest zones. The elevational distribution of the reference soil groups showed distinct distribution ranges for most of the soils. Cambisols were the most frequently recorded reference soil group with 58% of the sampled profiles, followed by Podzols in higher elevations, and Stagnosols, at intermediate elevations. Fluvisols occurred only at the lower end of the elevational transects and Phaeozems only at drier site conditions in the cool conifer dry forest zone. The humus layer thickness differs between forest zones and show a shift towards increased organic layer (O-layer) with increasing elevation. The reduced biomass productivity with increasing elevation and subsequently lower litter input compensates for the slow decomposition rates. The increasing O-layer thickness is an indicator of restrained intermixing of organic and mineral components by soil organisms at higher elevation. Overall, the soil types and soil characteristics along the elevational gradient showed a continuous and consistent change, instead

  2. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in the Tibetan ethnic minority group of China. (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Deng, Ya-jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Qing-ju; Xu, Peng; Qin, Hai-xia; Fan, Shuan-liang; Huang, Ping; Deng, Li-bin; Lucas, Rudolf; Wang, Zhen-Yuan


    The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for

  3. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Misra, Neha


    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs

  4. Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Assessment and Predictive Modelling in Eastern Himalaya (United States)

    Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Nandy, S.; Ahmad, M.; Agarwal, R.


    This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM). The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975-1990 as well as 1990-2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975-1990 and 1990-2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97%) between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81%) during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05%) by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha


    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  6. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: limited evidence from India and Pakistan. (United States)

    Yamamoto, S S; Phalkey, R; Malik, A A


    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in South Asia. Chronic exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although the majority of studies to date have been conducted in developed countries. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are growing problems in developing countries in South Asia yet the impact on rising rates of CVD in these regions has largely been ignored. We aimed to assess the evidence available regarding air pollution effects on CVD and CVD risk factors in lower income countries in South Asia. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, original, empirical articles published in English between the years 1990 and 2012, conducted in the World Bank South Asia region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). This resulted in 30 articles. Nine articles met our inclusion criteria and were assessed for this systematic review. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and examined measured particulate matter effects on CVD outcomes and indicators. We observed a bias as nearly all of the studies were from India. Hypertension and CVD deaths were positively associated with higher particulate matter levels. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as increased levels of P-selection expressing platelets, depleted superoxide dismutase and reactive oxygen species generation as well as elevated levels of inflammatory-related C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were also positively associated with biomass use or elevated particulate matter levels. An important outcome of this investigation was the evidence suggesting important air pollution effects regarding CVD risk in South Asia. However, too few studies have been conducted. There is as an urgent need for longer term investigations using robust measures of air pollution with different population groups that include a wider

  7. A Dynamic Information Framework: A Multi-Sector, Geospatial Gateway for Environmental Conservation and Adaptation to Climate Change (United States)

    Fernandes, E. C.; Norbu, C.; Juizo, D.; Wangdi, T.; Richey, J. E.


    Zambezi valley of Mozambique. The DrukDIF for Bhutan is moving from a test-of-concept to an operational phase, with uses from extending local biodiversity to computing how much energy can be sold tomorrow, based on waterflows today. AralDIF is being developed to serve as a neutral and transparent platform, as a catalyst for open and transparent discussion on water and energy linkages, for central Asia. ImisoziDIF is now being ramped up in Rwanda, to help guide scaling up of agricultural practices and biodiversity from sites to the country. The Virtual Mekong Basin, "tells the story" of the multiple issues facing the Mekong Basin.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to control cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in South Asia: a systematic review (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Chandrasekaran, Ambalam M; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Gamage, Anuji Upekshika; Silva, Padmal De; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil


    Objectives More than 80% of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) burden now lies in low and middle-income countries. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify and implement the most cost-effective interventions, particularly in the resource-constraint South Asian settings. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of individual-level, group-level and population-level interventions to control CVD and DM in South Asia. Methods We searched 14 electronic databases up to August 2016. The search strategy consisted of terms related to ‘economic evaluation’, ‘CVD’, ‘DM’ and ‘South Asia’. Per protocol two reviewers assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies using standard checklists, and extracted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of interventions. Results Of the 2949 identified studies, 42 met full inclusion criteria. Critical appraisal of studies revealed 15 excellent, 18 good and 9 poor quality studies. Most studies were from India (n=37), followed by Bangladesh (n=3), Pakistan (n=2) and Bhutan (n=1). The economic evaluations were based on observational studies (n=9), randomised trials (n=12) and decision models (n=21). Together, these studies evaluated 301 policy or clinical interventions or combination of both. We found a large number of interventions were cost-effective aimed at primordial prevention (tobacco taxation, salt reduction legislation, food labelling and food advertising regulation), and primary and secondary prevention (multidrug therapy for CVD in high-risk group, lifestyle modification and metformin treatment for diabetes prevention, and screening for diabetes complications every 2–5 years). Significant heterogeneity in analytical framework and outcome measures used in these studies restricted meta-analysis and direct ranking of the interventions by their degree of cost-effectiveness. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness evidence for CVD and DM interventions in South Asia

  9. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Debasri; Goswami, A.B.; Bose, Balaram


    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have

  10. Chemical evolution of Himalayan leucogranites based on an O, U-Pb and Hf study of zircon (United States)

    Hopkinson, Thomas N.; Warren, Clare J.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Parrish, Randall R.


    Crustal melting is a characteristic process at convergent plate margins, where crustal rocks are heated and deformed. Miocene leucogranite sheets and plutons are found intruded into the high-grade metasedimentary core (the Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) across the Himalayan orogen. Previously-published Himalayan whole-rock data suggest that these leucogranites formed from a purely meta-sedimentary source, isotopically similar to those into which they now intrude. Bulk rock analyses carry inherent uncertainties, however: they may hide contributions from different contributing sources, and post-crystallization processes such as fluid interaction may significantly alter the original chemistry. In contrast, zircon is more able to retain precise information of the contributing sources of the melt from which it crystallises whilst its resistant nature is impervious to post-magmatic processes. This multi-isotope study of Oligocene-Miocene leucogranite zircons from the Bhutan Himalaya, seeks to differentiate between various geochemical processes that contribute to granite formation. Hf and O isotopes are used to detect discrete changes in melt source while U-Pb isotopes provide the timing of zircon crystallisation. Our data show that zircon rims of Himalayan age yield Hf-O signatures that lie within the previously reported whole-rock GHS field, confirming the absence of a discernible mantle contribution to the leucogranite source. Importantly, we document a decrease in the minimum ɛHf values during Himalayan orogenesis through time, correlating to a change in Hf model age from 1.4 Ga to 2.4 Ga. Nd model ages for the older Lesser Himalayan metasediments (LHS) that underthrust the GHS are significantly older than those for the GHS (2.4-2.9 Ga compared with 1.4-2.2 Ga), and as such even minor contributions of LHS material incorporated into a melt would significantly increase the resulting Hf model age. Hence our leucogranite data suggest either a change of source within

  11. The South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) Update and Meeting Objectives (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad


    Land Use/Cover Change (LU/CC) is one of the most important types of environmental change in South and Southeast Asian countries. Several studies suggest that LU/CC in these countries is in large part driven by population growth and economic development. In the region, changes that are most common include urban expansion, agricultural land loss, land abandonment, deforestation, logging, reforestation, etc. To address the research needs and priorities in the region, a regional initiative entitled South Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI) has been developed involving US and regional scientists. The initiative is funded by NASA Land Cover, Land Use Change program. The goal of SARI is to integrate state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering and social sciences to enrich LU/CC science in South Southeast Asian countries. In the presentation, LU/CC change research in SARI countries will be highlighted including the drivers of change. For example, in South Asia, forest cover has been increasing in countries like India, Nepal and Bhutan due to sustainable afforestation measures; whereas, large-scale deforestation in Southeast Asian countries is still continuing, due to oil palm plantation expansion driven by the international market demand in Malaysia and Indonesia. With respect to urbanization, South and Southeast Asian countries contain 23 megacities, each with more than 10 million people. Rapid urbanization is driving agricultural land loss and agricultural intensification has been increasing due to less availability of land for growing food crops such as in India, Vietnam, and Thailand. The drivers of LUCC vary widely in the region and include such factors as land tenure, local economic development, government policies, inappropriate land management, land speculation, improved road networks, etc. In addition, variability in the weather, climate, and socioeconomic factors also drive LU/CC resulting in disruptions of biogeochemical cycles

  12. Interseismic Deformation due to Oblique India-Sunda Collision: Implications for the Arakan Sleeping Giant (United States)

    Mallick, R.; Lindsey, E. O.; Feng, L.; Hubbard, J.; Hill, E.


    The northern extent of the collision of the Indian and Sunda plates occurs along the Arakan megathrust. This collision is oblique, and at least two large strike-slip faults, the Sagaing Fault and the Churachandpur-Mao Fault (CMF) accommodate part of this obliquity. The megathrust is conspicuous in its lack of notable interplate earthquakes in the instrumental catalogue; it has even been called aseismic by some authors and suggested not to accumulate any elastic strain. Nevertheless, geological evidence from the great 1762 Arakan earthquake suggests that the megathrust is capable of producing M 8 and possibly tsunamigenic events that can adversely affect the lives of many millions of people living in the region. We present for the first time a new dataset of GPS rates from the MIBB (Myanmar-India-Bangladesh-Bhutan) cGPS network (2011-present), which consists of region-wide east-west and north-south profiles. We use a Bayesian framework to explore the fault geometry (locking depth and fault dip) and relative plate motion that can reproduce the pattern of east-west convergence in both previously published and our own GPS data. We explore the individual contributions of the megathrust, CMF, Sagaing Fault, and block rotation to dextral shearing across the Indo-Burman ranges and further east. Our results suggest that the total convergence rate across the foldbelt is 14-18 mm/yr, while the total dextral shearing rate is 40 mm/yr. Rotation of the crustal sliver between the two major plates may explain some of this dextral motion, while reducing the strike-slip rates on the intervening faults. We show that given the current network geometry we are most sensitive to the location of maximum strain, i.e., the depth and distance from the trench below which the megathrust slides freely. Our results show that the megathrust is stably sliding below a depth of 30 km, but the seismogenic potential of the shallow megathrust and splay faults that possibly sole into the same system

  13. Evaluation of an ethnopharmacologically selected Bhutanese medicinal plants for their major classes of phytochemicals and biological activities. (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Tonsomboon, Aunchalee; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee


    As many as 229 medicinal plants have been currently used in the Bhutanese Traditional Medicine (BTM) as a chief ingredient of polyherbal formulations and these plants have been individually indicated for treating various types of infections including malaria, tumor, and microbial. We have focused our study only on seven species of these plants. We aim to evaluate the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities of the seven medicinal plants of Bhutan selected using an ethno-directed bio-rational approach. This study creates a scientific basis for their use in the BTM and gives foundation for further phytochemical and biological evaluations which can result in the discovery of new drug lead compounds. A three stage process was conducted which consisted of: (1) an assessment of a pharmacopoeia and a formulary book of the BTM for their mode of plant uses; (2) selecting 25 anti-infective medicinal plants based on the five established criteria, collecting them, and screening for their major classes of phytochemicals using appropriate test protocols; and (3) finally analyzing the crude extracts of the seven medicinal plants, using the standard test protocols, for their antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities as directed by the ethnopharmacological uses of each plant. Out of 25 medicinal plants screened for their major classes of phytochemicals, the majority contained tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Out of the seven plant species investigated for their biological activities, all seven of them exhibited mild antimicrobial properties, five plants gave significant in vitro antiplasmodial activities, two plants gave moderate anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense activity, and one plant showed mild cytotoxicity. Meconopsis simplicifolia showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 0.40 μg/ml against TM4/8.2 strain (a wild type chloroquine and

  14. Application of remote sensing and GIS in environmental monitoring in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finu Shrestha


    Full Text Available The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH region encompasses the largest mountain system in the world extending from Myanmar in the East to Afghanistan in the West and covering the whole or part of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The region plays a vital role in providing ecosystem services and is the basis of the livelihoods of over 200 million people. The water and other ecosystem services provided by the HKH forms lifeline for one third of humanity. In the past few decades, human activities and global warming have contributed to environmental degradation in significant portion of the region. Decreasing glacier area, growth in glacial lake size, unprecedented rainfall, changes in land use and land cover, forest degradation, floods and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, landslides, and shortfalls in agricultural crop production are among the many problems brought on by such change. These issues need timely monitoring and supervision if they are to lead to a better understanding of the state of the environment, and the scale of the damages that has already been done. Effective monitoring of the environment, and an improved understanding of the same requires valuable information and data that can be extracted through the application of geospatial technologies such as remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS. This paper provides an overview of such research conducted in the HKH region. It shows how change assessment has been undertaken in thematic areas such as glacier, glacial lake, land use, land cover, and disaster events like floods, landslides and droughts and how sets of data collected over specific intervals of time are being used to identify and monitor the condition of the environment from the past to the present, and in the long run. Complete database sets and analyses pertaining to these areas are made available online to facilitate access to information. Data formulation and further research are necessary

  15. Quantifying the influence of sediment source area sampling on detrital thermochronometer data (United States)

    Whipp, D. M., Jr.; Ehlers, T. A.; Coutand, I.; Bookhagen, B.


    Detrital thermochronology offers a unique advantage over traditional bedrock thermochronology because of its sensitivity to sediment production and transportation to sample sites. In mountainous regions, modern fluvial sediment is often collected and dated to determine the past (105 to >107 year) exhumation history of the upstream drainage area. Though potentially powerful, the interpretation of detrital thermochronometer data derived from modern fluvial sediment is challenging because of spatial and temporal variations in sediment production and transport, and target mineral concentrations. Thermochronometer age prediction models provide a quantitative basis for data interpretation, but it can be difficult to separate variations in catchment bedrock ages from the effects of variable basin denudation and sediment transport. We present two examples of quantitative data interpretation using detrital thermochronometer data from the Himalaya, focusing on the influence of spatial and temporal variations in basin denudation on predicted age distributions. We combine age predictions from the 3D thermokinematic numerical model Pecube with simple models for sediment sampling in the upstream drainage basin area to assess the influence of variations in sediment production by different geomorphic processes or scaled by topographic metrics. We first consider a small catchment from the central Himalaya where bedrock landsliding appears to have affected the observed muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age distributions. Using a simple model of random landsliding with a power-law landslide frequency-area relationship we find that the sediment residence time in the catchment has a major influence on predicted age distributions. In the second case, we compare observed detrital apatite fission-track age distributions from 16 catchments in the Bhutan Himalaya to ages predicted using Pecube and scaled by various topographic metrics. Preliminary results suggest that predicted age distributions scaled

  16. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes. (United States)

    Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D


    A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan). A conceptual framework for malaria elimination programme management was developed and data were extracted and synthesized. Findings were reviewed at a consultative workshop, which led to a revision of the framework and further data extraction and synthesis. Success factors of implementation, programme choices and changes, and enabling factors were distilled. Decentralized programmes enhanced engagement in malaria elimination by sub-national units and communities. Integration of the malaria programme into other health services was also common. Decentralization and integration were often challenging due to the skill and experience levels of newly tasked staff. Accountability for programme impact was not clarified for most programmes. Motivation of work force was a key factor in maintaining programme quality but there were few clear, detailed strategies provided. Different incentive schemes targeted various stakeholders. Training and supervision, although not well described, were prioritized by most programmes. Multi-sectoral collaboration helped some programmes share information, build strategies and interventions and achieve a higher quality of implementation. In most cases programme action was spurred by malaria outbreaks or a new elimination goal with strong leadership. Some programmes showed high capacity for flexibility through introduction of new strategies and tools. Several case-studies described methods for monitoring

  17. Holocene surface-rupturing earthquakes along the Yadong Cross Structure (Himalaya) (United States)

    Ferry, M. A.; Roth, T.; Jean-Francois, R.; Cattin, R.


    The Himalayan Arc accommodates 2 cm/yr of shortening from the India-Eurasia collision, mostly along the Main Himalayan Thust. Perpendicularly to the main structures, regional cross structures formed by en échelon grabens and half-grabens mark Quaternary extension from central Tibet to the Himalayas. The Yadong-Gulu Rift system is the most striking one with a total length of 500 km. Its southernmost segment -the 100-km-long Yadong half-graben- entrenches through the Himalayas and forms a 500-to-1500-m-deep asymmetric basin. The average basin surface elevation of 4500 m contrasts with high reliefs of the Jomolhari range that reach 7326 m. They are separated by the N15 Yadong normal fault (also called Jomolhari Fault System, JFS) that forms spectacular triangular facets and affects glacial landforms. Though observed as early as the 1980s, offset moraines were never studied in detail in terms of measured displacement or age determination. Recent efforts from paleoclimate studies yielded a high-resolution framework to identify the various stages of Holocene glacial advances and associated moraine formation. These landforms display specific geomorphometric features recognized regionally (ELA, rugosity, crest freshness) that allow correlating across the various glacial valleys within the Yadong Rift and across similar settings in western Bhutan and eastern Nepal. This serves as a robust basis to place our moraine sequence within the Holocene paleoclimatic record and propose formation ages. By combining satellite images from Sentinel-2 (10 m, visible and NIR), Pléiades (0.5 m, visible) and a Pléiades-derived tri-stereo photogrammetric DEM (1 m), we map the fault trace and affected landforms in details and extract topographic profiles to measure vertical offsets. Paleoclimatic age constraints yield age-vs-displacement measurements along the whole 100-km-long JFS and define a chronology of Holocene deformation events. Within the limits of our observations, we conclude

  18. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.


    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  19. Postgraduate education in nutrition in south Asia: a huge mismatch between investments and needs. (United States)

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Paul, Tanusree; Haddad, Lawrence; Bhalla, Surbhi; Gillespie, Stuart; Laxminarayan, Ramanan


    Despite decades of nutrition advocacy and programming, the nutrition situation in South Asian countries is alarming. We assume that modern training in nutrition at the post graduate level is an important contributor to building the capacity of individuals to think and act effectively when combating undernutrition. In this context, this paper presents a regional situation analysis of master's level academic initiatives in nutrition with a special focus on the type of programme we think is most likely to be helpful in addressing undernutrition at the population level: Public Health Nutrition (PHN). This situational analysis of Masters in nutrition across South Asian countries viz. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Maldives, Nepal, Bhutan was conducted using an intensive and systematic Internet search. Further, detailed information was extracted from the individual institute websites and library visits. Of the 131 master's degree programmes we identified one that was in PHN while another 15 had modules in PHN. Most of these universities and institutions were found in India with a few in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In the rest of the countries, neither nutrition nor PHN emerged as an academic discipline at the master's level. In terms of eligibility Indian and Sri Lankan programmes were most inclusive, with the remaining countries restricting eligibility to those with health qualifications. On modules, no country had any on nutrition policy or on nutrition's interactions with agriculture, social protection, water and sanitation or women's empowerment. If a strong focus on public health nutrition is key to reducing undernutrition, then the poor availability of such courses in the region is cause for concern. Nutrition master's courses in general focus too little on the kinds of strategies highlighted in the recent Lancet series on nutrition. Governments seeking to accelerate declines in undernutrition should incentivize the delivery of postgraduate

  20. Glaciers of Asia (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain

  1. A discussion of the socio-economic losses and shelter impacts from the Van, Turkey Earthquakes of October and November 2011 (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Vervaeck, A.; Muehr, B.; Markus, M.


    The Van earthquake in 2011 hit at 10:41 GMT (13:41 Local) on Sunday, October 23rd, 2011. It was a Mw7.1-7.3 event located at a depth of around 10 km with the epicentre located directly between Ercis (pop. 75,000) and Van (pop. 370,000). Since then, the CEDIM Forensic Analysis Group (using a team of seismologists, engineers, sociologists and meteorologists) and has reported and analysed on the Van event. In addition, many damaging aftershocks occurring after the main eventwere analysed including a major aftershock centered in Van-Edremit on November 9th, 2011, causing much additional losses. The province of Van has around 1.035 million people as of the last census. The Van province is one of the poorest in Turkey and has much inequality between the rural and urban centers with an average HDI (Human Development Index) around that of Bhutan or Congo. The earthquakes are estimated to have caused 604 deaths (23 October) and 40 deaths (9 November); mostly due to falling debris and house collapse). In addition, between 1 billion TRY to 4 billion TRY (approx. 555 million USD - 2.2 billion USD) is estimated as total economic losses. This represents around 17 to 66% of the provincial GDP of the Van Province (approx. 3.3 billion USD) as of 2011. From the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database, major earthquakes such as this one have occurred in the year 1111 causing major damage and having a magnitude around 6.5-7. In the year 1646 or 1648, Van was again struck by a M6.7 quake killing around 2000 people. In 1881, a M6.3 earthquake near Van killed 95 people. Again, in 1941, a M5.9 earthquake affected Ercis and Van killing between 190 and 430 people. 1945-1946 as well as 1972 brought again damaging and casualty-bearing earthquakes to the Van province. In 1976, the Van-Muradiye earthquake struck the border region with a M7, killing around 3840 people and causing around 51,000 people to become homeless. Key immediate lessons from similar historic

  2. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir


    spatial distribution of various climate-related hazards in 1,398 subnational areas of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. An analysis of country-level population exposure showed that approximately 750 million people are affected from combined climate-hazards. Of the affected population 72% are in India, followed by 12% each from Bangladesh and Pakistan. Due in part to the economic importance of agriculture, it was found to be most vulnerable and exposed to climate extremes. An analysis of individual hazards indicates that floods and droughts) are the dominant hazards impacting agricultural areas followed by extreme rainfall, extreme temperature and sea-level rise. Based on this vulnerability assessment, all the regions of Bangladesh and the Indian States in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Orissa; Ampara, Puttalam, Trincomalee, Mannar and Batticaloa in Sri Lanka; Sind and Baluchistan in Pakistan; Central and East Nepal; and the transboundary river basins of Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra are among the most vulnerable regions in South Asia.

  3. High altitude species, high profits: can the trade in wild harvested Fritillaria cirrhosa (Liliaceae) be sustained? (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Pei, S-J; Luo, P; Schippmann, U; Long, X; Bi, Y-F


    Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don bulbs contain alkaloids and are one of the most intensively exploited alpine Himalayan medicinal species. In terms of proprietary medicines, our study shows that 210 F. cirrhosa products are offered by 46 suppliers, most of which (44) are situated in China and two in Nepal. A widepread commercial use is as one of the main ingredients in cough syrups. A well known example is "Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa Herbal Cough & Throat Syrup", which typically contains more F. cirrhosa than any other herbal ingredient in the formulation. The biggest market for F. cirrhosa bulbs is China, where demand exceeds supply of this wild harvested species for use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Cross-border trade from Nepal to China occurs in significant quantities. Bhutan also imports F. cirrhosa bulbs from Nepal. In addition, F. cirrhosa is registered as an active ingredient in traditional herbal medicinal preparations in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong SAR, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. There is also an export trade in F. cirrhosa to Europe. Assessing how much F. cirrhosa is traded is complex, however, due to a "look-alike" challenge, as nine Chinese Fritillaria species are traded in Europe (Fritillaria cirrhosa, F. delavayi, F. hupehensis, F. pallidiflora, F. przewalskii, F. thunbergii, F. unibracteata, F. ussuriensis and F. walujewii). The aims of this review were to assess the scale of the global trade in F. cirrhosa, and to synthesise studies of the impacts of wild harvest on F. cirrhosa populations and on the extent of emerging cultivation initiatives as an alternative to wild harvest. Firstly, we reviewed published information on studies on impacts of wild F. cirrhosa harvest from across the geographic range of this species. Secondly, global trade data for F. cirrhosa were analysed. The principal demand for F. cirrhosa bulbs is in China, where hundreds of different companies produce Fritillaria preparations. Trade data also show that

  4. Attribution of the response of the stream flows of the Brahmaputra river basin of a 1.5°C warmer world (United States)

    Saiful Islam, Akm; Mamun Rashid, Md; Allen, Myles; Mitchell, Daniel; Mohammed, Khaled; Uddin Khan, Md Jamal


    An increase in global average temperature due to climate change is likely to intensify the global hydrological cycle, which in turn will impact regional water resources. Changes of the frequency and magnitude of the precipitation patterns over a river basin will change the intensity of floods and droughts. It's still an active field of research to determine the impact of climate change on extreme events though the attribution community has been using large climate model ensembles to characterize the low signal to noise problems. After the Paris agreement of 2015, limiting the increase of the global temperature below 1.5°C was emphasized. However, it is not clear the benefits of additional half a degree reduction of temperature below 2°C which needs comprehensive scientific analysis. In this context, a collaborative effort of 39 academic and research institutions around the global is on-going to generate large ensemble simulations of climate projections under a project entitled, 'the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI)'. This study has made an attempt to conduct ensemble simulations of a hydrological model over a transboundary river basin (Brahmaputra) for estimating the changes in future extremes and mean discharges of the river forced by the climate projections generated under the HAPPI project. The Brahmaputra is a transboundary river originating in China and ending in Bangladesh and it is the fourth largest river in the world in terms of average discharge of approximately 20,000 cms. It drains water from approximately 520,000 area of China, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. An estimated 66 million people depend on water from this river for their livelihood through subsistence agriculture and thus any change in the river's discharge due to climate change may have a negative impact on this large population. A decrease in discharge during the dry season when the basin requires water for irrigation systems translates into a

  5. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra


    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land–atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr−1

  6. Mapping rice-fallow cropland areas for short-season grain legumes intensification in South Asia using MODIS 250 m time-series data (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Mohammed, Irshad A.; Whitbread, Anthony M.


    study established cropland classes based on the every 16-day 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series for one year (June 2010–May 2011) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, using spectral matching techniques (SMTs), and extensive field knowledge. Map accuracy was evaluated based on independent ground survey data as well as compared with available sub-national level statistics. The producers’ and users’ accuracies of the cropland fallow classes were between 75% and 82%. The overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient estimated for rice classes were 82% and 0.79, respectively. The analysis estimated approximately 22.3 Mha of suitable rice-fallow areas in South Asia, with 88.3% in India, 0.5% in Pakistan, 1.1% in Sri Lanka, 8.7% in Bangladesh, 1.4% in Nepal, and 0.02% in Bhutan. Decision-makers can target these areas for sustainable intensification of short-duration grain legumes.

  7. Disease surveillance among newly arriving refugees and immigrants--Electronic Disease Notification System, United States, 2009. (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Philen, Rossanne; Wang, Zanju; McSpadden, Pamela; Posey, Drew L; Ortega, Luis S; Weinberg, Michelle S; Brown, Clive; Zhou, Weigong; Painter, John A


    state health departments in all 50 states and the District of Columbia about the arrival of these persons in the United States. In 2009, the EDN system notified U.S. state and local health departments of 104,954 newly arriving refugees and immigrants, of whom 78,899 (75.2%) were refugees (with or without medical conditions), 19,358 (18.4%) were immigrants with medical conditions, and 6,697 (6.4%) were persons with other visa types. Of the 78,899 refugees, 21,319 (27%) had a medical condition. The majority (93.4%) of immigrants with medical conditions had tuberculosis classifications (i.e., either had evidence of latent tuberculosis infection or chest radiograph findings interpreted by the overseas panel physician as consistent with tuberculosis). Of the 41,415 refugees and immigrants with Class A or Class B medical conditions, 405 (1%) had Class A conditions, and 40,994 (99%) had Class B conditions. The majority of refugees and immigrants with suspected Class B tuberculosis were born in the Philippines (41.3%), Mexico (12.1%), Burma (8.7%), Vietnam (7.8%), and the Dominican Republic (5.8%). The majority of refugee notifications were for persons born in Iraq (23.9%), Burma (18.9%), and Bhutan (15.1%). Approximately one third of the tuberculosis notifications were sent to health departments in California (20.5%), Texas (9.8%), and New York (6.3%), and the national reporting rate for tuberculosis follow-up was 75.4% within 30 days of arrival. The findings in this report suggest that 1) overseas medical screening results in a low frequency (0.4%) of inadmissible medical conditions in the United States, 2) the EDN system provides more direct notifications to health departments than the previous paper-based system about newly arriving immigrants and refugees who need medical follow-up, and 3) approximately 75% of follow-up occurs among persons with suspected tuberculosis who are reported to EDN by states receiving newly arriving refugees and immigrants. The data in this

  8. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz


    from 1989 to 2010 at the extreme northern part of Khulna and Chandpai Ranges revealed the formation of a large number of small rivers and creeks some time before 2000 that reduce the 443 km2 forestland by 3.61%, approximately 16 km2, and decreasing H. fomes by 28.75% and total tree cover by over 3.0%. The number of the relatively low-priced plants Bruguiera sexangula, Excoecaria agallocha and Sonneratia apetala, has, on the other hand, increased. Similar degradation could be occurring in other ranges, thereby putting the survivability of the Bangladesh Sundarbans at risk. The growing stock of 296 plants per ha in 1959 had been reduced to 144 by 1996. Trend analysis using “Table Curve 2D Programme,” reveals a decreased number of 109 plants by the year 2020. The degradation of the Bangladesh Sundarbans has been attributed to reduced sediment-laden freshwater discharge through the BSMF river system since commissioning the Farakka Barrage on 21 April 1975 in India. To reduce salinity and forestland erosion, the maintenance of sediment-laden freshwater discharge through its river system has been suggested to re-create its pre-1975 environment for the growth of H. fomes, a true mangrove and the highest carbon-storing plant of the Sundarbans. This may possibly be achieved by proper sharing of the Ganges water from the Farakka Barrage, forming a consortium of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China, and converting parts or whole of the Ganges River into water reservoir(s. The idea is to implement the Ganges Barrage project about 33 km downstream, dredging sediments of the entire Gorai River and distributaries in the Ganges floodplain, thus allowing uniform sediment-laden freshwater flow to maintain an oligohaline environment for the healthy growth of mangroves. The system will also create healthy hinterlands of the Ganges floodplain with increased crop production and revenue. The expenditure may be met through carbon trading, as Bangladesh is a signatory of the Copenhagen Accord

  9. Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Lofgren, Katherine T; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Marcus, Jacob R; Levin-Rector, Alison; Levitz, Carly E; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L


    Estimation of the number and rate of deaths by age and sex is a key first stage for calculation of the burden of disease in order to constrain estimates of cause-specific mortality and to measure premature mortality in populations. We aimed to estimate life tables and annual numbers of deaths for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010. We estimated trends in under-5 mortality rate (children aged 0-4 years) and probability of adult death (15-59 years) for each country with all available data. Death registration data were available for more than 100 countries and we corrected for undercount with improved death distribution methods. We applied refined methods to survey data on sibling survival that correct for survivor, zero-sibling, and recall bias. We separately estimated mortality from natural disasters and wars. We generated final estimates of under-5 mortality and adult mortality from the data with Gaussian process regression. We used these results as input parameters in a relational model life table system. We developed a model to extrapolate mortality to 110 years of age. All death rates and numbers have been estimated with 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UIs). From 1970 to 2010, global male life expectancy at birth increased from 56·4 years (95% UI 55·5-57·2) to 67·5 years (66·9-68·1) and global female life expectancy at birth increased from 61·2 years (60·2-62·0) to 73·3 years (72·8-73·8). Life expectancy at birth rose by 3-4 years every decade from 1970, apart from during the 1990s (increase in male life expectancy of 1·4 years and in female life expectancy of 1·6 years). Substantial reductions in mortality occurred in eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa since 2004, coinciding with increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy and preventive measures against malaria. Sex-specific changes in life expectancy from 1970 to 2010 ranged from gains of 23-29 years in the Maldives and Bhutan to declines of 1-7 years in Belarus, Lesotho, Ukraine, and Zimbabwe