Chwaszczewski, S. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs.
Combustion technologies coal-mule fuels create a number of new possibilities for organising combustion processes so that they fulfil contemporary requirements (e.g., in terms of the environment protection- related issues). The paper describes the problems of coal-mule fuel combustion that have acquired a wider significance as the quality requirements of coal combustion in power plants have been growing. Coal mines that want to fulfill expectations of power industry workers have been forced to develop and modernize plants of coal wet cleaning. It all results in the growing amount of waste arising in the process of coal wet cleaning which contains smaller and smaller coal undersizes. In this situation the concept of direct combustion of the above mentioned waste and their co-combustion with other fuels, coal and biomass, seems to be attractive. Biomass is one from the most promising sources of renewable energy. The main aim of the paper is to identify the mechanism and kinetics of combustion of coal-mule fuels and their co- -combustion with coal and biomass in the briquettes form based on extensive experimental research in air. Niekorzystny bilans paliwowy naszego kraju powoduje nadmierne obciążenie środowiska, wywołane emisją CO2, NOx, SO2 i pyłów, a także powiększeniem powierzchni koniecznych na składowanie wciąż narastających stałych odpadów paleniskowych. Górnictwo, od którego energetyka oczekuje coraz lepszego paliwa, musi stosować głębsze wzbogacanie węgla. Powoduje to ciągłą produkcję odpadów w postaci mułów poflotacyjnych. Najlepszą metodą utylizacji tych mułów jest ich spalanie w postaci zawiesin, a także ich współspalanie z innymi paliwami, węglem czy biomasą. Biomasa jest bowiem jednym z najbardziej obiecujących źródeł OZE, a jej współspalanie z paliwami węglowymi znajduje w ostatnich latach coraz szersze zastosowanie zarówno w kraju, jak i na świecie. W tej sytuacji istotne jest prowadzenie badań naukowych