Sample records for bhima basin karnataka

  1. Mapping subtrappean sediments and delineating structure with the aid of heliborne time domain electromagnetics: Case study from Kaladgi Basin, Karnataka (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chaturvedi, A. K.


    Mapping of subtrappean sediments is a complex geological problem attempted by many interpreters applying different geophysical techniques. Variations in thickness and resistivity of traps and underlying sediments, respectively, results in considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of geophysical data. It is proposed that the transient electromagnetic technique is an effective geophysical tool for delineation of the sub-trappean sediments, due to marked resistivity contrast between the Deccan trap, and underlying sediments and/or basement. The northern margin of the Kaladgi basin is covered under trap. A heliborne time domain electromagnetic survey was conducted to demarcate the basin extent and map the sub-trappean sediments. Conductivity depth transformations were used to map the interface between conductive trap and resistive 'basement'. Two resistivity contrast boundaries are picked: the first corresponds to the bottom of the shallow conductive unit interpreted as the base of the Deccan Volcanics and the second - picked at the base of a deeper subsurface conductive zone - is interpreted as the weathered paleo-surface of the crystalline basement. This second boundary can only be seen in areas where the volcanics are thin or absent, suggesting that the volcanics are masking the EM signal preventing deeper penetration. An interesting feature, which shows prominently in the EM data but less clearly imaged in the magnetic data, is observed in the vicinity of Mudhol. The surface geology interpreted from satellite imagery show Deccan trap cover around Mudhol. Modelling of TDEM data suggest the presence of synclinal basin structure. The depth of penetration of the heliborne TDEM data is estimated to be approximately 350 m for the study area. This suggests that heliborne TDEM could penetrate significant thicknesses of conductive Deccan trap cover to delineate structure below in the Bagalkot Group.

  2. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS. (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S


    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  3. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

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    Prabhakar S Krishnachary


    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  4. Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes in a River Basin due to Urbanization using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Khire, M. V.; Gedam, S. S.


    Faster pace of urbanization, industrialization, unplanned infrastructure developments and extensive agriculture result in the rapid changes in the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) of the sub-tropical river basins. Study of LU/LC transformations in a river basin is crucial for vulnerability assessment and proper management of the natural resources of a river basin. Remote sensing technology is very promising in mapping the LU/LC distribution of a large region on different spatio-temporal scales. The present study is intended to understand the LU/LC changes in the Upper Bhima river basin due to urbanization using modern geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and GIS. In this study, the Upper Bhima river basin is divided into three adjacent sub-basins: Mula-Mutha sub-basin (ubanized), Bhima sub-basin (semi-urbanized) and Ghod sub-basin (unurbanized). Time series LU/LC maps were prepared for the study area for a period of 1980, 2002 and 2009 using satellite datasets viz. Landsat MSS (October, 1980), Landsat ETM+ (October, 2002) and IRS LISS III (October 2008 and November 2009). All the satellite images were classified into five LU/LC classes viz. built-up lands, agricultural lands, waterbodies, forests and wastelands using supervised classification approach. Post classification change detection method was used to understand the LU/LC changes in the study area. Results reveal that built up lands, waterbodies and agricultural lands are increasing in all the three sub-basins of the study area at the cost of decreasing forests and wastelands. But the change is more drastic in urbanized Mula-Mutha sub-basin compared to the other two sub-basins.

  5. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

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    K.S Vinayaka


    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  6. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar Singh Policepatel


    Objective: To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region.Methods:gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews.Results:A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported.Conclusions:The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  7. Prevalence of classical swine fever in Karnataka, India

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    Prakash Choori


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to know the current scenario of classical swine fever (CSF in Bengaluru Urban, Bengaluru Rural, Chikkaballapur, Madikeri, Mandya, Bagalkot, Gadag, Yadgir, Koppal, and Bidar districts of Karnataka with the using of both antigen and antibody ELISA. Materials and Methods: We collected 218 sera and 121 blood samples from pigs from 10 different districts of Karnataka. Screening of sera for CSF IgG antibody and whole blood for CSF virus antigen were carried out using the CSF virus (CSFV antibody and antigen ELISA kits, respectively. Results: The mean seroprevalence was 41% (89/218 and prevalence of CSFV antigen in blood samples was 32% (39/121 for the 10 districts of Karnataka. Seroprevalence of 61%, 29%, 20%, and 21%; and antigen prevalence of 40%, 50%, 13%, and 12% were recorded for Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, and Gulbarga divisions of Karnataka, respectively. Conclusions: The study revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of CSF, both for the antigen (32% and antibody (41% in Karnataka. Southern Karnataka has the highest seroprevalence (61% in Bangalore and 29% in Mysore divisions, which confirms the endemicity of the disease in that region. This could be attributed to the intensive pig farming practices in the region as compared to Northern Karnataka (Seroprevalence of 20% in Belgaum and 21% in Gulbarga divisions, where the commercial pig farming is still in infantile stages.


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    Hema Thakur


    Full Text Available The settlements of Chandravalli and Brahmagiri come under the Krishna basin.  Chandravalli and Brahmagiri are close to Chinnahagari, a tributary of Tungabhadra.  Both the settlements are located in district Chitradurga which is a part of South Maidan.  The area of South Maidan is marked by boulders and hills and is rich in mineral deposits and building material, notably iron, gold, copper, maganese, garnet, diamonds, granite, limestone, soapstone, etc.  It is a possibility that the Mauryas, who were based in North ventured into Karnataka to gain access to these minerals, particularly gold and diamonds.  Chandravalli has given evidence for typical early historic material assemblage comprising of brick structures, pottery, ornaments, terracottas, coins, Roman antiquities, inscriptions, etc.  In this paper the author has attempted to have an understanding of the sources which would have supported the human habitation at Chandravalli.  The discussion on sources has been done with respect to the local geographical and environmental conditions.Key Words – Chandravlli, sources, minerals, coins, traders

  9. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India




    Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species), Apocynaceae (11spp.), Cucurbitaceae (10 spp.) and Fabaceae (10 spp.) are the predominant f...

  10. Ancient ports of Karnataka and their contacts with Arab countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)


    , Udyavara and Mangalore played an active role in establishing the trade contacts with outside countries. The sea trade of Karnataka constituted a significant part of her economic activities and secured for her a niche in the oceanic trade of the western...

  11. Preliminary exploration of south Kanara coast of Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)


    at the mouth of the river Udyavara. It is a natural port with four rocky islands on the west. It is known for the temples of Anantesvara and Odabandesvara. The town Udayavara and village Kaup have been studied. An account of the shipwreck on Karnataka Coast...

  12. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T G Sitharam; Naveen James; K S Vipin; K Ganesha Raj


    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  13. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar


    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

  14. Metasediments of the deep crustal section of Southern Karnataka (United States)

    Devaraju, T. C.; Laajoki, K.; Wodeyar, B. K.


    A review of the rocks of supracrustal origin in the amphibolite and granulite facies terrane in southern Karnataka was presented. In addition to introducing the metasediments in the field area of the workshop, a review was presented of the common occurrence of metasediments in amphibolite and granulite facies rocks worldwide. Models of granulite metamorphism must include a mechanism for the burial of these sediments to the depths recorded by the geobarometers in granulite metamorphism in addition to their reexposure at the surface. Unfortunately, the common occurrence of supracrustals in granulite facies rocks, sometimes with remarkably little deformation was deemed significant.

  15. Hydrological feasibility of gravity diversion of the west flowing Nethravathi in Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mysooru R Yadupathi Putty; N M Thipperudrappa; P N Chandramouli


    The concept of collecting surface runoff on the slopes in canals cut across the western slopes of the Western Ghats, in order to divert part of a flow in the west flowing rivers to the east by gravity, is being promoted in Karnataka. This paper presents a study of the hydrological feasibility of such canals, termed ‘garland canals’ and claimed to be an environmental friendly alternative to the conventional technologies for inter-basin transfer of water, by their promoters. The paper presents a methodology for disaggregating normal annual rainfall into 15-min magnitudes and its application for simulating surface runoff, using a knowledge of infiltration rates on the slopes. The study has been carried out considering a part of a garland canal proposed for diverting the river Netravathi in the state. The results from the study reveal that significant amounts of flow can be collected in the proposed canal only if streams are also tapped and that because of the arrangements necessary for the purpose, garland canals cannot be considered a means superior to the conventional methods for diverting west flowing rivers.

  16. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

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    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.


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    Sarita Sylvia


    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthopaedic surgery, trochanteric region is an important as it’s an entry point, usually lateral side of the great trochanter, although anterior and posterior approaches have variable interest. For implants such as plates and DHS (dynamic hip screw, lateral approach is standard. After skin, fat tissue and fascia lata, vastuslateralis muscle is reached and elevated to approach lateral surface of subtrochanteric area. For implants as intra-medullar nail, minimally invasive approach is in routine use. Despite abundant research of general femoral morphology, especially its specific morphological parts (femoral head, neck, shaft, and its distal part involved in knee joint. Materials and methods: Study on 158 dry adult human femur of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The broken or non-dried specimens were excluded from the study. Results: The third trochanter was present in 4.43% of the femora. Although the incidence was higher on the right side it was not statistically significant. Discussion: Another study which reported the side variations in Whites and Negroes, documented higher incidence on right side in White and on left side in Negro population; it also reported the trait to be more common in females in both Whites and Negroes. Conclusion: The presence of third trochanter at the proximal part of the femur has been found to alter the break lines in the pertrochanteric fracture patients. This study dealt with the incidence of third trochanter in north Karnataka region.

  18. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

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    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.

  19. Production, Processing and Marketing of potato in Karnataka, India- An Economic Analysis


    Bhajantri, Shrinivas


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) popularly known as ‘The king of vegetables’, is grown in more than 100 countries in the world. Karnataka is one of the important Potato growing state in the country grown mainly in the districts of Hassan, Belgaum, Chikkaballapur and Kolar. The study was conducted to analyze Production, Processing and Marketing of Potato in Karnataka. The study reveals that Hassan district alone account for more than 41 percent potato production in the state. However production (...


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    Full Text Available Biodiversity of butterflies in Mandagadde of Shivamogga of Karnataka carried out. Many butterfly species are strictly seasonal and prefer only a particular set of habitats and they are good indicators in terms of anthropogenic disturbances and habitat destruction. The richness and diversity of butterfly species is proportional to the food plant diversity, richness of flowers and intensity of rainfall. Unfortunately, butterflies are threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation almost everywhere. A total of 52 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families were recorded during the study period. Among the 5 families, Nymphalidae dominated the list with 23 species, Paplionidae with 9 species, Pieridae and Lycaenidae with 8 species each and Hesperidae with 4 species. It is found that 9 species of butterflies are very common, 26 species are common and 17 species are rare in occurrence in Mandagadde

  1. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

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    Shuchismita Dey


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  2. First record of redneck goby Schismatogobius deraniyagalai (Teleostei: Gobiidae from Seethanathi river, Karnataka, Southern India.

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    Muthukumarasamy Arunachalam


    Full Text Available Schismatogobius deraniyagalai is recorded from the Seethanathi River of Karnataka state in the southern part of India. Previous records of these species were from the streams in Kerala of India and from freshwater habitats of Sri Lanka. Herein we report the occurrence of this species in Seethanathi River showing its distribution extended further north along the west coast of Peninsular India.

  3. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study (United States)

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar


    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  4. Primary productivity in the Karwar Bay, Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, U.G.; Naik, R.K.; Nayak, V.N.

    . Methods Uttara Kannada is one of the maritime districts of Karnataka state and is popularly known as of the Uttara Kannada district and is a major fishing center, well known for its fishery resources. In the present study, three study sites were...

  5. India--Karnataka: Secondary Education and The New Agenda for Economic Growth. (United States)

    Bashir, Sajitha

    Karnataka (India) recorded impressive growth in the 1990s, with state income growing at 8% per annum, driven largely by expansion of the industrial and service sectors. However, this impressive performance has not reduced rural poverty levels or regional disparities to a great extent. This report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in…

  6. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

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    D P Patil


    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  7. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations


    Prem K Mony; Jayanna Krishnamurthy; Annamma Thomas; Kiruba Sankar; Ramesh, B. M.; Stephen Moses; James Blanchard; Lisa Avery


    BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health fac...

  8. Implementing blended learning into the academic programs of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka. (United States)

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D


    Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.

  9. Development of Solar and Wind Power in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu


    Asian Development Bank


    This publication analyzes the performance of two states in India— Karnataka and Tamil Nadu— in their efforts toward installing solar and wind energy. It attempts to distill thereasons for their success, albeit in two very different renewable energy programs. It covers the major initiatives taken by the country in the form of policy and regulations including the formation of a full-fledged Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The report focuses on lessons learned from these states so that a s...

  10. The astronomical significance of megalithic stone alignments at Vibhuthihalli in northern Karnataka (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya


    A megalithic site at Vibhuthihalli in Karnataka, India, contains alignments of stones that are arranged in a square pattern with rows and columns showing a diagonal arrangement. Such structures are non-sepulchral, and although their purpose is not clear it has been suggested that they have astronomical significance. We investigated this possibility and our observations showed that the rows of stones point to the direction of equinoctial sunrise and sunset. lt is likely that calendrical events were monitored at this site.

  11. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deepa, N; Kunte, P.D.

    limited impact on the coastal shoreline. Keywords Port Impact; Reversing Wind; Shoreline Change; Geospatial Studies; Karnataka Coast 1. Introduction Shoreline changes induced by erosion and accretion are natural processes that take place over a...). Similarly, Port Ijmuiden is located at the mouth of the North Sea Canal to Amsterdam, and situated about 17 km north of Haarlem is a deep water port suited to fully laden Panamax ships, and is fourth port of the Netherlands. The Port of Ijmuiden has been...

  12. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study. (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran


    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females (p determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  13. Surface water quality evaluation and modeling of Ghataprabha River, Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Purandara, B K; Varadarajan, N; Venkatesh, B; Choubey, V K


    Belgaum city is a developmental hub of Karnataka State in India. In the recent time, the Government of Karnataka has planned to set up many processing industries in the vicinity of Belgaum to meet the growing needs of the region and to ease out the pressure on the already existing industrial hubs in Karnataka State. Ghataprabha, a tributary of river Krishna, is one of the major sources of water supply to Belgaum city and adjoining areas. During the last decade, a lot of anthropogenic activities such as unplanned agricultural activities are ongoing in many parts of the catchment. Therefore, people of Belgaum are more concerned about the quality of water in Ghataprabha river. Considering the significance of water quality of the river, surface water samples were collected during Pre- and Post-monsoon season from selected locations and analyzed for both physical and chemical constituents in the laboratory. The results indicate that the chemical parameters such as bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are within the permissible limits. QUAL2E model was applied to assess the impact of point and non-point sources of pollution on the river water quality. Results show that the water quality conditions are highly acceptable all along the river stretch. Further, the variation of DO-BOD(5) with river discharge was also estimated. Also, a significant variations in DO (decrease in DO) with the increase in river flow was observed. However, at the downstream end, considerable improvement in DO was noticed which is attributed to the damming effect of the reservoir.

  14. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

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    B.R. Harish


    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  15. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

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    Ramachandra Kamath


    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  16. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas


    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard ...

  17. Enrichment and vertical profiles of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka. (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Prakash, V


    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of (210)Po and (210)Pb, important daughter products of (238)U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for (210)Po and (210)Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of (210)Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg(-1) and that of (210)Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg(-1). The mean (210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 193 nGy h(-1).

  18. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India

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    Ramachandra Naik M; Vaishnavi Venugopalan; Preethi Kumaravelayutham; YL Krishnamurthy


    Objective: To explore and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of various plants used by the Lambani ethnic group in Chitradurga District of Karnataka, Southern India for traditional veterinary purposes. The area is rich in plant wealth; therefore this study has been made to prepare an inventory of indigenous medicinal plants and to bring traditional knowledge on record. Methods: In accordance to standardized WHO questionnaires, one hundred fourteen informants - consisting of healers, practitioners, farmers and village headman - were interviewed regarding the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Chitradurga District, Karnataka during February 2010 to October 2010. Results: Ethno botanical uses of 39 plants belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as lack of appetites, bloat, fever, ephemeral fever, diarrhea, cough, foot and mouth disease etc. Of the plants studied, most were trees and leaves contributed mainly to the plant part used for medical purpose. Conclusions:Lambani tribe, who are generally poor and live in remote areas, use ethno veterinary medicine (EVM) for the primary healthcare of their animals. The use of plants reveals their interest in ethnomedicine and further research on these species could lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules for efficient management of diseases.

  19. Heavy metal pollution in water and sediments in the Kabini River, Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Taghinia Hejabi, Azadeh; Basavarajappa, H T; Karbassi, A R; Monavari, S M


    The River Kabini in Karnataka, India carries natural and anthropogenic pollutants, mainly heavy metal concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn which are released from industrial effluents, agricultural return flows and domestic sewage. Kabini, which is a tributary of the Cauvery, drains through the industrial area at Nanjangud, Karnataka, India. Heavy metals were determined in waters and sediment (2 μm) of Kabini River. In the present investigation, chemical partitioning studies was carried out to know the association of base metals with various sedimentary phases. The concentrations of heavy metals are higher in loosely bonded fraction than the other studied fractions. Furthermore, the degree of sediment contamination was assessed by geochemical index. It should be pointed out that Cu and Cr show the highest pollution intensity. Cluster analysis was used to know about the inter correlation amongst the studied metals. It is evident that higher concentrations of metals are found in the vicinity of industrial effluents. The concentrations of Cr followed by Zn and Ni are rather higher than the maximum background values in the Kabini River sediment. This is especially true at the influx of paper mill effluents into the River.

  20. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

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    Banandur Pradeep


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  1. An Empirical Investigation on Mobile Banking Service Adoption in Rural Karnataka

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    S. V. Krishna Kishore


    Full Text Available Government of India (GOI initialized financial inclusion campaign to quell exclusion. The campaign did not gain expected progress. Government employed technologies to speed up the process. Among banking technologies, mobile banking appeared as a possible solution for financial exclusion with wide mobile phone coverage. Inputs on rural people’s intention toward technologies for effective financial inclusion were essential. Technology adoption factors, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, attitude, perceived risk, and behavioral intention (BI, were short listed after literature review. Factors were subjected to reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, multiple regression, and interaction analysis. Rural provinces in Karnataka state were surveyed. We used mixed sampling technique to reach 959 samples. Multiple regression–interaction analysis revealed age and gender moderated attitude’s path toward BI.


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    Sweta R.


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cutaneous fungal infections are common in coastal Karnataka owing to its tropical and humid climate. The organisms causing these infections commonly are dermatophytes, non dermatophytes and yeasts. This study aims to determine the p revalence of cutaneous mycosis, with their different clinical types and etiological agents, and correlate the findings. A total of 96 patients were included in our study, all of them attending dermatology OPD at a tertiary hospital in Mangalore with clinic ally suspected tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea capitis, tinea mannum, onychomycosis, candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor. The study revealed male to female ratio being 0.74:1. The leading diagnosis was pityriasis versicolor, the commones t organism isolated was C. albicans; and the commonest site involved is groin and skin flexures. This study emphasizes utility of timely detection of cutaneous fungal infection in preventing transmission and spread of KEYWORDS: Fungal infe ctions; Dermatophytes; Pityriasis versicolor such infections

  3. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

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    S. Mone


    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  4. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India. (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M


    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants.

  5. Perception of staff nurses regarding quality audit process in hospitals of Mangalore District, Karnataka. (United States)

    Rao, Radhika K; Alva, Janet; Sudhakar, Christopher; Lhamo, Nyima; Jose, Dona Mary; Mathew, Jestymol; Paul, Dinsa; Netto, Nimil; Sunny, Geethu Ann


    As in other fields, auditing in clinical nursing can go a long way in enhancing the productivity of nurses. Nursing audit is helpful in ascertaining the extent to which the organisation complies with the relevant quality norms and can involve in procedural or assessment criteria. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study which involved 255 staff nurses from two hospitals of Karnataka. The study tools included demographic proforma and audit scale (arbitrarily classified as unfavourable and favourable perception) to evaluate the impact of hospital and community-based clinical audit programme. It was shown that in selected hospitals, staff nurses had positive perception about the audit process; they also reported improvement in their levels of knowledge, skill and patient care though frequent audit hindered them in discharge of their duties.

  6. Emerging extra-intestinal infections with Aeromonas hydrophila in coastal region of southern Karnataka

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    Mukhopadhyay C


    Full Text Available Background: Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. They have been occasionally reported as a cause of extra-intestinal infections such as cellulitis, cholangitis, necrotizing fascitis, meningitis, bacteremia, or peritonitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients . Aim: To determine the role and possible pathogenesis of Aeromonas in extra-intestinal infections.Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis carried out at Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka in the months of January and February 2007. Materials and Methods: Clinical manifestations and management of eight cases of extra-intestinal infections caused by A. hydrophila , from the south Karnataka coastal region were reviewed. The isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests using standard guidelines.Results: All patients acquired Aeromonas infections in the community. Five (62.5% had underlying illnesses, such as liver disease, diabetes mellitus or malignancy. Five (62.5% had polymicrobial infections, and three (37.5% were complicated with bacteremia. These included three patients with ulcers or abscess over the lower leg, two with cellulitis due to snake bite and one each with pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia. A. hydrophila was found to be a causative agent of pelvic inflammatory disease or cellulitis following sea snake bite, and such a clinical scenario has not been previously described. Seven patients survived the illness. Conclusions: Isolation of A. hydrophila from extra-intestinal specimens demands utmost clinical and microbiological vigilance in diagnosis, since the organism can cause serious infections among immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.

  7. Pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India

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    Ramesha K


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It is important to know the nature, severity and outcome of acute poisoning cases in order to take up appropriate planning, prevention and management techniques. This study aimed to assess the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical institution in Karnataka. The study included 136 cases and data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake; circumstances of poisoning, name of the poisonous substance, chemical type, duration of hospitalization, severity and outcome were collected in the prestructured proforma. Results: Incidence was more common among males (75.4% compared to females (24.3. Most cases of acute poisoning presented among 20- to 29-year age group (31.2% followed by 12- to 19-year age group (30.2%. A majority of poisoning cases (36.0% were due to organophosphorus compound (OPC. Total mortality was found to be 15.4%. Mortality rate due to corrosives was significantly high compared with OPC poisoning (χ2 = 4.12, P = 0.04. Of the 56 patients of OPC and carbamate poisoning, 13 patients (23.2% had respiratory arrest and required respiratory support. Time lapse had a significant role on the mortality in cases of acute poisoning (χ2 = 10.9, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Poisoning is more common in young males. The overall mortality is substantially high, mainly contributed by self-poisoning with insecticides and corrosives. Early care in a tertiary care center may help to reduce mortality in India.

  8. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience. (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N


    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  9. Scrub typhus in adults in a teaching hospital in north Karnataka, 2011-2012

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    Umesh G Rajoor


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scrub typhus is grossly under-diagnosed in India due to its non specific clinical presentation, limited awareness and low index of suspicion among clinicians, and lack of diagnostic facilities. As there is a resurgence of scrub typhus in this part of north Karnataka, an attempt is made to study the clinical prolife and complications of scrub typhus in adult patients. Materials and Methods: All cases of febrile illness diagnosed as scrub typhus over a period of 1 year were analysed. Diagnosis was based on the presence of the eschar and /or positive Weil Felix test with a titre of > 1:80. Results: 50 patients diagnosed to have scrub typhus during study period of one year were included in the study. Headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting and dry cough were common symptoms. More than half of the patients had fever of 7-14 days duration (54%. Eschar was seen only in six patients. Transaminitis was noted in 86.67% patients. Weil Felix test was positive in 48/50 patients with titers of 1:160 in 13 patients, 1:320 in 31 patients and 1:640 in 4 patients. In our study complications noted were acute renal failure (07cases, ARDS and encephalitis 04 cases each and septic shock 01 case. Conclusion: There is a resurgence of scrub typhus in this part of north Karnataka, as one of the important cause of acute febrile illness. Weil Felix test serves as a useful and cheap test for the laboratory diagnosis of Rickettsial disease.

  10. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

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    Cleland John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  11. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

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    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension amongst school children and adolescents in North Karnataka: A cross sectional study


    Ravikumar V Baradol; SV Patil; Anand Ranagol


    Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of...

  13. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

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    Usha Seshachala


    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  14. An Investigative Study on School Drop-outs in Tribal Settings. A Case of Three selected Tribes in South Karnataka

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    Manjunatha B.R.


    Full Text Available The NPE, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA, 1992, recognized the heterogeneity and diversity of the tribal areas while underlining the importance of instruction through the mother tongue and the need for preparing teaching/learning materials in the tribal languages. A working group on Elementary and Adult Education for the Xth Five Year Plan (2002-07 emphasized the need to improve the quality of education of tribal children and to ensure equity as well as further improving access. In general, the tribes that remain geographically isolated are able to retain their traditional cultures and religions longer. On the other hand communities that are either nomadic or live in the periphery of civilized life are prone for drastic changes. Karnataka has a sizable population of tribal people. There are 34.64 lakhs tribals distributed in various regions of Karnataka as per 2001 census. Their education level still min pathetic condition. This paper is based on study conducted on three important tribes viz; Soliga, Jenukuruba and Betta Kurubas Tribes of chamartjangar district of Karnataka state India

  15. Gender Variables and Reproductive Behaviour of Women from Rural Mangalore, South Karnataka, India

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    Radha Y. Aras


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a growing sense that health and development programs can contribute to transforming gender norms and achieving good health and gender equality. Married women in India lack control over decisions related to their sexual and reproductive behavior due to gender inequities, cultural norms, limited economics and social autonomy. Gender disparities in the form of adverse sex ratio, wage differentials and various health and education dimensions are still prevalent in the Karnataka State. Hence a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community of Mangalore, Karnataka, India.Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the reproductive health of women and their associations with gender variables prevailing in the community. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Shantibagh and Vaidyanath Nagar Community in a Kotekar Panchayat at Mangalore from December 2009 to January 2010. A pretested semi structured interview tool was used to collect the information on the epidemiological variables related to reproductive health and gender issues. By systematic random sampling techinique, 214 women in the reproductive age groups were interviewed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 15.0. Results: There is a strong association between religion and type of Family as well as religion and women’s education status (p < 0.001. Average age at marriage is 21 years and average age at first pregnancy is 22.75 years. Average family size is 2.66. Prevalence of home deliveries is 11.5%. 91% of home deliveries are attended by Dai (Birth Attendants (26% of Dai’s are not trained. 57% of women (n=114- 91 Hindu, 17 Muslim & 6 Christian are using family planning measures and 90% of them decided with joint consultation (both husband and wife. Practice of family planning and traditional mis-belief that “every couple must have a son” are strongly associated with type of religion (p < 0.001. Variables

  16. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

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    Sreejith S. Nair


    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  17. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.


    indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  18. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka for IPCC SRES scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aavudai Anandhi


    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, due to the choice of scenarios, season type and number of seasons. Based on the type of season, the monthly sequences of variables (predictors) were selected from datasets of NCEP and Canadian General Circulation Model (CGCM3). Seasonal stratifications were carried out on the selected predictors using K-means clustering technique. The results of cluster analysis revealed increase in average, wet season length in A2, A1B and B1 scenarios towards the end of 21st century. The increase in season length was higher for A2 scenario whereas it was the least for B1 scenario. COMMIT scenario did not show any change in season length. However, no change in average warm and cold season length was observed across the four scenarios considered. The number of seasons was increased from 2 to 5. The results of the analysis revealed that no distinct cluster could be obtained when the number of seasons was increased beyond three.

  19. Genetic variation and population structure of interleukin genes among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srilakshmi M. Raj; Diddahally R. Govindaraju; Ranajit Chakraborty


    The extent of genetic variation and the degree of genetic differentiation among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India (Bunt, Havyak, Iyengar, Lingayath, Smartha, Vaishya, Vokkaliga), was investigated using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: IL-1A 4845, IL-1B 3954, IL-1B 511 and IL-1RA 2018) of the interleukin gene cluster. Allele frequencies varied by threefold among these populations, which also differed for gene diversity and heterozygosity levels. The average degree of population subdivision among these castes was low ($F_{ST} = 0.02$). However, pair-wise interpopulation differentiation ranged from 0–7%, indicating no detectable differentiation to moderate differentiation between specific populations. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distances between populations agreed with known social and cultural data on these ethnic groups. Variation in the allele frequencies, as well as differentiation, may be attributed to differential selection and demographic factors including consanguinity among the ethnic groups. Information on the distribution of functionally relevant polymorphisms among ethnic populations may be important towards developing community medicine and public health policies.

  20. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.


    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  1. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail:; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)


    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  2. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Karnataka State, India

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    K. V. V Prasad


    Full Text Available This article presents oral mucosal lesions findings from a state oral health survey of Karnataka, India. A total of 46,579 subjects aged 1-4 to 65+ years were selected by using multistage-cluster-stratified random sampling method and subjects were examined by 32 dentists trained in standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for oral mucosal lesions. In the present study, 7.53% of subjects had one or more oral mucosal lesions, in which, male subjects (9.41 % had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions compared to female subjects (4.38%; urban subjects (11.61% had a significantly higher prevalence than rural subjects (5.01 % and the Christian subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions than the Hindus, Muslims and others (F=211.594, <0.001, S. The observed prevalence of oral mucosal lesions increased with age (r=0.8174, P<0.05, S, which is statistically significant. The most prevalent lesions observed were Leukoplakia (1.73%, Lichen planus (2.02% Ulceration (0.73%, Candidiasis (0.94% and Abscess (1.05%. The maximum number of lesions was seen in sulci (7.33% and the minimum number of lesions was seen in lips (0.02%. Differences in prevalence were analyzed by sex, religion, location and geographical area.

  3. Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

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    C. N. Prasanna Kumar


    Full Text Available Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.

  4. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K


    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  5. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

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    H Manjunatha


    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  6. Knowledge of Computer Ergonomics among Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students in Karnataka, India

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    Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen


    Full Text Available Ergonomics is the science of designing the job to fit the worker. Neglect of ergonomic principles results in inefficiency and pain in the workplace. The objective of this research is to assess the knowledge of Computer Ergonomics among Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students in Karnataka. In this Cross-sectional study, 177 Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students were recruited. A questionnaire is used to gather details regarding Personal characteristics, Computer Usage and Knowledge of Ergonomics. Descriptive statistics was produced for Personal characteristics and Computer usage. The distribution of responses to the items related to Ergonomic knowledge was presented by percentage of the subjects who answered correctly. The results shows that Majority of the subjects were unaware of ergonomics (32.8% correct responses, cumulative trauma disorders (18.6% correct responses, healthy postures related to elbow (34.4% correct responses, wrist & hand (39.5% correct responses, Level of Monitor (35% correct responses, Position of mouse (47.4% correct responses and Mini breaks (42.9% correct responses. This research highlighted the necessity of Ergonomic training regarding healthy postures and the measures to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders for the students.

  7. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka

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    Mayuri Banerjee


    Full Text Available Background: India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8% of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S


    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry.

  9. Identification of homogeneous rainfall regimes in parts of Western Ghats region of Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Venkatesh; Mathew K Jose


    In view of the ongoing environmental and ecological changes in the Western Ghats, it is important to understand the environmental parameters pertaining to the sustenance of the region. Rainfall is one such parameter governing the hydrological processes crucial to agriculture planning, afforestation and eco-system management. Therefore, it is essential to understand rainfall distribution and its variation in relevance to such activities. The present study is an attempt to gain in-depth understanding in this direction. The study area comprises of one coastal district and its adjoining areas in Karnataka State. Mean annual rainfall data of 93 rain gauge stations distributed over the study area for a period of 10–50 years are used for the study. In order to assess the variation of rainfall across the ghats, several bands were constructed parallel to the latitudes to facilitate the analysis. The statistical analyses conducted included cluster analysis and analysis of variance. The study revealed that there exist three distinct zones of rainfall regimes in the study area, namely, Coastal zone, Transition zone and Malanad zone. It is observed that, the maximum rainfall occurs on the windward side ahead of the geographical peak. Further, mean monthly rainfall distribution over the zones has been depicted to enable agricultural planning in the study area.

  10. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.


    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  11. Evaluation of re-aeration equations for river Ghataprabha, Karnataka, India and development of refined equation. (United States)

    Kalburgi, P B; Jha, R; Ojha, C S P; Deshannavar, U B


    Stream re-aeration is an extremely important component to enhance the self-purification capacity of streams. To estimate the dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the river, estimation of re-aeration coefficient is mandatory. Normally, the re-aeration coefficient is expressed as a function of several stream variables, such as mean stream velocity, shear stress velocity, bed slope, flow depth and Froude number. Many empirical equations have been developed in the last years. In this work, 13 most popular empirical re-aeration equations, used for re-aeration prediction, have been tested for their applicability in Ghataprabha River system, Karnataka, India, at various locations. Extensive field data were collected during the period March 2008 to February 2009 from seven different sites located in the river to observe re-aeration coefficient using mass balance approach. The performance of re-aeration equations have been evaluated using various error estimations, namely, the standard error (SE), mean multiplicative error (MME), normalized mean error (NME) and correlation statistics. The results show that the predictive equation developed by Jha et al. (Refinement of predictive re-aeration equations for a typical Indian river. Hydrological Process. 2001;15(6):1047-1060), for a typical Indian river, yielded the best agreement with the values of SE, MME, NME and correlation coefficient r. Furthermore, a refined predictive equation has been developed for river Ghataprabha using least-squares algorithm that minimizes the error estimates.

  12. Immunization status of infants residing in an urban community of North Karnataka, India

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    Shobha Ram Bhandari


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Immunization is proven cost effective intervention to reduce the child morbidity and mortality. Immunization is the cost-effective intervention which provides protection to infants and children. The objectives of study were to assess the immunization coverage and factors associated with utilization of immunization of 12-23 months children. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area of Belgaum city, Karnataka with a sample size of 370. Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the required information. Result: It was found that 79.5% were fully immunized, 20.5% were partially immunized and no children were found unimmunized. Immunization status of children was significantly associated with mother’s educational level (p<0.05 and socioeconomic class (p<0.001. Conclusion: As the immunization coverage of children was found still low then expected level of coverage prescribed by the Government, there is need of adequate health education proper training, motivation, better monitoring, supervision and strengthening of services to ensure adequate coverage for all doses of vaccine.

  13. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka (United States)

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz


    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pregnancy is usually a serene time of unparalleled joy and expectation in a women's life. However , sometimes it can be complicated by illnesses or medical conditions. Although only 10 - 30% of the mothers seen in antenatal period can be classified as high ri sk they account for 70 - 80% of perinatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES : To determine casual blood pressure recordings among primi and multigravida women in a rural block of Karnataka state. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present cross - sectional study was carried out in all the sub - centers under Primary Health Centre (PHC , the rural field practice area of Bangarpet taluk of Kolar district during April 2013 to September 2013. Blood pressure was recorded with sphygmoman ometer by auscultatory method in 200 registered pregnant women attending the particular sub - center at that point of time. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following conclusions were drawn after statistical analysi s . 1. There was statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure as age advanced among the pregnant women . 2. There was statistically significant increase in diastolic blood pressure among primigravida as compared to multigravida . But nonethel ess no cases of pregnancy induced hypertension was detected in our study group .


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    Sharath R.


    Full Text Available AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients ( n = 200 visiting various outpatient departments of the Hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered a questionnaire (Kannada and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, pledging and willingness to donate eyes. RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 182 (91% participants. Analysis showed that awareness was equal among males and females. Of the 182 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 108 (59.34% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the males (55.55%. 142 (71% participants wou ld recommend eye donation. Main reasons for not pledging eyes were: lack of information regarding pledging eyes (39.18%, objection by family members (33.78% and religious belief (17.56%. Educational status was associated with willingness to donate eyes (P=0.0001. Media was the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation only 9.34% have pledged their eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations, we need to develop more innovative strategies to target young rural population to make them pledge their eyes. Awareness has to be created through the curriculum. Training of anganawadi, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel in spreading awareness, pledging and ben efits of eye donation at community level.

  16. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn--a community based study in rural Karnataka, India.

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    Chandra S Metgud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in many developing countries, especially so in India. Although we do not know all the causes of LBW, maternal and environmental factors appear to be significant risk factors in its occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To know the factors affecting the birth weight of a newborn and to estimate the prevalence of LBW. METHODS: The present study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women and their newborns residing in area covered by Kinaye Primary Health Centre in rural Karnataka, India. The study was conducted from 1(st June 2008 to 31(st December 2009. RESULTS: The mean birth weight of newborns was 2.6 kg with a range of 1.2 to 3.8 kg. The prevalence of LBW was 22.9%. Among the studied risk factors, 25 of them were significantly associated with the birth weight of a newborn on univariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education [Odds Ratio (OR 3.2], exposure to passive smoking [OR 2.3], age at first pregnancy ≥25 years [OR 3.6], birth interval <2 years [OR 2.4], previous history of LBW baby [OR 3.3], weight gain ≤4 kg during pregnancy [OR 7.0], maternal weight at last week of gestation ≤45 kg [OR 2.3], pregnancy induced hypertension [OR 3.3], high risk pregnancy [OR 3.6] and late antenatal registration [OR 3.6] emerged as significant risk factors on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The problem of LBW is multidimensional, and hence, we need an integrated approach incorporating medical, social, economical and educational measures to address this issue.

  17. Sociodemographic and health profile of inmates of old age homes in and around Belgaum city, Karnataka. (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya


    A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.

  18. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

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    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli


    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  19. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh


    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  20. Natural radioactivity in some major rivers of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India. (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Rajashekara, K M; Siddappa, K


    Systematic studies on radiation level and distribution of radionuclides have been carried out in riverine environs of three major rivers of coastal Karnataka, viz. Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi. The ambient gamma radiation levels along three rivers were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, sediment and rock were measured using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi riverbanks, the median values of absorbed gamma dose rates in air were found to be 44 nGy h(-1), 35 nGy h(-1) and 57 nGy h(-1), respectively. The highest activity of (226)Ra was found in riverbank soil samples of Sharavathi River. The highest activities of (232)Th and (40)K were found in riverbank soil and sediment samples of Netravathi River. In Kali River, the highest (226)Ra activity was recorded for rock samples. To assess the radiological hazard of natural radioactivity in the samples, absorbed gamma dose rates in air, radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external hazard index and internal hazard index associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values. The representative level index (I(gammar)) values are high in sediment samples of Netravathi River. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) values are high in rock samples of Kali River. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka. (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R


    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  2. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

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    Tonita M Noronha


    Full Text Available Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%. Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7% was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%. Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka.

  3. Heartwood, sapwood and bark content of teak trees grown in Karna-taka, India

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    Vindhya Prasad Tewari; K.M. Mariswamy


    We evaluated heartwood, sapwood and bark content in teak trees. A total of 27 sample plots were laid out in teak plantations raised by State Forest Department in Karnataka covering different age groups (11−36 years), density (516−2061 trees/ha) and sites. From these planta-tions, a total of 130 trees were felled for estimating the yield and bark content in relation to diameter at breast height (DBH), age and density. Bark content ranged from 22.2%−54.3%. Heartwood and sapwood con-tent were analyzed by sampling five trees each from two different planta-tions, one 30 years old at 553 trees⋅ha-1 and the other 32 years old at 911 trees⋅ha-1. The highest heartwood proportion of stem wood volume (over-bark) was 56.3%and the lowest was 37.1%. The sapwood propor-tion ranged from 12.9%−23.0%, while the bark content ranged from 27.8%−43.5%. The heartwood proportion increased with DBH, while the proportion of bark decreased. The sapwood proportion did not vary with DBH. The bark content decreased with increasing age, but increased with stand density. There was no significant difference in heartwood content with respect to age or stand density because the ages of the two stands were similar. A larger dataset from young to mature stands is needed to describe the relationships between age and stand density and heartwood, sapwood and bark content of trees.

  4. Enrichment and vertical profiles of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka

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    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199 (India)], E-mail:; Prakash, V. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199 (India)


    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, important daughter products of {sup 238}U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of {sup 210}Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and that of {sup 210}Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg{sup -1}. The mean {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h{sup -1} with a mean value of 193 nGy h{sup -1}.

  5. Scaling up antiretroviral treatment services in Karnataka, India: impact on CD4 counts of HIV-infected people.

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    Suresh Shastri

    Full Text Available SETTING: Twelve antiretroviral treatment centres under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP, Karnataka State, India. OBJECTIVE: For the period 2004-2011, to describe the trends in the numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV registered for care and their median baseline CD4 counts, disaggregated by age and sex. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving analysis of routinely captured data (year of registration, age, sex, baseline CD4 count under NACP. RESULTS: 34,882 (97% of total eligible PLHIV were included in analysis. The number registered for care has increased by over 12 times during 2004-11; with increasing numbers among females. The median baseline CD4 cell count rose from 125 in 2004 to 235 in 2011--the increase was greater among females as compared to males. However, about two-thirds still presented at CD4 cell counts less than 350. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend of median CD4 counts among PLHIV presenting to ART centres in Karnataka, an indicator of enhanced and early access to HIV care. Equal proportion of females and higher baseline CD4 counts among them allays any fear of differential access by gender. Despite this relative success, a substantial proportion still presented at low CD4 cell counts indicating possibly delayed HIV diagnosis and delayed linkage to HIV care. Universal HIV testing at health care facilities and strengthening early access to care are required to bridge the gap.

  6. Microhealth insurance and the risk coping strategies for the management of illness in Karnataka: a case study. (United States)

    Savitha, B; K B, Kiran


    Risk coping strategies adopted by the households in the event of illness depends on the accessibility to healthcare financing mechanisms including health insurance. The empirical evidence on the effect of microhealth insurance (MHI) on the risk coping strategies of the households is scarce. This paper evaluates the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Program, a nongovernmental organization-initiated MHI scheme and the risk coping strategies of households faced with medical illness in Karnataka state, India. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we collected data from 416 insured households, 366 newly insured households and 364 uninsured households in randomly selected 10 taluks in three districts of Karnataka state, India. We hypothesized that insured individuals rely less on ex post risk coping strategies (borrowing, use of savings and sale of assets) compared with uninsured and newly insured individuals. Our hypothesis was tested using logistic and linear regression analysis. A significant difference among insured, uninsured and newly insured individuals was found for borrowing but not in the use of savings or sale of assets. A positive impact of MHI on illness-induced borrowing (both incidence and amount) was evident. The evidence from this study reinforces the role of MHI as a pivotal financing alternative to out-of-pocket expenditure in India.

  7. Distribution, den characteristics and diet of the Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis (Mammalia: Canidae in Karnataka, India: preliminary observations

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    H.N. Kumara


    Full Text Available The Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis inhabits relatively dry areas with scrub thorn forests, deciduous forests, short grasslands and marginal croplands. Since it is a widely distributed species, especially in the dry tracts, very little attention has been paid to it by researchers and wildlife managers. We conducted an extensive survey in the south Indian state of Karnataka to determine the conservation status of the Indian Fox. We also carried out a more detailed observation in a small region called “Jayamangali Blackbuck Block” (JBB and surrounding private lands to study the den site characteristics of the species. Except for a few districts in the Western Ghats and the west coastal region, the fox was present throughout Karnataka. Relatively higher encounter rates were observed in regions with extensive grasslands. We located 52 dens during the study in JBB which provide a minimum of 12dens/km2 with 1.33/km2 active dens. Circumference of den sites were smaller in JBB than in the adjoining private lands indicating that foxes frequently shifted dens in this area. The number of openings and active openings increased as the circumference of the den site increased. Fecal analysis revealed remains of certain species of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, with arthropods as the major food items of the fox.


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    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of ear diseases is more common in rural school going children. Most commonly observed ear diseases include chronic otits media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media, otitis externa and impact ed wax. The causes of ear diseases are due to lack of health education, poor socio - economic status and unhygienic practices. These diseases cause decrease in hearing in children which leads to decrease in learning abilities and also leading to more number of school dropouts. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of ear diseases among rural school going children and to identify the causes for the occurrence, there by suggesting measures to reduce the occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This is a non - randomized, cross - sectional study. The study was conducted in schools located in and around the Rural health training C entre, Nagavalli attached to Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur district Karnataka. The study period was 14 months from December 2010 to February 2012; the study was conducted on students from 18 schools within the age group of 6 years to 15 years. The students less than 6 years were excluded from the study. The total student population was 741 and all of them were examine d for ear pathologies. The method of examination was done by using otoscopy, tuning forks tests and pure tone audiometry. RESULTS: Out of 741 students examined, 43 students had ear pathologies. Hence, the percentage of students with ear pathologies was fou nd to be 5.8%. The common ear pathologies observed was impacted wax, acute otitis media, otitis externa and chronic otitis media and these students were of low socio - economic status. CONCLUSION: Ear diseases are common in rural children due to lack of heal th education, low socio - economic status and unhygienic practices followed. Hence this survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of ear diseases among rural school going children and to find out the causes


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    Arun Kumar B.


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  10. Availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care services in Karnataka State, South India: access and equity considerations.

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    Prem K Mony

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities. Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the 'non-headquarter' taluks and 'backward' taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require

  11. Effect of water quality on the composition of fish communities in three coastal rivers of Karnataka, India

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    Arunkumar Shetty


    Full Text Available The fish assemblage and diversity in relation to water quality of three coastal rivers Sita, Swarna and Varahi of Udupi district, Karnataka, India was studied. 71 species representing 7 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded from 21 sites along the three rivers. Species composition varied longitudinally in relation to the environmental factors of the habitat. The downstream change in the three rivers indicates that fish assemblage changed with increasing loss of riparian canopy cover and increasing agricultural land-use. The richness and abundance of fishes were correlated with land-use type, canopy cover, pH and turbidity. Diversion of water, discharge of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff were prominent among the disturbances that alter the habitat quality.


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    Krishnakumar RAMANATHAN


    Full Text Available The banking industry in India is going through a unique competitive situation: on the one hand, the proliferation of new banks has increased competition multi-fold; on the other hand, given the rigid regulatory environment, banks have very little liberty to innovate products. The entry of multinational banking giants with superior service operations has further amplified the competition for customers. This paper examines the business performance of Karnataka bank during the period between 2006 and 2014 in order to bring home some of these challenges. Based on feedback from the branch managers, savings and current accounts - two classic banking products – suffered the most in the onslaught. Practicing managers as well as customers that we interviewed held that banking services in terms of customer experience ought to be improved and that various value added services could be introduced. Customers also expected reduced penalty for minimum balance and enhanced insurance cover for their accounts.

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 was Responsible for a Cholera Outbreak in 2013 in Bagalkot, North Karnataka. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Roy, Subarna; Parande, Mahantesh V; Telsang, M; Seema, M H; Parande, Aisha V; Mantur, Basappa G


    Cholera is a major cause of illness in the developing world. During the monsoon season, small sporadic clusters of cholera cases are reported on an annual basis in Karnataka, India. During the monsoons of 2013, there was a cholera outbreak in Badami, a remote area of Bagalkot district in Karnataka. The multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was found to be responsible for this outbreak. On 5 August 2013, a 30-year-old woman presented with severe dehydration and watery diarrhea at the Aganwadi Health Centre in Badami. A total of 49 suspected cholera cases were reported, with an attack rate of 3.5%. The V. cholerae isolates exhibited resistance to a wide range of drugs, including ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, carbenicillin, and third generation cephalosporins, and showed reduced susceptibility to third generation fluoroquinolones. All of the cephalosporin-resistant V. cholerae strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. All V. cholerae O1 isolates harbored virulent genes (ctxA, ctxB, tcpA El Tor, Tox S, VPI, ToxT, ToxR, ToxRS, ace, zot, and tcpP) and were found to be genetically similar as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cholera outbreak in the district of Bagalkot. The resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major public health concern in the region as clinicians are left with a limited choice of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera.

  14. The burden of headache disorders in India: methodology and questionnaire validation for a community-based survey in Karnataka State. (United States)

    Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Rajesh, Kavita; Subbakrishna, D Kumaraswamy; Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars J


    Primary headache disorders are a major public-health problem globally and, possibly more so, in low- and middle-income countries. No methodologically sound studies of prevalence and burden of headache in the adult Indian population have been published previously. The present study was a door-to-door cold-calling survey in urban and rural areas in and around Bangalore, Karnataka State. From 2,714 households contacted, 2,514 biologically unrelated individuals were eligible for the survey and 2,329 (92.9 %) participated (1,103 [48 %] rural; 1,226 [52 %] urban; 1,141 [49 %] male; 1,188 [51 %] female; mean age 38.0 years). The focus was on primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and medication-overuse headache. A structured questionnaire administered by trained lay interviewers was the instrument both for diagnosis (algorithmically determined from responses) and burden estimation. The screening question enquired into headache in the last year. The validation study compared questionnaire-based diagnoses with those obtained soon after through personal interview by a neurologist in a random sub-sample of participants (n = 381; 16 %). It showed high values (> 80 %) for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for any headache, and for specificity and negative predictive value for migraine and TTH. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement were good for any headache (0.69 [95 % CI 0.61-0.76]), moderate (0.46 [0.35-0.56]) for migraine and fair (0.39 [0.29-0.49]) for TTH. The survey methodology, including identification of and access to participants, proved feasible. The questionnaire proved effective in the survey population. The study will give reliable estimates of the prevalence and burden of headache, and of migraine and TTH specifically, in urban and rural Karnataka.

  15. A study of maternal mortality at the teaching hospital, Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sahaja Kittur


    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in the developing world. Maternal mortality is a vital index of the effectiveness of obstetric services prevailing in a country. The present study was conducted at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, which caters to 250 PHC’s/CHC’s and is a major referral centre for 4 districts with an average of 800-1000 deliveries per month. Methods: Data on the maternal deaths at KIMS, Hubli from October 2010 to March 20011 during pregnancy and within 42 days of delivery of any cause, irrespective of the duration and site of pregnancy were collected. Results: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was per 1,00,000 live births. Among the 40 maternal deaths, 7 deaths (17.5% occurred in primigravida, 14 deaths (35% had occurred in primipara, 4 deaths (10% in gravida 2 and above, 7 deaths (17.5% in para 2, 5 deaths (12.5% in para 3 and 3 deaths (7.5% had occurred in para 4 and above. During the study period, 8 deaths (20% occurred within 1 hour of admission, 5 deaths (12.5% within 1-6 hours of admission, 7 deaths (17.5% between 7-12 hours of admission, 6 deaths (15% between 13-24 hours, 8 deaths (20% between 1-2 days and 6 deaths occurred after 2 days of admission. Maternal deaths had occurred mostly in delivered women (75% compared to undelivered women (25%. During the study period, among the 40 maternal deaths, 34 deaths (85% occurred due to direct obstetric causes and 6 deaths (15% due to indirect causes. Among the direct obstetric causes, haemorrhage (30% and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (30% were the leading causes. Pulmonary embolism (10%, rupture uterus (5%, chorioamnionitis (5%, septic abortion (2.5% and acute inversion of uterus (2.5% were the other direct causes of maternal deaths. Among the indirect obstetric causes, 4 deaths (10% occurred due to anaemia which was the leading cause. One death (2.5% occurred due to cardiac disease and 1 death

  16. Quantitative Estimation of Fungicide, Pesticide Residues from Pepper (Piper Nigrum L. as Obtained in the Selected Area of Kodagu District, Karnataka.

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    Venkatesh R


    Full Text Available Kodagu is the one of the major pepper cultivated district in Karnataka state. The present study was carried out in the different villages such as Tuchumaleri, Chikkamandur, Mattur, Nallur, Kunda, Balaji, Kottur, and MallanakereetcofPonnempet, Kodagu district Karnataka. During the pepper cultivation the farmers are used the pesticides in each steps, for high yielding purpose. This study was revealed that to measure the amount of pesticides present in the final product. Aflatoxin is produced by the fungi aspergillusflavus and it having properties of nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, and immunosuppressive. It can be determined by the reliable method like HPLC (column symmetry C-18; 4.6X250 mm used with detection by florescence (excitation 364 nm, emission 465 nm. Like that the organo phosphors also determined by GC (column summery RTX-5; 30m the level can be indicated in ppb and ppm respectively.

  17. Study of prevalence of work related stress and co-morbidities and its effect on work performance in KSRTC workers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India

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    Sudhir Prabhu


    Conclusions: Very few studies have been conducted to assess stress levels in organized sectors in India and Karnataka. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the stress levels and associated health disorders amongst the KSRTC workers of Dakshina Kannada district and to suggest suitable measures to improve occupational health, if necessary. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3161-3166

  18. Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka (United States)

    Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.


    Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.

  19. Evaluation of nutrient index using organic carbon, available P and available K concentrations as a measure of soil fertility in Varahi River basin, India

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    P. Ravikumar


    Full Text Available Varahi River basin is in the midst of Udupi district in the western part of Karnataka state, covering parts of Kundapura and Udupi taluks in Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Spatial distributions for twenty physical and chemical properties were examined in the soil samples of selected agricultural fields in 28 different locations in Varahi River basin. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area as the soils were having low to medium in organic carbon (0.06 to 1.20 % and available nitrogen (6.27 to 25.09 Kg/ha content; low to medium in available P (2.24 to 94.08 Kg/ha and deficient to doubtful in available K (20.10 - 412.3 Kg/ha contents. The soils of Varahi River basin were characterized as low-medium-low (LML category based on the nutrient index calculated w.r.t. available organic carbon, available P and available K. Further, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.

  20. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

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    DP Paneru


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  1. Detoxifying enzyme studies on cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida, resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in field populations in Karnataka, India

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    Halappa Banakar


    Full Text Available The cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida is considered to be an alarming insect pest causing both quantitative and qualitative loss in cotton. In situ bioassay studies were done and the role of detoxifying enzymes in conferring resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides in low (MUD, medium (DVG, high (HVR and very high (GLB pesticide usage areas of Karnataka were determined. Bioassay studies showed that imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin registered varying levels of resistance for all the locations studied. The resistance ratio was high in imidacloprid (3.35, 8.57, 9.15 and 12.27 fold respectively and the lowest in dinoferuran (1.86, 5.13, 6.71 and 9.88 fold respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme activity ratio (glutathione-S-transferase was relatively greater, and corresponded to the higher LC50 values of neonicotinoids for very high, high, medium and low pesticide usage areas. Our study suggested that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzyme in the resistance population of cotton leafhopper apparently has a significant role in endowing resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides. However, this study recommends using neonicotinoids in cotton growing areas with caution.

  2. Retention in pre-antiretroviral treatment care in a district of Karnataka, India: how well are we doing? (United States)

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Rewari, B.; Kumar, S.; Shastri, S.; Satyanarayana, S.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Nagaraja, S. B.; Devi, M.; Bhargava, N.; Das, M.; Zachariah, R.


    Setting: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) Centre in Tumkur district of Karnataka State, India. There is no published information about pre-ART loss to follow-up from India. Objective: To assess the proportion lost to follow-up (defined as not visiting the ART Centre within 1 year of registration) and associated socio-demographic and immunological variables. Design: Retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records of adult HIV-infected persons (aged ⩾15 years) registered in pre-ART care during January 2010–June 2012. Results: Of 3238 patients registered, 2519 (78%) were eligible for ART, while 719 (22%) were not. Four of the latter were transferred out; the remaining 715 individuals were enrolled in pre-ART care, of whom 290 (41%) were lost to follow-up. Factors associated with loss to follow-up on multivariate analysis included age group ⩾45 years, low educational level, not being married, World Health Organization Stage III or IV and rural residence. Conclusion: About four in 10 individuals in pre-ART care were lost to follow-up within 1 year of registration. This needs urgent attention. Routine cohort analysis in the national programme should include those in pre-ART care to enable improved review, monitoring and supervision. Further qualitative research to ascertain reasons for loss to follow-up is required to design future interventions. PMID:26400698

  3. Factors associated with sexual violence against men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals in Karnataka, India.

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    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T. DESIGN: Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV. RESULTS: A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p = .104. In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2-14.3, p = .029. Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7, p = .012. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.

  4. Development of weather based rice yellow stem borer prediction model for the Cauvery command rice areas, Karnataka, India

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    N.R. Prasannakumar


    Full Text Available Relationship of weather parameters viz., maximum temperature (Tmax, °C, minimum temperature (Tmin, °C, rainfall (RF, mm, morning relative humidity (RH1, %, evening humidity (RH2, %, and sunshine hours (SSH, during seven years at Mandya (Karnataka was individually explored with peaks of rice yellow stem borer (YSB Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker light trap catches. The peaks of YSB trap catches exhibited significant correlation with Tmax of October 3rd week, Tmin of November 1st week, RF of October 2nd week, RH1 of November 4th and RH2 of November 1st week, and SSH of October 4th week. Weather-based prediction model for YSB was developed by regressing peaks of YSB light trap catches on mean values of different weather parameters of aforesaid weeks. Of the weather parameters, only Tmin, RF, and RH1 were found to be relevant through stepwise regression. The model was validated satisfactorily through 8-year independent data on weather parameters and YSB light trap catch peaks (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.0002.

  5. Frontline Health Service Providers' Perspectives on HIV Vaccine Trials among Female Sex Workers and Men Who Have Sex with Men in Karnataka, South India.

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    Satyanarayana Ramanaik

    Full Text Available Little qualitative research is available on the role of frontline health service providers (FHSPs in the implementation of clinical trials, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about the perspectives of FHSPs on future HIV vaccine trials involving female sex workers (FSWs and men who have sex with men (MSM in three districts of Karnataka, India. In particular, we explore FHSPs' knowledge of and views on clinical trials in general, and examine their potential willingness to play a role if such trials were introduced or implemented in the region.A field team of four researchers from Karnataka-two of whom self-identified with FSW or MSM communities ("community researchers" and two with backgrounds in social work-conducted in-depth interviews with FHSPs. Including community researchers in the study helped to build rapport with FSW and MSM participants and facilitate in-depth discussions. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed using a framework analysis approach. Data was then analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent codes.Over half of FHSPs demonstrated limited knowledge or understanding of clinical trials. Despite reported skepticism around the testing of HIV vaccines in developing countries and concerns around potential side effects, most FHSPs strongly advocated for the implementation of HIV vaccine clinical trials in Karnataka. Further, most FHSPs expressed their willingness to be involved in future HIV vaccine clinical trials in varying capacities.Given that FHSPs are often directly involved in the promotion of health and well-being of FSWs and MSM, they are well-positioned to play leadership, ethical, and communicative roles in future HIV vaccine trials. However, our findings reveal a lack of awareness of clinical trials among FHSP participants, suggesting an important area for capacity building and staff development before viable and

  6. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study


    Basit, A; Nair, S.; KB Chakraborthy; Darshan BB; Kamath, A


    BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 1...

  7. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K Ullas; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, Krithi K; Goswami, Varun R


    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2) landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2) (SE = 847 km(2)) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2) of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2) or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need

  8. A Qualitative Research on the Experience of Haemodialysis in South Karnataka: Lived Experience of Persons undergoing Haemodialysis

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    Blessy Prabha Valsaraj


    Full Text Available Background: Any chronic illness puts a person and family at risk of long term suffering, financial depletion and burden on the caregiver. When it comes to chronic kidney disease (CKD, the sufferers have to be dependent on maintenance dialysis weekly twice or thrice that demands a lot of time and finances. Apart from that, they face physical symptoms of fatigue, anaemia, nausea, muscle cramps, fluctuating blood pressure and many other symptoms. They are asked to maintain a strict dietary, fluid and medication regimen in order to support the kidneys. Aims and Objectives: The current study aimed at exploring the lived experience of persons undergoing haemodialysis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among ten patients undergoing maintenance dialysis who were diagnosed as having chronic kidney failure from the dialysis unit of Kasturba Hospital, which is a tertiary health care centre in South Karnataka. A qualitative approach with phenomenological research design was adopted. Data was obtained through interviews using a background proforma and semi-structured interview schedule. The data was analysed using Husserl's method. The transcripts were coded and analysed for common categories and themes were derived out of them. Results: The themes emerged at the end of the study were mental agony, physical limitations, coping, financial burden, lack of support, feelings towards the machine and dialysis, search for hope and betterment, spiritual coping, marital relationship and sexuality and uncertainty and fear of tomorrow. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the individual's life is centred on negatively oriented cognitions that can be modified with theoretically oriented interventions like cognitive behaviour therapy.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

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    Nitya Nand Deepak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. METHODS: 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais, unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists. RESULTS: Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers

  10. Screening of Streptomycetes for L-Asparaginase, Therapeutic Agent of Lymphocytic Leukemia from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

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    Mamatha B Salimath


    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are the most economically and biotechnologically valuable prokaryotes and are responsible for the production of about half of the discovered bioactive secondary metabolites, antibiotics, anticancer agents and enzymes. The present study was successful in characterizing 25 Streptomycetes isolates inhabiting Agumbe province, of Western Ghats soil of Karnataka, India, for potential source of L-asparaginase enzyme. L- Asparaginase (L-asparagine amido hydrolase E.C. is an extracellular enzyme has anti-carcinogenic potential, received increasing awareness in the current years because of its use as an effective agent against Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL. L-asparagine is a source of essential amino acid necessary for the growth of leukemic cells in higher amounts. Depletion of L-asparagine from the circulatory blood leads to death of malignant cells. Streptomyces isolates have been collected from soil samples by serial dilution and plating method employing Starch Casein Nitrate agar and ISP media. They were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. When primarily screened for L-asparaginase production by Rapid plate assay using Modified M9 medium containing L-asparagine and Phenol red as indicator, 23 isolates were found to be positive by showing change in color of medium from yellow to pink. Strain V17 isolate proved to be potent producer of the enzyme with higher amount of enzyme up to 22.45 IU/ml. About 92% of the tested isolates were positive for anti-cancerous potential, indicating the Western Ghats soils as potential sources for anti-cancerous agents. Further studies on purification and characterization of enzyme are under progress.

  11. General practitioners′ perceptions about the extended roles of the community pharmacists in the state of Karnataka: A study

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    Adepu R


    Full Text Available In developed countries, professional relationships between the prescribers and pharmacists are good due to the professional services offered by the pharmacists. Many researchers have found that, prescribers are in favour of the new extended roles of practising pharmacists as patient counsellors and drug information providers. In India, professional relationships between the prescribers and pharmacists require becoming strong in the interest of profession and patient care. The present study is aimed at analysing the general practitioners′ perception and expectations from practising community pharmacists in four district headquarters of Karnataka. The study was conducted through convenient sampling method using a well-designed 14-item questionnaire to collect the opinions from the respondents. Likert scale was employed to assess the responses. One hundred and fifteen general practitioners have participated in the study. The respondents opined that only qualified pharmacists should run the pharmacies (4.73. Although the present D. Pharm qualification is sufficient to run the pharmacies (3.55, to meet the present health care demands, B. Pharm or M. Pharm is a must (3.86. Pharmacists are considered as a part of health care team (3.43 and should be located within the medical practice (3.82 and accepted as professional partner (3.30. Coming to the question of extended roles, some respondents have mentioned that pharmacists should check the legality and drug interactions in the prescriptions (3.20 and provide the necessary drug information. However, the respondents were against the pharmacist-run diabetic and anticoagulant clinics and against pharmacists prescribing cost-effective suggestions. Age has shown significant influence only on few opinions, whereas experience of the respondents has shown significant influence on majority of the opinions. Many respondents expressed positive opinion about the extended roles of the pharmacists but said the

  12. Assessment of 'accredited social health activists'-a national community health volunteer scheme in Karnataka State, India. (United States)

    Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K


    About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist.

  13. Psychosocial perspective of first year medical students entered in a professional course – a cross sectional study from Davangere, Karnataka

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    Prasad Budri Kallingappa


    Full Text Available Background The perception of stress is frequently influenced by socio cultural factors; the results of studies on one region cannot be generalized to the other. This study is an attempt to explore the perception of stress and allied stressors among Indian medical students who have just entered into professional course. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on medical students of SSIMSRC, Davangere, Karnataka. Depression, anxiety and stress scores were noted using DASS questionnaire and sleep quality assessed using PIRS questionnaire. Attributable factors for negative emotional state in students were also noted. Pearson’s correlation used to note correlation between the negative emotional states scores and sleep parameters score. Results Mean depression, anxiety and stress scores were 8.88±7.31, 8.29±6.41 and 10.46±6.67 respectively. Significant positive correlation between these scores and sleep parameters score was observed. Common attributable factors for negative emotional states were greater academic demands (36%, being in one’s own environment with new responsibilities (35%, being away from home(31%, exposure to new people, ideas and time (27%, facing new and difficult college work (47%, missing family or friends, feeling alone or isolated, experiencing conflict in relationships (34%,worrying about finances (13%. change in food habit (35%, change in living arrangements (26%, personality factors (30%. Conclusion Negative emotional states affect sleep quality and play a contributory factor for stressed situation, so early intervention of these states are required for the improvement of mental health and academic career.

  14. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

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    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj


    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  15. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen


    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses' knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  16. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

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    Gurpur Prakash Pai


    Full Text Available Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord′s periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II, while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  17. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension amongst school children and adolescents in North Karnataka: A cross sectional study

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    Ravikumar V Baradol


    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of Bijapur district were screened. Weight, height, BMI and Blood pressure were recorded. These values were compared with WHO child growth standards. Children then classified as overweight (OW and obesity (OB. Blood pressure values were compared with reference charts given by American heart association guidelinesand grouped as prehypertensive (PHTN and Hypertension (HTN. Results: This study revealed that 3.6% rural school children were overweight (OW in age group of 13 years, 1.4% children were obese (OB in age group of 15 years. In urban school children, 3.3% OB in age group of 12 years and 11.1% OW in age group of 10 years. In Rural school children, prevalence of systolic HTN was 21% in OW children and 25% in OB children. Among urban schoolchildren prevalence of systolic PHTN was 5.1% among OW and in OB group it was 16.6%. Conclusions: This study revealed that prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in overweight and obese compared to children with Normal BMI. Also the prevalence of overweight and obesity is more in urban school children than rural children population. We need further large scale studies to study obesity and associated morbidities like hypertension school children and adolescents.

  18. Are marginalized women being left behind? A population-based study of institutional deliveries in Karnataka, India

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    Adamson Paul C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89 of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include

  19. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in organophosphorus poisoning: A case study in rural hospital in Karnataka, India

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    Tanveer Hassan Banday


    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates.


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    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  1. Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India

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    Ojha Vijay P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia. In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067. Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%, and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index in all villages in the one-week period (p p p = 0.063 and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067. After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03% in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05. We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47

  2. Causality analysis of groundwater dynamics based on a Vector Autoregressive model in the semi-arid basin of Gundal (South India) (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Sekhar, M.; Berthon, L.; Javeed, Y.; Mazzega, P.


    Causal relationships existing between observed levels of groundwater in a semi-arid sub-basin of the Kabini River basin (Karnataka state, India) are investigated in this study. A Vector Auto Regressive model is used for this purpose. Its structure is built on an upstream/downstream interaction network based on observed hydro-physical properties. Exogenous climatic forcing is used as an input based on cumulated rainfall departure. Optimal models are obtained thanks to a trial approach and are used as a proxy of the dynamics to derive causal networks. It appears to be an interesting tool for analysing the causal relationships existing inside the basin. The causal network reveals 3 main regions: the Northeastern part of the Gundal basin is closely coupled to the outlet dynamics. The Northwestern part is mainly controlled by the climatic forcing and only marginally linked to the outlet dynamic. Finally, the upper part of the basin plays as a forcing rather than a coupling with the lower part of the basin allowing for a separate analysis of this local behaviour. The analysis also reveals differential time scales at work inside the basin when comparing upstream oriented with downstream oriented causalities. In the upper part of the basin, time delays are close to 2 months in the upward direction and lower than 1 month in the downward direction. These time scales are likely to be good indicators of the hydraulic response time of the basin which is a parameter usually difficult to estimate practically. This suggests that, at the sub-basin scale, intra-annual time scales would be more relevant scales for analysing or modelling tropical basin dynamics in hard rock (granitic and gneissic) aquifers ubiquitous in south India.

  3. Maternal and Newborn Health in Karnataka State, India: The Community Level Interventions for Pre-Eclampsia (CLIP) Trial’s Baseline Study Results (United States)

    Bellad, Mrutynjaya B.; Vidler, Marianne; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Mallapur, Ashalata; Ramadurg, Umesh; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bannale, Shashidhar; Kavi, Avinash; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Lee, Tang; Li, Jing; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.


    Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)–Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India. The prospective population-based survey was conducted in eight clusters in Belgaum and Bagalkot districts in Karnataka State from 2013–2014. Data collection was undertaken by adapting the Maternal and Newborn Health registry platform, developed by the Global Network for Women’s and Child Health Studies. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS and R. During the period of 2013–2014, prospective data was collected on 5,469 pregnant women with an average age of 23.2 (+/-3.3) years. Delivery outcomes were collected from 5,448 completed pregnancies. A majority of the women reported institutional deliveries (96.0%), largely attended by skilled birth attendants. The maternal mortality ratio of 103 (per 100,000 livebirths) was observed during this study, neonatal mortality ratio was 25 per 1,000 livebirths, and perinatal mortality ratio was 50 per 1,000 livebirths. Despite a high number of institutional deliveries, rates of stillbirth were 2.86%. Early enrollment and close follow-up and monitoring procedures established by the Maternal and Newborn Health registry allowed for negligible lost to follow-up. This population-level study provides regional rates of maternal and newborn

  4. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

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    S V Kirankumar


    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  5. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.


    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Goitre among 6-12-year-old Children in a Rural Area of Karnataka in South India. (United States)

    Manjunath, Bhanu; Suman, G; Hemanth, T; Shivaraj, N S; Murthy, N S


    In India, endemic goitre is present in sub-Himalayan region and in pockets in states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat. Being a public health problem amenable for prevention, the assessment of prevalence of endemic goitre in an area helps in understanding whether the preventive strategies under National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) have any impact on the control of endemic goitre. Hence, the current study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and factors associated with iodine deficiency goitre among 6-12-year-old children in a rural area in south Karnataka. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 838 children, using a questionnaire adopted from Iodized Salt Program Assessment Tool and the tools prescribed by WHO for goitre survey. The prevalence of goitre in the study area was 21.9% (95% CI 19.2-24.8). There was higher prevalence of goitre among those having salt iodine 15 ppm (P = 0.01; OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.10-2.29). In 10% of the children, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was assessed and prevalence was higher among those with goitre. The study area was found to be moderately endemic for goitre based on the WHO criteria. Higher prevalence of goitre was found to be still associated with consumption of low iodized salt (<15 ppm) necessitating emphasis on monitoring of salt iodine levels in the study area. Though NIDDCP is being implemented since five decades in India, the burden of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) is still high demanding further impetus to the monitoring systems of the programme.

  7. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India

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    Mark J Travers


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA, 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5 in smoking and nonsmoking venues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. RESULTS: In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required “No Smoking” signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m3 and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR. CONCLUSIONS: The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  8. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: A community survey

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    Amitesh Narayan


    Full Text Available Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India, where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41 subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  9. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: a community survey. (United States)

    Narayan, Amitesh; Ganesan, Sailakshmi; Shenoy, U V; Narayanan, E


    Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India), where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41) subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably) muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  10. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Karnataka cohort of the A 1 chieve study

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    Neeta Deshpande


    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Karnataka, India. Results: A total of 2243 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 1855, insulin detemir (n = 211, insulin aspart (n = 111, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 16 and other insulin combinations (n = 40. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.0% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.4%, insulin users: −1.7%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.


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    Ramakrishna Reddy


    Full Text Available A school survey was conducted to study the epidemiol ogy of intestinal parasitic infestations. Among school children in Bagepalli Taluk, Chikkaball apur District, Karnataka, a total of 438 stool samples were collected from school childre n selected from 5 rural and 3 urban schools. The stool samples collected were examined f or presence of parasitic infections by direct microscopic examination. Prevalence of intest inal parasites was 19.8%. There was a significant difference in prevalence between urban (16.3% and rural (23.0% school samples. Giardia lamblia (12.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (4.3% and Entamoeba histolytica (1.8% were the commonest parasites isolated. The results indica te that intestinal parasitic infestations among school children are mainly water-borne. The b urden of parasitic infestations among the school children, and poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be taken seriously by public health and school authorities. Our survey results s how the need for school periodic deworming, health education and improvement of school sanitati on under school health program.

  12. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

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    Beattie Tara SH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media, and primary stakeholders (FSWs, as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face. Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.3 to 0.5, p Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  13. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Shaw Souradet Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  14. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study

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    A Basit


    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 162 children were included in the study, of which 56 were cases. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the caregivers of the children and the nutritional status was graded according to the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP grading of protein-energy malnutrition.ResultsUnder-nutrition was associated with illness in the last one month [OR- 4.78 (CI: 1.83 -12.45], feeding diluted milk [OR- 14.26 (CI: 4.65 – 43.68] and having more than two children with a birth interval < 2 years [OR- 4.93 (CI: 1.78 – 13.61]. Lack of exclusive breast feeding, level of education of the caregiver and environmental factors like source of water did not have an association.ConclusionChildhood illness, short birth interval and consumption of diluted milk were some of the significant contributory factors noted among this population. Information, Education, Communication (IEC campaigns alleviating food fads and promoting birth spacing is needed.

  15. Global positioning system & Google Earth in the investigation of an outbreak of cholera in a village of Bengaluru Urban district, Karnataka (United States)

    Masthi, N.R. Ramesh; Madhusudan, M.; Puthussery, Yannick P.


    Background & objectives: The global positioning system (GPS) technology along with Google Earth is used to measure (spatial map) the accurate distribution of morbidity, mortality and planning of interventions in the community. We used this technology to find out its role in the investigation of a cholera outbreak, and also to identify the cause of the outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted in a village near Bengaluru, Karnataka in June 2013 during a cholera outbreak. House-to-house survey was done to identify acute watery diarrhoea cases. A hand held GPS receiver was used to record north and east coordinates of the households of cases and these values were subsequently plotted on Google Earth map. Water samples were collected from suspected sources for microbiological analysis. Results: A total of 27 cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported. Fifty per cent of cases were in the age group of 14-44 yr and one death was reported. GPS technology and Google Earth described the accurate location of household of cases and spot map generated showed clustering of cases around the suspected water sources. The attack rate was 6.92 per cent and case fatality rate was 3.7 per cent. Water samples collected from suspected sources showed the presence of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa. Interpretation & conclusions: GPS technology and Google Earth were easy to use, helpful to accurately pinpoint the location of household of cases, construction of spot map and follow up of cases. Outbreak was found to be due to contamination of drinking water sources. PMID:26658586

  16. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study (United States)

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem


    ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for

  17. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India. (United States)

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A


    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  18. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

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    Isac Shajy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma

  19. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  20. Tulare Basin protection plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  1. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  2. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  3. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  4. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  5. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  6. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.


    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  7. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika


    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  8. Accessibility, Demography and Protection: Drivers of Forest Stability and Change at Multiple Scales in the Cauvery Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth


    Full Text Available The Cauvery basin of Karnataka State encompasses a range of land cover types, from dense forest areas and plantations in the Western Ghats hills, to fertile agricultural lands in the river valley. Recent demographic changes, rapid economic development and urbanization have led to the conversion of vast stretches of forested land into plantations and permanent agriculture. We examine the human drivers of forest cover change between 2001 and 2006, using MODIS 250 m data at multiple spatial scales of nested administrative units i.e., districts and taluks. Population density does not emerge as a major driver of forest distribution or deforestation. Protected areas and landscape accessibility play a major role in driving the distribution of stable forest cover at different spatial scales. The availability of forested land for further clearing emerges as a major factor impacting the distribution of deforestation, with new deforestation taking place in regions with challenging topography. This research highlights the importance of using a regional approach to study land cover change, and indicates that the drivers of forest change may be very different in long settled landscapes, for which little is known in comparison to frontier forests.

  9. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa


    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  10. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  11. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter


    Motivation RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis...... of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  12. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.


    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  13. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.


    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  14. Natural frequency of regular basins (United States)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.


    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  15. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春


    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  16. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.


    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  17. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.


    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  18. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  19. The Amazon basin in transition. (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C


    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  20. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Sham S


    Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticar-iogenic efficacy of hot and cold aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula against Streptococcus mutans as an oral rinse and also to discover the acceptability of the mouthwash in children. Settings and design Sixty children between 8 and 12 years with high caries risk were selected. Materials and methods 10% concentration of hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared. Children were randomly divided into extract and control group. Baseline salivary samples were taken, and the samples were re-collected at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval after rinsing. Microbial and pH analysis were done. An acceptability questionnaire was filled. Statistical analysis Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Results The results show statistically significant difference in S. mutans counts at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval when compared with negative control. However, when the hot and cold extracts were compared, there was no significant difference. Acceptability questionnaire showed 65 to 75% overall acceptability for both types of extract. Conclusion Results of this study showed that both types of aqueous extract of T. chebula may be used as potential anticariogenic mouthwash with acceptable taste in children. How to cite this article Palit MC, Hegde SK, Bhat SS. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):349-354. PMID:28127168

  1. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  2. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  3. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  5. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.


    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting ( While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  6. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))


    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  7. Testing for Basins of Wada. (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A


    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  8. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  9. Origin of the earth's ocean basins (United States)

    Frey, H.


    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  10. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were converted...

  11. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.


    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  12. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas


    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  13. Basin bifurcation in quasiperiodically forced systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feudel, U.; Witt, A.; Grebogi, C. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais, PF 601553, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Lai, Y. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy and of Mathematics, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    In this paper we study quasiperiodically forced systems exhibiting fractal and Wada basin boundaries. Specifically, by utilizing a class of representative systems, we analyze the dynamical origin of such basin boundaries and we characterize them. Furthermore, we find that basin boundaries in a quasiperiodically driven system can undergo a unique type of bifurcation in which isolated {open_quotes}islands{close_quotes} of basins of attraction are created as a system parameter changes. The mechanism for this type of basin boundary bifurcation is elucidated. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui


    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  15. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan


    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III


    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  17. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  18. Basin stability in delayed dynamics (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen


    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  19. Great Basin geoscience data base (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.


    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  20. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.


    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  1. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  2. Nearshore processes along north Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.; Anand, N.M.

    obliquity. Also it was found that the distribution of longshore currents was not similar at all stations along the study region. The annual net sediment transport was 0.069 x 10 sup(6)/year towards north at Arge beach and 0.040 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3)/year...

  3. Mycotic keratitis : A study in coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotigadde Subbannayya


    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated from 67 cases out of the 295 cases of corneal ulcers investigated. Aspergillus species and species of Candida were the major fungal members isolated. Allescheria boydii was isolated from 3 cases, having no previous history of injury to the eye or infection with bacterial or viral agents. A boydii corneal infection is a rare occurrence. Higher incidence of mystic keratitis was seen among females than males. No relationship to seasonal changes could be established. Bacterial infection was associated in 46. 27% of the cases of mycotic keratitis and Staphylococcus was the predominant bacterial pathogen observed.

  4. Hack's law of debris-flow basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; YUE Z.Q.; LEE C.F.; BEIGHLEY R.E.; CHEN Xiao-Qing; HU Kai-Heng; CUI Peng


    Hack's law was originally derived from basin statistics for varied spatial scales and regions.The exponent value of the law has been shown to vary between 0.47 and 0.70,causing uncertainty in its application.This paper focuses on the emergence of Hack's law from debris-flow basins in China.Over 5,000 debris-flow basins in different regions of China with drainage areas less than 100km2 are included in this study.Basins in the different regions are found to present similar distributions.Hack's law is derived fi'om maximum probability and conditional distributions,suggesting that the law should describe some critical state of basin evolution.Results suggest the exponent value is approximately 0.5.Further analysis indicates that Hack's law is related to other scaling laws underlying the evolution of a basin and that the exponent is not dependent on basin shape but rather on the evolutionary stage.A case study of a well known debris-flow basin further confirms Hack's law and its implications in basin evolution.

  5. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example) (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.


    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  6. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.


    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle d

  7. The biggest stone anchors (Indo-Arab type) from Mithi Virdi, Bhavnagar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Kumar, B.

    A coastal archaeological exploration in Talaja taluka of Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, brought to light 5 grapnel stone anchors in an agriculture land. The site and these anchors are known as Bhima ka Khatiya ('Cot of Bhima', a famous character...

  8. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)


    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  9. Fractal basins in an ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Djellit


    Full Text Available Complex dynamics is detected in an ecological model of host-parasitoid interaction. It illustrates fractalization of basins with self-similarity and chaotic attractors. This paper describes these dynamic behaviors, bifurcations, and chaos. Fractals basins are displayed by numerical simulations.

  10. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian


    Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon. It ...

  11. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins. (United States)


    ... shall be turned about in any canal, except: (a) With permission from the traffic controller; and (b) At the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin No. 1—Opposite Brossard. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut for vessels up...

  12. Neotectonic of subsiding basins : case of studies from Marañon and Beni basins, Peru and Bolivia


    Dumont, Jean-Francois


    Climatic conditions make the fluvial processes very sensitive in the extended flood plain of subandean basins, giving typical morphostructures. Because of high subsidence rate, these basins are case for the understanding of neotectonics in subsiding basins. Recent anciente fluvial traces are used in combination with sub surface structures, neotectonic and seismotectonic data to study the neotectonic evolution of the Peruvian and Bolivian active foreland basins. These basins, the Marañon Basin...

  13. Basins in ARC-continental collisions (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio


    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  14. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey) (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt


    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  15. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))


    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  16. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  17. How integrated is river basin management? (United States)

    Downs, Peter W.; Gregory, Kenneth J.; Brookes, Andrew


    Land and water management is increasingly focused upon the drainage basin. Thirty-six terms recently used for schemes of “integrated basin management” include reference to the subject or area and to the aims of integrated river basin management, often without allusion to the multiobjective nature. Diversity in usage of terms has occurred because of the involvement of different disciplines, of the increasing coherence of the drainage basin approach, and the problems posed in particular parts of the world. The components included in 21 different approaches are analyzed, and, in addition to showing that components related broadly to water supply, river channel, land, and leisure aspects, it is concluded that there are essentially five interrelated facets of integrated basin management that involved water, channel, land, ecology, and human activity. Two aspects not fully included in many previous schemes concern river channel changes and the dynamic integrity of the fluvial system. To clarify the terminology used, it is suggested that the term comprehensive river basin management should be used where a wide range of components is involved, whereas integrated basin management can signify the interactions of components and the dominance of certain components in the particular area. Holistic river basin management is advocated as a term representing an approach that is both fully comprehensive and integrated but also embraces the energetics of the river system and consideration of changes of river channels and of human impacts throughout the river system. The paradigm of working with the river can be extended to one of working with the river in the holistic basin context.

  18. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain) (United States)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José


    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  19. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H


    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  20. Western Gas Sands Project Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H


    This quarterly basin activities report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activities in the Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. Detailed information is given for each study area for the first quarter of 1979.

  1. Waste storage potential of Triassic basins in southeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.


    Triassic basins, elongated deep basins filled with sediments, extend from Nova Scotia to Florida. The geology of the basins is discussed for each state. Their potential for liquid waste storage is assessed. Seismic risk is among the factors evaluated. It is recommended that the shallow Triassic Florence basin in northeast South Carolina be studied. 10 fig. (DLC)

  2. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford


    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  3. Gravity Analysis of the Jeffera Basin, Tunisia (United States)

    Mickus, K.; Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.


    Southern Tunisia consists of two main tectonic provinces: 1) the Saharan Platform and 2) the folded Atlasic domain, separated by the North Saharan Flexure. The Saharan Platform, which contains the Ghadames Basin and the Telemzane Arch, consists of gently dipping Paleozoic strata overlain by Triassic to Cretaceous sediments. The Atlasic domain consists of a thicker sequence of mainly Mesozoic and younger rock with less complete sequences of Paleozoic strata. Within the Atlasic domain are the still actively subsiding Chotts and Jeffera basins. The Jeffera basin, which occurs to the east of the Telemzane Arch contains at least eight kilometers of Paleozoic and younger sediment that were formed during numerous subsidence episodes since Carboniferous time. The Jeffera basin is dominated by tilted fault blocks that were formed during numerous tectonic episodes. Several unpublished seismic reflection profiles and well data exist for the Jeffera basin, however a deep structural analysis of the basin has not been published. We examined the existing gravity data in conjunction with available well and geologic data to determine structural features within the basin. The Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows that the Jeffera basin is dominated by a narrow northwest-trending gravity minimum. However, a more detailed analysis consisting of wavelength filtering and edge enhancements indicate that the structure of the basin is more complicated than indicated by the Bouguer gravity anomaly map. A residual gravity anomaly map indicates that the Jeffera basin consists of at least three and maybe four subbasins. Additionally, the Jeffera Fault marks the boundary between northwest-trending gravity anomalies to its northeast and east-trending anomalies over the Saharan Platform. The above observation is amplified by the construction of the enhanced horizontal derivatives (EHG) of both the complete Bouguer gravity and the residual gravity anomaly maps. The EHG maps highlight the lateral

  4. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  5. Tarim Basin: China's Potential Oil Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baolin


    @@ Tarim Basin has an area of 560,000 square kilometers.Taklamakan Desert, the world's second largest shifting desert, is located in the hinterland of the basin. The desert is equal to Germany in area. The desert is called "Desert of No Return" for its harsh and adverse environments. A 522-kilometer highway crossing the desert from north to south was opened to the traffic in 1995 because an oilfield with the reserves of more than 100 million tons was discovered in the central part of the basin. The local traffic and ecological conditions have been much improved in the recent years.

  6. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky


    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  7. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli


    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Taylor


    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  9. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.


    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.

  10. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.


    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  11. USGS Streamgage NHDPlus Version 1 Basins 2011 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents 19,031 basin boundaries and their streamgage locations for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) active and historical streamgages from the...

  12. Ferris coalfield boundary, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ferbndg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a representation of the boundary of the Ferris coalfield in the Hanna Basin, Wyoming. This theme was created specifically for the...

  13. Cretaceous Onlap, Gulf of Mexico Basin [cretonlapg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum extent of Cretaceous onlap is generalized from Plate 3, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled...

  14. Oil production in the Orinoco basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregales, C.J.


    With an extension of 42,000 sq km, the Orinoco basin is one of the largest petroliferous zones in the world which contains high viscosity and low API gravity crude. Results from production tests performed in the central and southern parts of the basin indicate that its productive potential is similar to that in Morichal, Pilon and Jobo fields, and reveals that the heaviest oil existing in the Orinoco basin could be economically exploited by conventional methods of primary oil recovery. It is estimated that the oil recovery could be 5% of the total oil-in-place by using primary recovery methods, 8% by using alternate steam injection, and 20% by secondary recovery methods (continuous steam injection). However, if the compaction phenomenon takes place, an estimate of 5% to 15% additional oil recovery could be possible. Geology, fluid properties, results from production tests, and recovery methods in the Orinoco basin are presented.

  15. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  16. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph


    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  17. Fractal Basins in the Lorenz Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Djellit; J.C.Sprott; M. R. Ferchichi


    @@ The Lorenz mapping is a discretization of a pair of differential equations.It illustrates the pertinence of compu- tational chaos.We describe complex dynamics, bifurcations, and chaos in the map.Fractal basins are displayed by numerical simulation.%The Lorenz mapping is a discretization of a pair of differential equations. It illustrates the pertinence of computational chaos. We describe complex dynamics, bifurcations, and chaos in the map. Fractal basins are displayed by numerical simulation.

  18. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins. (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B


    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  19. Water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. (United States)

    Civic, M A


    This article reports the problem on water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. In the Jordan River basin, freshwater scarcity results from multiple factors and most severely affects Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. One of these multiple factors is the duration of rainfall in the region that only occurs in a small area of highlands in the northwest section. The varying method of water use parallels that of Israel that utilizes an estimated 2000 million cu. m. The national patterns of water usage and politically charged territorial assertions compound the competition over freshwater resources in the region. The combination of political strife, resource overuse, and contaminated sources means that freshwater scarcity in the Jordan River basin will reach a critical level in the near future. History revealed that the misallocation/mismanagement of freshwater from the Jordan River basin was the result of centuries of distinct local cultural and religious practices combined with historical influences. Each state occupying near the river basin form their respective national water development schemes. It was not until the mid-1990s that a shared-use approach was considered. Therefore, the critical nature of water resource, the ever-dwindling supply of freshwater in the Jordan River basin, and the irrevocability of inappropriate policy measures requires unified, definitive, and ecologically sound changes to the existing policies and practices to insure an adequate water supply for all people in the region.

  20. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.


    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  1. Short description of the Peruvian coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascal-Miranda, Eitel R. [UNI, Lima (Peru); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)


    This work synthesizes the main general characteristics of the Peruvian Coal Basins in relation to age, coal facies and coal rank. Peruvian coals are located in a series of coal basins from the Paleozoic to the Cenozoic age. Paleozoic coal seams are mainly of Mississippian age (Carboniferous). They are of continental origin and their reduced thickness and ash content are their main characteristics. Mesozoic coal seams (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) are located in the so-called Peruvian Western Basin and in the depressions close to the 'Maranon Geoanticline'. They were originated in deltaic facies under the influence of brackish and fresh waters. Some of these coal basins (those distributed in the central and northern parts of Peru) are relatively well known because they are of economic importance. Finally, Cenozoic coal seams (Tertiary) are found in both paralic and limnic basins and their reserves are limited. All the Peruvian coals are of humic character and are vitrinite-rich. Their rank is highly variable and normally related with the different orogenic events which strongly affected this region. Thus, Paleozoic and Mesozoic coals are of bituminous to anthracite/meta-anthracite coal rank while peats, lignite and subbituminous coals are found in Cenozoic basins.

  2. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.


    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  3. The long wavelength topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins, Mercury (United States)

    André, Sarah L.; Watters, Thomas R.; Robinson, Mark S.


    Topography derived from Mariner 10 stereo images is used to characterize the interior structure of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are shallow (~2.5 km and ~2 km deep, respectively) and relatively flat-floored. Beethoven basin has an interior topographic rise near the northwest margin. The topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben associated with lunar mascons are absent in both Beethoven and Tolstoj basins. The lack of mascon tectonic features suggests that either 1) the mercurian basins have a relatively thin veneer of fill material, 2) Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or 3) the basin fill material has little or no density contrast with the surrounding crust and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere.

  4. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish


    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  5. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China (United States)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  6. Quantifying mesoscale eddies in the Lofoten Basin (United States)

    Raj, R. P.; Johannessen, J. A.; Eldevik, T.; Nilsen, J. E. Ø.; Halo, I.


    The Lofoten Basin is the most eddy rich region in the Norwegian Sea. In this paper, the characteristics of these eddies are investigated from a comprehensive database of nearly two decades of satellite altimeter data (1995-2013) together with Argo profiling floats and surface drifter data. An automated method identified 1695/1666 individual anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin from more than 10,000 altimeter-based eddy observations. The eddies are found to be predominantly generated and residing locally. The spatial distributions of lifetime, occurrence, generation sites, size, intensity, and drift of the eddies are studied in detail. The anticyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin are the most long-lived eddies (>60 days), especially in the western part of the basin. We reveal two hotspots of eddy occurrence on either side of the Lofoten Basin. Furthermore, we infer a cyclonic drift of eddies in the western Lofoten Basin. Barotropic energy conversion rates reveals energy transfer from the slope current to the eddies during winter. An automated colocation of surface drifters trapped inside the altimeter-based eddies are used to corroborate the orbital speed of the anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Moreover, the vertical structure of the altimeter-based eddies is examined using colocated Argo profiling float profiles. Combination of altimetry, Argo floats, and surface drifter data is therefore considered to be a promising observation-based approach for further studies of the role of eddies in transport of heat and biomass from the slope current to the Lofoten Basin.

  7. Basin-centered gas evaluated in Dnieper-Donets basin, Donbas foldbelt, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.E. [Law (B.E.), Lakewood, CO (United States); Ulmishek, G.F.; Clayton, J.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kabyshev, B.P. [Ukrainian State Geological Inst., Chernigov (Ukraine); Pashova, N.T.; Krivosheya, V.A. [Ukrainian State Geological Inst., Poltava (Ukraine)


    An evaluation of thermal maturity, pore pressures, source rocks, reservoir quality, present-day temperatures, and fluid recovery data indicates the presence of a large basin-centered gas accumulation in the Dnieper-Donets basin (DDB) and Donbas foldbelt (DF) of eastern Ukraine. This unconventional accumulation covers an area of at least 35,000 sq km and extends vertically through as much as 7,000 m of Carboniferous rocks. The gas accumulation is similar, in many respects, to some North American accumulations such as Elmworth in the Alberta basin of western Canada, the Greater Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming, and the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma. Even though rigorous assessments of the recoverable gas have not been conducted in the region, a comparison of the dimensions of the accumulation to similar accumulations in the US indicates gas resources in excess of 100 tcf in place. The paper describes the geology, the reservoirs, source rocks, seals, and recommendations for further study.

  8. Chicxulub impact basin: Gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure (United States)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, Scott; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime


    The K-T-aged Chicxulub Impact Structure is buried beneath the Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Northern Yucatan Platform. Consequently its morphology and structure are poorly understood. Reprocessed Bouguer (onshore) and Free Air (offshore) gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal that Chicxulub may be a 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact basin with at least three concentric basin rings. The positions of these rings follow the square root of 2 spacing rule derived empirically from analysis of multi-ring basins on other planets indicating that these rings probably correspond to now-buried topographic basin rings. A forward model of the gravity data along a radial transect from the southwest margin of the structure indicates that the Chicxulub gravity signature is compatible with this interpretation. We estimate the basin rim diameter to be 204 +/- 16 km and the central peak ring diameter (D) is 104 +/- 6 km.

  9. Desert basins of the Southwest (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.


    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  10. Impact melt of the lunar Crisium multiring basin (United States)

    Spudis, P. D.; Sliz, M. U.


    New geological mapping of the Crisium basin on the Moon has revealed exposures of the basin impact melt sheet. The melt sheet has a feldspathic highland composition, somewhat more mafic than the melt sheet of the Orientale basin, but less mafic than comparable deposits around the Imbrium basin. These newly recognized deposits would be ideal locations to directly sample Crisium basin impact melt, material whose study would yield insight into the composition of the lunar crust, the time of formation of the basin, and the large impact process.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth


    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  12. Multiple nested basin boundaries in nonlinear driven oscillators☆ (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxiang; Xie, Xiangpeng; Luo, Guanwei


    A special type of basins of attraction for high-period coexisting attractors is investigated, which basin boundaries possess multiple nested structures in a driven oscillator. We analyze the global organization of basins and discuss the mechanism for the appearance of layered structures. The unstable periodic orbits and unstable limit cycle are also detected in the oscillator. The basin organization is governed by the ordering of regular saddles and the regular saddle connections are the interrupted by the unstable limit cycle. Wada basin boundary with different Wada number is discovered. Wada basin boundaries for the hidden and rare attractors are also verified.

  13. Turbulent Flow Measurement in Vortex Settling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Chapokpour


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the three-dimensional turbulent flow field in vortex settling basin. An ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter were used to catch 3D velocitycomponents inside the basin. Detailed measurements of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity components and turbulent kinetic energy were determined at different radial sections of chamber. Also the normalized time averaged absolute velocity of 3D components in contour type exhibition were conducted and it was found that the absolute velocity generally is influenced by u component of flow. It trends from high magnitude in basin center to the constant magnitude in basin side wall. The normalized turbulent intensity ofthree components was investigated individually. It was found that intensity of 3D components in vicinity of central air core is higher than other regions, decreasing by moving towards basin sidewall except for the sections that influenced directly by entrance flow jet and sidewall exiting overflow. The results of turbulence kinetic energy also had the same interpretation like turbulence intensity and affected by the same boundary conditions which cover turbulence intensity of 3 velocity components overly.

  14. A geological history of the Turkana Basin. (United States)

    Feibel, Craig S


    The Turkana Basin preserves a long and detailed record of biotic evolution, cultural development, and rift valley geology in its sedimentary strata. Before the formation of the modern basin, Cretaceous fluvial systems, Paleogene lakes, and Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary sequences left fossil-bearing strata in the region. These deposits were in part related to an early system of rift basins that stretched from Sudan to the Indian Ocean. The present-day basin has its origins in Pliocene tectonic developments of the modern rift, with subsidence making room for more than one kilometer of Plio-Pleistocene strata. Much of this sequence belongs to the Omo Group, richly fossiliferous sediments associated with the ancestral Omo River and its tributaries. Modern Lake Turkana has a record stretching back more than 200 thousand years, with earlier lake phases throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. The geologic history of the basin is one of dynamic landscapes responding to environmental influences, including tectonics, volcanic activity and climate.

  15. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi


    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  16. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay


    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  17. Exploration Experience and Problem concerning Deep Basin Gas in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Deep basin gas (DBG) reservoirs, in view of the characteristics of their main parts containing gas, are a type of subtle stratigraphic lithologic traps. But they have different reservoir-forming principles, especially in the distribution of oil, gas and water. DBG is characterized by gas-water invertion, namely the water located above the gas; however, normal non-anticline subtle reservoirs have normal distribution of gas and water, namely the water located under the gas. The theory of DBG broke the conventional exploration idea that gas is usually found in the high part of reservoir and water is under the gas. So, it provided a wide field and a new idea for the exploration of natural gas. Recently Ben E. Law (2002), in his article entitled "Basin-centered Gas Systems", discussed global DBG systemically. He listed 72 basins or areas containing known or suspected DBG, covering North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South Asia, Middle East and Africa. Ordos basin, the Sichuan basin and the Jungar basin in China are presented and assumed to be of very high possibility. In China more attention has been paid to the research and exploration of DBG in the past years. The symposiums on DBG were held twice, in Guangzhou in 1998 and in Xi'an in 2000 respectively. In 2002 in particular, the publication of the book named Deep Basin Gas in China by Professor Wangtao indicated that China has entered a new stage in the research on DBG. Meanwhile, it is more cheering that the exploration of DBG in the Ordos Basin has achieved remarkable success. Therefore, analyzing the exploration experiences and problems regarding the Ordos basin will promote the exploration and research of DBG in China.

  18. Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin (United States)

    Räsänen, T. A.; Lehr, C.; Mellin, I.; Ward, P. J.; Kummu, M.


    Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological and discharge variability on long, palaeological, time scales. For the development of the basin-wide approach, we used the Mekong River basin as a case study area, although the approach is also intended to be applicable to other basins. Firstly, we derived a basin-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Secondly, we compared the basin-wide PDSI with measured discharge to validate our approach. Thirdly, we used basin-wide PDSI to analyse the hydrometeorology and discharge of the case study area over the study period of 1300-2005. For the discharge-MADA comparison and hydrometeorological analyses, we used methods such as linear correlations, smoothing, moving window variances, Levene type tests for variances, and wavelet analyses. We found that the developed basin-wide approach based on MADA can be used for assessing long-term average conditions and interannual variability for river basin hydrometeorology and discharge. It provides a tool for studying interannual discharge variability on a palaeological time scale, and therefore the approach contributes to a better understanding of discharge variability during the most recent decades. Our case study revealed that the Mekong has experienced exceptional levels of interannual variability during the post-1950 period, which could not be observed in any other part of the study period. The increased variability was found to be at least partly associated with increased El Niño Southern

  19. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California (United States)

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.


    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  20. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.


    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  1. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.


    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  2. Alluvial basin statistics of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SWPA_alvbsn is a vector dataset of alluvial-fill basin statistics for the Southwest United States. Statistics for each basin include physical details such as area,...

  3. Three-phase tectonic evolution of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A

    A three-phase evolutionary scheme since Late Oligocene for the Andaman backarc basin is proposed based on the multibeam swath bathymetry, magnetic and seismological data. A SW–NE trending spreading ridge bisects the basin. The tectonic evolution...

  4. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  5. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  6. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  7. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    In order to delineate a mine site for ferromanganese nodules, extensive surveys were conducted in Central Indian Ocean Basin. Mapping of the basin by multibeam swath bathymetry (Hydrosweep) has revealed many new bottom relief features...

  8. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko


    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  9. The classification of polynomial basins of infinity

    CERN Document Server

    DeMarco, Laura


    We consider the problem of classifying the dynamics of complex polynomials $f: \\mathbb{C} \\to \\mathbb{C}$ restricted to their basins of infinity. We synthesize existing combinatorial tools --- tableaux, trees, and laminations --- into a new invariant of basin dynamics we call the pictograph. For polynomials with all critical points escaping to infinity, we obtain a complete description of the set of topological conjugacy classes. We give an algorithm for constructing abstract pictographs, and we provide an inductive algorithm for counting topological conjugacy classes with a given pictograph.

  10. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset (United States)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang


    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  11. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics (United States)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang


    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  12. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin (United States)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald


    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  13. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande


    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  14. Seismic evidence of tectonic stresses; Implications for basin reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigrek, S.


    Stress and strain are two important rheological parameters that have impacts on basin development and dynamics. The dynamic evolution of a basin depends on the spatial and temporal changes in the stresses. How to determine the reference state of stress within a sedimentary basin and the magnitude of

  15. Riddled Basins of Attraction for Synchronized Type-I Intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancher, Martin; Nordahn, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik;


    Chaotic mortion resticted to an invariant subspace of total phase space may be associated with basins of attraction that are riddled with holes belonging to the basin of another limiting state. We study the emergence of such basins of two coupled one-dimensional maps, each exhibiting type...

  16. Detailed bathymetric surveys in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; George, P.; Jaisankar, S.

    Over 420,000 line kilometers of echo-sounding data was collected in the Central Indian Basin. This data was digitized, merged with navigation data and a detailed bathymetric map of the Basin was prepared. The Basin can be broadly classified...

  17. Notice of release of 'Trailhead II' basin wildrye (United States)

    'Trailhead II' basin wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] is a tetraploid basin wildrye release for use in re-vegetation efforts on rangelands of western North America. Trailhead II is the result of two cycles of recurrent selection within the basin wildrye cultivar 'Trailhead' for r...

  18. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY... in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in...

  19. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  1. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  6. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard


    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  9. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics (United States)


  10. Strain localisation during basin inversion in the North German basin and the Donbas Fold Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Y.; Bayer, U. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Gajewski, D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik


    The DEKORP Basin'96 and the DOBREflection-200 lines provide two world wide exceptional examples of successfully performed deep seismic lines. This is especially true for the inversion of the two basins by representing probably two stages in the amount of shortening accompanied by strain localization causing decoupling of the sedimentary fill from the deeper crust within the North East German basin and the Donbas Fold Belt. High-velocity bodies are observed in the DEKORP Basin'96 and DOBREflection-2000 reflection seismic lines. These bodies may have been essential in localizing strain localisation by counteracting compressive forces and causing folding and finally failure and faulting of the deep crust. (orig.)

  11. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  12. Klamath Basin Water Rights Place of Use (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  13. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel


    Chimera states---curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators---typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we...

  14. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states. (United States)

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen


    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α=0.5) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  15. Ferrobasalts from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Popko, D.C.

    The occurrence of ferrobasalts recovered from the Central Indian Ocean Basin crust generated at the Southeast Indian Ridge during a phase of moderate to fast spreading accretion (approx 110-190 mm/yr, full rate) is reported. FeO (13-19%), and Ti...

  16. SEA of river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone


    In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental...

  17. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)


    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  18. Water and Security in the Jordan Basin (United States)


    political, and diplomatic strengths. For this reason alone, it serves as an excellent tool for working on the problems of the Jordan basin. 561...and Brdens:L R pr cm the West Bank and Gaza rip Ecnmi since 1967. New York: Carnegie Endowment, 1977. Weinbaum, Marvin G. F Devopment and Politing in

  19. Evidence for Himalayanremagnetization in TarimBasin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Himalayan remagnetization in the Tarim Basin was found to be widespread in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. Rock magnetism was performed to study the magnetic carriers. The authors believe that tectonic fluid in the Himalayan stage caused the rock remagnetization. The framboidal pyrites in bitumen and hydrocarbon-rich rocks may transform to framboidal magnetite in the later alkali environment, which leads to remagnetization.

  20. KE Basin underwater visual fuel survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.


    Results of an underwater video fuel survey in KE Basin using a high resolution camera system are presented. Quantitative and qualitative information on fuel degradation are given, and estimates of the total fraction of ruptured fuel elements are provided. Representative photographic illustrations showing the range of fuel conditions observed in the survey are included.

  1. Integrated high-resolution stratigraphy: Relative contributions of tectonics, eustasy and climate on basin evolution (Vienna Basin, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulissen, W.E.


    Sedimentary basins form in a range of large-scale tectonic settings involving extensional, compressional or lateral movements. The dynamics of the basin infill are controlled by driving mechanisms such as tectonics, climate and eustatic control. The created accommodation space in the basin is filled

  2. Evolution of Mesozoic Volcanic Basins and Red Basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic-Volcanic Metallogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper mainly proposes six major regional geological events in the active continental-margin mantle uplift zone and discusses the oscillation nature of the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins and red basins, origin of erosion in the late stage of red basins and mechanism of volcanism.

  3. Classification of Complex Reservoirs in Superimposed Basins of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; ZHOU Xinyuan; LIN Changsong; HUO Zhipeng; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong


    Many of the sedimentary basins in western China were formed through the superposition and compounding of at least two previously developed sedimentary basins and in general they can be termed as complex superimposed basins.The distinct differences between these basins and monotype basins are their discontinuous stratigraphic sedimentation,stratigraphic structure and stratigraphic stress-strain action over geological history.Based on the correlation of chronological age on structural sections,superimposed basins can be divided into five types in this study:(1)continuous sedimentation type superimposed basins,(2)middle and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(3)early and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(4)early and middle stratigraphic superimposed basins,and(5)long-term exposed superimposed basins.Multiple source-reservoir-caprock assemblages have developed in such basins.In addition,multi-stage hydrocarbon generation and expulsion,multiple sources,polycyclic hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple-type hydrocarbon reservoirs adjustment,reformation and destruction have occurred in these basins.The complex reservoirs that have been discovered widely in the superimposed basins to date have remarkably different geologic features from primary reservoirs,and the root causes of this are folding,denudation and the fracture effect caused by multiphase tectonic events in the superimposed basins as well as associated seepage,diffusion,spilling,oxidation,degradation and cracking.Based on their genesis characteristics,complex reservoirs are divided into five categories:(1)primary reservoirs,(2)trap adjustment type reservoirs,(3)component variant reservoirs,(4)phase conversion type reservoirs and(5)scale-reformed reservoirs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Jurassic history of the Pieniny/Outer Carpathian basins reflects the evolution of the Circum-Tethyan area, especially its Alpine Tethys part. The Alpine Tethys that is Ligurian, Penninic Oceans and Pieniny/Magura Basin constitute the extension of the Central Atlantic system. The synrift stage lasted in the Pieniny/Magura Basin from late Early Jurassic to Tithonian (the Magura Unit constitutes the southernmost part of the Outer Flysch Carpathians. The Pieniny rift opened during Pliensbachian – Aalenian. The central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys went into a drifting stage during the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian history of the Pieniny/Magura Basin reflects strongest facial differentiation within sedimentary basin where mixed siliceous-carbonate sedimentation took place. Greatest deepening effect is indicated by widespread Oxfordian radiolarites, which occur in the all basinal successions, whereas the shallowest zone is completely devoid of siliceous intercalations at that time (sedimentation from Ammonitico Rosso facies up to coral reef limestone. The southern part of the North European Platform, north from the Pieniny/Magura realm, started to be rifted during Late Jurassic time and Silesian Basin in the Outer Western Carpathians and Sinaia Basin in the Eastern Carpathians, with black, mainly redeposited marls have been created. The outer sub-basins were differentiated during the latest (Hauterivian-Barremian phase of basinal development. The connection of Silesian Basin with Sinaia and Southern Carpathian Severin areas suggests the NW-SE direction of the basinal axis while the orientation of the Pieniny Klippen Belt/Magura Basin was SW-NE so, two Outer Carpathian perpendicular directions are possible within the basins. Major reorganization happened during the Tithonian-Berriasian time. It was reflected by both paleoceanographical and paleoclimatical changes. The Neo-Cimmerian tectonic events as well as main phase

  5. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.


    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  6. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation (United States)

    Thybo, H.


    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  7. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faille I.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  8. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  9. Water Temperature Controls in Arctic Basins (United States)

    Neilson, B. T.; King, T.; Schmadel, N. M.; Heavilin, J.; Overbeck, L. D.; Kane, D. L.


    Understanding the dynamics of heat transfer mechanisms in arctic rivers is critical for forecasting the effects of climate change on river temperatures. Building on the collection of key data and a dynamic river temperature model that accounts for heat fluxes found important in temperate climates, we were able to identify portions of an arctic basin and hydrologic conditions for which heat flux dynamics differ from those found in temperate systems. During the open water season, similarities in heat flux influences include dominant shortwave radiation, greater surface exchanges than bed exchanges and greater influences of lateral inflows in the lower order portions of the basin. Differing from temperate systems, the heat flux contribution of net longwave radiation is consistently negative and both latent heat and bed friction are negligible. Despite these differences, accounting for the bulk lateral inflows from the basin resulted in accurate predictions during higher flows. Under lower flow conditions, however, lateral inflows were limited and resulting temperature predictions were poor. Work in a temperate system demonstrated that spatial variability in hydraulics influencing stream residence times are necessary for accurate river temperature predictions. Because heat fluxes at the air-water interface become increasingly dominant at low flows and these fluxes are sensitive to parameters representing the water surface area to volume ratio, similar to temperate systems, we expect that high-resolution representations of stream geometry and hydraulics are important both for accurate flux and residence time estimates. Furthermore, given the highly dynamic nature of flows in arctic basins, we anticipate that detailed information regarding spatially variable hydraulic characteristics (e.g., channel width, depth, and velocity) is critical for accurate predictions in low arctic rivers through a large range of flow conditions. Upon identifying key processes controlling

  10. Okanogan Basin Spring Spawner Report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife


    The Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected data related to spring spawning anadromous salmonid stocks across the entire Okanogan River basin. Data were collected using redd surveys, traps, underwater video, and PIT-tag technology then summarized and analyzed using simple estimate models. From these efforts we estimated that 1,266 summer steelhead spawned in the Okanogan River basin and constructed 552 redds;152 of these fish where of natural origin. Of these, 121 summer steelhead, including 29 of natural origin, created an estimated 70 redds in the Canadian portion of the Okanagan basin. We estimated summer steelhead spawner escapement into each sub-watershed along with the number from natural origin and the number and density of redds. We documented redd desiccation in Loup Loup Creek, habitat utilization in Salmon Creek as a result of a new water lease program, and 10 spring Chinook returning to Omak Creek. High water through most of the redd survey period resulted in development of new modeling techniques and allowed us to survey additional tributaries including the observation of summer steelhead spawning in Wanacut Creek. These 2007 data provide additional support that redd surveys conducted within the United States are well founded and provide essential information for tracking the recovery of listed summer steelhead. Conversely, redd surveys do not appear to be the best approach for enumerating steelhead spawners or there distribution within Canada. We also identified that spawning distributions within the Okanogan River basin vary widely and stocking location may play an over riding roll in this variability.

  11. Petroleum systems of the Taoudeni Basin,West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhilong; Zhao Baoshun; Jiang Qingchun; Wang Songpo; Liu Bo


    The Taoudeni Basin is a typical steady intracratonic basin. Based on the distribution of effective source rocks in the Taoudeni Basin, combined with the structure characteristics of the basin and the distribution characteristics of reservoir beds, two petroleum systems are recognized in the basin:the infra-Cambrian petroleum system and the Silurian petroleum system. Structural uplift and timing of petroleum generation controlled the timing of petroleum charging and preservation of hydrocarbon accumulations. Maturity, evolution history, and distribution of effective source rocks controlled hydrocarbon richness. The geological key factors and geological processes controlled the type of hydrocarbon accumulations.

  12. Distribution, Statistics, and Resurfacing of Large Impact Basins on Mercury (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Oberst, Juergen; Prockter, Louise M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Strom, Robert G.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zuber, Maria T.


    The distribution and geological history of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) on Mercury is important to understanding the planet's stratigraphy and surface evolution. It is also informative to compare the density of impact basins on Mercury with that of the Moon to understand similarities and differences in their impact crater and basin populations [1, 2]. A variety of impact basins were proposed on the basis of geological mapping with Mariner 10 data [e.g. 3]. This basin population can now be re-assessed and extended to the full planet, using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Note that small-to- medium-sized peak-ring basins on Mercury are being examined separately [4, 5]; only the three largest peak-ring basins on Mercury overlap with the size range we consider here. In this study, we (1) re-examine the large basins suggested on the basis of Mariner 10 data, (2) suggest additional basins from MESSENGER's global coverage of Mercury, (3) assess the size-frequency distribution of mercurian basins on the basis of these global observations and compare it to the Moon, and (4) analyze the implications of these observations for the modification history of basins on Mercury.

  13. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado (United States)



    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  14. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.


    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  15. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  16. The link between tectonics and sedimentation in back-arc basins : New genetic constraints from the analysis of the Pannonian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balázs, A.; Matenco, L.; Magyar, I.; Horváth, F.; Cloetingh, S.


    The architecture of sedimentary basins reflects the relationship between accommodation space and sediment supply, their rates and localization being variable during basin evolution. The mechanisms driving the interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in extensional back-arc basins overlying rheo

  17. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin. (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L


    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  18. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey


    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  19. Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin Features and Evolution of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Late Triassic to Paleogene (T3-E) basin occupies an area of 143100 km2, being the sixth area of the whole of SE China; the total area of synchronous granitoid is about 127300 km2; it provides a key for understanding the tectonic evolution of South China. From a new 1:1500000 geological map of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of SE China, combined with analysis of geometrical and petrological features, some new insights of basin tectonics are obtained. Advances include petrotectonic assemblages,basin classification of geodynamics, geometric features, relations of basin and range. According to basin-forming geodynamical mechanisms, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of SE China can be divided into three types, namely: 1) para-foreland basin formed from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (T3-J1)under compressional conditions; 2) rift basins formed during the Middle Jurassic (J2) under a strongly extensional setting; and 3) a faulted depression formed during Early Cretaceous to Paleogene (K1-E)under back-arc extension action. From the rock assemblages of the basin, the faulted depression can be subdivided into a volcanic-sedimentary type formed mainly during the Early Cretaceous (K1) and a red-bed type formed from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene (K2-E). Statistical data suggest that the area of all para-foreland basins (T3-J1) is 15120 km2, one of rift basins (J2) occupies 4640 km2, and all faulted depressions equal to 124330 km2 including the K2-E red-bed basins of 37850 km2. The Early Mesozoic(T3-J1) basin and granite were mostly co-generated under a post-collision compression background,while the basins from Middle Jurassic to Paleogene (J2-E) were mainly constrained by regional extensional tectonics. Three geological and geographical zones were surveyed, namely: 1) the Wuyishan separating zone of paleogeography and climate from Middle Jurassic to Tertiary; 2) the Middle Jurassic rift zone; and 3) the Ganjiang separating zone of Late Mesozoic volcanism. Three types of basin

  20. Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Pelotas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos, E-mail: [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES/PDGEO/BPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Petrologia; Costa, Karen Badaraco, E-mail: [Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kawashita, Koji, E-mail: [Unversidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas


    Strontium isotope data were obtained from foraminifera shells of the Pelotas Basin Tertiary deposits to facilitate the refinement of the chronostratigraphic framework of this section. This represents the first approach to the acquisition of numerical ages for these strata. Strontium isotope stratigraphy allowed the identification of eight depositional hiatuses in the Eocene-Pliocene section, here classified as disconformities and a condensed section. The reconnaissance of depositional gaps based on confident age assignments represents an important advance considering the remarkably low chronostratigraphic resolution in the Cenozoic section of the Pelotas Basin. The recognition of hiatuses that match hiatuses is based on biostratigraphic data, as well as on global events. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the sedimentation rate of the upper Miocene section was identified. Paleotemperature and productivity trends were identified based on oxygen and carbon isotope data from the Oligocene-Miocene section, which are coherent with worldwide events, indicating the environmental conditions during sedimentation. (author)

  1. Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin (United States)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.


    Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

  2. Comparison of Kuqa foreland basin with Persian Gulf Basin in salt tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guimei WAN; Liangjie TANG; Wenzheng JIN


    Compared Kuqa foreland basin with Persian Gulf Basin in development of salt layers, salt tectonics, and the relation between salt tectonics and hydrocarbon, it is concluded that the salt diapirs are relative to hydrocarbon. Searching salt diapirs and related traps in Kuqa foreland basin is important. The forming mechanism of salt tectonic in Kuqa foreland basin is different from that of Hormuz Series, but similar to that of Lower Fars Series/Gachsaran Formation. Inspired by the role of salt tectonics of Lower Fars Series/Gachsaran Formation in hydrocarbon accumulation, the authors considered that the exploration below salt layer should be enforced, and the traps below salt layer in the southern part of the Kuqa foreland basin would be found where salt layer is thicker. On the contrary, the traps should be found both above and below the salt layer in front of the northern mountain where salt layer is thin. The Triassic and Jurassic source rocks are rich in this area with great exploration prospective.

  3. Hydrothermal circulation in an anisotropic sedimentary basin: Application to the Okinawa back arc basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, P.; Rabinowicz, M. (Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie, Spatiale (France)); Foucher, J.P.; Sibuet, J.C. (Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France))


    The authors explore the pattern of two-dimensional convection in an highly anisotropical porous medium. This physical situation is relevant to passive margin sedimentary basins consisting of interbedded coarse-grained pervious and shale matrix. They show that permeability anisotropies of the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} allow for long convective cells, of aspect ratio greater than 10, but that a combination of this parameter with a slight slope of the order of a few percent of the sedimentary layers is required to stabilize these long cells. As an example, they present the Okinawa basin, an active submarine back arc basin, with a sedimentary thickness of about 2 km and a heat flow profile across this basin, varying from 32 to 232 mWm{sup {minus}2} over a distance of 30 km. It is shown that this heat flow variation is difficult to explain with conductive mechanisms only but is well reproduced by different convective models relying on permeability anisotropy plus slope. Although the insufficient thermal and structural constraints did not allow them to build a unique model, the whole set of possible fits to the heat flow data may restrict the mean hydraulic parameters of the basin. A vertical permeability of a few tens of milidarcy and an anisotropy greater than 100 are required to produce the expected stable and active large-scale circulation. It is suggested in conclusion that this type of circulation might be active in oil- or oil-forming element migration.

  4. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.


    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  5. Silurian to Devonian foreland basin in the south edge of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the theory of plate tectonics, combining with the isotopic dating of ophiolite, igneous and volcanics, geochemical test, rare earth element analyze and seismic interpretation, this paper studies the pre-Carboniferous tectonics and sedimentary formation of the south edge of the Tarim Basin and proves that there exists the Kunlun Ocean under tensional tectonics during the Sinian and Cambrian in the south edge of the Tarim Plate. After that, due to the collision orogenesis, there formed the peripheral foreland basin in the south edge of Tarim. The Upper Silurian and Devonian molasses sedimentary system superposed on the Sinian and Middle Silurian passive margin flysch sedimentary system and formed the bivariate structure of the foreland basin. And at the same time, based on the field geology and seismic interpretation, we have identified that the formation of the Silurian and Devonian have the character of half deposit which shows thick in the south area and thin in the north, and the pre-Carboniferous thrust compression tectonics remained in the foreland thrust belt, which further demonstrates that there existed the Silurian and Devonian peripheral foreland basin on the south edge of the Tarim Basin.

  6. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Symader


    Full Text Available As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  7. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins



    As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  8. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow (United States)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.


    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  9. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.


    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  10. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.


    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina IOSUB


    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  12. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.


    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Petroleum Exploration of Craton Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Craton basins are a significant petroliferous provenance. Having undergone multiple openclose tectonic cycles and strong reworking of the late Cenozoic tectonic movement, the craton basins in China are highly broken. This has resulted in multi-source and multiphase hydrocarbon generation and later hydrocarbon accumulation so that a complicated spatial assemblage of primary, paraprimary and secondary oil-gas pools has been formed. The primary factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation include hydrocarbon-generating depressions, paleouplifts, paleoslopes, unconformity surfaces, paleo-karst, faults and fissure systems as well as the later conservation conditions. In consequence, the strategy of exploration for China's craton basins is to identify the effective source rocks, pay attention to the different effects of paleohighs and late reworking, enhance studies of the secondary storage space, attach importance to the exploration of lithologic oil-gas reservoirs and natural gas pools, and approach consciously from the secondary oil pools to the targets near the source rocks. At the same time, a complete system of technologies and techniques must be built up.

  14. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte


    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  15. Inversion tectonics in the Neogene basins of Tuscany (Northern Apennines, Italy): Insights from the Pisa-Viareggio basin. (United States)

    Argnani, A.; Rogledi, S.


    Several sedimentary basins are located in the internal portion of the Northern Apennines, bordering the eastern side of the Northern Tyrrhenian sea. These basins trend almost parallel to the Apennine range and are filled by Neogene sediments with thickness ranging between few 100's m to few km (Martini et al., 2001). Sediments belonging to these basins crop out extensively in western Tuscany, often appearing heavily deformed. Although classically interpreted as extensional basins (e.g., Martini and Sagri, 1993 and references therein), some papers call for an initial thrust-related origin (Finetti et al., 2001; Bonini and Sani, 2002), and the long-lasting debate about the origin of the Neogene basins of Tuscany is still ongoing (cfr. Brogi 2011 and Sani et al., 2004). This contribution aims at presenting the case of the Pisa-Viareggio basin, which is the northernmost one among the large basins of Tuscany (Pascucci et al., 2007). This basin straddles the coastline and has been investigated through the interpretation of a grid of industrial seismic profiles covering the Pisa plain and tied to exploration wells. In the Pisa-Viareggio basin seismic profiles show a west-dipping listric extensional fault that bounds the basin to the east, supporting an extensional origin. The basin is filled with up to 3 seconds of upper Messinian to Quaternary sediments, and extension mostly occurred during late Messinian-early Pliocene, although continuing with reduced intensity till the Quaternary. The southern part of this basin shows a superimposed contractional deformation (tectonic inversion), that progressively increases to the south, where the basin appears completely overturned and eroded in the Livorno Mountains. The basin-boundary fault trends roughly NNW-SSE and is buried in the Quaternary sediments of the Pisa plain, but it turns rather abruptly to N-S and NNE-SSW in the south, near Livorno. Inspection of detailed geological maps (Lazzarotto et al., 1990) suggests that the

  16. Plate tectonic setting and genetic types of gas (oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一伟; 陈发景; 陆克政; 漆家福


    The plate tectonic setting and genetic types of the gas (oil)-bearing basins in China are studied. Based on the history of break-up and amalgamation of Pangea, the three tectonic evolutionary megastages can be divided and the sedimentary basins in China are classified as Palaeozoic and Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Palaeozoic gas(oil)-bearing basins are mainly located in intracratonic basins, on which different types of Meso-Cenozoic basins are superimposed, and located in cratonic marginal basins and aulacogens destroyed with a slight degree, (n contrast, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic gas (oil)-bearing basins mainly formed in extensional foreland and intracontmental shortening flexural basins.

  17. Formation and evolution of the Chinese marine basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    There are plenty of petroleum resources in the Chinese marine basins, which will be the potential exploration regions of petroleum in the 21 st century. The formation and evolution of the Chinese marine basins have mainly undergone two major tectonic epochs and five tectonic evolution stages. The first major tectonic epoch is the early Paleozoic plate divergence and drifting epoch during which the marine basins were formed, and the second one is the late Paleozoic plate convergence and collision epoch during which the pre-existent marine basins were superimposed and modified. The five tectonic northward collage and convergence of continental plates and the development of the paralic sedimencollage and the superimposition of lacustrine basins controlled by the inland subsidence during Late erosion or breakage of marine basins influenced by the plate tectonic activities of Neo-Tethys Ocean sion and basin-range coupling in the margin of the marine basins caused by the collision between India and Eurasia Plates and its long-distance effect since Neocene. The process of the tectonic evolution has controlled the petroleum geologic characteristics of Chinese marine basins, and a material foundation for the formation of oil and gas reservoirs has been built up via the formation of Paleozoic marine basins, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic superimposition and modification have controlled the key conditions of hydrocarbon accumulation and preservation. From the Late Proterozoic to the Early Paleozoic, the stratigraphic sequences of the deep-water shale and continental margin marine carbonate rocks in the ancient plate floating in the oceans have developed high-quality marine source rocks and reef-shoal reservoirs. In Late Paleozoic, the crustal plates converged and uplifted into continent and the paleouplifts in the intra-cratonic basins have become good reservoirs of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation, and paralic coal beds have formed regional cap rocks. The Mesozoic

  18. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin (United States)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale


    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  19. Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prah Klemen


    Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

  20. Sedimentary basin analysis using airborne gravity data: a case study from the Bohai Bay Basin, China (United States)

    Li, Wenyong; Liu, Yanxu; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhou, Xihua; Li, Bing


    In this paper, we discuss the application of an airborne gravity survey to sedimentary basin analysis. Using high-precision airborne gravity data constrained by drilling and seismic data from the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China, we interpreted faults, structural elements, sedimentary thickness, structural styles and local structures (belts) in the central area of the Basin by the wavelet transform method. Subsequently, these data were subtracted from the Bouguer gravity to calculate the residual gravity anomalies. On this basis, the faults were interpreted mainly by linear zones of high gravity gradients and contour distortion, while the sedimentary thicknesses were computed by the Euler deconvolution. The structural styles were identified by the combination of gravity anomalies and the local structures interpreted by the first vertical derivative of the residual gravity. The results showed evidence for seven faults, one sag and ten new local structure belts.

  1. Upper Paleozoic petroleum system, Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.M.; Zhao, B.Q.; Thu, Z.L.; Song, Z.G. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wilkins, R.W.T. [CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia)


    The Ordos Basin is a typical lapped basin, including three sequences of strata: early Paleozoic, late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, with a total thickness of 4000-6000m. Impermeable sealing beds are well developed at the top and base of the upper Paleozoic sequence, separating it from the Mesozoic and the lower Paleozoic strata to form an independent petroleum system. In this petroleum system, the source rocks are widely distributed coals and dark mudstones occurring in the Carboniferous-lower Permian coal measures, with a thickness of 10-15 and 40-60m, respectively. The reservoirs are mainly early Permian tight sandstones, mostly with a porosity of 4-8% and a permeability of 0.1-1.0x10{sup -3}{mu}m{sup 2}. The regional cap rock is a 100-150m thick mudstone in the upper Permian strata. The structural framework of the basin is a huge asymmetric syncline, dipping gently toward the east and north, and steeply toward the south and west. Well data show that gas-saturated, gas-water transition and water-saturated zones are developed from the depositional center to the basin edges. The gas-saturated zone mainly lies in the gently dipping slope area of the Shanbei Slope. Toward eastern and northern up-dip directions the water-gas transitional zone occurs, and finally the water-saturated zone, presenting a reverse relation of water on top of gas. An abnormal negative strata pressure is developed in the gas-bearing area, with a pressure coefficient (C{sub p}) ranging from 0.83 to 0.95. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the upper Paleozoic gas pool began to develop around the Wuqi area at about 150Ma, and it extended toward the north and was largely formed at about 120Ma, showing there was a regional migration of the gas-water interface from south to north during the gas pool formation. These characteristics appear to show that the northern and eastern margins of the petroleum system are defined by a regional hydrodynamic regime. The critical moment of the petroleum system

  2. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen


    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  3. Performance characterisation of a stormwater treatment bioretention basin. (United States)

    Mangangka, Isri R; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    Treatment performance of bioretention basins closely depends on hydrologic and hydraulic factors such as rainfall characteristics and inflow and outflow discharges. An in-depth understanding of the influence of these factors on water quality treatment performance can provide important guidance for effective bioretention basin design. In this paper, hydraulic and hydrologic factors impacting pollutant removal by a bioretention basin were assessed under field conditions. Outcomes of the study confirmed that the antecedent dry period plays an important role in influencing treatment performance. A relatively long antecedent dry period reduces nitrite and ammonium concentrations while increasing the nitrate concentration, which confirms that nitrification occurs within the bioretention basin. Additionally, pollutant leaching influences bioretention basin treatment performance, reducing the nutrients removal efficiency, which was lower for high rainfall events. These outcomes will contribute to a greater understanding of the treatment performance of bioretention basins, assisting in the design, operation and maintenance of these systems.

  4. Geologic Evolution of the Schiaparelli Impact Basin, Mars (United States)

    Jaret, S. J.; Albin, E. F.


    Situated in the eastern Terra Meridiani region of the Martian cratered uplands is an ancient 470-km diameter basin called Schiaparelli. In this investigation, Viking Orbiter image mosaics were used as a base to create a detailed geologic map of this impact structure. High resolution Global Surveyor MOC and MOLA data provided information for the interpretation of individual map units. The basin rim (Br) separates distinct sets of interior and exterior units. Within the basin, the following units are found: a) [Im] interior mountain (inner peak ring), b) [Ih] interior hilly material (fallback ejecta), c) [Irp] interior ridged plains (lava flows), and d) [Isp] interior smooth plains (lacustrine deposits). The exterior basin units include: a) [Cu] cratered upland material (target material), b) [Em] exterior mountain (basin ring) c) [Cd] cratered dissected material (continuous ejecta), d) [Erp] exterior ridged plains (lava flows), and e) [Esp] exterior smooth plains (lacustrine deposits). These findings provide clues about the geologic history of Schiaparelli basin.

  5. Structures of the Bohai Petroliferous Area, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper, for the first time, deals with a more systematic study of the structures in the Bohai petroliferous area that covers nearly one third of the Bohai Bay basin. The study mainly involves the effects of pre-existing basement faults on the basin formation, the characteristics of basin geometry and kinetics, the modelling of the tectonic-thermal history, the polycyclicity and heterogeneity in the structural evolution and the natural seismic tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle. The authors analyze the features of the dynamic evolution of the basin in the paper and point out that the basin in the Bohai petroliferous area is an extensional pull-apart basin.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk


    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  7. Luminescence dating of ancient Darhad basin, Mongolia (United States)

    Cheul Kim, Jin; Yi, Sangheon; Lim, Jaesoo; Kim, Ju-Yong


    Darhad basin is located in the northern Mongolia, in the western end of the Baikal Rift Zone. In contrast to the neighboring Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia's largest and deepest lake, the Darhad is a drained lake basin. It is ~100 km long (north-south), 20-40 km wide and covered by sediments which locally exceed 500 m thickness (Zorin et al., 1989). Darhad basin is characterized by alternating episodes of expansion and desiccation that are closely related with the Pleistocene damming events. Previous studies of the Darhad Basin suggest that the last paleolake was dammed by a large glacier or the sediments (Selivanov, 1967, 1968; Krivonogov et al., 2005; Gillespie et al., 2008). Especially, recent expansion of the paleolake might be caused by the two glacial maxima during MIS 4 and 2. However, glacier-dammed lakes might be short-lived, dried up and permafrost occurred in the drained basin during the Holocene period. The uppermost paleolake sediments (13.2 m depth) are exposed following the curvature of the meandering river (called "Hodon outcrop"). It is considered the most likely site for the youngest paleolake sediments because it is distributed in the northern middle part of the paleolake. Krivonogov et al. 2012 described the Hodon outcrop with the sedimentological and chronological data. Age dating of 16 samples (11 mollusk shells, 5 wood fragments) indicated that Hodon outcrop sediments were deposited between 10.1±7 and 4.9±5 ka. However, the ages obtained on shells much older dates than the matched wood samples because of ingestion of old carbon by mollusks. The age difference between shells and wood fragments is a minimum of 1.73 ka and a maximum of 3.41 ka (average 2.5 ka). In this case, 14C ages from shells should be corrected with appropriate correction factor. However, the old carbon effects could vary temperally and spatially in the Darhad paleolake. The limited number of the 14C ages from wood fragments result in a simple linear trend in the depth-age curve

  8. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.


    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  9. Precambrian age of the Boston Basin: New evidence from microfossils (United States)

    Lenk, C.; Strother, P.K.; Kaye, C.A.; Barghoorn, E.S.


    A Vendian (Late Proterozoic Z) age has been determined for the Boston Basin by comparison of a microflora from the Cambridge Argillite with other late Precambrian assemblages. The microfossils, which include Bavlinella cf. faveolata, are preserved as petrifactions in pyrite. This age designation for the sedimentary rocks of the Boston Basin should allow for the reinterpretation of the structure of the basin and its regional correlations. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  10. Mud-dominated basin margin progradation: processes and implications


    Poyatos-Moré, M; Jones, GD; Brunt, RL; Hodgson, DM; Wild, RJ; Flint, SS


    The accretion of coarse-grained material at the shelf-edge rollover has been emphasized in studies of basin margin progradation, despite fine grained sediment (clay and silt) representing a volumetrically more significant component of subaqueous clinothems. The timing and processes of fine-grained sediment transport across the shelf and onto the slope remains an understudied facet of sedimentary basin stratigraphy. Three exhumed basin margin-scale clinothems of the Permian Waterford Formation...

  11. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.


    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  12. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.


    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  13. Advanced Workflows for Fluid Transfer in Faulted Basins.


    Thibaut Muriel; Jardin Anne; Faille Isabelle; Willien Françoise; Guichet Xavier


    modélisation de bassin ; faille ; logiciel ;; International audience; The traditional 3D basin modeling workflow is made of the following steps: construction of present day basin architecture, reconstruction of the structural evolution through time, together with fluid flow simulation and heat transfers. In this case, the forward simulation is limited to basin architecture, mainly controlled by erosion, sedimentation and vertical compaction. The tectonic deformation is limited to vertical sli...

  14. Evaluation of drought regimes and impacts in the Limpopo basin


    B. F. Alemaw; J.-M. Kileshye-Onema


    Drought is a common phenomenon in the Limpopo River basin. In essence, droughts are long–term hydro-meteorological events affecting vast regions and causing significant non-structural damages. In the interest of riparian states' joint integrated water resources development and management of the Limpopo basin, inter regional drought severity and its impacts should be understood. The study focussed on case studies in the basin which is subdivided into four homogeneous r...

  15. Preliminary catalog of the sedimentary basins of the United States (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Cahan, Steven M.


    One hundred forty-four sedimentary basins (or groups of basins) in the United States (both onshore and offshore) are identified, located, and briefly described as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) data base in support of the Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration National Assessment Project (Brennan and others, 2010). This catalog of basins is designed to provide a check list and basic geologic framework for compiling more detailed geologic and reservoir engineering data for this project and other future investigations.

  16. Tectonic Evolution and Petroleum Systems in the Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weifeng; CHEN Yequan


    The Junggar basin is located in the northern part of Xinjiang of China. It is part of the Kazakstan plate,surrounded by the Paleozoic folded mountains: the Halaart, Zayier and Chepaizi Mountains in the northwest, the Qingelidi and Karamaili Mountains in the northeast, and the Tianshan Mountains in the south. In different evolution stages, the basin's types are different, and the stratigraphy and deposition are also different. From the Carboniferous to Tertiary the basin has in turn gone through rift basin, collision foreland basin, intraplate depression basin and regenerated foreland basin. Based on an analysis of thermal evolution history and buried history of the source rocks, three major periods of oil generation are found in the basin. According to the characteristics of source rock distribution, evolution, oil-source correlation, structure and multi-phase and mixed pools, the Junggar basin could be divided into 4 composite petroleum systems. Due to the variation in sedimentary facies, difference in structural patterns and development histories, the petroleum pool-forming conditions in different areas and horizons are greatly different, so are the petroleum pool types,the accumulation mechanisms in different areas and horizons.

  17. Synchronization and basin bifurcations in mutually coupled oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U E Vincent; A N Njah; O Akinlade


    Synchronization behaviour of two mutually coupled double-well Duffig oscillators exhibiting cross-well chaos is examined. Synchronization of the subsystems was observed for coupling strength > 0.4. It is found that when the oscillators are operated in the regime for which two attractors coexist in phase space, basin bifurcation sequences occur leading to + 1, ≥ 2 basins as the coupling is varied – a signature of Wada structure and final-state sensitivity. However, in the region of complete synchronization, the basins structure is identical with that of the single oscillators and retains its essential features including fractal basin boundaries.

  18. Exploration Area and Potential of Natural Gas in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haibo; Chen Lei; Qian Yongxin; Li Chen


    @@ Junggar Basin, located in Northern Xinjiang between Altai and Tianshan Mountains, is the second largest basin in China with its sedimentary area being about 130,000square kilometers. A group of caprocks are developed over Carboniferous of the basin, including the Permian,Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene,among which the biggest sedimentary caprock is 15,000meters thick. The formation and accumulation of oil and gas in the basin can be characterized by multistage and multisource after undergoing multiperiod structural movements such as Late Hercynian, Indosinian,Yanshanian, and Himalaya, etc.

  19. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  20. Riddled basins in a model for the Belousov Zhabotinsky reaction (United States)

    Woltering, Matthias; Markus, Mario


    Calculations show that the basin of attraction of periodicity can be riddled with respect to the basin of chaos for two diffusively coupled CSTRs. This hinders the predictability of the attractor, since arbitrarily close to a point in phase space leading to periodicity there exists a point leading to chaos. Evidence and quantification is given by the uncertainty exponent and by sign-singular scaling behaviour. A single CSTR can display basins of attraction that are indistinguishable from riddled basins owing to the unavoidable limitations in computational or experimental accuracy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.


    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors

  2. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin (United States)

    Campos, P.


    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  3. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael


    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  4. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby


    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  5. Sedimentological study of the Meirama Tertiary basin - an example of a sedimentary basin over a strike-slip fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge Ganuzas, C.


    The sedimentary basin of Meirama (Coruna, N.W. Spain), is developed over a strike slip fault of regional extent, whose movements controlled in the past the character and sedimentation processes there and determined the basin morphology and the deformation suffered by the sediments. The sedimentary register at Meirama is represented by one essentially lignitiferous unit and three other terrigenous-detrital. The nature and facies shown by the sediments are not constant within one unit and depend fundamentally on the source area for each unit, either the metasediments of Ordes (Ordenes) Serie (S-Se marginal basin) or the granodiorite of Xalo unit (N-NW marginal basin).

  6. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activitie in the four primary study areas of the WGSP: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin.

  7. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State...; and (4) identify a comprehensive approach for efficient management of basin water supplies....

  8. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (burial, and result in a significant degradation of porosity.

  9. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  10. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien


    We present field observations from the Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Tampere palaeobasin, where the primary structures have been exceptionally well preserved. We use the observations to construct a new tectonic model for the southeastern margin of the Tampere basin during its inversion an...

  11. Assessment of basin-scale hydrologic impacts of CO2 sequestration, Illinois basin (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Rupp, J.; Medina, C.; Lichtner, P.; Gable, C.; Pawar, R.; Celia, M.; McIntosh, J.; Bense, V.


    Idealized, basin-scale sharp-interface models of CO2 injection were constructed for the Illinois basin. Porosity and permeability were decreased with depth within the Mount Simon Formation. Eau Claire confining unit porosity and permeability were kept fixed. We used 726 injection wells located near 42 power plants to deliver 80 million metric tons of CO2/year. After 100 years of continuous injection, deviatoric fluid pressures varied between 5.6 and 18 MPa across central and southern part of the Illinois basin. Maximum deviatoric pressure reached about 50% of lithostatic levels to the south. The pressure disturbance (>0.03 MPa) propagated 10-25 km away from the injection wells resulting in significant well-well pressure interference. These findings are consistent with single-phase analytical solutions of injection. The radial footprint of the CO2 plume at each well was only 0.5-2 km after 100 years of injection. Net lateral brine displacement was insignificant due to increasing radial distance from injection well and leakage across the Eau Claire confining unit. On geologic time scales CO2 would migrate northward at a rate of about 6 m/1000 years. Because of paleo-seismic events in this region (M5.5-M7.5), care should be taken to avoid high pore pressures in the southern Illinois basin. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Structural characteristics and petroliferous features of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using the modern tectonic geology theories and methods such as the plate tectonic analysis, the paleo-struc- ture analysis, the structural-lithofacies analysis, and the fault related fold and petroleum system, and combining with the seismic data, well drilling data and the circumferential field geology, study on the structural characteristics and petroleum prospect in the Tarim Basin has been carried out. Results show that the Tarim Basin is a large superimposition and combination basin with continental crustal basement, composed of a Paleozoic craton and Meso-Cenozoic foreland basins. The characteristics of the basin are: the kernel part of the basin is the marine facies Paleozoic craton, superimposed 4 continental facies foreland basins. Though the scale of the paleozoic craton of the Tarim Basin is relatively small, the structure is steady. The petroleum prospect of the Paleozoic craton is: multiphase pool-generation and accumulation controlled by ancient uplift. The Meso-Cenozoic foreland basins in the Tarim Basin, which are distributed on the cratonic circumference and are a long-term subsidence, turned into rejuvenated foreland basins after the Meso-Cenozoic period. The petroleum prospects are: coal-bed generating hydrocarbon, abundant natural gas, pool-generation in later and recent periods, the oil and gas distribution controlled by the foreland thrust belt. The structural characteristics of Tarim provide it with a superimposition and combination petroleum system of multiple resources, multiple reservoirs and multiphase pool-generation. The oil and gas exploration prospect covers two large fields: the Paleozoic craton and the Meso-Cenozoic foreland thrust belt.

  13. Advanced Workflows for Fluid Transfer in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Muriel


    Full Text Available The traditional 3D basin modeling workflow is made of the following steps: construction of present day basin architecture, reconstruction of the structural evolution through time, together with fluid flow simulation and heat transfers. In this case, the forward simulation is limited to basin architecture, mainly controlled by erosion, sedimentation and vertical compaction. The tectonic deformation is limited to vertical slip along faults. Fault properties are modeled as vertical shear zones along which rock permeability is adjusted to enhance fluid flow or prevent flow to escape. For basins having experienced a more complex tectonic history, this approach is over-simplified. It fails in understanding and representing fluid flow paths due to structural evolution of the basin. This impacts overpressure build-up, and petroleum resources location. Over the past years, a new 3D basin forward code has been developed in IFP Energies nouvelles that is based on a cell centered finite volume discretization which preserves mass on an unstructured grid and describes the various changes in geometry and topology of a basin through time. At the same time, 3D restoration tools based on geomechanical principles of strain minimization were made available that offer a structural scenario at a discrete number of deformation stages of the basin. In this paper, we present workflows integrating these different innovative tools on complex faulted basin architectures where complex means moderate lateral as well as vertical deformation coupled with dynamic fault property modeling. Two synthetic case studies inspired by real basins have been used to illustrate how to apply the workflow, where the difficulties in the workflows are, and what the added value is compared with previous basin modeling approaches.

  14. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.


    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  15. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China. (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin


    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  16. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  17. Large Sanjiang basin groups outside of the Songliao Basin Meso-Senozoic Tectonic-sediment evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.


    The basis geological problem is still the bottleneck of the exploration work of the lager Sanjiang basin groups. In general terms, the problems are including the prototype basins and basin forming mechanism of two aspects. In this paper, using the field geological survey and investigation, logging data analysis, seismic data interpretation technical means large Sanjiang basin groups and basin forming mechanism of the prototype are discussed. Main draw the following conclusions: 1. Sanjiang region group-level formation can be completely contrasted. 2. Tension faults, compressive faults, shear structure composition and structure combination of four kinds of compound fracture are mainly developed In the study area. The direction of their distribution can be divided into SN, EW, NNE, NEE, NNW, NWW to other groups of fracture. 3. Large Sanjiang basin has the SN and the EW two main directions of tectonic evolution. Cenozoic basins in Sanjiang region in group formation located the two tectonic domains of ancient Paleo-Asian Ocean and the Pacific Interchange. 4. Large Sanjiang basin has experienced in the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of two-stage and nine times. The first stage, developmental stage basement, they are ① Since the Mesozoic era and before the Jurassic; ② Early Jurassic period; The second stage, cap stage of development, they are ③ Late Jurassic depression developmental stages of compression; ④ Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑤ depression in mid-Early Cretaceous period; ⑥ tensile Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑦ inversion of Late Cretaceous tectonic compression stage; ⑧ Paleogene - Neogene; ⑨ After recently Ji Baoquan Sedimentary Ridge. 5. Large Sanjiang basin group is actually a residual basin structure, and Can be divided into left - superimposed (Founder, Tangyuan depression, Hulin Basin), residual - inherited type (Sanjiang basin), residual - reformed (Jixi, Boli, Hegang basin). there are two developed depression and the mechanism

  18. Petroleum Discoveries and Exploration Prospect in China's Major Petroliferous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan


    @@ Up to now, there are 29 oil-and gas-bearing basins with recoverable oil and gas reserves in China. However,most of the reserves were mainly discovered in parts of the 29 basins, which played an important role in China's petroleum exploration and development.

  19. Probing the basins of attraction of a recurrent neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Heerema; W.A. van Leeuwen


    Analytical expressions for the weights $w_{ij}(b)$ of the connections of a recurrent neural network are found by taking explicitly into account basins of attraction, the size of which is characterized by a basin parameter $b$. It is shown that a network with $b \

  20. Origin(s) of Antarctica's Wilkes subglacial basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weihaupt, J.G.; Van der Hoeven, F.G.; Lorius, C.; Chambers, F.B.


    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB), the largest subglacial basin in East Antarctica, is a topographic depression of continental proportions that lies beneath the East Antarctic continental ice sheet. Discovered by the US Victoria Land Traverse 1959–60, the origin of the WSB and the influence of palae

  1. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))


    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  2. Tectonics and subsidence evolution of the Sirt Basin, Libya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, A.M.; Wees, J.D. van; Dijk, P.M. van; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.


    Backstripping analysis of 225 wells located within the Sirt Basin (Fig. 1) provide new constraints on the Sirt Basin development. Four coherent tectonic phases from Late Jurassic to present. The presentation of contour maps of subsidence and crustal stretching allows to visualize spatial and tempora

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.


    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  4. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.


    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.The Great Konya Basin, some 300 k

  5. Stratigraphic architecture of Devonian lacustrine basins of northern Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thorben; Moreau, Julien; Andrews, Steven D.

    In Northeastern Scotland, the Orcadian Basin hosted large lacustrine systems which developed during Devonian times (c. 400 Ma). The pre-Devonian metamorphic basement unconformity is only exposed in a small number of places around the basin margin and therefore the characterization of the nature o...

  6. San Juan Basin, USA; coalbed methane development and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskoter, H. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)


    Twenty one slides/overheads outline the talk on production of coalbed methane from sedimentary basins in the USA. Figures are given for production and reserves for the year 2000. The San Juan basin's geologic structure, containing resources of the Cretaceous coal age, primarily in the Fruitland Formation, is described. 4 refs.

  7. Exploration Breakthrough in Southern Margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Zhulin; Zheng Jiandong


    @@ The Hutubi structure, located in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, is 60 km norrthwest of Urumqi and 20 km northwest of Changji (Fig. l). The Hu-2 well drilled in the Hutubi structure has gained high-yield gas flow,significant exploration breakthrough in the southern margin of Junggar Basin since the 1950s.

  8. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.


    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the LacustrinePlain, has highly calcareous clayey sedimen

  9. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation. (United States)


    distributed to newspapers and radio and television stations throughout the Lower Colorado River Basin and to areas of potential interest outside the basin, was...Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae

  10. The enigma of prokaryotic life in deep hypersaline anoxic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ; Bolhuis, H; Borin, S; Daffonchio, D; Corselli, C; Giuliano, L; D'Auria, G; de Lange, GJ; Huebner, A; Varnavas, SP; Thomson, J; Tamburini, C; Marty, D; McGenity, TJ; Timmis, KN


    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean Sea are a legacy of dissolution of ancient subterranean salt deposits from the Miocene period. Our study revealed that these hypersaline basins are not biogeochemical dead ends, but support in situ sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and heterotroph

  11. Near-Vertical Moho Reflections Under the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam (United States)

    Dinh, T. V.; Harder, S. H.


    Surface expression of the Red River fault, a major strike-slip fault originating from the India-Eurasian collision, terminates as a large pull-apart basin in northern Vietnam. The onshore part is called the Hanoi basin and is an extension of the larger offshore Song Hong basin. Rifting in these basins began early Eocene with inversion in the late Miocene and continued subsidence today. Gravity studies indicate crustal thinning under the Hanoi basin, however both the Hanoi and Song Hong basins are in near isostatic balance resulting in relatively small gravity anomalies from large crustal-scale features. Hence, seismic methods would seem to be a more appropriate method for studying crustal structure in this situation. In January 2008 we shot the first deep crustal seismic lines in Southeast Asia in and near the Hanoi basin. Crustal seismic experiments in densely populated areas are challenging because of the high cultural noise levels and the lack of available space for shotpoints. This experiment however produced an unusually strong near-vertical reflection from the Moho under the Hanoi basin as well as a number of other arrivals. Analyses of these arrivals indicate the crust is 27 km thick, thinner than estimated from gravity data. They also show the Moho is a complex reflector with a high impedance contrast.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Chengming; Jiang Bo; Han Qinpeng; Wu Jianfeng


    @@ Located in the northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Qaidam Basin is surrounded by the East Kunlun Mountains in the south, Qilian Mountains in the north, and Altun Mountains in the west. With an area of 121,000 square kilometers (km2), Qaidam Basin is about 850 kilometers (km) long from east to west and 150~300 km wide from south to north.

  13. Discovery of Early Permian Reefs in Xichang Basin, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jianxiong; Zeng Yunfu; Wu Yong


    @@ In 1992, Lower Permian reefs were found in various stratigraphic sections in such counties as Ganluo,Puge, and Butuo, in Xichang Basin. This discovery not only promotes the development of Lower Permain sedimentology in Xichang Basin, but also is of great significance for oil-gas exploration along the western margin of Yangtze platform.

  14. The proper longshore current in a wave basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.


    This report describes the investigation into a method how to obtain the proper longshore current in a wave basin. In this method the basin geometry is optimized and the proper recirculation flow through openings in the wave guides is determined by minimizing the circulation flow between the wave gui

  15. Analysis of drought determinants for the Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balling Jr, R.C. [Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Goodrich, G.B. [Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)


    Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter season Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) and precipitation variations in the Basin. We find that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) explains more variance in PHDI than El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the planetary temperature combined for the Basin as a whole. When rotated PCA is used to separate the Basin into two regions, the lower portion of the Basin is similar to the Basin as a whole while the upper portion, which contains the high-elevation locations important to hydrologic yield for the watershed, demonstrates poorly defined relationships with the teleconnections. The PHDI for the two portions of the Basin are shown to have been out of synch for much of the twentieth century. In general, teleconnection indices account for 19% of the variance in PHDI leaving large uncertainties in drought forecasting.

  16. [Upper Steele Bayou Projects : Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents related to four projects which were proposed by the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers in the Yazoo River Basin. The Upper Yazoo Basin...

  17. River basin management plans for the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Behrendt, H.; Ruboek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.


    The newly adopted EU water framework directive aims at protecting different water bodies by performing impact analysis and developing river basin management plans before 2009. The adoption of management measures in river basins demands that catchment managers are able to quantify the importance of d

  18. Evolution of the Pannonian basin and its geothermal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, F.; Musitz, B.; Balázs, A.; Végh, A.; Uhrin, A.; Nádor, A.; Koroknai, B.; Pap, N.; Tóth, T.; Wórum, G.


    The Pannonian basin is an integral part of the convergence zone between the Eurasian and Nubian plates characterized by active subductions of oceanic and continental plates, and formation of backarc basins. The first part of this paper presents an overview of the evolution of the Alpine-Mediterranea

  19. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blake


    Full Text Available Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  20. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  1. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin. (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona


    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  2. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington (United States)

    Fretwell, M.O.


    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  3. Composition of Rheasilvia Basin on Asteroid Vesta (United States)

    Ammannito, Eleonora; DeSanctis, Maria Christina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Capria, Maria Teresa; Combe, Jean Philippe; Frigeri, Alessandro; Jaumann, Ralf; Longobardo, Andrea; Marchi, Somone; McCord, Thomas B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Stephan, Katrin; Tosi, Federico; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.


    The focus of the present study is the compositional analysis of small-scale surface features within the Rheasil-Aa basin on asteroid Vesta. We are using data acquired by the Visible and InfraRed mapping Spectrometer (VIR) on the Dawn mission. Nominal spatial resolution of the data set considered in this study is 70m/px. The portion of Rheasil-Aa basin below 65degS has a howarditic composition, with the higher concentration of diogenitic versus eucritic material in the region between 45deg and 225degE-lon. However, there are several locations, such as craters Tarpeia and Severina and Parentatio Rupes, with lithologic characteristics different from the surroundings regions. Tarpeia crater has a eucritic patch in the west side of the crater, the bottom part ofthe wall and part of the floor. Severina, located in a region of Mg-rich pyroxene, has some diogenitic units on the walls of the crater. Also the Parentatio Rupes has an ob-AOUS diogenitic unit. These units extend for 10-20km, and their location, especially in the case of the two craters, suggests they formed before the cratering events and also before the Rheasil-Aa impact event. The origin of these units is still unclear; however, their characteristics and locations suggests heterogeneity in the composition of the ancient Vestan crust in this particular location of the surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  5. Oxidation Kinetics of K Basin Fuel (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Oxidation testing of K Basin-stored N Reactor fuel in dry air, moist air, and moist helium provided reaction rate data for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The tests were performed on small samples from two spent nuclear fuel elements retrieved from the closed canisters of the K West Basin. The spent nuclear fuel samples were tested using a thermogravimetric analysis system modified for moist-gas operation to allow testing in moist environments. The tests were run at constant temperature and water vapor pressure. The moist helium tests used 6.5 H a water vapor, producing seventeen data between 75 C and 210 C. Eight of these data were excluded from primary consideration due to testing anomalies and balance drift issues. Regression analysis of the nine acceptable data provided good assurance that the moist-helium results are consistent with literature data within the temperature range of 25 C to 210 C. Concerns about possible oxygen poisoning from air in-leakage and mass transfer limitations on the test data were reviewed. If oxygen poisoning occurred it was not likely to have biased the data sufficiently to change the basic conclusions of comparability to the literature data. Mass transfer limitations did not appear to have had significant effect on the moist-helium data.

  6. Tectonic Characteristics and Evolution of Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pengju; ZHANG Meisheng; SUN Xiaomeng; YANG Baojun


    Synthetical analyzing the deep geophysical data within Bohai bay basin the authors detect the deep crustal structure presenting high geothermal flux, thinned crust and arched Moho discontinuity, and the basin basement belongs to rigid continental crust. The development of the basin was controlled by two - dimensional faults in NNE and NWW directions. The tectonic units of the basin can be subdivided into three structural divisions: the east, middle and west division. The basin is considered as a continental rift. The tectonic background and regional right - lateral stress field during the late Cretaceous and Paleogene were a compound result of the Kula Plate W - directional subducting under Eurasia Continental Plate in 80 ~ 74Ma and the Philippine sea Plate W -directional subducting under the Eurasia Continental Plate since 60Ma, the long-rang effect of the India Continental Plate wedging into the Eurasia Continental Plate and of the Siberia Plate SE - directional relatively moving.

  7. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.


    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.


    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  9. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing of Recharge Basin Percolation Dynamics (United States)

    Becker, M.; Allen, E. M.; Hutchinson, A.


    Infiltration (spreading) basins are a central component of managed aquifer and recovery operations around the world. The concept is simple. Water is percolated into an aquifer where it can be withdrawn at a later date. However, managing infiltration basins can be complicated by entrapped air in sediments, strata of low permeability, clogging of the recharge surface, and biological growth, among other factors. Understanding the dynamics of percolation in light of these complicating factors provides a basis for making management decisions that increase recharge efficiency. As an aid to understanding percolation dynamics, fiber optic distribute temperature sensing (DTS) was used to track heat as a tracer of water movement in an infiltration basin. The diurnal variation of temperature in the basin was sensed at depth. The time lag between the oscillating temperature signal at the surface and at depth indicated the velocity of water percolation. DTS fiber optic cables were installed horizontally along the basin and vertically in boreholes to measure percolation behavior. The horizontal cable was installed in trenches at 0.3 and 1 m depth, and the vertical cable was installed using direct push technology. The vertical cable was tightly wound to produce a factor of 10 increase in spatial resolution of temperature measurements. Temperature was thus measured every meter across the basin and every 10 cm to a depth of 10 m. Data from the trenched cable suggested homogeneous percolation across the basin, but infiltration rates were a function of stage indicating non-ideal percolation. Vertical temperature monitoring showed significant lateral flow in sediments underlying the basin both during saturation and operation of the basin. Deflections in the vertical temperature profile corresponded with fine grained layers identified in core samples indicating a transient perched water table condition. The three-dimensional flow in this relatively homogenous surficial geology calls

  10. Quantitative basin evaluation, a tool for reducing exploration risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Over the last decade, the evaluation of the petroleum potential of sedimentary basins has shifted from a qualitative to a quantitative approach. This new perspective has led to the elaboration of basin simulators and a new discipline emerged: the basin modeling which is nowadays massively used by the oil industry. This methodology is an integration platform including geology, geochemistry and physics. Combined with uncertainty assessments, it is a powerful tool for reducing exploration risks. In this respect, IFP dedicates one of its IFP Sessions to 'Quantitative Basin Evaluation, a Tool for Reducing Exploration Risks'. This session was held on 18 June, 2001. The purpose of this workshop is to review the most modern advances used by professionals in the oil industry to improve the rate of hydrocarbon discovery and to lower exploration costs in frontier areas. IFP Sessions are conferences held for decision-makers and technical leaders to promote exchanges among involved parties: oil and gas companies, petroleum services and supply industries, engineering firms and research centers. Program: quantitative basin evaluation: the Berkine basin and its results; application of 2-D and 3-D basin modelling in the Gulf of Mexico; 2-D modelling in Brazilian sedimentary basins: lessons from recent case histories; quantitative modelling in the North Sea: towards a more confident assessment of the critical risks (*); uncertainties evaluation in petroleum system modelling (*); prediction of hydrocarbon type in the deep-water, Gulf of Mexico (*); constraining source and charge risk in deep-water areas - the Gulf of Mexico and offshore Angola (*); an overview of basin modelling and geochemistry activities in PDO; quantitative basin evaluation: how does it affect decision in exploration (*); panel discussion: evolution of the modelling tools. Abstracts are available only for 5 presentations (marked with (*)). (J.S.)

  11. Subsurface structure and the stress state of Utopia basin, Mars (United States)

    Searls, Mindi Lea

    Topography and gravity data from recent Mars' space missions are used to analyze the subsurface structure of the Utopia basin, focusing on the volume and density of fill that causes the shallowness of the basin. Using the assumption that the initial isostatic state of Utopia was similar to that of the Hellas basin allows for construction of a thin-shell elastic model of Utopia that facilitates investigation of its interior configuration. A system of equations was developed that allows a solution for the original basin shape, the amount of fill within Utopia basin, the amount of flexure due to the fill material, the total vertical load and the horizontal load potential. The presence of apparently ancient impact craters within the Utopia basin indicates that the majority of the material within Utopia was deposited early in Mars' history when the elastic lithosphere of Mars was (presumably) relatively thin (shell model also allows us to calculate the stress field due to the flexure/membrane strains. The stress results indicate that the radial tectonic features seen in the Utopia region are not due solely to deformation of the elastic lithosphere. However, a more rigorous finite element analysis of the basin mechanics predicts a zone of observed radial faults for large elastic thicknesses. This model also predicts a region of strike-slip faulting just outside of the basin where concentric reverse faults are located. The inclusion of global compressional stresses due to the Tharsis load, global cooling, and/ or global climate changes could effectively increase the zone of predicted radial faults within the basin as well as shift the faulting style outside of the basin from strike-slip to the observed concentric faults.

  12. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin (United States)

    Vibe, Yulia


    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  13. Basin-scale recharge in the Southwestern United States (United States)

    Hogan, J. F.; Duffy, C.; Eastoe, C.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Goodrich, D.; Hendrickx, J.; Hibbs, B.; Phillips, F.; Small, E.; Wilson, J.


    The major domestic water source in the arid southwestern United States is groundwater from alluvial basin aquifers. Accurate estimates of basin-scale groundwater recharge rates are a critical need for developing sustainable or "safe yield" groundwater pumping. Basin-scale recharge rates are typically estimated using inverse hydrologic modeling or geochemical tracers (e.g. chloride mass balance). These methods, while useful, have a high level of uncertainty and provide no information about the mechanisms of groundwater recharge. SAHRA - an NSF Science and Technology Center focused on the Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas - has developed an integrated research plan to address this problem. Our approach is two-fold. First we are investigating the "input" components that comprise basin-scale recharge: basin floor recharge, alluvial channel recharge, mountain front recharge, and mountain block recharge. Each component has unique spatial and temporal scales and thus requires distinct methods. Our research is aimed at understanding the factors (e.g. vegetation type, bedrock lithology, soil structure) that control recharge rates in each of these locations. With such an understanding one could then scale from point measurements to the basin-scale using remote sensing data. Our second approach is to employ isotopic tracers to determine water sources, groundwater ages and residence times of the groundwater and surface water "outputs"; these values can then be used to better calibrate recharge rates in groundwater models. By focusing our studies on two basins, the San Pedro River Basin in Arizona and the Rio Grande in New Mexico, we hope to develop a better understanding of the importance of different recharge pathways for basin-scale recharge and which methods are best suited for estimating basin-scale recharge.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016 (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Lillis, Paul G.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Finn, Thomas M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  15. Tectonic and climatic controls on late quaternary sedimentary processes in a neotectonic intramontane basin. (The Pitalito Basin, South Colombia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.


    The present study deals with the influence of tectonics and climatic changes on sedimentation patterns in the Quaternary Pitalito Basin (lat. 1°52'N, long. 76°02'W). This intramontane sedimentary basin is 15 km in width and 20 kin in length and is located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern Co

  16. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyron, A.


    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, E.T. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations.

  18. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil) (United States)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria


    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  19. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis (United States)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.


    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of pull-apart basins: implications for the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin (United States)

    Katzman, Rafael; ten Brink, Uri S.; Lin, Jian


    We model the three-dimensional (3-D) crustal deformation in a deep pull-apart basin as a result of relative plate motion along a transform system and compare the results to the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin. The brittle upper crust is modeled by a boundary element technique as an elastic block, broken by two en echelon semi-infinite vertical faults. The deformation is caused by a horizontal displacement that is imposed everywhere at the bottom of the block except in a stress-free “shear zone” in the vicinity of the fault zone. The bottom displacement represents the regional relative plate motion. Results show that the basin deformation depends critically on the width of the shear zone and on the amount of overlap between basin-bounding faults. As the width of the shear zone increases, the depth of the basin decreases, the rotation around a vertical axis near the fault tips decreases, and the basin shape (the distribution of subsidence normalized by the maximum subsidence) becomes broader. In contrast, two-dimensional plane stress modeling predicts a basin shape that is independent of the width of the shear zone. Our models also predict full-graben profiles within the overlapped region between bounding faults and half-graben shapes elsewhere. Increasing overlap also decreases uplift near the fault tips and rotation of blocks within the basin. We suggest that the observed structure of the Dead Sea Basin can be described by a 3-D model having a large overlap (more than 30 km) that probably increased as the basin evolved as a result of a stable shear motion that was distributed laterally over 20 to 40 km.

  1. Groundwater quality in the Basin and Range Basin-Fill Aquifers, southwestern United States (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers constitute one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 20 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 49 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  2. GRACE captures basin mass dynamic changes in China based on a multi-basin inversion method (United States)

    Yi, Shuang; Wang, Qiuyu; Sun, Wenke


    Complex landform, miscellaneous climate and enormous population have enriched China with geophysical phenomena ranging from water depletion in the underground to glaciers retreat on the high mountains and have aroused large scientific interests. This paper, utilizing gravity observations 2003-2014 from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), intends to make a comprehensive estimation of mass status in 16 drainage basins in the whole region. We proposed a multi-basin inversion method, which is featured by resistance to the stripe noise and ability to alleviate signal attenuation due to truncation and smoothing of GRACE data. The results show both positive and negative trends: there is a tremendous mass accumulation spreading from the Tibetan plateau (12.2 ± 0.6 Gt/yr) to the Yangtze River (7.6 ± 1.3 Gt/yr), and further to the southeast coastal areas, which is suggested to involve an increase in the ground water storage, lake and reservoir water volume and likely materials flowed in by tectonic process; a mass loss is occurring in Huang-Huai-Hai-Liao River Basin (-10.5 ± 0.8 Gt/yr), as well as the Brahmaputra-Nujiang-Lancang River Basin (-15.0 ± 0.9 Gt/yr) and Tienshan Mountain (-4.1 ± 0.3 Gt/yr), which is a result of groundwater pumping and glacier melting. The groundwater depletion area is well consistent with the distribution of land subsidence in North China. In the end, we find intensified precipitation can alter the local water supply and GRACE is proficient to capture this dynamics, which could be instructive for the South-to-North Water Diversion - one China's giant hydrologic project.

  3. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.;


    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management...

  4. Use of passive seismic data to characterize sedimentary basins, an example from the Vienna Basin, Austria. (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, N.; Bianchi, I.


    The analysis of passive seismic data leads a deeper understanding of the basin features in those areas that have been less explored via direct drilling. In this study, we use the Receiver Functions technique that constrain the presence of impedance contrasts at depth, caused by lithology changes, and seismic anisotropy, possibly related to fluid-filled cracks or alignment of orientated mineral grains. We present some examples from broadband seismic stations located in the Vienna basin, on the horst structures and in the deep depocenters, which characterize the sedimentary basin. Preliminary analysis of the high frequency (4Hz) RF data-set, show the presence of two close impedance contrasts, which presumably are related to the occurence of a thick sedimentary layer overlying a thinner limestone layer. Seismic anisotropy is recognized around the interface between sediments and limestones; the anisotropy is NE directed reflecting the NE alignment of the strike-slip fault system, which characterizes the area. The comparison of passive seismology with direct exploration improves the knowledge of the subsurface and adds new constraints on its geodynamical interpretation.

  5. Estimating the remaining potential of the Reconcavo basin, Brazil: a basin modeling and material balance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thamy C.S.D.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P.; Cuinas Filho, Elio P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)


    The existence of a petroleum system requires a number of essential elements (traps and source, reservoir and seal rocks) and processes (HC generation and migration and trap formation) besides an adequate timing among the elements and processes and a positive balance between the HC generation and losses due to (re)migration. Due to the complexity of petroleum systems dynamics, the basin modeling technique is the only one that allows the integration of all geological, geophysical and geochemical data as well as the simulation of the involved phenomena in a physically consistent way, providing an integrated view of the geologic history of the processes and elements of the petroleum system. The main objectives of this work are to show a reconstruction of the thermal and maturity evolution of the sedimentary section of the Reconcavo Basin using a multi-1D (pseudo 3D) approach, to model petroleum generation and expulsion, and the evolution of the pod(s) of source rock through time and space using the pseudo 3D approach, simulate petroleum migration along the main carrier-beds, accumulation and remigration from the potential traps. The advanced exploratory stage (mature), the geologic context (an intracratonic rift that resembles a close system) and the availability of large amounts of public data, make the Reconcavo Basin an excellent place to perform a study that can provide basis to an estimate of the remaining petroleum potential in analogous petroleum systems. (author)

  6. K-Basin gel formation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.


    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

  7. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  8. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  9. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.


    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  10. Analytical framework for River Basin Management Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Frederiksen, Pia;

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of the planning approach, and the processes and procedures, which have been followed in the preparation of the River Basin District Management Plans (RBMPs). Different countries have different policy and planning traditions and -styles. Developed...... over a range of years, institutional set-up and procedures have been adapted to these. The Water Framework Directive imposes a specific ecosystem oriented management approach, which directs planning to the fulfilment of objectives linked to specific water bodies, and an emphasis on the involvement...... of stakeholders and citizens. Institutional scholars point out that such an eco-system based approach superimposed on an existing institutional set-up for spatial planning and environmental management may create implementation problems due to institutional misfit (Moss 2004). A need for adaptation of procedures...

  11. Monitoring and design of stormwater control basins (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.; Parrish, J.H.; Jennings, M.E.


    The City of Austin, Texas, has played a pioneering role in the control of urban nonpoint source pollution by enacting watershed and stormwater ordinances, overseeing detailed monitoring programs, and improving design criteria for stormwater control methods. The effectiveness of the methods used in Austin, and perhaps in other areas of the United States, to protect urban water resources has not yet been fully established. Therefore, detailed monitoring programs capable of quantitatively determining the effectiveness of control methods and of stormwater ordinances, are required. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the City of Austin's stormwater monitoring program, including previous monitoring programs with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey, and to describe the relation of monitoring to design of stormwater control basins.

  12. Amphibian monitoring in the Atchafalaya Basin (United States)

    Waddle, Hardin


    Amphibians are a diverse group of animals that includes frogs, toads, and salamanders. They are adapted to living in a variety of habitats, but most require water for at least one life stage. Amphibians have recently become a worldwide conservation concern because of declines and extinctions even in remote protected areas previously thought to be safe from the pressures of habitat loss and degradation. Amphibians are an important part of ecosystem dynamics because they can be quite abundant and serve both as a predator of smaller organisms and as prey to a suite of vertebrate predators. Their permeable skin and aquatic life history also make them useful as indicators of ecosystem health. Since 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey has been studying the frog and toad species inhabiting the Atchafalaya Basin to monitor for population declines and to better understand how the species are potentially affected by disease, environmental contaminants, and climate change.

  13. Self-Organized Megastructures in Sedimentary Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Ortoleva


    The overall theme of the project is to develop a quantitative understanding of basin reaction/transport/mechanical (RTM) processes on a broad range of scales. Our approach starts with the development of novel formulations of the basic RTM process rate laws (e.g. rock deformation, texture dynamics, and fracturing). We then set forth algorithms for solving the resulting partial differential equations numerically. As many of the parameters in the subsurface are not well known, we embed the entire approach in a probabilistic framework through information theory. The result is a set of novel software and conceptual papers that have been the first quantitative theory of a number of fundamental phenomena that take into account the full RTM dynamics of these systems.

  14. Birds of the Shatan River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold


    Full Text Available In our study we recorded 149 species of birds belonging to 97 genera and 36 families in 15 orders. These bird species compose 32% of Mongolian registered bird fauna. Of these 149 species, 54% are passeriformes. Our observation was held in three different habitats: mountains ranging with rocks and forest (88 species, river basins (45 species, and an area around human habitation, specifically train stations outside towns (16 species. Of our studied bird species, 11 are enlisted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened species, and 144 are known as least concerned. Also 20 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 15 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species.

  15. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.


    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  16. Anatomy of the middle ordovician sevier shale basin, eastern Tennessee (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ganapathy; Walker, Kenneth R.


    The Sevier Shale basin in eastern Tennessee comprises one of the thickest clastic sequences (nearly 2500 m) of Middle Ordovician age in North America. The lower one-half of the sequence is composed of Lenoir, Whitesburg, Blockhouse and Sevier Formations, in ascending order. The sequence ranges in age from Whiterockian to lower Wilderness in North American stages. The Middle Ordovician sequence exhibits tidal flat (Mosheim Member of Lenoir Fm.), subtidal (main body of Lenoir Fm.), slope (Whitesburg Fm.), anoxic basin (Blockhouse Fm), turbidite and contourite (Sevier Fm.) facies. The Sevier basin evolved in five stages: First, a widespread marine transgression initiated carbonate-shelf deposition in the study area. Second, a major tectonic downwarping event caused the stable shelf to break and subside rapidly at a rate of 60-65 cm 1000 yrs -1, and areas of shelf facies became areas of slope and basin facies. Third, global transgressions maintained the deep anoxic conditions for nearly 10 Ma. Fourth, turbidites began to fill the basin from a westward-prograding submarine fan system. Fifth, contour currents reworked the turbidites and progressively ventilated the Sevier basin. The basin-filling process terminated with shallow-water/subaerial clastics at the end of Middle Ordovician.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger


    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Jijia river basin surface geographically fits in Moldavian Plateau, Plain of Moldavia subunit. Being lowered by 200 to 300 m compared to adjacent subunits, it appears as a depression with altitudes between 270-300 m.Through its position in the extra-Carpathian region, away from the influence of oceanic air masses, but wide open to the action of air masses of eastern, north-eastern and northern continental origin, Jijia basin receives precipitations which vary according to the average altitude differing from the northern to the southern part of the basin (564 mm in north, 529.4 mm in Iasi. A characteristic phenomenon to the climate is represented by the torrential rains in the hot season, under the form of rain showers with great intensity, fact that influences the drainage of basin rivers. Jijia hydrographic basin is characterized by frequent and sharp variations of flow volumes and levels which lead to floods and flooding throughout the basin. The high waters generally occur between March and June, when approximately 70% of the annual stock is transported. The paper analyzes the main causes and consequences of flooding in the studied area, also identifying some structural and non-structural measures of flood protection applied by authorities in Jijia hydrographic basin. As a case study, the flood recorded in Dorohoi in June 28-29, 2010 is presented.

  19. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Bransfield Basin, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J.D.; Thomas, M.A.; Anderson, J.B.


    The Bransfield basin is the youngest and best developed of a series of extensional marginal basins on the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Peninsular. Marine geophysical data collected over five seasons show that the back arc is segmented laterally into three subbasins separated by transform zones. These subbasins differ in width, depth, structural style, and seisimicity and are correlated with three different age segments of subducted sea floor. The distribution of principal sedimentary environments, identified from high-resolution seismic reflection data, and their associated lithofacies, seen in piston cores and surface sediment samples, is controlled largely by the tectonic segmentation of the basins. Terrigenous sediments prograde into the basin from the continent side, whereas sediment gravity-flow processes deliver volcaniclastic material from the arc to slope-base aprons and to fan lobes at the outlets of fiords. Organic-rich muds fill the deep basin; their proximity to submarine volcanic centers produces thermogenic hydrocarbons. Understanding the recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Bransfield basin may help refine interpretations of the older deformed marginal basin sequences of southern South America, the Scotia Arc, and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.


    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn


    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  2. Integrated Hydrosystem Modeling of the California Basin (United States)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Mallia, D.; Lin, J. C.


    The Western United States is facing one of the worst droughts on record. Climate change projections predict warmer temperatures, higher evapotranspiration rates, and no foreseeable increase in precipitation. California, in particular, has supplemented their decreased surface water supplies by mining deep groundwater. However, this supply of groundwater is limited, especially with reduced recharge. These combined factors place California's water-demanding society at dire risk. In an effort to quantify California's risks, we present a fully integrated water cycle model that captures the dynamics of the subsurface, land surface, and atmospheric domains over the entire California basin. Our water cycle model combines HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a 3-D control-volume finite element model that accommodates variably-saturated subsurface and surface water flow with evapotranspiration processes to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a 3-D finite difference nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric simulator. The two-way coupling within our model, referred to as HGS-WRF, tightly integrates the water cycling processes by passing precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from WRF to HGS, while exchanging actual evapotranspiration and soil saturation data from HGS to WRF. Furthermore, HGS-WRF implements a flexible coupling method that allows each model to use a unique mesh while maintaining mass conservation within and between domains. Our simulation replicated field measured evapotranspiration fluxes and showed a strong correlation between the soil saturation (depth to groundwater table) and latent heat fluxes. Altogether, the HGS-WRF California basin model is currently the most complete water resource simulation framework as it combines groundwater, surface water, the unsaturated zone, and the atmosphere into one coupled system.

  3. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.


    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  4. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby


    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  5. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia). Coalification and thermal history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk State Technical University, Artem str., UA-84000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Zhykalyak, M.V. [Donetsk State Regional Geological Survey, Sybirtseva str. 17, UA-84500 Artemovsk (Ukraine); Bueker, C. [Institute of Geology, and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen (Germany); Panova, E.A. [UkrNIMI, Tchelyuskintsev str. 291, UA-83121 Donetsk (Ukraine); Stephenson, R. [Research School of Sedimentary Geology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and meta-anthracite. Low-rank coals are restricted to the western and northern basin margins. Vitrinite reflectance patterns along the Gorlovka Anticline indicate syn-deformational coalification. Vitrinite reflectance isolines are displaced along thrusts, clear evidence that main coalification predates late faulting. 1-D and 2-D numerical models were applied to elucidate the factors that control coalification in the western Donets Basin (Krasnoarmeisk Monocline, Kalmius-Torets Depression, South Syncline). The models indicate that the depth of the seams and the heat flow during maximum (Permian) burial are the most important parameters. The thickness of late Carboniferous and Permian rocks increased from the southwestern basin margin towards the basin center. Permian erosion along the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and in the Kalmius-Torets Depression was on the order of 2-3 km. More rocks were eroded southeast of the Donetsk-Kadievka Fault Zone (4-5 km). Heat flow during maximum burial was in the range of 40-75 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow in the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the Kalmius-Torets Depression increased in a northeastward direction from 40 to 55 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow at the eastern edge of the Kalmius-Torets Depression and in the South Syncline was in the range of 60-75 mW/m{sup 2} and increased towards the southeast. The resulting coalification pattern in this area was overprinted by thermal events in the northern Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the South Syncline. These are probably related to (Permian?) magmatic intrusions. Coked coal occurs at the contact to presumed Permian sills and dikes southwest of Donetsk.

  7. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum potential, Ghadames basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emme, J.J. (Anadarko Algeria Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Sunderland, B.L. (Anadarko Petroleum Corp., Houston, TX (United States))


    The Ghadames basin in east-central Algeria extends over 65,000 km{sup 2} (25,000 mi{sup 2}), of which 90% is covered by dunes of the eastern Erg. This intracratonic basin consists of up to 6000 m (20,000 ft) of dominantly clastic Paleozoic through Mesozoic strata. The Ghadames basin is part of a larger, composite basin complex (Ilizzi-Ghadames-Triassic basins) where Paleozoic strata have been truncated during a Hercynian erosional event and subsequently overlain by a northward-thickening wedge of Mesozoic sediments. Major reservoir rocks include Triassic sandstones that produce oil, gas, and condensate in the western Ghadames basin, Siluro-Devonian sandstones that produce mostly oil in the shallower Ilizzi basin to the south, and Cambro-Ordovician orthoquartzites that produce oil at Hassi Messaoud to the northwest. Organic shales of the Silurian and Middle-Upper Devonian are considered primary source rocks. Paleozoic shales and Triassic evaporite/red bed sequences act as seals for hydrocarbon accumulations. The central Ghadames basin is underexplored, with less than one wildcat well/1700 km{sup 2} (one well/420,000 ac). Recent Devonian and Triassic oil discoveries below 3500 m (11,500 ft) indicate that deep oil potential exists. Exploration to date has concentrated on structural traps. Subcrop and facies trends indicate that potential for giant stratigraphic or combination traps exists for both Siluro-Devonian and Triassic intervals. Modern seismic acquisition and processing techniques in high dune areas can be used to successfully identify critical unconformity-bound sequences with significant stratigraphic trap potential. Advances in seismic and drilling technology combined with creative exploration should result in major petroleum discoveries in the Ghadames basin.

  8. Water balance of the Lepenci river basin, Kosova (United States)

    Osmanaj, L.; Avdullahi, S.


    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Kosova has four water basins, such as the Basin of river Drini i Bardhe, Ibri, Morava e Binqes and Lepenci. The Basin of river Lepenci is located in South-eastern part of Kosova with surface of 650 km2, belongs to Axios river basin discharging into Aegean Sea. The annual rainfall is 670-1.000 mm and specific runoff 8 - 20 l/s/km2. There are also steep mountains in this area. In this case study we have calculate the water balance of the river Lepenc Basin. The Basin of river Lepenc we have divided in to 3 catchments: of Nerodima river, and upper and lower part of river Lepenci. This basin is covered by three municipalities such as municipality of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Shterpc. The data on precipitation are obtained from three metering stations, such as the metering station of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Jazhnice. The obtained records are elaborated. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. In a basin of river Lepenci we have four stations for measuring the discharges and levels: in Ferizaj, and Kaçanik - Nerodime river and in Hani i Elezit - Lepenc river. The river basin Lepenc has two inflowing points, where are Lepenci river in the border with the FYR of Macedonia and Sazli village near Ferizaj. Key works: precipitation, evaporation, flow, river, discharges,

  9. Diachronous seawater retreat from the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Zhiliang; Fu, Bihong; Li, Shihu


    In contrast to the present hyper-arid inland basin surrounded by the high mountains of Central Asia, the western Tarim Basin was once connected with the Tajik Basin at least in the late Eocene, when an epicontinental sea extended from the western Tarim Basin to Europe. Western Tarim is a key site fo

  10. Topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj Basins, Mercury: Implications for Lithospheric Flexure (United States)

    Andre, S. L.; Watters, T. R.


    Interior structures of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj, are characterized using topography derived from Mariner 10 stereo images. The topography of the two mercurian basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins, such as Serenitatis. In addition to topography, the tectonic features within Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are compared to those of lunar basins. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins exhibit little evidence of deformation compared to Caloris basin and their lunar counterparts. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben are characteristic of many lunar basins and are thought to result from lithospheric flexure in response to the superisostatic load from the mare basalts. The presence of wrinkle ridges in the floor of Caloris basin suggests that the basin interior has undergone compression, possibly the result of subsidence of the interior fill. Because both Beethoven and Tolstoj lack basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben, we suggest that either Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or the basin fill material provides little density contrast and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere. Compositional evidence from color-derived parameter images of Tolstoj basin indicates that the basin fill has an FeO abundance comparable to that of average mercurian crust. This suggests that the basin fill has a similar density to the surrounding crustal material and that the load may be insufficient to induce flexure.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Experiments were conducted to characterize forced hydraulic jumps in stilling basins for enforced cases due to tail water level or dam site arrangement and construction.The case with a single tall sill was simulated in a horizontal flume downstream of a sluice gate.Results of experiments are compared with the classical hydraulic jump,and significant effect of tall sill on dissipation of energy in shorter distance was confirmed.Furthermore,the generated jumps were classified based on the ratio of sill height to basin length,and a simple design criterion was proposed to estimate the basin length for a desired jump and particular inflow.

  12. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)


    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  13. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong


    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  14. Flower structures in the Ales coal basin - structural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genna, A.; Debriette, P.J. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France). Dept. de Geologie)


    The presence of flower structures in the Stephanian Ales (coal) basin has led the authors propose a new formation model for the basin, based on reverse strike-slip movement along N-S to NW-SE striking basement faults. This model confirms, through structural arguments, the recent questioning of the traditional explanation of the basin structure as thrust sheets. Such compressive strike-slip structures are not taken into account by the model of late Hercynian crustal extension in the French Massif Central.

  15. A seismic gap at the central Vienna Basin Transfer Fault (Vienna Basin, Austria)? (United States)

    Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt


    The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault (VBTF), a NNE-SSW striking left-lateral strike-slip fault, is the dominant active tectonic structure within the Vienna Basin (Austria), a pull-apart basin between the Alps and the Carpathians. Moderate seismicity (Imax/Mmax = 8-9/5.7) is focused along the southern and northern tips of the VBTF, whereas there are almost no earthquake records during the last ~ 500 years for the central part of the basin, the so-called Lassee segment close to the cities of Vienna (Austria) and Bratislava (Slovakia). Therefore, seismic slip rates calculated from cumulative scalar seismic moments for different segments along the fault are quite heterogeneous, varying from 0.5-1.1 mm/a at the southern and northern tips to the apparently seismically locked Lassee segment. Geological and morphological data, however, document horizontal Quaternary slip rates of 1-2 mm/a for the VBTF. In order to address the ambiguity between long-term and short-term slip rates at the Lassee segment, we concentrated on the tectonically controlled western margin of a Pleistocene Danube terrace (200-300 ka), where the VBTF has produced a ~ 25 m high scarp. Research presented here include interpretation of a LIDAR-based DEM, and paleoseismological trenching. Results from 3D trenching show several faults within the trenches dissecting the Pleistocene Danube gravel terrace. Based on displaced layers, tension cracks and colluvial wedges, at least 3 major earthquakes since ~ 20 ka can be determined, with the most recent one occurring after ~ 2500 years BP and reaching almost the present-day surface. In addition, channels from a small stream crossing the fault almost perpendicular are horizontally offset by ~ 2 m. Considering this offset being the result of the last earthquake, slip along the VBTF seem to be accomodated by earthquakes with estimated magnitudes of ~ 7 and return periods of several thousend years. Therefore, the apparently seismically locked Lassee segment might

  16. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel


    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and

  17. Lower crustal flow and the role of shear in basin subsidence: An example from the Dead Sea basin (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, A.; ten Brink, U.


    We interpret large-scale subsidence (5-6 km depth) with little attendant brittle deformation in the southern Dead Sea basin, a large pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform plate boundary, to indicate lower crustal thinning due to lower crustal flow. Along-axis flow within the lower crust could be induced by the reduction of overburden pressure in the central Dead Sea basin, where brittle extensional deformation is observed. Using a channel flow approximation, we estimate that lower crustal flow would occur within the time frame of basin subsidence if the viscosity is ??? 7 ?? 1019 - 1 ?? 1021 Pa s, a value compatible with the normal heat flow in the region. Lower crustal viscosity due to the strain rate associated with basin extension is estimated to be similar to or smaller than the viscosity required for a channel flow. However, the viscosity under the basin may be reduced to 5 ?? 1017 - 5 ?? 1019 Pa s by the enhanced strain rate due to lateral shear along the transform plate boundary. Thus, lower crustal flow facilitated by shear may be a viable mechanism to enlarge basins and modify other topographic features even in the absence of underlying thermal anomalies. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tectonic evolution of Tethyan tectonic field, formation of Northern Margin basin and explorative perspective of natural gas in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analyzing the characteristics of the Tethyan tectonic field, the authors think that the Tethyan tectonic field underwent three evolutional stages: closing of Paleo-Tethys and rifting of Neo-Tethys from early Permian to late Triassic, subduction of Neo-Tethys and collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasia plate from Jurassic to early of low Tertiary, and collision between the Arab plate and the Eurasia plate and the A-type subduction of Indian plate from late of low Tertiary to the present. Combining the evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt with the characteristics of the Northern Margin basin, it is suggested that the sedimentary and tectonic characteristics and types of the Northern Mar-gin basin are controlled by the formation and evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt and the ingression of Tethys. The evolution of Northern Margin basin can be divided into three development stages: back-arc foreland basin from late Permian to Triassic, the back-arc fault subsidence and depression from Jurassic to the early of low Tertiary, and the reactive foreland basin from the late of low Tertiary to the present. The Northern Margin basin in the Tethyan tectonic field is an important region for natural gas accumulation, and the Tarim Basin is a part of this region.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman


    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  20. The Politics of Model Maintenance: The Murray Darling and Brantas River Basins Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Bhat


    Full Text Available This paper explores river basin management in two highly developed basins whose basin governance arrangements are currently undergoing transition: the Murray-Darling basin of Australia and the Brantas basin of Indonesia. Though basin-scale management has been longstanding in both of these cases and the respective models for carrying out integrated river basin management have been considered noteworthy for other countries looking to develop basin institutions, these basin-level arrangements are under flux. This paper indicates some of the difficulties that exist for even widely favoured 'textbook' cases to maintain institutional efficacy within their given shifting contexts. This paper explores drivers behind policy reform and change in scale at which authority is held, concluding with a discussion of the nature of institutional transition given political realities in these basins.

  1. Stratigraphic responses to a major tectonic event in a foreland basin: the Ecuadorian Oriente Basin from Eocene to Oligocene times (United States)

    Christophoul, Frédéric; Baby, Patrice; Dávila, Celso


    The Eocene to Oligocene sediments of the Ecuadorian Oriente Basin record two kinds of second-order stratigraphic response to the tectonic evolution. Lower Eocene shows evidences of local scale syntectonic deposits. This tectonic activity can be related to right lateral convergent movements inverting pre-cretaceous extensional structures. Upper Eocene and Oligocene sediments are integrated as the expression of an isostatic rebound characterizing a basin scale syntectonic deposition. This response is evidenced by a reciprocal architecture of the depositional sequences identified in the sedimentary formations. These data have allowed us to propose a new geodynamic model for the Paleogene evolution of the Oriente Basin.

  2. Platform sedimentation and collapse in a carbonate-dominated margin of a foreland basin (Jaca basin, Eocene, southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Barnolas, Antonio; Teixell, Antonio


    The Eocene Jaca basin is a foreland basin with well-exposed carbonate platforms in the distal margin. This margin underwent alternating periods of stable platform growth and platform drowning. Periods of drowning were accompanied by large-scale collapses with generation of shelf-edge truncations and resedimentation of carbonate megabreccias into a terrigenous turbiditic trough. These features caused a stepped retreat of the platforms and are related to episodic variations of tectonic loading in the hinterland and correlative flexural bending of the distal basin.

  3. Extensional Basins in a Convergent Margin: Oligocene-Early Miocene Salar de Atacama and Calama basins, Central Andes (United States)

    Jordan, T. E.; Mpodozis, C.; Blanco, N.; Pananont, P.; Dávila, F.


    The Salar de Atacama Basin (SdAB) is the largest and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile, accumulating nonmarine sediment from Cretaceous to modern times. Its northwestern neighbor, the Calama, was a Cenozoic basin. Although SdAB was in the backarc zone early in the Andean orogeny, both are now forearc basins. Others demonstrated that the basins overlie anomalously cold, strong, and dense crust and lithosphere. We focus on an extensional Oligocene basin stage. Interpretation of the basin-controlling faults is based on seismic reflection studies supported by field relations. The SdAB is limited to the west by the NNE-trending, steeply east-dipping, Paciencia Fault (PF). The PF experienced 5-7 km of down-to-the-east offset during the Oligocene-early Miocene. Syntectonic strata, an arid succession of siliciclastics and evaporites, are asymmetric, with thicknesses of 5000 m and abundant halite adjacent to the PF, and of 1000 m with fine detrital clastic strata 25 km farther east. Relations in conglomeratic growth strata that overlap the PF also demonstrate normal displacement during sediment accumulation. Seismic data reveal that a buried normal fault with 1-1.5 km down-to-the-east displacement limits the western margin of the Oligocene-Miocene Calama siliciclastic basin fill. Regionally, Oligocene-early Miocene margin-parallel strike-slip deformation dominated northwest of the basins, contributing sinistral offset (West Fissure Fault) to the northern segment of the long-lived Domeyko Fault System. The new SdAB and Calama data reveal that a 20,000 km2 domain of extensional basins existed within the dominantly strike-slip region. Even if PF and the fault in the Calama Basin were transtensional, the proportion of extension to strike-slip displacement is much greater in these basins than elsewhere in northern Chile. Further study is required to understand what combination of factors caused this kinematic distinction as well as delayed the onset of CVZ

  4. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Chempalayil, S.P.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.

    of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from...

  5. Diarrhoeal disease outbreak in a rural area of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana R Hiremath


    Full Text Available Background: Acute diarrhoea is the passage of 3 or more loose or watery stools in the past 24 hours with or without dehydration. Owing to WASH strategy (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene the burden of diarrheal diseases has seen a tremendous decline over the past 2 decades. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Objectives: 1. To document the factors responsible for the outbreak. 2. To provide recommendations for prevention and control of such outbreaks in future. Methods: After receiving verbal information from district office regarding outbreak of diarrhoeal disease (cholera in a town of Bijapur district, we independently conducted a cross sectional study in the affected area and collected information regarding no. of people affected since the outbreak, their age and sex distribution. A total of 3802 people were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire on 28th and 29th July, 2012. We also conducted environmental investigation regarding the source of contamination and collected 2 water samples from drinking water source. Results: All the cases were clustered in the five streets, which were consuming water from contaminated two water tanks. A total of 121 cases of diarrhoea were identified affecting 3.18% of the population. Attack rate of cholera was highest (4.5% in 25-34 years age group followed by 4.22% in 15-24 years age group. Attack rates was higher among females (3.4% compared to males (2.9%. Laboratory report stated that water samples were unfit for drinking purpose. V. Cholera (Ogawa serotype was isolated from water sample. Conclusion: Consumption of contaminated water from a newly dug bore-well had led to the diarrhea outbreak. Lack of sanitation and hygiene had worsened the situation.

  6. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnavalli N. Kumara


    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  7. Diarrhoeal disease outbreak in a rural area of Karnataka


    Bhavana R Hiremath; Shashank K J


    Background: Acute diarrhoea is the passage of 3 or more loose or watery stools in the past 24 hours with or without dehydration. Owing to WASH strategy (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) the burden of diarrheal diseases has seen a tremendous decline over the past 2 decades. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Objectives: 1. To document the factors responsible for the outbreak. 2. To provide recommendations...

  8. GIS analysis for the marine environmental data off Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Amit, V.S.

    like graphs, query system for the users. The most significant interfaces are the GIS based Map-query and Contour visualization. The interfaces are user-friendly and oriented towards bridging the gap between user's knowledge and the technical knowledge...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugali. N. M


    Full Text Available Physicochemical analysis such as temperature, pH, Total hardness, Chloride, fluoride, iron, Total Alkalinity, Nitrate, Nitrite and sulfate of bore wells, drinking water has been carried out from twenty sampling stations of Bagalkot territory area, India during March 2013 and August 2013 in order to assess water quality index.

  10. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha S


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIMS: The main aims were to assess the incidence of prehy pertension amongst the medical students in our institution with its correl ation with increasing Body Mass Index(BMI & to see if there was any gender variation. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 500 medical students consented to participate in this study, the ir BP reading were recorded after a demographic questionnaire to assess their socioecono mic status & BMI. RESULTS: 277 students (55.4% were prehypertensives out of which 145(29% s tudents had a high SBP & 132(26.4% had high DBP. Amongst the 227 students, 33.2% had b oth high SBP & DBP out of which 64.1% were boys & 35.9% were girls. In the entire study po pulation, out of the 500 students, 25% of the boys & 40% of the girls were overweight. CONCLUSIONS: In our centre we had more than 50% of the study group in the prehypertensive range wi th a higher incidence amongst boys & about 40% of the girls were overweight. These figur es are alarming & hence a followup study is required for further analysis.

  12. Narrative report Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: 1967 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by...

  13. Columbia River Basin Daily MACA-VIC Results (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the Columbia Basin in the United States at 1/16-deg resolution utilizing 9...

  14. Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: 1997 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rainwater Basin WMD outlines accomplishments during the 1997 fiscal year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  15. Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: 2001 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rainwater Basin WMD outlines accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. VT Impervious Surfaces for the Lake Champlain Basin - 2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) High-resolution impervious surfaces dataset for the Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont and New York. Two impervious classes were mapped: (1)...

  17. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  18. Periodic points in the intersection of immediate attracting basins boundaries


    Rossetti, Bastien


    We give sufficient conditions under which the set of eventually periodic points in the intersection of immediate attracting basins boundaries is non-empty. We give other conditions under which this set is dense in the intersection.

  19. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  20. Multiple Refuge Bat Inventory: Great Basin & Great Northern LCC (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was a cooperative project between the Upper Columbia Basin Network (UCBN) of the National Park Service I&M Program, USFWS Region 1 I&M Program (R1...

  1. Narrative report Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: 1966 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  2. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2012 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye, among other...

  3. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  4. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  5. Narrative report Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: 1968 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  6. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  7. Aerial photo mosaic of the Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1967 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  8. By lithology Zbruch deposits (Lower Sarmatian Nikopol manganese ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich V.V.


    Full Text Available Based on lithologic-paleogeographic study Zbruch layers of Nikopol manganese ore Basin sediments described lithological and genetic types of rocks and facies conditions of formation of deposits.

  9. North Park Basin, Colorado, for 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the North Park coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  10. Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources), Louisiana Study (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources), Louisiana, study is being conducted in response to resolutions adopted by the United States Senate and House of...

  11. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2014 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye (Secale cereale), among...

  12. The Portland Basin: A (big) river runs through it (United States)

    Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Wells, Ray E.; Madin, Ian P.


    Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, USA, lies within a small Neogene to Holocene basin in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system. Although the basin owes its existence and structural development to its convergent-margin tectonic setting, the stratigraphic architecture of basin-fill deposits chiefly reflects its physiographic position along the lower reaches of the continental-scale Columbia River system. As a result of this globally unique setting, the basin preserves a complex record of aggradation and incision in response to distant as well as local tectonic, volcanic, and climatic events. Voluminous flood basalts, continental and locally derived sediment and volcanic debris, and catastrophic flood deposits all accumulated in an area influenced by contemporaneous tectonic deformation and variations in regional and local base level.

  13. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin


    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  14. Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  15. California Basin Characterization Model Downscaled Climate and Hydrology (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Basin Characterization Model (CA-BCM 2014) dataset provides historical and projected climate and hydrologic surfaces for the region that encompasses...

  16. Snake River Plain Basin-fill aquifer system (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Snake River Plain aquifer system, which includes both the basaltic and basin-fill aquifers. This dataset does not...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the investigation of basin peat sorption capacity in Tomsk field. Experimental results showed the thermal treatment efficiency of sorbent production for oil spill response.

  18. 12 Blocks Open in North west China's Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PetroChina Foreign Cooperation Administration Depa


    @@ After having opened up for 20 years, the field of oil/gas exploration and development in China is witnessing a new round of high tide to attract foreign investment.PetroChina, China's biggest oil/gas producer and supplier,decided to offer 12 blocks totaling an acreage of 110, in Tarim Basin to players of the industry globally.The project is the biggest oil/gas deal in China aiming at foreign cooperation for approximately 12 years, in which the 12 blocks that will be offered located mainly in southwestern, central and eastern Tarim Basin. It will enable PetroChina to combine its experience and cognition on the geological condition of Tarim Basin with the updated prospecting concept and advanced prospecting technique in the world, improve the proved degree of oil and gas resources in Tarim Basin and achieve a big breakthrough in oil and gas exploration.

  19. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines.

  20. Evidence for hydrothermal activity in the Andaman Backarc Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.; Nair, R.R.

    Multibeam bathymetric, magnetic, gravity and seismic surveys revealed a complex morphotectonic fabric of the Andaman Backare Basin with a spreading ridge, several seamounts and faults. The ridge trending SW-NE direction is segmented and shows...

  1. Successful International Symposium on Oil & Gas Exploration in Lacustrine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Katz


    @@ A Joint American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)-Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau research symposium entitled "Lacustrine Basin Exploration in China and Southeast Asia" was held in Dongying City,People's Republic of China, October 16-20, 1995.

  2. Land Protection Plan: Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District Expansion (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan (LLP) describes the priorities for acquiring additional acres within the boundary of the Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District. The...

  3. Sedimentary charateristics and hydrocarbon accumulation in Northeast Sichuan basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianming LI; Xiling WU; Rufeng LI; Liangjie TANG; Lei LI


    Northeast Sichuan basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in the northern margin of the Yangtze plate which has a complex tectonic background and hydrocarbon accumulation history.By means of the analysis method of wave processes,major cycles of sedimentary wave process in this basin have been studied.The results show that there are five-order cycles corresponding to 760,220,100,35 and 20 Ma respectively,two first-order sedimentary cycles (220 Ma) and four secondorder sedimentary cycles (100 Ma).The authors find that the second-order sedimentary cycles are well matched with reservoir formation cycles through studying the relationship between second-order sedimentary cycles and reservoir formation cycles,and divide three reservoir formation cycles in this basin.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of Yinggehai Basin through Analogue Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Yinggehai basin lies in the northwestern shelf of the South China Sea. The maximum depth of the Cenozoic sediments is 17 km. Present gas exploration was mainly in the Neogene strata. But it is estimated that the Paleoceue sediments (~8 km in thickness) has productive potential.So research on the Paleogene rifting structure will greatly enlarge the exploration area. 3D scaled sandbox is the analogue model for the Yinggehai basin. Comparing modeling with the basin by the positions and movement of depocenters, the geometric similarity, we aim to summarize the dynamic situation of Yinggehai basin during the rifting stage and to cast an objective prediction on the structures in the areas without data.

  5. [August 1992 trip report : Kirwin NWR and Rainwater Basin WMD (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report evaluates the current years farming and grazing results for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge and Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District.

  6. Waterfowl botulism in the Tulare Lake Basin California 1969 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The possibility of a major outbreak of waterfowl botulism in the Tulare Lake Basin of Kern and Kings County, California was anticipated during the summer and fall of...

  7. Runoff Simulation of Shitoukoumen Reservoir Basin Based on SWAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Miao; LI; Hong-yan; LIU; Tie-juan; RU; Shi-rong


    [Objective]The study aimed to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin by using SWAT model. [Method] Based on DEM elevation, land use type, soil type and hydrometeorological data, SWAT model, a distributed hydrological model was established to simulate the monthly runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the years 2006 and 2010 were chosen as the calibration and validation period respectively. [Result] The simulation results indicated that SWAT model could be used to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the simulation effect was good. However, the response of the model to local rainstorm was not obvious, so that the actual runoff in June and July of 2010 was abnormally higher than the simulation value. [Conclusion] The research could provide theoretical references for the plan and management of water resources in Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin in future.

  8. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  9. Buried nodules and associated sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Dutta, P.

    Buried nodules from siliceous sediments in the central Indian Basin are morphologically variable and mineralogically consist of d-MnO2 incipient todorokite. Compositionally they are weakly diagenetic. The sediment coarse fractions ( 63 mu m...

  10. New occurrences of Australasian microtektites in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    Thirty-three microtektites have been recovered from four different sites in the Central Indian Basin. Based on their physical properties, geographical occurrence and chemical composition, they are identified as belonging to the Australasian tektite...

  11. Orogenic Thrust Belt, Gulf of Mexico Basin [gcthrustbg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide the general location of the Ouachita and Appalachian structural fronts slightly modified from Plate 4, Natural resources, Gulf of Mexico Basin...

  12. Abundance of lead shot in the Rainwater Basins of Nebraska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rainwater Basin (RWB) area encompasses over 4,200 square miles within 17 counties of southcentral Nebraska. Within the RWB area, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  13. Simplified procedure for determining of drop and stilling basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Vatankhah


    Full Text Available Drops are used to effectively dissipate the surplus energy of the water flow. A closed conduit drop conveys water and stills it at its downstream. I-type pipe drop is one kind of the closed conduit drops which is used in irrigation networks as a typical hydraulic structure. Sump elevation is an important design parameter for I-type pipe drop. Similarly, in supercritical flow structures, such as open channel chutes, determination of stilling basin invert elevation is very important. At present, these key design parameters are determined by the momentum and energy equations using tedious trial-and-error procedure. In this study, square conduit drop, pipe drop, and rectangular stilling basin are considered, and three explicit equations have been developed by (multiple nonlinear regression technique to determine the sump and stilling basin invert elevations. Being very simple and accurate, these equations can be easily used to design the closed conduit drops and stilling basins by hydraulic engineers.

  14. Evaluation of drought regimes and impacts in the Limpopo basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Alemaw


    Full Text Available Drought is a common phenomenon in the Limpopo River basin. In essence, droughts are long–term hydro-meteorological events affecting vast regions and causing significant non-structural damages. In the interest of riparian states' joint integrated water resources development and management of the Limpopo basin, inter regional drought severity and its impacts should be understood. The study focussed on case studies in the basin which is subdivided into four homogeneous regions owing to topographic and climate variations based on the previous work of the same authors. Using the medium range time series of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI as an indicator of drought, for each homogeneous region monthly and annual Severity-Area-Frequency (SAF curves and maps of probability of drought occurrence were constructed. The results indicated localized severe droughts in higher frequencies, while only moderate to severe low frequency droughts may spread over wider areas in the basin. The region-level Drought-Severity Indices can be used as indicators for planning localized interventions and drought mitigation efforts in the basin. The approach can also be used to develop improved drought indicators, to assess the relationship between drought hazard and vulnerability and to enhance the performance of methods currently used for drought forecasting. Results on the meteorological drought linkage with hydrological and vegetation or agricultural drought indices are presented as means of validation of the specific drought regimes and their localized impact in each homogeneous region. In general, this preliminary investigation reveals that the western part of the basin will face a higher risk of drought when compared to other regions of the Limpopo basin in terms of the medium-term drought. The Limpopo basin is water stressed and livelihood challenges remain at large, thus impacts of droughts and related resilience options should be taken into account in the

  15. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL


    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.


    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  17. Sandstone petrofacies in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin


    Arribas, J.; Ochoa, M; R Mas; Arribas, Mª E.; González-Acebrón, L.


    [EN] During the most active rifting stages in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin (Cameros Basin and Aragonese Branch of the Iberian Range), thick sequences of continental clastic deposits were generated. Sandstone records from Rift cycle 1 (Permo-Triassic) and Rift cycle 2 (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) show similarities in composition. Based on the most recent data, this paper describes sandstone petrofacies developed during both rifting periods. Six petrofacies can be d...

  18. Sandstone petrofacies in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin


    Arribas Mocoroa, José; Ochoa, M; Mas Mayoral, José Ramón; Arribas Mocoroa, María Eugenia; González-Acebrón, L.


    During the most active rifting stages in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin (Cameros Basin and Aragonese Branch of the Iberian Range), thick sequences of continental clastic deposits were generated. Sandstone records from Rift cycle 1 (Permo-Triassic) and Rift cycle 2 (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) show similarities in composition. Based on the most recent data, this paper describes sandstone petrofacies developed during both rifting periods. Six petrofacies can be distinguishe...

  19. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado (United States)

    Hemborg, H. Thomas


    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  20. Sampling South Pole-Aitken Basin: The Moonrise Approach (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Shearer, C. K.; Cohen, B. A.


    The South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is the largest of the giant impact basins in the inner Solar System, and its location on Earth s Moon makes it the most accessible. Exploration of SPA through direct collection and analysis of representative materials addresses issues as fundamental as the characteristics of the chemical reservoir from which the Moon originated, early differentiation and production of crust and development of global asymmetry, relationships between magmatic activity and internal thermal evolution, and effects of giant impact events on the terrestrial planets. Owing to its great size and superposition relationships with other lunar impact basins, SPA is the oldest and as such anchors the lunar chronology. Moreover, numerous large impact craters and basins are contained within it such that materials (rocks) of the SPA basin contain a record of the early impact chronology, one less likely to have been affected by the large, late nearside basins (e.g., Imbrium). Understanding the early basin chronology is key to deciphering the sequence and effects of early giant impact bombardment of the inner Solar System. That record exists on the Moon, and materials of the SPA basin will allow us to read that record. Knowledge of the early bombardment history will test - and may reshape - a key paradigm relating to early Solar System evolution. Did the planets form with the alignment of today, or was there a major reorientation of the giant planets that led to destabilization of asteroid orbits, and a cataclysmic bombardment of the inner Solar System hundreds of millions of years after accretion of the planets? Implications include understanding environments for early life-supporting habitats on Earth and Mars, and relationships to new observations of extra-solar planetary systems.