WorldWideScience

Sample records for bewo choriocarcinoma cells

  1. Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Rikke N; Megnekou, Rosette; Lundquist, Maja;

    2006-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing pregnancy-associated malaria express pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)). We report here that VSA(PAM)-expressing patient isolates adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo and that the BeWo line can...

  2. Progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB differentially regulate expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honggang; Lee, Eun-Woo; Zhou, Lin; Leung, Peter C K; Ross, Douglas D; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Mao, Qingcheng

    2008-03-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) plays a significant role in drug disposition and in conferring multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol and progesterone can affect BCRP expression in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which BCRP expression in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells is regulated by progesterone. Transfection of the progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB resulted in a similarly increased expression of PRA and PRB, respectively. However, progesterone significantly increased BCRP expression and activity only in PRB-transfected cells. This stimulatory effect of progesterone was abrogated by the PR antagonist mifepristone (RU-486). Consistently, transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter was induced 2- to 6-fold by 10(-8) to 10(-5) M progesterone in PRB-transfected cells. Progesterone had little effect on BCRP expression and activity and transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter in PRA-transfected cells; however, cotransfection of PRA and PRB significantly decreased the progesterone-response compared with that in cells transfected with only PRB. Mutations in a novel progesterone response element (PRE) identified between -243 to -115 bp of the BCRP promoter region significantly attenuated the progesterone-response in PRB-transfected cells, and deletion of the PRE nearly completely abrogated the progesterone effect. Specific binding of both PRA and PRB to the BCRP promoter through the identified PRE was confirmed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Collectively, progesterone induces BCRP expression in BeWo cells via PRB but not PRA. PRA represses the PRB activity. Thus, PRA and PRB differentially regulate BCRP expression in BeWo cells.

  3. Contributions of phosphorylation to regulation of OCTN2 uptake of carnitine are minimal in BeWo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytting, Erik; Audus, Kenneth L

    2008-02-01

    Physiological functions of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the placenta include transporting essential nutrients from the maternal to fetal circulations. OCTN2 transports carnitine with high affinity, and the transport of several drugs has also been shown to be mediated by this transporter. In this work, the role of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanisms in regulating OCTN2 was investigated by observing the effects of various activators and inhibitors of kinases and phosphatases on the uptake of carnitine in BeWo cells, a human choriocarcinoma trophoblast cell line frequently used as an in vitro model of the rate-limiting barrier for maternal-fetal exchange. Preincubation with genistein resulted in significant increases in both alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and carnitine uptake. Levamisole, an ALP inhibitor, caused a more substantial decrease in carnitine uptake than expected from its corresponding decrease in ALP activity. It was determined that levamisole competitively inhibits carnitine uptake, with a K(i) value of 1.01+/-0.05mM, and this effect has a greater role in decreasing carnitine uptake than any indirect effects of ALP inhibition upon OCTN2 function. Progesterone also competitively inhibited carnitine uptake (K(i)=48.6+/-5.0muM), but had no effect on ALP activity in BeWo cells. PMID:17977516

  4. FBI-1 and choriocarcinoma cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Man-keung; 張文強

    2013-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes a spectrum of diseases that involve abnormal growth of trophoblastic cells inside the uterus. It can range from benign hydatidiform moles (HM) to frankly malignant choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) or epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT).GTD are considered curable if the patient is correctly diagnosed and receive appropriate treatment during the early stage of the disease. About 15% -30% of hydatidiform moles will...

  5. Forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells stimulates increased tumor growth in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ralf; Borges, Marcus; Kadyrov, Mamed

    2011-05-01

    Invasiveness of BeWo cells has been assessed in a variety of assay systems including matrigel and mouse. At the same time BeWo cells are mostly used as model system for trophoblast fusion. Here we aimed to test the properties of BeWo cells in a combined approach. We forced BeWo cells to differentiate by culturing the cells in the presence of forskolin and then used these cells for invasion assays on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey. The chorioallantoic membranes of turkey eggs were incubated with medium containing forskolin, BeWo cells cultured in medium alone, BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and washed, and BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and used directly for application. Suspensions were applied onto ten CAM per condition. For local tumor formation eggs were checked for tumor development every 24h macroscopically for up to 12 days and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 18 and Ki-67 were used for further analysis. Forskolin alone did not have any deleterious effect on the CAM. When the CAM was incubated with BeWo cells cultured in medium 40% of the eggs developed a macroscopically visible tumor. BeWo cells stimulated with forskolin and washed induced tumor growth in 50% of the eggs, while forskolin stimulated BeWo cells applied directly onto the CAM induced tumor growth in 70% of the eggs. Forced differentiation of BeWo cells by forskolin may lead to syncytial fusion in a plastic culture dish. Under the conditions used here, i.e. in direct contact to a living tissue, forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells leads to an increase in tumor formation in the CAM. Thus BeWo cells may use signaling pathways to decide for both differentiation pathways similar to primary trophoblast depending on the environment.

  6. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-meng [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hong-xi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao, Zhi-ying, E-mail: gaozy301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Yao, Yuan-qing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion.

  7. Heme-mediated apoptosis and fusion damage in BeWo trophoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Hassana, Salifu; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) is a complication associated with malaria infection during pregnancy that often leads to abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Increased levels of circulating free heme, a by-product of Plasmodium-damaged erythrocytes, is a major contributor to inflammation, tissue damage and loss of blood brain barrier integrity associated with fatal experimental cerebral malaria. However, the role of heme in PM remains unknown. Proliferation and apoptosis of trophoblasts and fusion of the mononucleated state to the syncytial state are of major importance to a successful pregnancy. In the present study, we examined the effects of heme on the viability and fusion of a trophoblast-derived cell line (BeWo). Results indicate that heme induces apoptosis in BeWo cells by activation of the STAT3/caspase-3/PARP signaling pathway. In the presence of forskolin, which triggers trophoblast fusion, heme inhibits BeWo cell fusion through activation of STAT3. Understanding the effects of free plasma heme in pregnant women either due to malaria, sickle cell disease or other hemolytic diseases, will enable identification of high-risk women and may lead to discovery of new drug targets against associated adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27796349

  8. Caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Ileana; Droguett, Daniel; Castillo, Christian; Liempi, Ana; Muñoz, Lorena; Maya, Juan Diego; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Congenital Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that must cross the placental barrier during transmission. The trophoblast constitutes the first tissue in contact with the maternal-blood circulating parasite. Importantly, the congenital transmission rates are low, suggesting the presence of local placental defense mechanisms. Cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death are induced by the parasite and constitute part of the epithelial turnover of the trophoblast, which has been suggested to be part of those placental defenses. On the other hand, caspase-8 is an essential molecule in the modulation of trophoblast turnover by apoptosis and by epithelial differentiation. As an approach to study whether T. cruzi induced trophoblast turnover and infection is mediated by caspase-8, we infected BeWo cells (a trophoblastic cell line) with the parasite and determined in the infected cells the expression and enzymatic activity of caspase-8, DNA synthesis (as proliferation marker), β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) (as differentiation marker) and activity of Caspase-3 (as apoptotic death marker). Parasite load in BeWo cells was measured by DNA quantification using qPCR and cell counting. Our results show that T. cruzi induces caspase-8 activity and that its inhibition increases trophoblast cells infection while decreases parasite induced cellular differentiation and apoptotic cell death, but not cellular proliferation. Thus, caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against T. cruzi infection. Together with our previous results, we suggest that the trophoblast turnover is part of local placental anti-parasite mechanisms. PMID:27328973

  9. Modeling placental transport: correlation of in vitro BeWo cell permeability and ex vivo human placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina;

    2009-01-01

    The placental passage of three compounds with different physicochemical properties was recently investigated in ex vivo human placental perfusion experiments (caffeine, benzoic acid, and glyphosate) [Mose, T., Kjaerstad, M.B., Mathiesen, L., Nielsen, J.B., Edelfors, S., Knudsen, L.E., 2008....... Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 71, 984-991]. In this work, the transport of these same three compounds, plus the reference compound antipyrine, was investigated using BeWo (b30) cell monolayers. Transport...

  10. Methylation of the Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Gene Promoter in BeWo Cells: Relationship to Gene Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH production by the human placenta increases exponentially as pregnancy advances, and the rate of increase predicts gestational length. CRH gene expression is regulated by cAMP in trophoblasts through a cyclic AMP-response element (CRE, which changes its transcription factor binding properties upon methylation. Here we determined whether methylation of the CRH proximal promoter controls basal and cAMP-stimulated CRH expression in BeWo cells, a well-characterized trophoblastic cell line. We treated the cells with 8-Br-cAMP and the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′ deoxycytidine (5-AZA-dC and determined the effects on CRH mRNA level and promoter methylation. Clonal bisulfite sequencing showed partial and allele independent methylation of CpGs in the CRH promoter. CRH mRNA expression and the methylation of a subset of CpGs (including CpG2 in the CRE increased spontaneously during culture. 8-Br-cAMP stimulated CRH expression without affecting the increase in methylation. 5-AZA-dC decreased methylation and augmented 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated CRH expression, but it blocked the spontaneous increase of CRH mRNA level. We conclude that the CRH promoter is a dynamically and intermediately methylated genomic region in BeWo cells. Promoter methylation did not inhibit CRH gene expression under the conditions employed; rather it determined the contribution of alternative cAMP-independent pathways and cAMP-independent mechanisms to CRH expression control.

  11. Combined choriocarcinoma,neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma in the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasumitsu Hirano; Takuo Hara; Hiroshi Nozawa; Kaeko Oyama; Naohiro Ohta; Kenji Omura; Go Watanabe; Hideki Niwa

    2008-01-01

    We described a patient with adenocarcinoma of the stomach combined with choriocarcinoma and neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.An 85-year-old man visited our hospital because of appetite loss.Gastric fiborscopy revealed a large tumor occupying the cardial region and anterior wall of the gastric body.The patient underwent total gastrectomy with lymphnode dissection and partial resection of the liver.Choriocarcinoma,small cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma existed in the gastric tumor.The choriocarcinomatous foci contained cells positive for beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) and human placental lactogen mainly in syncytiotrophoblastic cells.The small cell carcinomatous loci contained cells positive for synaptophysin,neuron-specific enolase (NSF),and chromogranin A.The prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinoma and neuroendocrine cell carcinoma is exceedingly poor.This patient died about 2 mo after the first complaint from hepatic failure.This is the first reported case of gastric cancer with these three pathological features.

  12. Epigenetic Therapy in Human Choriocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in choriocarcinomas, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in choriocarcinoma cell lines. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating choriocarcinoma, with a special focus on preclinical studies

  13. Effective component from verbena officinalis L. inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma JAR cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shan; Chen Qi; Xu Chang-fen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the action of the effective component, 4'-methylether -scutellarein, from Verbena officinalis L. (VOL) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma JAR cells.Methods: Cell proliferation was measured by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide, MTT] assay and the incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR). Apoptosis of cell was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM) and the characteristic apoptotic DNA ladder by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the morphological changes of apoptotic JAR cells were observed under fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). Expressions of apoptosis proteins, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3, -8, and -9 were determined with Western blot.Results: The effective component from VOL inhibited the proliferation of JAR cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The treated cell cycle was arrested in S phase and an apoptotic peak was found in S phase using FCM analysis. A typical DNA ladder appeared in the treatment group when analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescence microscopy, the percentage of apoptotic cell was 0.9%, 6%, and 14% after treatments of 10, 20, and 40 mg·L-1 of the effective component, respectively, for 48 h. Typical apoptotic changes, such as condensed chromatin and presence of apoptotic bodies, were observed under EM. Treatment with effective component for 48 h and 72 h also induced protein expression of PARP and caspase-3, -8, and -9 as seen by Western blot.Conclusions: The effective component from VOL inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma JAR cells.

  14. Low amino acids affect expression of 11β-HSD2 in BeWo cells through leptin-activated JAK-STAT and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yueli; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Huafeng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2012-05-01

    Maternal protein restriction diminishes placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activity and causes fetal growth restriction in mammals. However, it is unknown whether such effect was caused directly by nutrient deficiency, or indirectly through the mediation of maternal hormones. In the present study, a human placental cell line (BeWo) was cultured in F12K as control and F12 as low amino acids (LAA) media for 48 h to investigate the effects of amino acids deficiency on 11β-HSD2 expression and activity. Despite a significant up-regulation of 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression in LAA cells, 11β-HSD2 activity and protein content were decreased by 38 and 54%, respectively (P<0.05), indicating a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation. Among 5 miRNAs targeting 11β-HSD2, miR-498 was expressed significantly higher in LAA cells. Leptin concentration was significantly lower (P<0.01) in LAA medium. The mRNA expression of both isoforms of leptin receptor was significantly higher in LAA cells, although no difference was detected at protein level. To further clarify whether leptin is involved in mediating the effect of LAA on 11β-HSD2 activity, leptin was supplemented to LAA medium, whereas three specific inhibitors of leptin signaling pathways, WP1066 for JAK-STAT, PD98059 for MAPK and LY294002 for PI3K, respectively were added to control medium. Leptin restored the diminished 11β-HSD2 activity in LAA cells, whereas WP1066 (5 nM) and PD98059 (50 nM) significantly decreased 11β-HSD2 activity in control cells. In conclusion, the present results indicate that LAA diminishes 11β-HSD2 expression and activity in BeWo cells through leptin-activated JAK-STAT and MAPK pathways.

  15. Primary Nongestational Choriocarcinoma of the Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    AMM Shariful Alam; Syeda Nurjahan Bhuiyan; Md Rashid Un Nabi

    2014-01-01

    Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor. It can be of gestational or nongestational in origin. The gestational type can arise from an ovarian pregnancy or can be of metastatic origin from uterine choriocarcinoma. The nongestational type is a very rare germ cell neoplasm. It is important to distinguish between two types of choriocarcinomas as nongestational origin is highly malignant and has worse prognosis than gestational type. But it is very difficult ...

  16. Recovery from Choriocarcinoma Syndrome Associated with a Metastatic Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Komori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A germ cell tumor is the most common form of malignancy in early male life, and can be classified as either seminomatous or nonseminomatous. Choriocarcinoma, comprised of nonseminomatous germ cells, is the most aggressive type of germ cell tumor and characteristically metastasizes to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and less frequently to the lungs, liver, bone or brain [Shibuya et al., 2009;48: 551–554]. A 56-year-old man was admitted to another hospital complaining of abdominal distension. Symptoms included anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. The patient was diagnosed with an extragonadal germ cell tumor and referred to our hospital to receive chemotherapy. The day after admission, the patient’s abdominal distension gradually worsened. An emergency operation revealed venous hemorrhage from the surface of a metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumor between the ligament of Treitz and the inferior mesenteric vein in a horizontal position. Hemostatic treatment was performed with 4-0 proline thread attached to a medicated cotton sponge, rather than using a simple proline thread, and the closure area was manually compressed. Chemotherapy was initiated on postoperative day 10. A metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumor that causes massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage is very rare, and represents a life-threatening emergency. If the patient’s condition carries a substantial risk of bleeding to death, it may be worthwhile to attempt abdominal operations.

  17. Recovery from Choriocarcinoma Syndrome Associated with a Metastatic Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Koji; Takahari, Daisuke; Kimura, Kenya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Ito, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Senda, Yoshiki; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Yuichi; Uemura, Norihisa; Natsume, Seiji; Kawakami, Jiro; Iwata, Yoshinori; Tsutsuyama, Masayuki; Shigeyoshi, Itaru; Akazawa, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Daisuke; Ouchi, Akira; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    A germ cell tumor is the most common form of malignancy in early male life, and can be classified as either seminomatous or nonseminomatous. Choriocarcinoma, comprised of nonseminomatous germ cells, is the most aggressive type of germ cell tumor and characteristically metastasizes to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and less frequently to the lungs, liver, bone or brain [Shibuya et al., 2009;48: 551–554]. A 56-year-old man was admitted to another hospital complaining of abdominal distension. Symptoms included anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. The patient was diagnosed with an extragonadal germ cell tumor and referred to our hospital to receive chemotherapy. The day after admission, the patient's abdominal distension gradually worsened. An emergency operation revealed venous hemorrhage from the surface of a metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumor between the ligament of Treitz and the inferior mesenteric vein in a horizontal position. Hemostatic treatment was performed with 4-0 proline thread attached to a medicated cotton sponge, rather than using a simple proline thread, and the closure area was manually compressed. Chemotherapy was initiated on postoperative day 10. A metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumor that causes massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage is very rare, and represents a life-threatening emergency. If the patient's condition carries a substantial risk of bleeding to death, it may be worthwhile to attempt abdominal operations. PMID:27403124

  18. Toll样受体3介导抑制Bewo细胞中乙型肝炎病毒复制%TLR3 - mediated control hepatitis B virus replication in Bewo cells.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    资捷; 王前; 郑磊; 熊石龙; 王芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of TLR3 -mediated innate immune on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in Bewo cells. Methods: Firstly, Bewo cells were exposed to TLR3 ligand polyI; C to observe the kinetics of TLR3 mRNA expression in Bewo cells. Secondly, 2μg 1. 3 -fold HBV recombinant vector pcDNA3. 1 ( + ) - HBV1. 3 were transfected into Bewo cells, after 12h, the cells were treated with polyI: C for 3d. Eventually, after Bewo cells were stimulated with anti -TLR3 antibody for lh, then treated with 25μg/ml polyI: C. To assay TLR3 mRNA expression in Bewo cells by real - time fluorescence quantitative RT - PCR ( qRT- PCR). HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA level was detected by Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA) and fluorescence quan-titative PCR, respectively. Results; PolyI: C could significantly induce TLR3 mRNA expression in Bewo cells (P<0. 05), in time- and dose - dependent manners. Compared with control, polyl: C could significantly suppressed HBV replication (P<0. 01). The suppressive effect of polyI; C on HBV replication was reversed by neutralizing antibodies against human TLR3 (P < 0. 01). Conclu-sions : TLR3 - mediated innate immune could suppressed hepatitis B virus replication in Bewo cells to some degree, and this will pro-vide a new way for prevention and cure intrauterine HBV infection.%目的 探讨Toll样受体3(TLR3)介导的天然免疫对Bewo细胞中乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)复制的影响.方法 首先用TLR3配体polyl:C处理Bewo细胞,观察细胞TLR3 mRNA表达的动力学.然后将2μg 1.3倍HBV全基因重组质粒pcDNA3.1(+)-HBV1.3转染Bewo细胞,12h后,以polyI:C处理3d.最后,用抗TLR3处理Bewo细胞1h后,加入25μg/ml polyl:C刺激.采用荧光定量RT - PCR、微粒子酶免疫分析法(MEIA)和荧光定量PCR法分别检测细胞TLR3mRNA表达、HBsAg、HBeAg及HBV DNA水平.结果 polyI:C可显著诱导Bewo细胞TLR3 mRNA表达(P<0.05),呈时间和剂量依赖性;与对照组比较,polyI:C可显著抑制HBV复制(P<0

  19. Primary Nongestational Choriocarcinoma of the Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMM Shariful Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor. It can be of gestational or nongestational in origin. The gestational type can arise from an ovarian pregnancy or can be of metastatic origin from uterine choriocarcinoma. The nongestational type is a very rare germ cell neoplasm. It is important to distinguish between two types of choriocarcinomas as nongestational origin is highly malignant and has worse prognosis than gestational type. But it is very difficult to differentiate by routine histological examination. Nongestational choriocarcinoma has been found to be resistant to single agent chemotherapy. It occurs usually around 13 years of age and is mainly confined to females under 20. Here we report a case of primary pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary in an unmarried girl of 14 years, diagnosed in 2001 and treated successfully with surgery and combination chemotherapy and remained disease-free till last reporting in September 2013.

  20. Effects of Phytoestrogen Extracts Isolated from Elder Flower on Hormone Production and Receptor Expression of Trophoblast Tumor Cells JEG-3 and BeWo, as well as MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lennard; Richter, Dagmar Ulrike; Piechulla, Birgit; Chrobak, Mareike; Kuhn, Christina; Schulze, Sandra; Abarzua, Sybille; Jeschke, Udo; Weissenbacher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Herein we investigated the effect of elderflower extracts (EFE) and of enterolactone/enterodiol on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cell lines JEG-3 and BeWo, as well as MCF7 breast cancer cells. The EFE was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cells were incubated with various concentrations of EFE. Untreated cells served as controls. Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the EFE on ERα/ERβ/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. EFE contains a substantial amount of lignans. Estradiol production was inhibited in all cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EFE upregulated ERα in JEG-3 cell lines. In MCF7 cells, a significant ERα downregulation and PR upregulation were observed. The control substances enterolactone and enterodiol in contrast inhibited the expression of both ER and of PR in MCF7 cells. In addition, the production of estradiol was upregulated in BeWo and MCF7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. The downregulating effect of EFE on ERα expression and the upregulation of the PR expression in MFC-7 cells are promising results. Therefore, additional unknown substances might be responsible for ERα downregulation and PR upregulation. These findings suggest potential use of EFE in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment and warrant further investigation. PMID:27740591

  1. Mediastinal Choriocarcinoma Masquerading as Relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Selay; Rizkalla, Kamilia; Hsia, Cyrus C.

    2011-01-01

    Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma is a rare extragonadal germ cell malignancy. We describe the first case of a patient who developed mediastinal choriocarcinoma after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). A 25-year-old man with classic HL, nodular sclerosis subtype, underwent treatment with splenectomy followed by radiation therapy. Unfortunately, his disease relapsed with a paraspinal mass, and he was subsequently treated with MOPP (mechlorethamine, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone) al...

  2. Solitary infantile choriocarcinoma of the liver: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoef, Marianne van der; Willi, Ulrich V.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Niggli, Felix K. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Paediatrics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-10-01

    Infantile hepatic choriocarcinoma is a rare, highly malignant germ-cell tumour believed to result from a choriocarcinoma of the placenta that spreads to the child. Most infants present with a characteristic clinical picture of anaemia, hepatomegaly and precocious puberty. Imaging findings, including conventional MRI, may be non-specific. To improve the accuracy of diagnosis, we present the imaging findings of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI in a 4.5-month-old boy with infantile hepatic choriocarcinoma. (orig.)

  3. Regulation of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 in a human placental trophoblast cell line (BeWo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christians Julian K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP protease expressed at high levels in the placenta and upregulated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and HELLP (Hemolytic anemia, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count syndrome. However, it is unclear whether elevated PAPPA2 expression causes abnormal placental development, or whether upregulation compensates for placental pathology. In the present study, we investigate whether PAPPA2 expression is affected by hypoxia, oxidative stress, syncytialization factors or substances known to affect the expression of PAPPA2's paralogue, PAPPA. Methods BeWo cells, a model of placental trophoblasts, were treated with one of the following: hypoxia (2% O2, oxidative stress (20 microM hydrogen peroxide, forskolin (10 microM and 100 microM, TGF-beta (10 and 50 ng/mL, TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL, IL-1beta (100 ng/mL or PGE2 (1 microM. We used quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify the mRNA levels of PAPPA2, as well as those of PAPPA and ADAM12 since these proteases have similar substrates and are also highly expressed in the placenta. Where we observed significant effects on PAPPA2 mRNA levels, we tested for effects at the protein level using an in-cell Western assay. Results Hypoxia, but not oxidative stress, caused a 47-fold increase in PAPPA2 mRNA expression, while TNF-alpha resulted in a 6-fold increase, and both of these effects were confirmed at the protein level. PGE2 resulted in a 14-fold upregulation of PAPPA2 mRNA but this was not reflected at the protein level. Forskolin, TGF-beta and IL-1beta had no significant effect on PAPPA2 mRNA expression. We observed no effects of any treatment on PAPPA or ADAM12 expression. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that factors previously known to be highly expressed in preeclamptic placentae (PGE2 and TNF-alpha, contribute to the upregulation of PAPPA2. Hypoxia, known to occur in

  4. Apigenin Reduces Survival of Choriocarcinoma Cells by Inducing Apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Whasun; Park, Sunwoo; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2016-12-01

    Apigenin is a flavonoid found in parsley, onions, oranges, tea, chamomile, wheat, and sprouts. It has a variety of biological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-spasmodic effects. Based on epidemiological and case-control studies, apigenin is regarded as a novel chemotherapeutic agent against various cancer types. However, little is known about the effects of apigenin on choriocarcinoma cells. Therefore, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of apigenin on choriocarcinoma cells (JAR and JEG3) in the present study. Apigenin reduced viability and migratory properties, increased apoptosis, and suppressed mitochondrial membrane potential in both the JAR and JEG3 cells. In addition, apigenin predominantly decreased phosphorylation of AKT, P70RSK, and S6 whereas the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and P90RSK was increased by apigenin treatment of JAR and JEG3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of JAR and JEG3 cells with both apigenin and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K/AKT (LY294002) and ERK1/2 (U0126) revealed synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Collectively, these results indicated that the apigenin is an invaluable chemopreventive agent that inhibits progression and metastasis of choriocarcinoma cells through regulation of PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK signal transduction mechanism. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2690-2699, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970256

  5. Regulation of amino acid transporters by adenoviral-mediated human insulin-like growth factor-1 in a mouse model of placental insufficiency in vivo and the human trophoblast line BeWo in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.; Crombleholme, T.; Habli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor-11 (hIGF-1) in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined amino acid transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of placental Insufficiency (PI) and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line. For in vitro human studies, BeWo Choriocarcinoma cells were maintained in F12 complete medium + 10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ± Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 h. MOIs of 10:1 and 100:1 were utilized. In BeWo, transfection efficiency was 100% at an MOI of 100:1 and Ad-IGF-1 significantly increased IGF-1 secretion, proliferation and invasion but reduced apoptosis compared to controls. In vitro, amino acid uptake was increased following Ad-IGF-1 treatment and associated with significantly increased RNA expression of SNAT1, 2, LAT1 and 4F2hc. Only SNAT2 protein expression was increased but LAT1 showed relocalization from a perinuclear location to the cytoplasm and cell membrane. For in vivo studies, timed-pregnant animals were divided into four groups on day 18; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL), UABL + Ad-hIGF-1 (108 PFU), UABL + Ad-LacZ (108 PFU). At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. Only LAT1 mRNA expression changed, showing that a reduced expression of the transporter levels in the PI model could be partially rectified with Ad-hIGF1 treatment. At the protein level, System L was reduced in PI but remained at control levels following Ad-hIGF1. The System A isoforms were differentially regulated with SNAT2 expression diminished but SNAT1 increased in PI and Ad-hIGF1 groups. Enhanced

  6. Lysosomal degradation of receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator is enhanced by its inhibitors in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Ebbesen, P.;

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u-PA-inhibitor...... for the removal of u-PA after its complex formation with a specific inhibitor. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which receptor-mediated endocytosis is initiated by the binding of a secondary ligand. Full text...

  7. Pure choriocarcinoma of ovary diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniwadekar M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma is extremely rare and can develop as a germ cell tumor or as a metastasis from uterine or tubal gestational choriocarcinoma or rarely from an ovarian pregnancy. The cytomorphologic findings have been reported previously in different sites. However, this is the first case of pure ovarian choriocarcinoma diagnosed on cytology to the best of our knowledge. The distinction between a gestational and nongestational choriocarcinoma is difficult. A 19-year-old female patient presented with an irregular per-vaginal bleeding and a mass in lower abdomen. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears of the mass were hypocellular and showed large, multinucleated giant cells and malignant mononucleated cells. Background was hemorrhagic. Serum β hCG level was 3,80,000 mIU/ml. A diagnosis of choriocarcinoma was offered which was later confirmed by histopathology. The diagnosis of choriocarcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology is based on the presence of large, multinucleated giant cells and malignant mononucleated cells. A high index of suspicion should be maintained and estimation of serum β hCG plays a key role in supporting the diagnosis.

  8. Choriocarcinoma presenting with thyrotoxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sotello, David; Rivas, Ana Marcella; Test, Victor J.; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 26-year-old man with metastatic choriocarcinoma who presented with hyperthyroidism associated with elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG) and respiratory failure secondary to diffuse lung metastasis. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, the concentration of B-HCG dramatically decreased and the patient became euthyroid, allowing us to discontinue antithyroid medications. The patient's hyperthyroidism was caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by high B-HCG levels, ...

  9. Insulin stimulates synthesis and release of human chorionic gonadotropin by choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, S.G.; Braunstein, G.D. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that insulin regulates placental lactogen, progesterone, and estrogen production from human trophoblast cells. This study was performed to examine whether insulin also regulates the production of hCG by this type of cell. After 24-36 h of preincubation, JEG-3 and JAR cells (2-3 x 10(5) cells/ml.well) or human term trophoblast cells (1 x 10(6) cells/ml.well) were exposed to the test hormone in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24-96 h. Secretion of hCG from JEG-3 cells was stimulated by human insulin, human proinsulin, or porcine insulin in a dose-dependent manner, with lowest effective doses of 6.7, 96, and 53 mg/L, respectively. Time-course studies showed that hCG secretion peaked at 72-96 h with insulin exposure; in contrast, no decernable peak was seen without insulin in serum-free media. Exposure of JEG-3 cells for 24 h to 209 mg/liter insulin stimulated hCG synthesis, with 40 +/- 3% more immunoreactive intracellular hCG (P less than 0.05). Cells grown in the presence of insulin and (35S)methionine had 47 +/- 21% more labeled intracellular hCG and 56 +/- 13% more immunoprecipitable (35S)methionine-hCG secreted into the medium than the control cultures (P less than 0.05). During this time period, human placental lactogen release and total trichloroacetice acid-precipitable (35S)methionine protein were not increased. The insulin-induced stimulation of hCG synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. Additionally, insulin did not significantly affect total intracellular protein during 24-96 h of incubation. Insulin also increased hCG release from JAR cells, but not from human term trophoblast cells. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor inhibited the stimulation of insulin in JEG-3 cells.

  10. Insulin stimulates synthesis and release of human chorionic gonadotropin by choriocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have shown that insulin regulates placental lactogen, progesterone, and estrogen production from human trophoblast cells. This study was performed to examine whether insulin also regulates the production of hCG by this type of cell. After 24-36 h of preincubation, JEG-3 and JAR cells (2-3 x 10(5) cells/ml.well) or human term trophoblast cells (1 x 10(6) cells/ml.well) were exposed to the test hormone in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24-96 h. Secretion of hCG from JEG-3 cells was stimulated by human insulin, human proinsulin, or porcine insulin in a dose-dependent manner, with lowest effective doses of 6.7, 96, and 53 mg/L, respectively. Time-course studies showed that hCG secretion peaked at 72-96 h with insulin exposure; in contrast, no decernable peak was seen without insulin in serum-free media. Exposure of JEG-3 cells for 24 h to 209 mg/liter insulin stimulated hCG synthesis, with 40 +/- 3% more immunoreactive intracellular hCG (P less than 0.05). Cells grown in the presence of insulin and [35S]methionine had 47 +/- 21% more labeled intracellular hCG and 56 +/- 13% more immunoprecipitable [35S]methionine-hCG secreted into the medium than the control cultures (P less than 0.05). During this time period, human placental lactogen release and total trichloroacetice acid-precipitable [35S]methionine protein were not increased. The insulin-induced stimulation of hCG synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. Additionally, insulin did not significantly affect total intracellular protein during 24-96 h of incubation. Insulin also increased hCG release from JAR cells, but not from human term trophoblast cells. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor inhibited the stimulation of insulin in JEG-3 cells

  11. Concurrent development of testicular seminoma and choriocarcinoma of the superior mediastinum, presented as cervical mass: a case report and implications about pathogenesis of germ-cell tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamias Aristotelis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronous presentation of more than one germ cell tumours of different histology in the same patient is considered to be very rare. In these cases of multiple germ cell tumours, strong theoretical and clinical data suggest an underlying common pathogenetic mechanism concerning genetic instability or abnormalities during the pluripotent embryonic differentiation and maturation of the germ cell. Case presentation A 25 year-old young man presented with an enlarging, slightly painful left cervical mass. Despite the initial disorientation of the diagnosis to a possible thyroid disorder, the patient underwent complete surgical resection of the mass revealing mediastinal choriocarcinoma. Subsequent ultrasound of the scrotum indicated the presence of a small lobular node in the upper pole of the left testicle and the patient underwent radical left inguinal orchiectomy disclosing a typical seminoma. Based on these results, the patient received 4 cycles of Bleomycin, Etoposide and Platinum chemotherapy experiencing only mild toxicity and resulting in complete ongoing clinical and biochemical remission. Conclusion The pathogenesis of concurrent germ cell tumours in the same patient remains an area of controversy. Although the genetic instability of the pluripotent germ cell offers an adequate explanation, the possibility of metastasis from the primary, less differentiated tumour to a distant location as a more mature subtype cannot be excluded. Possible development of a metastatic site of different histology and thus biological behaviour (e.g choriocarcinoma should be anticipated. Furthermore, urologists, pathologists and medical oncologists should be meticulous in the original pathological diagnosis in these patients, since there is a significant frequency of germ cell tumours with mixed or overlapping histological elements with diverse potential of evolution and differentiation.

  12. A pure non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma with delayed solitary brain metastases: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V L Narasinga; Konar, Subhas; Gangadharan, Jagathlal; Vikas, V; Sampath, S

    2015-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is the most malignant tumour of gestational trophoblastic origin. Most ovarian choriocarcinomas are gestational in origin and usually metastasize to the ovary from uterine or tubal choriocarcinoma. Non gestational choriocarcinoma (NGOC) of the ovary is exceedingly rare and usually seen along with other germ cell tumors. Non gestational choriocarcinoma has been found to be resistant to single-agent chemotherapy and has a worse prognosis than gestational choriocarcinoma. We are reporting long term follow up of published rare case of pure non gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma (NGOC) with concurrent metastases to the spleen and adrenal glands, who developed a delayed solitary brain metastases, two years after completion of primary treatment. Surgery along with triple agent chemotherapy and radiotherapy was found to give good remission in this aggressive disease. PMID:26752905

  13. Choriocarcinoma presenting with thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotello, David; Rivas, Ana Marcella; Test, Victor J; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 26-year-old man with metastatic choriocarcinoma who presented with hyperthyroidism associated with elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG) and respiratory failure secondary to diffuse lung metastasis. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, the concentration of B-HCG dramatically decreased and the patient became euthyroid, allowing us to discontinue antithyroid medications. The patient's hyperthyroidism was caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by high B-HCG levels, as shown by the marked improvement of the patient's thyroid function panel after chemotherapy. PMID:26722165

  14. Effect of hepatitis B virus infection on trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo) and choriocarcinoma cell line (JEG3) is linked to CD133-2 (AC141) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Jing; Na, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the chronic carrier state in China. In our studies, the response of trophoblast cell and choriocarcinoma cell to HBV infection regarding the expression of CD133-2 (AC141) was evaluated. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that a high level of CD133-2 protein and mRNA in HTR-8/SVneo cells, but a low level in JEG-3 cells. Lower proliferation and mobility, and higher apoptosis were observed in HTR-8/SVneo cells and JEG-3-CD133-2(+) cells after HBV infection than those in HTR-8-CD133-2(-) cells and JEG-3 cells. Our main finding is that CD133-negative cells (HTR-8-CD133-2(-) and JEG-3) are prone to HBV infection. In the last, our data indicated that the activation of Smad signaling pathway and the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CD133-negative cells after HBV infection. In summary, our study demonstrated that CD133 is a key factor that mediated HBV infection to trophoblast cell and choriocarcinoma cell. PMID:27508045

  15. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts. PMID:26093985

  16. [Choriocarcinoma causing a pulmonary embolus.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theliade, J.E.; Skovby, A.M.; Kirk, V.;

    2008-01-01

    that was histologically compatible with a choriocarcinoma. Trophoblast tumors are rare, but unspecific symptoms from lungs, liver, kidney or brain warrant control of S-hCG in women, even when pregnancy has not been recognized or menopause has been reached Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/28...

  17. Impact of Axis of GHRH and GHRH Receptor on Cell Viability and Apoptosis of the Placental Choriocarcinoma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A-X; Zhang, D; Zhu, Y-M; Gao, H-J; Jiang, J-Y; Hu, X-L; Lv, P-P; Leung, P C K; Huang, H-F

    2016-01-01

    Although GHRH and GHRH-R are recognized as key factors in placental development, little is known about the mechanism(s) of the regulation in trophoblastic cells during placental development. The objective of this study is to determine the potential relationship between the expression levels of GHRH-R and the placental and JEG-3 cell function. Furthermore, we aim to investigate the downstream pathways of GHRH/GHRH-R axis in the control of the JEG-3 cell viability and apoptosis. In this study, we detected the expression pattern of GHRH-R in human chorionic villous tissues and JEG-3 cell. Then, we evaluated the effects of GHRH/GHRH-R and the downstream pathways by using GHRH antagonist (JMR-132) on JEG-3 cell. Our present study found the expressions of GHRH-R in placental villous tissues and JEG-3 cell, and the expression levels of GHRH-R was significantly lower in villous tissues of early pregnancy loss when compared to normal controls. JMR-132 inhibited cellular viability and induced apoptosis in JEG-3 cell in a time and dosedependent manners through activation of caspase-3, p38, and p53, as well as inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt. Interestingly, ER stress markers such as GRP78, ubiquitinated proteins and phospho-eIF2α were significantly increased in JEG-3 cell after being treated with JMR-132. Conversely, pretreated with salubrinal (a selective inhibition of protein phosphatase 1-mediated eIF2α dephosphorylation), JEG-3 cells were rescued from JMR-132-mediated cell growth inhibition, and abolished JMR-132-induced cleaved caspase-3, CHOP, phospho-p53, and ubiquitinated proteins accumulation. Knockdown of endogenous GHRH-R significantly abolished the JMR-132-induced cleaved caspase-3 and activation of p38. In conclusion, our results, for the first time, demonstrated the expression levels of GHRH-R were closely related to the placental function. Inhibition of GHRH-R by using GHRH antagonist in JEG-3 cell may reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis through

  18. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human decidua inhibits the binding and biological action of IGF-I in cultured choriocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placenta expresses genes for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and possesses IGF-receptors, suggesting that placental growth is regulated by IGFs in an autocrine manner. We have previously shown that human decidua, but not placenta, synthesizes and secretes a 34 K IGF-binding protein (34 K IGF-BP) called placental protein 12. We now used human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell monolayer cultures and recombinant (Thr59)IGF-I as a model to study whether the decidual 34 K IGF-BP is able to modulate the receptor binding and biological activity of IGFs in trophoblasts. JEG-3 cells, which possess type I IGF receptors, were unable to produce IGF-BPs. Purified 34 K IGF-BP specifically bound [125I]iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. Multiplication-stimulating activity had 2.5% the potency of (Thr59)IGF-I, and insulin had no effect on the binding of [125I] iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. 34 K IGF-BP inhibited the binding of [125I] iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to JEG-3 monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner by forming with the tracer a soluble complex that could not bind to the cell surface as demonstrated by competitive binding and cross-linking experiments. After incubating the cell monolayers with [125I]iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I in the presence of purified binding protein, followed by cross-linking, no affinity labeled bands were seen on autoradiography. In contrast, an intensely labeled band at 40 K was detected when the incubation medium was analyzed, suggesting that (Thr59)IGF-I and 34 K IGF-BP formed a complex in a 1:1 molar ratio. Also, 34 K IGF-BP inhibited both basal and IGF-I-stimulated uptake of alpha-[3H]aminoisobutyric acid in JEG-3 cells. RNA analysis revealed that IGF-II is expressed in JEG-3 cells

  19. Calcium-dependent trichosanthin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species involved in apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Ma, Hui; Chen, Die Yan

    2001-04-01

    The type-I ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin (TCS) has a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities, including abortifacient, anti-tumor and anti-HIV. We found for the first time that TCS induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in JAR cells by using fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate with confocal laser scanning microscopy. TCS-induced ROS showed dependence on the increase in intracellular calcium and on the presence of extracellular calcium. The production of ROS increased rapidly after the application of TCS, which paralleled TCS-indued increase in intracellular calcium monitored using fluo 3-AM, suggesting that TCS-induced ROS might mediate by the increase in intracellular Ca2PLU concentration. Simultaneous observation of the nuclear morphological changes and production of ROS in JAR cells with two-photon laser scanning microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that ROS involved in the apoptosis of JAR cells, which was confirmed by that antioxidant (alpha) -tocopherol prevented TCS-induced ROS formation and cell death. The finding that calcium-dependent TCS-induced ROS involved in the apoptosis of JAR cells might provide new insight into the anti-tumor and anti-HIV mechanism of TCS.

  20. Expression pattern of matrix metalloproteinases in human gynecological cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feix Sonja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are involved in the degradation of protein components of the extracellular matrix and thus play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Their expression is related to the progression of gynecological cancers (e.g. endometrial, cervical or ovarian carcinoma. In this study we investigated the expression pattern of the 23 MMPs, currently known in humans, in different gynecological cancer cell lines. Methods In total, cell lines from three endometrium carcinomas (Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, AN3 CA, three cervical carcinomas (HeLa, Caski, SiHa, three chorioncarcinomas (JEG, JAR, BeWo, two ovarian cancers (BG-1, OAW-42 and one teratocarcinoma (PA-1 were examined. The expression of MMPs was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and gelatin zymography. Results We demonstrated that the cell lines examined can constitutively express a wide variety of MMPs on mRNA and protein level. While MMP-2, -11, -14 and -24 were widely expressed, no expression was seen for MMP-12, -16, -20, -25, -26, -27 in any of the cell lines. A broad range of 16 MMPs could be found in the PA1 cells and thus this cell line could be used as a positive control for general MMP experiments. While the three cervical cancer cell lines expressed 10-14 different MMPs, the median expression in endometrial and choriocarcinoma cells was 7 different enzymes. The two investigated ovarian cancer cell lines showed a distinctive difference in the number of expressed MMPs (2 vs. 10. Conclusions Ishikawa, Caski, OAW-42 and BeWo cell lines could be the best choice for all future experiments on MMP regulation and their role in endometrial, cervical, ovarian or choriocarcinoma development, whereas the teratocarcinoma cell line PA1 could be used as a positive control for general MMP experiments.

  1. Metastatic choriocarcinoma in an infant: imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic choriocarcinoma is unusual in infancy and considered to be due to metastases from the placenta. Only fifteen cases have been previously reported. We present an unusual case of hepatic, pulmonary, and axillary lymph node metastases from choriocarcinoma in a 3-month-old female. Several of the lesions had large vascular channels identified by computed tomography and sonography with color and duplex Doppler. (orig.)

  2. Metastatic choriocarcinoma in the small bowel: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In abnormal postpartum hemorrhage, we should consider the possibility of choriocarcinoma. Although, it is important to note rare manifestations of metastatic choriocarcinoma of small bowel in massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  3. Primary ovary choriocarcinoma: individual DNA polymorphic analysis as a strategy to confirm diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nalesso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary is rare. Furthermore, this tumor can arise from gestational tissue or pure germ cells of the ovary, with the latter resulting in non-gestational choriocarcinoma. While the clinical characteristics and histology of both tumor types are identical, differentiation of these tumors is necessary for effective treatment. One strategy for the differentiation of these tumors types is to assay for the presence of paternal DNA. Accordingly, in the present case, a patient with primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary with a non-gestational origin was confirmed by DNA analysis. The patient subsequently exhibited an excellent response to chemotherapy, and following surgery, achieved complete remission. A pathological analysis of surgical specimens further confirmed the absence of tumor.

  4. Occult choriocarcinoma: Detection using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occult choriocarcinoma, manifested only by an elevated B-hCG level, can be a difficult management problem. The authors evaluated the ability of I-131-labeled 5F9.3, a murine monoclonal antibody reactive with choriocarcinomas but not hCG, to detect foci of choriocarcinoma in five patients referred with elevated B-hCG levels but in whom the location of residual disease was uncertain. I-131 5F9.3, 0.5-1.0 mCi, was injected intravenously in each patient and images with dynamic background subtraction of TcHSA were obtained at later time points. In four patients chest studies were true positive (confirmed surgically in all), the chest CT scans in these patients had been interpreted as not definitely showing active disease. In the fifth patient no abnormal focus of uptake was seen and subsequent B-hCG levels normalized. In two of the patients with chest lesions, foci of abdominal uptake were seen that were not due to tumor. One of these patients had a partial small bowel obstruction; the other appeared to have a false-positive study. I-131 5F9.3 is a promising agent for the detection of occult choriocarcinomas

  5. Ectopic pregnancy with associated gestational choriocarcinoma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Lowenstine, Linda J; Koehne, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    A wild-born, captive-reared, 14 yr old, primiparous female California sea lion Zalophus californianus presented for anorexia of 14 d duration and abdominal distention. Routine complete blood cell count revealed leukocytosis with a neutrophilia, and serum chemistry revealed hypoalbumenemia and hyponatremia. Treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories were started, but the animal continued to decline. Abdominal radiographs revealed a mature mineralized fetal skull and spine in the caudal abdomen and abdominal ultrasound revealed ascites but could not confirm the fetus. The patient was taken to surgery where a full term fetus was found outside of the uterus but within the fetal membranes, representing a secondary ectopic pregnancy. The patient passed away during surgery and was taken to necropsy. Gross necropsy revealed a diffuse peritonitis with yellow deposits over the serosal surfaces of the abdominal organs. The uterus appeared intact grossly and the ovaries appeared abnormal. The mesenteric, renal, and sub-lumbar nodes were enlarged and edematous. Histopathology revealed choriocarcinoma in the right uterine horn with evidence of chronic uterine rupture and protrusion of the placental tissue into the abdomen. The choriocarcinoma had metastasized locally as well as to the liver, spleen and lung. Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm that is rare in domestic animals. This case represents, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of gestational choriocarcinoma causing secondary ectopic pregnancy in a California sea lion and presents questions regarding pregnancy monitoring and management in a population of captive, minimally trained California sea lions.

  6. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  7. Developing retroperitoneal anaplastic carcinoma with choriocarcinoma focus after ovarian non-gestastional choriocarcinoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN. It is a rare event but also a curable malignancy. In the majority of instancies it developes after any gestational event. In some cases it developes as non-gestational extrauterine malignancy. Prognosis of choriocarcinoma is poor when invasion and metastases appear early and spread fast. This form of choriocarcinoma can lead to incurable and letal outcome. Case report. We presented a 20-year-old patient with abdominal and retroperitoneal malignancy - anaplastic carcinoma combined with choriocarcinoma metastases in. Tumor developed three months after left adnexectomy which had been done because of adnexal tumor. Choriocarcinoma was immunohistochemicaly confirmed in adnexal masses. Two courses of chemotherapy, metotrexate + folic acid (MTX+FA regimen, were administrated. The initial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level stayed unknown as well as the last one after the treatment. The patient came from the other country and was hospitalized because of pelvic and abdominal pain and palpable abdominal masses in hypogastrium with progressive anemia. The human chorionic gonadotropin level was 38 mIU/L. Tumor biopsy was done and choriocarcinoma metastases were immunohistochemicaly confirmed with predominant anaplastic carcinoma. Five day course of MTX + cyclophosphamide regimen was administrated and the patient was prepared for operative treatment. Relaparotomy was perforemed and tumor completely exceeded. Tumor mass mostly developed retroperitonely and partialy in abdominal cavity infiltrating intestinal wall with rupture of sigmoid colon. Anaplastic carcinoma, with large fields of necrosis and bleeding, was confirmed after histological examination. Immunohistochemical examination excluded choriocarcinoma in tumor mass. After 20 blood units transfusion, one course of chemotherapy and tumor excision, the patient left hospital on the 9th postoperative day

  8. 功能蛋白O-GlcNAc糖基化修饰调控绒毛膜癌细胞的转移%O-GlcNAcylation of Functional Protein Regulates Human Choriocarcinoma Cells Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈茹楠; 琚娜娜; 吴明军; 赵德璋; 王应雄; 杨竹; 于超

    2013-01-01

    为研究氧连接N-乙酰葡萄糖胺(O-linked N-acetylglucosamine,O-GlcNAc)糖基化修饰调控人绒毛膜癌细胞(JAR)迁移的分子机制,首先采用siRNA和酶特异性抑制剂作用细胞,构建O-GlcNAc修饰总蛋白低表达和高表达的细胞模型;利用Transwell方法及黏附实验比较细胞迁移及与血管内皮细胞黏附能力的变化;并通过免疫共沉淀技术检测重要的功能蛋白β-catenin的O-GlcNAc程度,从而分析蛋白转录翻译后调控对肿瘤细胞迁移影响的分子机制.结果表明,增加JAR细胞中O-GIcNAc修饰水平可促进细胞迁移及与血管内皮细胞的黏附活性,且O-GlcNAc修饰作用的靶蛋白β-catenin的糖基化水平也显著增加.当下调细胞中O-GlcNAc蛋白修饰水平,其迁移及黏附能力随之下降.表明O-GlcNAc修饰参与了绒毛膜癌细胞转移的调控.%To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in human choriocarcinoma cells (JAR)migration regulated by O-GlcNAc glycosylation,cell models expressing different O-GlcNAcylation levels were established by siRNA interference or OGA inhibitor.Transwell assay and adhesion assay were used to examine JAR cell migration ability and adhesion to EA.hy926 cells.Meanwhile,the O-GlcNAcylation level of β-catenin was detected by immunoprecipitation.The results indicated O-GlcNAcylation enhances the JAR cell migration and adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro.Moreover,the O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin but not the protenin level increased apparently.The migration and adhesion ability were obviously declined in JAR cells with O-GlcNAcylation down-regulation.These findings suggest that O-GlcNAcylation is involved in the regulation of tumor cell migration.

  9. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  10. Radioimmunodetection of human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficiency of radioimmuno-detection in locating the xenograft of human chorio-carcinoma in nude mouse. Methods: Radioimmuno-detection was performed using cocktail antibodies of 131I-labeled mouse anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibodies to locate the xenograft of human choriocarcinoma in nude mouse. Radioactivity in different tissues was measured and the tumor/non-tumor ratio was calculated. Normal mouse IgG was used as control IgG. Results: The accumulation of radioactivity in the xenograft area could be recognized as early as 24 h after the injection of the radiolabelled antibodies. 72-96 h after the injection, the xenograft could be clearly shown. The minimal shown xenograft was 0.8 cm in diameter. The tumor/non-tumor ratio increased with the time and was obviously higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Radioimmunodetection can efficiently locate human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse.

  11. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days

  12. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Choon Yul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Bahk, Young Whee; Kim, Seung Jo [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days.

  13. Coriocarcinoma primário do colo uterino Primary choriocarcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Moreira Ferraz

    2003-06-01

    mechanisms for the development of the cervical choriocarcinoma: 1 the patient initially had a cervical pregnancy and this was followed by malignant transformation; 2 the cervical choriocarcinoma may be a metastasis from the primary tumor of the corpus, which had disappeared; 3 the development of cervical choriocarcinoma was due to the transport of chorionic cells from the preceding pregnancy as emboli, which stayed dormant and, later, gave rise to malignant transformation. Total abdominal histerectomy and posterior chemotherapy are recommended. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman, with vaginal bleeding six months after a term pregnancy, which had a hemorrhagic cervical mass and high b-HCG blood levels. The histopathology showed a tumor with a malignant sincicio and citotrophoblastic components involving only the uterine cervix. Our case is one of an ectopic choriocarcinoma and we believe that its development is due to the transport of chorionic cells from the preceding pregnancy and later gave rise to malignant transformation.

  14. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  15. The uterine choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women: specificities of diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaabia, Ons; Meddeb, Sawsen; Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Bibi, Mohamed; Khairi, Hedi

    2014-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a gestational trophoblastic tumor that mainly affects women of childbearing age. Cases of choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women are exceptional. Through an observation and literature review, we propose to study the specific diagnosis and treatment features of this tumor in menopausal women. We report the observation of a pure uterine choriocarcinoma, which occurred in post-menopause. The diagnosis was made on the analysis of surgical specimens confirmed by measurement of ...

  16. Primary choriocarcinoma in the anterior mediastinum in a man:a case report and review of the literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈华浩; 张根生; 徐峰

    2004-01-01

    @@ Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma in men is exceedingly rare and is thought to be unresponsive to treatment. We review the literatures and report a case of male primary choriocarcinoma in the anterior mediastinum.

  17. Unusual gestational choriocarcinoma arising in an interstitial pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsen Meddeb; Mohamed Salah Rhim; Wissal Zarrouk; Mohamed Bibi; Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi; Hedi Khairi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm. Its association with ectopic pregnancy is very rare and usually with aggressive behavior. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a new case arising in an interstitial pregnancy occurring in a 46-year-old woman. The patient was admitted for severe pelvic pain and abundant metrorrhagia. One month ago, she had had a laparoscopic resection of an interstitial pregnancy subsequent to failure of chemotherapy by methotrexate. The...

  18. Atypical presentation of uterine choriocarcinoma a case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Dayanand Katke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic diseases include complete and partial molar pregnancy, invasive mole, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Gestational choriocarcinoma is one of the most malignant form of a group of tumors. Although choriocarcinoma has a very high propensity to metastasize to various sites including brain it also has a very high cure rate. Our study represents the case of choriocarcinoma developed after primary invasive mole which was treated successfully with combined surgical and medical management. We now present a course of gestational trophoblastic disease transforming from benign to a malignant condition in due course of management. We are presenting a case of a 26-year-old female who came to us with molar pregnancy which turned out be invasive mole on histopathological examination and converted into choriocarcinoma in due course of treatment even after methotrexate chemotherapy.

  19. Leptin is an anti-apoptotic effector in placental cells involving p53 downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén Rayen Toro

    Full Text Available Leptin, a peripheral signal synthetized by the adipocyte to regulate energy metabolism, can also be produced by placenta, where it may work as an autocrine hormone. We have previously demonstrated that leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. In the present work, we aimed to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate the survival effect of leptin in placenta. We used the human placenta choriocarcinoma BeWo and first trimester Swan-71 cell lines, as well as human placental explants. We tested the late phase of apoptosis, triggered by serum deprivation, by studying the activation of Caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Recombinant human leptin added to BeWo cell line and human placental explants, showed a decrease on Caspase-3 activation. These effects were dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous leptin expression with 2 µM of an antisense oligonucleotide, reversed Caspase-3 diminution. We also found that the cleavage of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1 was diminished in the presence of leptin. We analyzed the presence of low DNA fragments, products from apoptotic DNA cleavage. Placental explants cultivated in the absence of serum in the culture media increased the apoptotic cleavage of DNA and this effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. Taken together these results reinforce the survival effect exerted by leptin on placental cells. To improve the understanding of leptin mechanism in regulating the process of apoptosis we determined the expression of different intermediaries in the apoptosis cascade. We found that under serum deprivation conditions, leptin increased the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein expression, while downregulated the pro-apoptotic BAX and BID proteins expression in Swan-71 cells and placental explants. In both models leptin augmented BCL-2/BAX ratio. Moreover we have demonstrated that p53, one of the key cell cycle

  20. Coexistence of Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Choriocarcinoma: Complete Response to Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    GUNDUZ, SEYDA; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Uysal, Mukremin; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Tatli, Murat; Arslan, Deniz; Coskun, Hasan Senol; BOZCUK, Hakan; Savas, Burhan; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Gastric choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and usually accompanies gastric adenocarcinoma. The prognosis is poor due to the aggressive course of the disease. A 57-year-old female patient with weight loss and abdominal pain was examined. The patient was operated following the examination, and pathological analysis revealed the presence of a gastric adenocarcinoma associated with choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a positive reaction with antibodies to beta-human chorionic gon...

  1. The molecular role of connexin 43 in human trophoblast cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, Caroline E; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Drewlo, Sascha; Baczyk, Dora; Pötgens, Andy J G; Winterhager, Elke; Kingdom, John C P; Lye, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    Connexin expression and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) mediated by connexin 43 (Cx43)/gap junction A1 (GJA1) are required for cytotrophoblast fusion into the syncytium, the outer functional layer of the human placenta. Cx43 also impacts intracellular signaling through protein-protein interactions. The transcription factor GCM1 and its downstream target ERVW-1/SYNCYTIN-1 are key players in trophoblast fusion and exert their actions through the ERVW-1 receptor SLC1A5/ASCT-2/RDR/ATB(0). To investigate the molecular role of the Cx43 protein and its interaction with this fusogenic pathway, we utilized stable Cx43-transfected cell lines established from the choriocarcinoma cell line Jeg3: wild-type Jeg3, alphahCG/Cx43 (constitutive Cx43 expression), JpUHD/Cx43 (doxycyclin-inducible Cx43 expression), or JpUHD/trCx43 (doxycyclin-inducible Cx43 carboxyterminal deleted). We hypothesized that truncation of Cx43 at its C-terminus would inhibit trophoblast fusion and protein interaction with either ERVW-1 or SLC1A5. In the alphahCG/Cx43 and JpUHD/Cx43 lines, stimulation with cAMP caused 1) increase in GJA1 mRNA levels, 2) increase in percentage of fused cells, and 3) downregulation of SLC1A5 expression. Cell fusion was inhibited by GJIC blockade using carbenoxylone. Neither Jeg3, which express low levels of Cx43, nor the JpUHD/trCx43 cell line demonstrated cell fusion or downregulation of SLC1A5. However, GCM1 and ERVW-1 mRNAs were upregulated by cAMP treatment in both Jeg3 and all Cx43 cell lines. Silencing of GCM1 prevented the induction of GJA1 mRNA by forskolin in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells, demonstrating that GCM1 is upstream of Cx43. All cell lines and first-trimester villous explants also demonstrated coimmunoprecipitation of SLC1A5 and phosphorylated Cx43. Importantly, SLC1A5 and Cx43 gap junction plaques colocalized in situ to areas of fusing cytotrophoblast, as demonstrated by the loss of E-cadherin staining in the plasma membrane in first

  2. [Chemotherapy-sensitive uterine choriocarcinoma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakova, E; Pekhlivanov, B; Milchev, N

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of uterine choriocarcinoma in a 42-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain, uterus enlargement, high serum levels of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (b-hCG) and a positive pregnancy test on two separate occasions. At laparatomy, blood and clots were observed in the abdomen, an enlarged uterus with tumor infiltrates in the uterus, appendix, bladder and plica vesico-uterina. Follwing hysterectomy and bilateral oophoorectomy, the patient received chemotherapy and was followed for two years. No tumor recurrences were observed and the b-hCG levels returned to normal. In conclusion, the condition responds favorably the chemotherapy and recurrences are rate when there are no metastases to the liver or the brain. PMID:20198788

  3. Transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes during cell fusion in BeWo trophoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syncytialization is a process essential to the genesis and vitality of the decisive maternal-fetal interface, the syncytiotrophoblast. While the role of specific genes important in syncytial fusion is appreciated, an integrated global analysis of syncytialization is absent. We leveraged a variety of...

  4. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  5. Primary vulvovaginal choriocarcinoma: a case report of unusual presentation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushashree Das

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Only one case of primary extra uterine vaginal choriocarcinoma and one case of primary vulvar choriocarcinoma have been reported in literature. This is a case of 27 year old lady who presented with a 10cm × 7cm× 5cm vulvar mass with pain abdomen since 1 month, to the Gynecologic oncology outpatient. The mass was smooth, hard and fixed to underlying structures. Multiple bilateral inguinal lymph nodes were enlarged. Vulvar biopsy with Immunohistochemistry proved it to be choriocarcinoma. CT scan thorax, abdomen and pelvis showed multiple bilateral lung metastases, empty uterine cavity and normal sized uterus with a vaginal mass extending up to introitus encasing urethra and anal canal with multiple enlarged pelvic & inguinal lymph nodes. Final diagnosis of Primary Vulvovaginal choriocarcinoma FIGO stage III and WHO score-12 was made. Multidrug chemotherapy with Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin-D, Folinic Acid, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine (EMA-CO was started then shifted to Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin-D, Folinic Acid and Cisplatin (EMA-EP regimen followed by Paclitaxel & Carboplatin, because of poor response. Patient’s βHCG became 1.57IU/L with resolution of all lesions after 5 three weekly cycles of Paclitaxel & Carboplatin. Now she is planned for three more cycles of chemotherapy. This case highlights another atypical presentation of choriocarcinoma. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 470-472

  6. Choroidal metastases in testicular choriocarcinoma, successful treatment with chemo- and radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guber Ivo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choriocarcinoma is a very rare cause of ocular metastasis. Only 18 male patients have been reported on, 4 of whom survived, but with significant loss of vision. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian man, suffering from testicular choriocarcinoma with pulmonary, cerebral, renal, hepatic and osseous metastases, underwent left radical orchiectomy. While being treated with chemotherapy, he presented with loss of vision in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed bilateral non-pigmented, hemorrhagic choroidal tumours, compatible with secondary lesions. Continued chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy of the skull and spine lead to full remission with excellent vision, after more than 4 years of follow up. Conclusion Testicular choriocarcinoma is an exceptional cause of choroidal metastasis, potentially asymptomatic and with specific clinical features. Radiotherapy can complement radical orchiectomy and chemotherapy, to achieve full remission and maintain good vision.

  7. Coexistence of Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Choriocarcinoma: Complete Response to Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Seyda; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Uysal, Mukremin; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Tatli, Murat; Arslan, Deniz; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Bozcuk, Hakan; Savas, Burhan; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Gastric choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and usually accompanies gastric adenocarcinoma. The prognosis is poor due to the aggressive course of the disease. A 57-year-old female patient with weight loss and abdominal pain was examined. The patient was operated following the examination, and pathological analysis revealed the presence of a gastric adenocarcinoma associated with choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a positive reaction with antibodies to beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and overexpression of the cErbB2 proto-oncogene. Staging revealed multiple metastases in the liver. A complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and chemotherapy. The diagnosis of gastric choriocarcinomas without pathological examination is difficult due to their rare occurrence. A complete response can be obtained with trastuzumab in the treatment of cases with overexpression of the cErbB2 protein. PMID:23525369

  8. Coexistence of Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Choriocarcinoma: Complete Response to Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyda Gunduz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and usually accompanies gastric adenocarcinoma. The prognosis is poor due to the aggressive course of the disease. A 57-year-old female patient with weight loss and abdominal pain was examined. The patient was operated following the examination, and pathological analysis revealed the presence of a gastric adenocarcinoma associated with choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a positive reaction with antibodies to beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and overexpression of the cErbB2 proto-oncogene. Staging revealed multiple metastases in the liver. A complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and chemotherapy. The diagnosis of gastric choriocarcinomas without pathological examination is difficult due to their rare occurrence. A complete response can be obtained with trastuzumab in the treatment of cases with overexpression of the cErbB2 protein.

  9. The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48 h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen induces changes in placental BCRP expression in vitro. • This drug reduces the ability of placental cells to export BCRP substrates. • Acetaminophen induces changes in Bcrp expression in rat placenta. • Placental barrier to bile acids is impaired in rats treated with this drug

  10. The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez, Alba G., E-mail: albamgb@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Briz, Oscar, E-mail: obriz@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester, E-mail: u60343@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Perez, Maria J., E-mail: mjperez@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); University Hospital of Salamanca, IECSCYL-IBSAL, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Ghanem, Carolina I., E-mail: cghanem@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacologicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marin, Jose J.G., E-mail: jjgmarin@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48 h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen induces changes in placental BCRP expression in vitro. • This drug reduces the ability of placental cells to export BCRP substrates. • Acetaminophen induces changes in Bcrp expression in rat placenta. • Placental barrier to bile acids is impaired in rats treated with this drug.

  11. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response to chemo...

  12. Gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang Wool Eom; So-Youn Jung; Hongman Yoon; Myeong-Cherl Kook; Keun Won Ryu; Jun Ho Lee; Young-Woo Kim

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma .A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum.The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth Ⅱ gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively.

  13. Choriocarcinoma with negative urinary and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β HCG : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Reeti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This was a rare case where a patient presented clinically as a case of post abortal sepsis and ultrasound showing the picture of an intramural degenerating fibroid. Her serum and urine both were negative for b human chorionic gonadotropin (bHCG. Patient succumbed to choriocarcinoma 1 month later. Failure to detect urinary and serum bHCG lead to maternal mortality due to the choriocarcinoma. The failure to detect, certain degradation products of HCG which may predominate in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, by many common HCG testing kits lead to the error of diagnosis. Only 3 of the 7 common commercial serum HCG tests appropriately detects nicked HCG and its free bHCG, DPC immulite assay, being the most sensitive method. Though of rare occurrence, this awareness is important for diagnosis and follow-up of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and could have been life saving in our case.

  14. [Metastatic choriocarcinoma associated with Wunderlich syndrome: case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojendiz-Nava, Roberto Carlos; Niebla-Cárdenas, Danniela; Hernández-Flores, Sara Elia; Audifred-Salomón, Jorge Román; Morales-Leyte, Ana Lilia

    2015-03-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a rare condition, with an incidence of 1 in 30 to 40,000 pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In Mexico it is reported in 1 in 10,000 pregnancies. Wunderlich syndrome is a spontaneous perirenal hematoma, a very rare entity. This paper reports the case of a young patient with a history of molar pregnancy one year prior to admission, valuation due to fainting, generalized headache, spontaneous pain in the right flank and data of hypovolemic shock. Computed tomography reported right perirenal hematoma, normal uterus, two annexes with data of tecaluteinic cysts, beta human chorionic gonadotropin greater than 200,000 IU/mL. Patient was stabilized with crystalloid, blood products and right adrenal artery embolization. It was corroborated the brain, mediastinum and abdomen metastases. She was sent to a third level hospital, starting holocraneal radiotherapy, she had retroperitoneal bleeding and died a week later.

  15. Gestational Choriocarcinoma Presenting with Lacrimal Gland Metastasis: A First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naushad A. B. Ahamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational choriocarcinoma (GC is a recognized clinicopathological subtype of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that usually metastasizes hematogenously to highly vascular organs like the lung, liver, and brain. However, orbital metastasis to the choroid and lacrimal gland is a rare occurrence. Case Presentation. A 21-year-old female presented with headache and left orbital swelling one year after resection of a complete hydatidiform mole followed by adjuvant methotrexate chemotherapy. A metastatic imaging screening revealed multiple metastases in the lungs, brain, and adrenal gland, in addition to the choroid and lacrimal gland. Based on her modified WHO risk factors scoring she was started on chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy, which resulted in a complete response. At two-year follow-up, serum b-HCG level was with normal limits; imaging surveillance was uneventful. Conclusion. We present the first case of lacrimal gland metastasis in a young girl from GC relapse.

  16. "Term delivery following successful treatment of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases, (a case report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Behnamfar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral metastases from choriocarcinoma are poor prognostic indicator of outcome in both the World Health Organization and FIGO classification systems. Although gestational trophoblastic neoplasia has become the most curable gynecological malignancy, failure rate among “high-risk” patients is still high despite the use of aggressive multidrug regimens. case: A 27 year old woman (G4P2Ab1 presented with hemiplegia due to brain metastases of choriocarcinoma one year after spontaneous abortion. She underwent craniotomy and was treated with nine courses of multiple agent etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-etoposide and cisplatinum (EMA-EP regimen combined with whole brain irradiation. She delivered a term healthy child two years after termination of treatment. Conclusion: Multiagent EMA-EP chemotherapy and whole brain irradiation with craniotomy in selected patients preserves fertility and may improve a patient overall prognosis. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their sexual status and some demographic data. In 122 cases the answers of the spouses was collected also. The answers were compared in divided groups according to age range, duration of marriage, parity and educational status. Results: Fifty five percent of men and fifty eight percent of women had a negative attitude about sexual relations during pregnancy, and 60% of men and 75% of women presented incorrect knowledge about sexuality during pregnancy. Main reasons for decreased sexual relations in pregnancy were mentioned to be dysparaunia, and the fear of trauma to the baby, abortion, membrane rapture, preterm labor and infection. Conclusion: As couples’ knowledge and attitudes about sexuality affect their general sexual behavior during pregnancy it is crucial to provide proper consultation regarding

  17. Contributions of Phosphorylation to Regulation of OCTN2 Uptake of Carnitine are Minimal in BeWo Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rytting, Erik; Audus, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological functions of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the placenta include transporting essential nutrients from the maternal to fetal circulations. OCTN2 transports carnitine with high affinity, and the transport of several drugs has also been shown to be mediated by this transporter. In this work, the role of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanisms in regulating OCTN2 was investigated by observing the effects of various activators and inhibitors of kinases and phosphatas...

  18. Proteasome-independent degradation of HIV-1 in naturally non-permissive human placental trophoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. Results Here we analysed viral entry in wild type BeWo (CCR5+, CXCR4+ and BeWo-CD4+ (CD4+, CCR5+, CXCR4+ cells. We report that HIV-1 internalisation is not restricted in either cell line. Levels of internalised p24 antigen between VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes and R5 or X4 virions were comparable. We next analysed the fate of internalised virions; X4 and R5 HIV-1 virions were less stable over time in BeWo cells than VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes. We then investigated the role of the proteasome in restricting cell-free HIV-1 infection in BeWo cells using proteasome inhibitors. We observed an increase in the levels of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in proteasome-inhibitor treated cells, but the infection by R5-Env or X4-Env pseudotyped virions remains restricted. Conclusion Collectively these results suggest that cell-free HIV-1 infection encounters a surface block leading to a non-productive entry route, which either actively targets incoming virions for non-proteasomal degradation, and impedes their release into the cytoplasm, or causes the inactivation of mechanisms essential for viral replication.

  19. Clinicopathological analysis of non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiong; Guo, Chao; ZOU, LINGFENG; Wang, Yun; Song, Xin; Ma, Yaqi; Liu, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological features of two cases of non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma (NGCO). The histopathological, immunohistochemical and clinical features of two cases of NGCO in the left ovaries of two 13 year-old female patients were investigated and the relevant literature was reviewed. In both cases, the tumor masses exhibited cribriform, papillary and nested cellular growth patterns, and hemorrhage and necrosis were evident. In case one,...

  20. Coriocarcinoma: um estudo de caso Coriocarcinoma: un estudio de caso Choriocarcinoma: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Alves Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever o caso de uma cliente portadora de coriocarcinoma gestacional e a assistência de enfermagem necessária a esta condição. A partir de informações constantes do prontuário médico e de anamnese e exame físico realizados em visita domiciliária, formularam-se diagnósticos e intervenções de enfermagem embasados na literatura. Foram identificados diagnósticos referentes aos períodos perioperatório e de tratamento quimioterápico. Além dos diagnósticos referidos, foi possível identificar outros relativos ao período pós-tratamento da cliente. O processo de enfermagem mostrou-se efetivo para a assistência qualificada à cliente com coriocarcinoma.El presente estudio objetivó describir el caso de una cliente portadora de coriocarcinoma gestacional y la asistencia de enfermería necesaria a esta condición. A partir de informaciones constantes del prontuario médico y de anamnese y examen físico realizados en visita domiciliaria, se formularon diagnósticos e intervenciones de enfermería embasados en la literatura. Fueron identificados diagnósticos referentes a los períodos periquirúrgico y de tratamiento quimioterápico. Además de los diagnósticos referidos, fue posible identificar otros relativos al período pos-tratamiento de la cliente. El proceso de enfermeria se mostro efectivo para la asistencia calificada a la cliente con coriocarcinoma.The present study aimed at describing the case of a client bearer for gestational choriocarcinoma and the nursing assistance needed for this condition. From information contained in the medical history and of anamnesis and physical examination made in a home visit, made up diagnoses and inteventions of nursing based in literature. Diagnoses have been identified related to the periods perioperative and chemotherapy treatment. In addition to these diagnoses, it was possible to identify others on the post-treatment period of client. The process of

  1. A Fibroid or Cancer? A Rare Case of Mixed Choriocarcinoma and Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Luk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD is a rare complication of pregnancy which is characterised by abnormal growth of the trophoblasts at the placental site. It is categorised into benign and malignant forms, which include hydatidiform moles (HMs and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN, respectively. A mixed choriocarcinoma (CC and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT is an extremely rare subgroup of GTN, which is a highly curable but aggressive form of malignancy. Case. We report a case of mixed CC and ETT in a 41-year-old patient who presented with a 2-year history of menorrhagia and fibroid uterus in the absence of previous history of molar pregnancy. She had a 12-year interval between the antecedent pregnancy and presentation. She was treated with intensive regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy, etoposide, methotrexate, and actinomycin-D with etoposide and cisplatin (EMA-EP. She has remained disease free for more than 5 years. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering GTN as one of the differential diagnoses value of β-HCG in patients presented with menorrhagia and growing fibroids.

  2. A rare case of arteriovenous malformation following hysterectomy in a case of choriocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM is a rare cause of uterine bleeding. It may have varied presentations ranging from being completely asymptomatic; to features of congestive heart failure, to vaginal bleeding which may at times life be threatening. Clinical findings in such cases are often un-reliable; requiring a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis. We report a case of a 46-year-old lady who presented with heavy vaginal bleeding. She has undergone hysterectomy with a histopathology of choriocarcinoma one and half months back. She has received chemotherapy and 8 fractions of radiotherapy for the same. AVM was diagnosed following a CT angiogram and was managed by embolization. We also discuss in brief about this uncommon but serious condition which the radiologist/gynaecologist may encounter in their practice. AV Malformation is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of vaginal bleeding which must be kept in the differential diagnosis of sudden and massive vaginal bleeding. It requires a high index of clinical suspicion. Despite its rarity, early recognition of an AVM is imperative to enable timely diagnosis and intervention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1561-1564

  3. Primary choriocarcinoma of uterine cervix treated by uterine artery drug pouring and embolism:one case report%子宫动脉药物灌注及栓塞治疗原发性宫颈绒癌一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Haiyang Jiang; Shaoguang Wang; Xuan Wang; Zhiyun Song

    2009-01-01

    Primary choriocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (PCC) is an extremely rare disease. The conventional treatment of PCC is a combination of hysterectomy and chemotherapy. We present one rare case proved by cervical biopsy. The patient was an 36-year-old Chinese woman with irregular vaginal bleeding for 60 days. A cervical tumoral mass was seen in the pel-vic examination and biopsy revealed active hyperplasia of trophoblastic cell, Because of massive vaginal haemorThage, the patient accepted uterine artery drug pouring and embolism emergently. This management had gained a satisfactory effect. Thus, Uterine artery drug pouring and embolism is one new and effective weapon for PCC, which can preserve the patient's productive abUity.

  4. Choriocarcinoma syndrome を来した性腺外胚細胞腫瘍に対してModified BEP レジメンによる導入化学療法が奏効した1例

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 純平; 植村, 元秀; 加藤, 大悟; 永原, 啓; 木内, 寛; 辻村, 晃; 野々村, 祝夫

    2014-01-01

    We present a case study of a 46-year-old man with extra gonadal germ cell tumor with multiple lung metastases and very high levels (324, 100 mIU/ml) of the tumor marker human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). He underwent chemotherapy with VP-16, ifosfamide and cisplatinum regimen, but on day 2, he noticed strong dyspnea. A chest X-ray showed bilateral infiltration of the lungs, and he was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from choriocarcinoma syndrome. After ARDS improved...

  5. 妊娠绒毛膜癌肺转移的诊治进展%Progress of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Metastasis of Gestational Choriocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冬捷

    2011-01-01

    Gestational choriocarcinoma is the most common gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. It is prone to hematogenous metastasis, most commonly to the lungs. With the advent and development of chemotherapy, choriocarcinoma has become a curable tumor. However, patients with drug-resistant and recurrent choriocarcinoma are difficult to treat, even with the management of pulmonary metastasis. Resorting to surgery is also a tough decision given the challenges of identify-ing the appropriate surgical indication and timing. This review discusses the basic principles of management as well as recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary metastasis of gestational choriocarcinoma.%妊娠绒毛膜癌(简称绒癌)是最常见的妊娠滋养细胞肿瘤,极易发生血行转移,常出现肺转移.自一系列有效化疗药物用于绒癌治疗之后,绒癌已成为可治愈的恶性肿瘤之一,但耐药及复发仍是治疗失败的主要原因,特别是肺转移灶的处理.如何掌握手术指征和时机成为治疗难点.本文就绒癌肺转移的诊断、化疗、手术指征及时机、手术方式等治疗进展进行综述.

  6. Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular

  7. Cytogenetics of a malignant ovarian germ-cell tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten, J; van Doorn, LC; van der Linden, HC; van der Veen, AY; de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    Cytogenetic investigation of a malignant ovarian tumor diagnosed as a mixed germ-cell tumor, composed of extensive choriocarcinoma and foci of yolk-sac tumor, revealed a highly abnormal chromosomal pattern. We found a chromosome number in the hypertriploid/hypotetraploid range, and several clonal st

  8. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2012-01-01

    ’s exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells. Methods: The growth of BeWo (clone b30) human...... placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium...

  9. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2012-01-01

    's exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells. METHODS: The growth of BeWo (clone b30) human...... placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell(®) insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein...

  10. Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from pumpkin seeds on estradiol production and ER/PR expression in breast cancer and trophoblast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dagmar; Abarzua, Sibylle; Chrobak, Mareike; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Weissenbacher, Tobias; Kuhn, Christina; Schulze, Sandra; Kupka, Markus S; Friese, Klaus; Briese, Volker; Piechulla, Birgit; Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Jeschke, Udo; Dian, Darius

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have a controversial effect on hormone-dependent tumours. Herein, we investigated the effect of the pumpkin seed extract (PSE) on estradiol production and estrogen receptor (ER)-α/ER-β/progesterone receptor (PR) status on MCF7, Jeg3, and BeWo cells. The PSE was prepared and analyzed by mass spectrometry. MCF7, Jeg3, and BeWo cells were incubated with various concentrations of PSE. Untreated cells served as controls. Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the PSE on ER-α/ER-β/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. The PSE was found to contain both lignans and flavones. Estradiol production was elevated in MCF7, BeWo, and Jeg3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In MCF7 cells, a significant ER-α downregulation and a significant PR upregulation were observed. The above results after properly designed animal studies could highlight a potential role of pumpkin seed's lignans in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment. PMID:23859042

  11. Placental Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the Interaction Between VAR2CSA and Chondroitin Sulfate A on Syndecan-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres Pereira, Marina; Mandel Clausen, Thomas; Pehrson, Caroline; Mao, Yang; Resende, Mafalda; Daugaard, Mads; Riis Kristensen, Anders; Spliid, Charlotte; Mathiesen, Line; E Knudsen, Lisbeth; Damm, Peter; G Theander, Thor; R Hansson, Stefan; A Nielsen, Morten; Salanti, Ali

    2016-08-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location. VAR2CSA pull-down experiments using placental extracts from whole placenta or syncytiotrophoblast microvillous cell membranes showed three distinct CSPGs available for VAR2CSA adherence. Further examination of these three CSPGs by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays showed that syndecan-1 is the main receptor for VAR2CSA mediated placental adherence. We further show that the commonly used placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, express a different set of proteoglycans than those present on placental syncytiotrophoblast and may not be the most biologically relevant model to study placental malaria. Syncytial fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells. PMID:27556547

  12. Placental Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the Interaction Between VAR2CSA and Chondroitin Sulfate A on Syndecan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yang; Resende, Mafalda; Daugaard, Mads; Riis Kristensen, Anders; Damm, Peter; G. Theander, Thor; R. Hansson, Stefan; Salanti, Ali

    2016-01-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location. VAR2CSA pull-down experiments using placental extracts from whole placenta or syncytiotrophoblast microvillous cell membranes showed three distinct CSPGs available for VAR2CSA adherence. Further examination of these three CSPGs by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays showed that syndecan-1 is the main receptor for VAR2CSA mediated placental adherence. We further show that the commonly used placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, express a different set of proteoglycans than those present on placental syncytiotrophoblast and may not be the most biologically relevant model to study placental malaria. Syncytial fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells. PMID:27556547

  13. Translocation of positively and negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro placental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, Samantha K; Walczak, Agata P; Louisse, Jochem; van den Berg, Hans H J; Bouwmeester, Hans; Tromp, Peter; Fokkink, Remco G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2015-10-01

    To obtain insight in translocation of nanoparticles across the placental barrier, translocation was studied for one positively and two negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) of similar size in an in vitro model. The model consisted of BeWo b30 cells, derived from a human choriocarcinoma grown on a transwell insert forming a cell layer that separates an apical from a basolateral compartment. PS-NPs were characterized with respect to size, surface charge, morphology and protein corona. Translocation of PS-NPs was not related to PS-NP charge. Two PS-NPs were translocated across the BeWo transwell model to a lower extent than amoxicillin, a model compound known to be translocated over the placental barrier to only a limited extent, whereas one PS-NP showed a slightly higher translocation. Studies on the effect of transporter inhibitors on the translocation of the PS-NPs indicated that their translocation was not mediated by known transporters and mainly dependent on passive diffusion. It is concluded that the BeWo b30 model can be used as an efficient method to get an initial qualitative impression about the capacity of NPs to translocate across the placental barrier and set priorities in further in vivo studies on translocation of NPs to the fetus.

  14. Translocation of positively and negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro placental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, Samantha K; Walczak, Agata P; Louisse, Jochem; van den Berg, Hans H J; Bouwmeester, Hans; Tromp, Peter; Fokkink, Remco G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2015-10-01

    To obtain insight in translocation of nanoparticles across the placental barrier, translocation was studied for one positively and two negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) of similar size in an in vitro model. The model consisted of BeWo b30 cells, derived from a human choriocarcinoma grown on a transwell insert forming a cell layer that separates an apical from a basolateral compartment. PS-NPs were characterized with respect to size, surface charge, morphology and protein corona. Translocation of PS-NPs was not related to PS-NP charge. Two PS-NPs were translocated across the BeWo transwell model to a lower extent than amoxicillin, a model compound known to be translocated over the placental barrier to only a limited extent, whereas one PS-NP showed a slightly higher translocation. Studies on the effect of transporter inhibitors on the translocation of the PS-NPs indicated that their translocation was not mediated by known transporters and mainly dependent on passive diffusion. It is concluded that the BeWo b30 model can be used as an efficient method to get an initial qualitative impression about the capacity of NPs to translocate across the placental barrier and set priorities in further in vivo studies on translocation of NPs to the fetus. PMID:26145586

  15. 男性胃原发性绒毛膜癌一例并文献复习%Primary gastric choriocarcinoma in male patients:A case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆莉莉; 王欣; 张颖; 常滋毓; 杨丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pathogenetic factors,differential diagnosis and treatment regimen for the primary gastric choriocarcinoma in male patients.Methods:Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the clinical picture and pathological properties in one case of primary gastric chorio-carcinoma,and related literatures were reviewed.Results:Microscopically,the tumor presented with its partial cells analogou to cytotrophoblasts and syncy-tiotrophoblasts,and other cells were low-differentiated adenocarcinoma.Immunohistochemistry findings revealed positive expression of CK and CK7 for the tumor cells,HCG for the syncytiotrophoblasts,and EMA and CEA for the adenocarcinoma.Treatments were associated with surgery and chemotherapy,yet the patient died 6 months later due to lung metastasis and mutiple organs failure .Conclusion:Primary gastric choriocarcionma is a rare case in males with highest malignancy,which makes difficult treatment and poor prognosis,though its therapy regimen currently relies on integrated options.%目的:探讨男性胃原发性绒毛膜癌的发病因素,诊断、鉴别诊断及治疗方案。方法:对1例男性胃原发性绒毛膜癌病例进行临床表现、病理学特点、免疫组化检测,并进行相关文献复习。结果:镜下显示部分瘤细胞似细胞滋养层细胞和合体滋养层细胞;部分瘤细胞为低分化腺癌细胞。免疫组化示肿瘤细胞CK、CK7表达阳性;合体滋养细胞HCG表达阳性;腺癌细胞EMA、CEA表达阳性。采用手术加化疗的综合治疗,6个月后患者因肺转移,多脏器功能衰竭死亡。结论:发生于男性胃原发性绒毛膜癌极其罕见,恶性程度高,治疗难度大,以综合治疗为主,预后差。

  16. Clinical Study and Literature Review of Intracranial Metastases of Choriocarcinoma%鞘内注射甲氨蝶呤治疗绒毛膜细胞癌脑转移9例疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家玲; 武立菊; 陈小祥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative efficacy of intrathecal methotrexate chemotherapy for patients with in -tracranial metastases of choriocarcinoma .Methods Retrospectively reviewed 9 brain metastases choriocarcinoma patients who re-ceived intrathecal methotrexate combined with multiagent systemic chemotherapy in our hospital .Results Remission rate was 88.9 % and 5-year survival rate of these cases was 44.4%,side effects were tolerable .Conclusion Intrathecal methotrexate chemotherapy is effective and safety for patients with intracranial metastases of choriocarcinoma .%目的:探讨鞘内注射甲氨喋呤治疗绒毛膜细胞癌脑转移的疗效。方法回顾性分析9例经鞘内注射甲氨喋呤联合静脉化学治疗绒毛膜细胞癌脑转移的疗效和副作用。结果鞘内注射甲氨喋呤治疗绒毛膜细胞癌脑转移客观缓解率为88.9%,5年生存率为44.4%,不良反应轻。结论鞘内注射甲氨喋呤治疗绒毛膜细胞癌颅内转移安全、有效。

  17. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  18. A Case Report of Gastric Primary Choriocarcinoma with Multiple Organs Metastasis and Relaled Literature Review%胃原发性绒毛膜癌伴多脏器转移一例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    底建敏; 王健; 杨艳瑞; 徐杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide reference for clinical treatment by detecting the growth characteristics of thegastric pri-mary choriocarcinoma with multiple organs metastasis. Methods A case diagnosed as gastric primary choriocarcinoma was retro-spective analyzed and related literatures were reviewed. Results The patient wad admitted for irregular vaginal bleeding for 6+months. Urine pregnancy test was positive (+) at a local hospital, pelvic color doppler ultrasound examination indicated no gesta-tional sac. In our hospital the checkedck blood humen chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) increased obviously, after the test, the chest, abdomen, pelvic CT examinations, and liver biopsy and immunohistochemical, gastroscope biopsy and diagnostic curettage (endometrium of menstrual period) were performed and the patient was diagnosed withgastric primary choriocarcinoma. The patient lived nearly eight months after chemotherapy and biological treatment and died of multi-organs failure. Conclusion Gastric primary choriocarcinoma is rare, with high malignant degree and fast tumor progress, and early distant metastases. It has poor prognosis.%目的 探讨胃原发性绒毛膜癌(绒癌)伴多脏器转移患者肿瘤的生长特点,为临床治疗提供参考.方法 对胃原发性绒癌1例的临床资料进行回顾性分析并复习相关文献.结果 本例因阴道不规则出血6+个月入院.在当地医院查尿妊娠试验(+),行盆腔彩色多普勒超声(彩超)检查提示未见妊娠囊.后在我院查血绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-hCG)明显升高,结合胸部、腹部、盆腔CT检查及肝穿刺活检、免疫组织化学、胃镜活检及诊断性刮宫(月经期子宫内膜),明确诊断为胃原发性绒癌,予化疗及生物治疗,存活近8个月出现多脏器功能衰竭,家属放弃治疗后死亡.结论 胃原发性绒癌临床较为少见,恶性程度高,肿瘤进展迅速,早期多已出现远处转移,监测血清β-hCG水平可评价治疗效果,但预后一般较差.

  19. Postoperative ectopic pregnancy with choriocarcinoma of brain metastases(a report of 1 case and review of literature)%异位妊娠术后绒癌脑转移1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东媛; 曾小君; 孙彦辉; 汪向红; 刘妮英; 范妮娜; 王丹; 张红波; 陈小奇; 穆林森; 张锦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report one case of postoperative ectopic pregnancy with choriocarcinoma of brain metastases and rexiew the literature .Methods Combined with gynecological ,neurological,pathology and imaging examination the results clearly confirmed choriocarcinoma .By undergone emergency ectopic pregnancy laparoscopic surgery to remove the lesion Oviduct and Gestational sac ,the postoperative pathology showed normal embryos .The follow up from 6 to 12 months showed a case was diagnosed brain metastases by craniotomy and pathological reports showed as choriocarcinoma .Lumbar puncture methotrexate chemotherapy , dehydration , hormones and other symptomatic treatment were underwent .Results The patients ’ symptoms improved and no recurrent lesions were followed up for 6 months.Conclusions The postoperative ectopic pregnancy with choriocarcinoma of brain metastases occurrs in childbearing women age with atypical clinical manifestations and high misdiagnosis . Chemotherapy combined therapy may improve symptoms in postoperative .%目的:报告1例异位妊娠术后绒癌脑转移瘤的病例并回顾文献。方法通过妇科及神经系统检查,病理及影像学结果确诊绒癌。急诊行腹腔镜下异位妊娠手术,切除孕囊及病变侧输卵管,术后病理示正常胚胎。术后随访6~12个月1例发生脑转移,予以开颅手术,病理报告绒癌。术后腰穿甲氨蝶呤化疗、脱水、激素等对症治疗。结果患者术后症状改善,随访6个月未见病变复发。结论异位妊娠术后发生绒癌脑转移瘤可见于育龄妇女,临床表现不典型,误诊率高。术后化疗为主的综合治疗可改善患者症状。

  20. Embolia pulmonar decorrente de coriocarcinoma metastático com apresentação atípica Pulmonary embolism resulting from metastatic choriocarcinoma with atypical presentation: report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Jesus Jhayya

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o caso de uma paciente de 36 anos, com coriocarcinoma metastático pulmonar com apresentação clínica e radiológica atípica. O achado de hipertensão pulmonar indicou a possibilidade de tromboembolia pulmonar; todavia, o diagnóstico definitivo e causa da embolia pulmonar foram dados na autópsia. Discutem-se as formas de apresentação das metástases do coriocarcinoma, sua repercussão e o período de latência que pode existir até evidenciar a neoplasia.A case is presented of a 36 year-old woman, with metastatic lung choriocarcinoma with atypical clinical and radiological presentation. The finding of pulmonary hypertension indicated the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism, still, the definitive diagnosis and cause of pulmonary embolism were done in the autopsy. The authors discuss the manners of choriocarcinoma metastasis presentation, its repercussions and the latent period which may exist until it presents evidence of neoplasm.

  1. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartwright L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura Cartwright1, Marie Sønnegaard Poulsen2, Hanne Mørck Nielsen3, Giulio Pojana4, Lisbeth E Knudsen2, Margaret Saunders1, Erik Rytting2,51Bristol Initiative for Research of Child Health (BIRCH, Biophysics Research Unit, St Michael's Hospital, UH Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK; 2University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, 3University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice, Venice, Italy; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USABackground: Advances in biomedical nanotechnology raise hopes in patient populations but may also raise questions regarding biodistribution and biocompatibility, especially during pregnancy. Special consideration must be given to the placenta as a biological barrier because a pregnant woman's exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells.Methods: The growth of BeWo (clone b30 human placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium transport. Following the determination of nontoxic concentrations of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles, the cellular uptake and transport of 50 nm and 100 nm diameter particles was measured using the in vitro BeWo cell model.Results: Particle size measurements, fluorescence readings, and confocal microscopy indicated both cellular uptake of

  2. Regulation of leptin expression by 17beta-estradiol in human placental cells involves membrane associated estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Yésica P; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Dueñas, José L; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Varone, Cecilia L

    2012-04-01

    The placenta produces a wide number of molecules that play essential roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. In this context, leptin has emerged as an important player in reproduction. The synthesis of leptin in normal trophoblastic cells is regulated by different endogenous biochemical agents, but the regulation of placental leptin expression is still poorly understood. We have previously reported that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) up-regulates placental leptin expression. To improve the understanding of estrogen receptor mechanisms in regulating leptin gene expression, in the current study we examined the effect of membrane-constrained E(2) conjugate, E-BSA, on leptin expression in human placental cells. We have found that leptin expression was induced by E-BSA both in BeWo cells and human placental explants, suggesting that E(2) also exerts its effects through membrane receptors. Moreover E-BSA rapidly activated different MAPKs and AKT pathways, and these pathways were involved in E(2) induced placental leptin expression. On the other hand we demonstrated the presence of ERα associated to the plasma membrane of BeWo cells. We showed that E(2) genomic and nongenomic actions could be mediated by ERα. Supporting this idea, the downregulation of ERα level through a specific siRNA, decreased E-BSA effects on leptin expression. Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the mechanisms whereby E(2) regulates leptin expression in placenta and support the importance of leptin in placental physiology.

  3. Recent advances in understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of pediatric germ cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Christiane Hammershaimb; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Brok, Jesper S;

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare neoplasms arising predominantly in the gonads and sacrococcygeal, mediastinal, and intracranial localizations. In this article, we review current knowledge of pathogenesis of pediatric GCTs, which differs from adult/adolescent GCTs. One distinctive feature...... transcription factors OCT-3/4, NANOG, and AP-2γ in germinomas/seminomas/dysgerminomas is consistent with retaining a germ cell phenotype. Teratomas, in contrast, develop through a pathway of aberrant somatic differentiation of immature germ cells, and the yolk sac tumors and choriocarcinomas result from...... of pathogenesis of these fascinating tumors....

  4. Regulation of human trophoblast GLUT1 glucose transporter by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc U Baumann

    Full Text Available Glucose transport to the fetus across the placenta takes place via glucose transporters in the opposing faces of the barrier layer, the microvillous and basal membranes of the syncytiotrophoblast. While basal membrane content of the GLUT1 glucose transporter appears to be the rate-limiting step in transplacental transport, the factors regulating transporter expression and activity are largely unknown. In view of the many studies showing an association between IGF-I and fetal growth, we investigated the effects of IGF-I on placental glucose transport and GLUT1 transporter expression. Treatment of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells with IGF-I increased cellular GLUT1 protein. There was increased basolateral (but not microvillous uptake of glucose and increased transepithelial transport of glucose across the BeWo monolayer. Primary syncytial cells treated with IGF-I also demonstrated an increase in GLUT1 protein. Term placental explants treated with IGF-I showed an increase in syncytial basal membrane GLUT1 but microvillous membrane GLUT1 was not affected. The placental dual perfusion model was used to assess the effects of fetally perfused IGF-I on transplacental glucose transport and syncytial GLUT1 content. In control perfusions there was a decrease in transplacental glucose transport over the course of the perfusion, whereas in tissues perfused with IGF-I through the fetal circulation there was no change. Syncytial basal membranes from IGF-I perfused tissues showed an increase in GLUT1 content. These results demonstrate that IGF-I, whether acting via microvillous or basal membrane receptors, increases the basal membrane content of GLUT1 and up-regulates basal membrane transport of glucose, leading to increased transepithelial glucose transport. These observations provide a partial explanation for the mechanism by which IGF-I controls nutrient supply in the regulation of fetal growth.

  5. CpG methylation suppresses transcriptional activity of human syncytin-1 in non-placental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncytin-1 is a captive envelope glycoprotein encoded by one of human endogenous retroviruses W. It is expressed exclusively in the placental trophoblast where it participates in cell-to-cell fusion during differentiation of syncytiotrophobast. In other tissues, however, syncytin-1 expression must be kept in check because inadvertent cell fusion might be dangerous for tissue organization and integrity. We describe here an inverse correlation between CpG methylation of syncytin-1 5' long terminal repeat and its expression. Hypomethylation of the syncytin-1 5' long terminal repeat in the placenta and in the choriocarcinoma-derived cell line BeWo was detected. However, other analyzed primary cells and cell lines non-expressing syncytin-1 contain proviruses heavily methylated in this sequence. CpG methylation of syncytin-1 is resistant to the effect of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine. The inhibitory role of CpG methylation is further confirmed by transient transfection of in-vitro-methylated syncytin-1 promoter-driven reporter construct. Altogether, we conclude that CpG methylation plays a principal role in the transcriptional suppression of syncytin-1 in non-placental tissues, and, in contrast, demethylation of the syncytin-1 promoter in trophoblast is a prerequisite for its expression and differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast

  6. A transplant recipient with a mixed germ-cell ovarian tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketata Hafed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients seem to be at significantly increased risk of developing neoplasms comparatively to nonimmunosuppressed individuals. A history of malignancy exposes the patient to a high risk for relapse after transplantation. We present a trans-plant recipient with a history of an ovarian mixed germ-cell tumor, with choriocarcinoma com-ponent, which was treated seven years prior to transplantation. After three years of follow-up, there was no evidence of tumor relapse. To our knowledge, there is no report of such case in the English literature. Regarding our case report and patients with a history of ovarian germ-cell neoplasm, waiting time before transplantation must take into consideration the stage of the tumor, its prognosis, the proportion of different tumor components, and the overall prognosis of the patient if transplantation is withheld.

  7. So-called intracranial germ cell tumours: personal experiences and a theory of their pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K; Matsutani, M; Seto, T

    1989-06-01

    We investigated 110 cases of intracranial germ cell tumours (up to the end of 1986), 56% of which showed monotypic histological patterns and 44% were shown to be mixed tumours. All these cases underwent surgery followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy. All cases of choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma died within 2 yr: cases of endodermal sinus tumour also showed poor results (4 yr survival rate was 12.5%). Mature teratoma had a 5 yr survival rate (5YSR) and a 10 yr survival rate (10YSR) of 78.3% each: immature teratoma showed a 5YSR of 44.9%. Two-cell pattern tumours (PTC) showed a 5YSR of 85.8% and a 10YSR of 82.4%. They (PTC) can be divided into two groups (i) germinoma and (ii) pinealoma of pineal parenchyma origin (pineocytoma with lymphocytic infiltration) on the basis of the difference in the tumour cell-stroma relationship and also placental alkaline phosphatase stain. In the pineal region, 70% of PTC belonged to the category of pinealoma and in the suprasellar region, 92% of PTC were germinoma. Germinoma showed a 5YSR of 91.4% and a 10YSR of 91.4%, whereas those of the pinealoma were 78.2% and 68.4% respectively. This suggests that the biological characteristics of germinoma and pinealoma may be different. All these results may bring into question the validity of the germ cell theory, since germinoma, which should be the most undifferentiated according to the theory, was the most benign and choriocarcinoma and endodermal sinus tumour, which should be the most differentiated, were the most malignant in the follow-up study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2569683

  8. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  9. A new approach combining LC-MS and multivariate statistical analysis for revealing changes in histone modification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgraer, Raphaël; Gillet, Sylvie; Gil, Sophie; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Laprévote, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    While acting upon chromatin compaction, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are involved in modulating gene expression through histone-DNA affinity and protein-protein interactions. These dynamic and environment-sensitive modifications are constitutive of the histone code that reflects the transient transcriptional state of the chromatin. Here we describe a global screening approach for revealing epigenetic disruption at the histone level. This original approach enables fast and reliable relative abundance comparison of histone PTMs and variants in human cells within a single LC-MS experiment. As a proof of concept, we exposed BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells to sodium butyrate (SB), a universal histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Histone acid-extracts (n = 45) equally representing 3 distinct classes, Control, 1 mM and 2.5 mM SB, were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Multivariate statistics allowed us to discriminate control from treated samples based on differences in their mass spectral profiles. Several acetylated and methylated forms of core histones emerged as markers of sodium butyrate treatment. Indeed, this untargeted histonomic approach could be a useful exploratory tool in many cases of xenobiotic exposure when histone code disruption is suspected. PMID:25167371

  10. Differential expression of the metastasis suppressor KAI1 in decidual cells and trophoblast giant cells at the feto-maternal interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Bon Koo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasion of trophoblasts into maternal uterine tissue is essentialfor establishing mature feto-maternal circulation. The trophoblastinvasion associated with placentation is similar to tumorinvasion. In this study, we investigated the role of KAI1, ananti-metastasis factor, at the maternal-fetal interface duringplacentation. Mouse embryos were obtained from gestationaldays 5.5 (E5.5 to E13.5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealedthat KAI1 was expressed on decidual cells around the trackmade when a fertilized ovum invaded the endometrium, at daysE5.5 and E7.5, and on trophoblast giant cells, along the centralmaternal artery of the placenta at E9.5. KAI1 in trophoblast giantcells was increased at E11.5, and then decreased at E13.5.Furthermore, KAI1 was upregulated during the forskolinmediatedtrophoblastic differentiation of BeWo cells. Collectively,these results indicate that KAI1 is differentially expressedin decidual cells and trophoblasts at the maternal-fetal interface,suggesting that KAI1 prevents trophoblast invasion duringplacentation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10: 507-512

  11. Dose-dependent and cell type-specific cell death and proliferation following in vitro exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstrasser, Tanja; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave (rESW) therapy is widely used in musculoskeletal disorders and wound repair. However, the mechanisms of action are still largely unknown. The current study compared the effects of rESWs on two cell types. Human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFF2) and human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3 were exposed to 0, 100, 200, 500 or 5000 rESWs generated with a Swiss DolorClast device (2.5 bar, 1 Hz). FACS analysis immediately after rESW exposure showed that initially, rESWs rather induced mechanical cell destruction than regulated or programmed cell death. Cell damage was nearly negated by reducing cavitation. Furthermore, cell viability decreased progressively with higher numbers of rESWs. Exposure to rESWs had no impact on growth potential of JEG-3 cells, but dose-dependently increased growth potential of HFFF2 cells. Cultivation of cells that were initially exposed to sham-rESWs in conditioned media increased the growth potential of HFFF2 cells, nevertheless, an even stronger effect was achieved by direct exposure to rESWs. Additionally, cell cycle distribution analysis demonstrated a shift in proportion from G0/G1 to G2/M phase in HFFF2 cells, but not in JEG-3 cells. These data demonstrate that rESWs leads to initial and subsequent dose-dependent and cell type-specific effects in vitro. PMID:27477873

  12. The Effect of Hypoxia on Expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in BeWo Cell Line%缺氧对BeWo细胞系中缺氧诱导因子2及其靶基因VEGF表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小斌; 姚元庆; 李东红; 张伟; 尹国武

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨缺氧对体外培养的BeWo细胞中血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)表达的影响,以及应用反义寡核甘酸封闭缺氧诱导因子2α (HIF-2α)后,VEGF表达的变化.方法:将BeWo细胞分4组进行体外培养:常氧组、缺氧组、HIF-2α正义组和HIF-2α反义组.检测HIF-2α蛋白、HIF-2α mRNA和VEGF mRNA表达.结果:与常氧组相比,缺氧组的HIF-2α蛋白、mRNA、VEGF的mRNA水平均升高;与缺氧组相比,反义组的HIF-2α蛋白、HIF-2α mRNA、VEGF mRNA表达均降低.结论:缺氧可诱导BeWo细胞中VEGF的表达,这种作用可能是通过HIF-2介导的.

  13. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. β-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs.

  14. 马鞭草提取液C部位对人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞增殖的影响%Inhibitory Effects of the Part C in Alcohol Extract of Verbena Officinalis on Human Choriocarcinoma JAR Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 罗莉; 王家俊; 徐昌芬

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨马鞭草(Verbena officinalis)提取液C部位对人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞增殖的影响.方法:通过相差显微镜观察活细胞贴壁程度、细胞形态改变;MTT法测定不同浓度C部位在不同时段对JAR细胞的增殖抑制率,结果用方差分析进行统计学检验:流式细胞仪检测细胞阻滞周期.结果:马鞭草C部位可引起细胞数目减少并萎缩;细胞增殖抑制率随着时间的延长和浓度的增加逐渐增大,72 h的40 mg/ml剂量组抑制最明显,抑制率为65%;流式细胞仪检测结果显示阻滞周期在G2/M期之间.结论:马鞭草提取液C部位对人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞增殖有明显抑制作用,其作用机制有待进一步探索.

  15. 马鞭草诱导人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞凋亡作用观察%OBSERVATION ON THE INHIBITION EFFECT OF VERBENA OFFICINALIS ON HUMA CHORIOCARCINOMA JAR CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 徐昌芬

    2009-01-01

    [目的]探讨马鞭草C部位对人绒癌JAR细胞抑制作用机理. [方法]通过相差显微镜观察活细胞贴壁程度、细胞形态改变;荧光显微镜观察细胞形态学变化;透射电镜观察细胞超微结构变化;琼脂糖凝胶电泳观察用药后细胞DNA断裂情况;流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡情况. [结果]马鞭草C部位可引起细胞数目减少并萎缩;荧光显微镜下观察到典型凋亡细胞的形态学特征;电镜下见到明显的凋亡小体;琼脂糖凝胶电泳出现"阶梯状条带";流式细胞仪检测发现用药后出现明显的凋亡峰. [结论]马鞭草C部位对人绒癌JAR细胞抑制作用机理是诱导其凋亡.

  16. Tamoxifen Modulates the Expression of Complement Inhibitory Proteins on Chorio-carcinoma Cell Line JAR%它莫西芬对绒毛膜癌细胞株JAR补体调节蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛云碧; 陈松华; 归绥琪; 葛锡锐

    2003-01-01

    为探索抗肿瘤药物Tamoxifen对绒毛膜癌细胞株JAR表面补体调节蛋白表达的影响,实验以绒毛膜癌细胞株JAR为研究对象,用流式细胞术和RT-PCR分别检测Tamoxifen作用前后JAR细胞补体调节蛋白在蛋白质和mRNA水平的表达.结果显示:在10-6M Tamoxifen作用3 d后,JAR细胞补体调节蛋白DAF和CD59的蛋白质表达水平明显降低,而MCP无明显改变;在10-6M Tamoxifen作用24 h后,JAR细胞DAF和CD59 mRNA表达水平分别降低88%和60%.提示Tamoxifen可能通过降低DAF和CD59的表达,提高肿瘤细胞对宿主补体攻击的敏感性.

  17. MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between

  18. Dynamic change of Adamalysin 19 (ADAM19) in human placentas and its effects on cell invasion and adhesion in human trophoblastic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG; QingXiang; Amy

    2009-01-01

    Human ADAM19 is a recently identified member of the ADAM family.It is highly expressed in human placentas,but its dynamic change and function at the human feto-maternal interface during placentation remain to be elucidated.In this present study,the spatial and temporal expression and cellular localization of ADAM19 in normal human placentas were first demonstrated,and the effects of ADAM19 on trophoblast cell adhesion and invasion were further investigated by using a human choriocarcinoma cell line(JEG-3) as an in vitro model.The data demonstrated that ADAM19 was widely distributed in villous cytotrophoblast cells,syncytiotrophoblast cells,column trophoblasts,and villous capillary endothelial cells during early pregnancy.The mRNA and protein level of ADAM19 in placentas was high at gestational weeks 8-9,but diminished significantly at mid-and term pregnancy.In JEG-3 cells,the overexpression of ADAM19 led to diminished cell invasion,as well as increases in cell adhesiveness and the expression of E-cadherin,with no changes in β-catenin expression observed.These data indicate that ADAM19 may participate in the coordinated regulation of human trophoblast cell behaviors during the process of placentation.

  19. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviračević Branko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumours of germ origin. In adolescent patients under 20 years of age diagnosed to have ovarian tumour, these tumours originate from germ cells in about 70% of cases. Depending on the stage of the disease, medical treatment and age, the death rate ranges from 25% to 84%. A special group of germ tumours are mixed germ cells tumours built of two or more different types of germ tumours. Case report. This paper gives a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure and the clinical picture with the course and outcome of the decease in a nineteen-year old patient with a mixed malignant germ tumour (dysgerminoma, choriocarcinoma, immature teratoma found in one of the ovaries. It also deals with the appearance and development, some characteristics and histological build of the tumours diagnosed in this case. Conclusion. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and develop in female population under 30 years of age. They are characterized by a high degree of malignity. They are resistant to cytostatic treatment, they spread very quickly with the lethal outcome. The course of the disease is not characteristic and is usually masked under some other acute gynaecological disease. The definitive diagnosis is made after laparotomy and pathohistological analysis of the tumour tissue.

  20. Localization and regulation of the human very low density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein-E receptor: trophoblast expression predicts a role for the receptor in placental lipid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, F M; Gåfvels, M E; Bronner, M; Matsuo, H; McCrae, K R; Tomaszewski, J E; Robinson, S L; Strickland, D K; Strauss, J F

    1995-01-01

    The very low density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein-E receptor (VLDLR) is the newest member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Very little is known about VLDLR localization and regulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of human placenta with a specific polyclonal antibody detected VLDLR in syncytiotrophoblast and intermediate trophoblast cells. VLDLR transcripts were also localized in these cells by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In addition, VLDLR messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected in villous core endothelial cells and cells appearing to be Hofbauer cells. Northern blot analysis of placenta revealed a 2.6-fold increase in VLDLR mRNA at term compared to that in the first trimester. The regulation of VLDLR expression was studied in JEG-3 and BeWo choriocarcinoma cells, two trophoblast-derived cell lines. Treatment of these cells with 8-bromo-cAMP caused a profound suppression of VLDLR message, whereas LDLR transcripts were increased. Incubation of JEG-3 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol did not lead to sterol negative feedback on VLDLR gene expression, unlike LDLR mRNA, which declined markedly. Insulin (200 mg/L) up-regulated VLDLR message in JEG-3 cells 2-fold, as did the fibrate hypolipidemic drug, clofibric acid. We conclude that 1) VLDLR is expressed in human placental trophoblast cells in a pattern consistent with a role in placental lipid transport; 2) VLDLR expression is high at term relative to that in the first trimester; and 3) the trophoblast VLDLR is subject to down-regulation by cAMP and up-regulation by insulin and fibrate hypolipidemic drugs. PMID:7828550

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease agent reduces HIV-1 replication in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappa Stella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several factors determine the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, such as coinfections in placentas from HIV-1 positive mothers with other pathogens. Chagas' disease is one of the most endemic zoonoses in Latin America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The purpose of the study was to determine whether T. cruzi modifies HIV infection of the placenta at the tissue or cellular level. Results Simple and double infections were carried out on a placental histoculture system (chorionic villi isolated from term placentas from HIV and Chagas negative mothers and on the choriocarcinoma BeWo cell line. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (VD lethal strain, either purified from mouse blood or from Vero cell cultures, 24 h-supernatants of blood and cellular trypomastigotes, and the VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 reporter virus were used for the coinfections. Viral transduction was evaluated by quantification of luciferase activity. Coinfection with whole trypomastigotes, either from mouse blood or from cell cultures, decreased viral pseudotype luciferase activity in placental histocultures. Similar results were obtained from BeWo cells. Supernatants of stimulated histocultures were used for the simultaneous determination of 29 cytokines and chemokines with the Luminex technology. In histocultures infected with trypomastigotes, as well as in coinfected tissues, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and MCP-1 production was significantly lower than in controls or HIV-1 transducted tissue. A similar decrease was observed in histocultures treated with 24 h-supernatants of blood trypomastigotes, but not in coinfected tissues. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the presence of an intracellular pathogen, such as T. cruzi, is able to impair HIV-1 transduction in an in vitro system of human placental histoculture. Direct effects of the parasite on cellular structures as well as on cellular/viral proteins essential for HIV-1 replication might influence

  2. Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+influx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aline O da Conceio; Gilsane Lino von Poser; Benoit Barbeau; Julie Lafond

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of crude methanol and n-hexane extracts of Hypericum connatum (H. connatum) and Hypericum caprifoliatum on trophoblast-like cells. Methods: BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast-like cells were submitted to different extract concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL) and evaluated in relation to cell viability and in vitro trophoblast differentiation and function. Cell viability was evaluated using WST-1 reagent. Differentiation was measured by luciferase production, hCG production/release, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation. The function of the trophoblast-like cells was measured by 45Ca2+influx evaluation. Results:The results showed a decrease in cell viability/proliferation. Both plants and different extracts induced a significant decrease in hCG production/release and luciferase production. H. connatum did not cause mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway disturbance;however, Hypericum caprifoliatum n-hexane extract at 15 µg/mL inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. The significant increase in Ca2+influx by JEG-3 cells was seen after short and long incubation times with H. connatum methanolic extract at 15 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants.

  3. In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to α- and β-zearalenol (αZEL and βZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, αZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of αZEL and βΖΕL on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPARγ). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, αZEL and βZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ► ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

  4. In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouillac, Caroline, E-mail: c.prouillac@vetagro-sup.fr [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Koraichi, Farah; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Rodriguez, Frédéric; Baltas, Michel [Université Paul Sabatier, SPCMIB-UMR5068, Laboratoire de Synthèse et de Physicochimie des Molécules d' Intérêt Biologique, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 TOULOUSE cedex 9 (France); Lecoeur, Sylvaine [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France)

    2012-03-15

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to α- and β-zearalenol (αZEL and βZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, αZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of αZEL and βΖΕL on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPARγ). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, αZEL and βZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ► ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

  5. Endothelin-1 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating the PLC-IP(3) pathway: implications for placental pathophysiology in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arjun; Olovsson, Matts; Burton, Graham J; Yung, Hong-wa

    2012-06-01

    Recent evidence implicates placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiological characteristics of preeclampsia. Herein, we investigate whether endothelin (ET)-1, which induces Ca(2+) release from the ER, can induce placental ER stress. Loss of ER Ca(2+) homeostasis impairs post-translational modification of proteins, triggering ER stress-response pathways. IHC confirmed the presence of both ET-1 and its receptors in the syncytiotrophoblast. Protein levels and immunoreactivity of ET-1 and the endothelin B receptor (ETBR) were increased in preeclamptic samples compared with normotensive controls. JEG-3 and BeWo choriocarcinoma cells treated with ET-1 displayed an increase in ER stress markers. ET-1 induced phospho-activation of the ETBR. Treating cells with BQ788, an ETBR antagonist, or small-interfering RNA knockdown of the receptor inhibited induction of ER stress. ET-1 also stimulated p-phospholipase C (PLC)γ1 levels. By using inhibitors of PLC activation, U73122, and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) receptor, xestospongin-C, we demonstrated that ET-1 induces ER stress via the PLC-IP(3) pathway. Furthermore, ET-1 levels increased in the syncytiotrophoblast of explants from normal placentas after hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro. Conditioned medium from hypoxia-reoxygenation explants also contained higher ET-1 levels, which induced ER stress in JEG-3 cells that was abolished by an ET-1-neutralizing antibody. Collectively, the data show that ET-1 induced ER stress in trophoblasts via the ETBR and initiation of signaling through the PLC-IP(3) pathway, with the potential for autocrine stimulation.

  6. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongsheng [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Wu, Fenping [The 7th People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Yan [The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Yan, Chong [School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Su, Wenmei, E-mail: wenmeisutg@126.com [Oncology of Affiliated Hospital Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  7. Influence of gestational diabetes mellitus on human umbilical vein endothelial cell miRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggestad, Jeanie B; Vishwanath, Anu; Jiang, Shaoning; Mallappa, Ashwini; Teague, April M; Takahashi, Yusuke; Thompson, David M; Chernausek, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to identify miRNAs whose expression levels in fetal tissues are altered by exposure to a diabetic milieu and elucidate the impact on target protein expression. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects both immediate and future disease risk in the offspring. We hypothesized that GDM alters miRNA expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that may influence metabolic processes. A cross-sectional design compared differences in miRNA expression in HUVECs and target protein abundance in placentae between infants of women with GDM (IGDM) and infants born to normoglycaemic controls. miRNAs were identified using microarray profiling and literature review and validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In vitro transfection studies explored the impact of the miRNA on target protein expression. Expression of seven miRNA species, miR-30c-5p, miR-452-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-let-7a-5p and miR-let-7g-5p, was higher in the HUVECs of IGDM. Abundance of the catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) was decreased in the HUVECs and BeWo cells (transformed trophoblast cell line) transfected with miR-130b and miR-148a mimics. AMPKα1 expression was also decreased in placental tissues of IGDM. The expression of several miRNAs were altered by in utero exposure to DM in infants of women whose dysglycaemia was very well controlled by current standards. Decreased expression of AMPKα1 as a result of increased levels of miR-130b and miR-148a may potentially explain the decrease in fat oxidation we reported in infants at 1 month of age and, if persistent, may predispose offspring to future metabolic disease. PMID:27562513

  8. Six cases of malignant germ-cell tumors (grade 4). Comparison with germinoma (grade 2, 3) on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, M.; Machida, T.; Maehara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-08-01

    The CT patterns of six malignant germ-cell tumors other than germinomas (one embryonal carcinoma, one choriocarcinoma, one yolk sac tumor, and three immature teratomas) were compared with those of 12 germinomas (ten suprasellar, one pineal, and one basal ganglia). The effects of irradiation and the changes in the concentration of serum ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were compared by means of serial studies. 1. Pre-contrast CT Four of the six (67%) malignant germ-cell tumors showed isodense masses with irregular margins that contained calcified dots and small necrotic cavities. All 12 germinomas showed round, high-density masses with smooth margins without necrotic cavities. The suprasellar germinomas showed no calcification on CT. 2. Post-contrast CT Both malignant germ-cell tumors and germinomas showed a strong enhancement after contrast administration. 3. Change in size after irradiation Malignant germ-cell tumors did not show a decrease in size after radiotherapy (20 - 40 Gy), although the necrotic cavities enlarged in three out of four tumors. Germinomas were highly radiosensitive and showed a remarkable change in size on follow-up CT after irradiation. 4. Serum AFP and HCG The concentrations of serum AFP and/or HCG before therapy were abnormally high in five malignant germ-cell tumors. In three out of four patients, the concentration of serum AFP was normalized, but in one patient the concentration of AFP increased even after irradiation.

  9. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  10. Translation of LINE-1 DNA elements in vitro and in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LINE-1(L1) family of interspread DNA sequences found throughout the human genome (L1 Homo sapiens, L1Hs) includes active transposable elements. Current models for the mechanism of transposition involve reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and utilization of element-encoded proteins. The authors report that an antiserum against the polypeptide encoded by the L1Hs 5' open reading frame (ORF1) detects, in human cells, an endogenous ORF1 protein as well as the ORG1 product of an appropriate transfecting recombinant vector. The endogenous polypeptide is most abundant in teratocarcinoma and choriocarcinoma cells, among those cell lines tested; it appears to be a single species of ∼38 kDa. In contrast, RNAs synthesized in vitro from cDNAs representing full-length, polyadenylylated cytoplasmic L1Hs RNA yield, upon in vitro translation, ORF1 products of slightly different sizes. This is consistent with the fact that the various cDNAs are different and represent transcription of different genomic L1Hs elements. In vitro studies additionally suggest that translation of ORF1 is initiated at the first AUG codon. Finally, in no case was an ORF1-ORF2 fusion protein detected

  11. A rare case of combined placental site trophoblastic tumour with mature cystic teratoma and mixed germ cell tumour in the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Wei Qiang; Loh, Hwai Liang Alwin; Lee, Lui Shiong; Goh, Chin Hong Ronald

    2015-08-01

    A 20-year-old male presented with persistent right testicular pain. Following ultrasound detection of testicular nodules and biopsy for intraoperative consultation which yielded germ cell tumour, he underwent radical orchidectomy. A predominantly whitish cyst and a lobulated, variegated nodule were identified. Histology showed a mature cystic teratoma with a focus of infiltrative epithelioid cells containing eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei, invading ectatic vessel wall associated with fibrinoid change. These cells were positive for cytokeratin, human placental lactogen and inhibin, while negative for Melan-A, p63 and alpha-fetoprotein, consistent with placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT). The variegated nodule was a mixed germ cell tumour composed of embryonal carcinoma and immature teratoma. Aside from choriocarcinoma, primary trophoblastic tumors such as PSTT, which are derived from intermediate trophoblasts, are extremely rare in the testis. Aside from a case of pure testicular PSTT, 2 other cases have been described in association with germ cell tumour, of which one is a mature teratoma with PSTT that demonstrated gain of chromosome 12p. The other presented with PSTT in retroperitoneal recurrence of a testicular mixed germ cell tumour. We discussed the features of this tumour in the testis and important differentials in its diagnosis.

  12. Evaluation of SF-1 expression in testicular germ cell tumors: a tissue microarray study of 127 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Brooks, James D; Higgins, John P

    2013-07-01

    Differentiating testicular germ cell tumors from sex-cord stromal tumors can be difficult in certain cases because of overlapping morphologic features and/or an absence of clinically apparent hormonal symptoms. Immunohistochemistry may be needed as an ancillary diagnostic tool in this differential diagnostic setting. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is a nuclear transcription factor controlling steroidogenesis and is expressed in developing Sertoli and Leydig cells. Although 1 recent study has reported SF-1 nuclear immunoreactivity in testicular sex-cord stromal tumors, the specificity for this marker in germ cell tumors has not been evaluated. After encountering several problematic cases (including some on testicular biopsy), we sought to determine the diagnostic specificity of SF-1 in a large series of germ cell tumors. Nuclear immunohistochemical expression of SF-1 was evaluated in 127 germ cell tumors using tissue microarray technology with 23 non-germ cell tumor tissues as positive internal controls. No nuclear SF-1 expression was identified in any of the 127 germ cell tumors [including choriocarcinoma (3), embryonal carcinoma (25), epidermal inclusion cyst (1), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (4), seminoma (72), spermatocytic seminoma (2), teratoma (8), and yolk sac tumor (12)]. All 23 non-germ cell tumor tissues showed strong nuclear SF-1 expression in Sertoli and/or Leydig cells [including testicular atrophy (10), cryptorchidism (2), normal testis (4), hypospermatogenesis (1), immature testis (1), intratubular large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (1), Leydig cell tumor (3), and Sertoli only (1)]. This study documents the absence of SF-1 expression in testicular germ cell tumors and supports its specificity for sex-cord stromal lesions in this diagnostic context.

  13. Unusual gestational choriocarcinoma arising in an interstitial pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsen Meddeb

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The current trend of the treatment of ectopic pregnancy by conservative surgery requires adequate monitoring of βhCG and careful examination of pathologic specimens to avoid misdiagnosis of ectopic gestational trophoblastic disease.

  14. "Hysteroscopic ablation of Choriocarcinoma in a patient resistant to chemotherapy "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazizadeh S

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia ( GTN is one of the most common gynecologic tumors in our country. Despite development of effective chemotherapy: some cases remain resistant and if there is only focus of tumor, resection would be indicated.We present a young woman with stage 1 persistant GTN showing no response to chemotherapy. Transvaginal sonograpy revealed trophoblastic tissue in the uterus. Metastatic work up was negative. Tumor was resected by hyteroresectoscopy, and there was no need for subsequent chemotherapy, BHCG remained negative after 26 months of follow up.

  15. Infected dendritic cells facilitate systemic dissemination and transplacental passage of the obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Collantes-Fernandez

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9 was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites.

  16. Infected Dendritic Cells Facilitate Systemic Dissemination and Transplacental Passage of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Neospora caninum in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes-Fernandez, Esther; Arrighi, Romanico B. G.; Álvarez-García, Gema; Weidner, Jessica M.; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Boothroyd, John C.; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.; Barragan, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9) was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC) by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites. PMID:22403627

  17. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casas, Josefina [Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry, IQAC–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lacorte, Sílvia, E-mail: slbqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  18. Comprehensive Immunohistochemical Study of Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1): Analysis in 5536 Cases Revealed Consistent Expression in Trophoblastic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaguma, Shingo; Wang, Zengfeng; Lasota, Jerzy; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; McCue, Peter A; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Miettinen, Markku

    2016-08-01

    Programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand (PD-1/PD-Ls) axis is crucial for the modulation of immune responses and self-tolerance. Also, aberrant PD-L1 expression on the tumor cells or tumor-associated inflammatory cells accelerates immune evasion of tumor cells. In the past decade, PD-1/PD-L immune checkpoint inhibitors were introduced to cancer treatment trials and, in some cases, showed significant anticancer effects. PD-L1 immunohistochemical staining is considered a potential predictor of clinical response to PD-1/PD-L immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. However, immunohistochemical data on PD-L1 expression in different types of cancer especially rare entities remain incomplete. In this study, PD-L1 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in 5536 tumors including germ cell, epithelial, mesenchymal, melanocytic/neuroectodermal, and lymphohematopoietic tumors, as well as in a set of human normal tissues including a fetus. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with E1L3N rabbit monoclonal antibody and Leica Bond Max automation using multitumor blocks containing up to 70 tumor samples. PD-L1 was constitutively and strongly expressed in placental trophoblasts as well as choriocarcinomas and trophoblastic components of germ cell tumors. Also, the neoplastic cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, schwannoma, thymoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of various sites frequently expressed PD-L1. In gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, PD-L1-expression was associated with EBER positivity and mismatch-repair deficiency. In addition, PD-L1 was variably expressed in non-neoplastic macrophages and dendritic cells. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry may have some role in the immunophenotypic differential diagnosis of tumors and pinpointing potential candidates for anti-PD-1/PD-L immune checkpoint therapy. PMID:27158757

  19. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta;

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...... models, all of human origin. Results showed BPA cytotoxicity in BeWo cells with an apparent EC50 at 100-125muM. BPA exposure significantly increased beta-hCG secretion and caspase-3 expression in placental explants at an environmentally relevant concentration of 1nM. In the transport studies, a rapid...... transfer of BPA was observed across the term placentae and the BeWo cell monolayer. Further, transdermal transport of BPA was observed. These results indicate that fetal BPA exposure through placental exchange occurs with potential adverse implications for placental and fetal development. This battery...

  20. Placental sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites is mediated by the interaction between VAR2CSA and chondroitin sulfate A on syndecan-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres Pereira, Marina; Mandel Clausen, Thomas; Pehrson, Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans...... fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells....

  1. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus: a report of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; SHI Qun-li; ZHANG Jian-min; LI Yan; DU Yi-ming; SHEN Shi-ming; MA Heng-hui; MENG Kui

    2007-01-01

    @@ Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor(ETT)of the uterus is a rare tumor introduced recently,which is distinct from placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and choriocarcinoma with the histological appearance of resembling low-grade squamous cell carcinomas.

  2. The Studies on the Part C of Verbena Officinalis-induced Human Choriocarcinoma JAR Cells Apoptosis and Its Molecular Mechanism in vitro%马鞭草C部位诱导人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞凋亡分子机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 夏邦亮; 罗莉; 徐昌芬

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨马鞭草C部位诱导人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞凋亡的分子机制.方法:流式细胞仪检测细胞周期;Western-blot及RT-PCR检测Fas/Fasl蛋白及基因的表达.结果:药物作用后细胞被不同程度阻滞于G2/M期,并伴有G0/G1期比例下降;Fasl蛋白表达降低,Fas在C部位作用前后均无表达;Fasl mRNA转录呈下降趋势.结论:马鞭草C部位将人绒毛膜癌JAR细胞阻滞在G2/M期,并诱导其凋亡,其作用机制可能与Fasl的表达下调有关.

  3. Blockage in G2/M Phase and Induction Apoptosis on Human Choriocarcinoma JAR Cells by Verbena Officinalis C%马鞭草C部位使人绒癌JAR细胞阻滞于G2/M期并诱导细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家俊; 罗莉; 张立平; 徐昌芬

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察马鞭草C部位(Verbena officinalis C)对人绒癌JAR细胞周期分布和凋亡的影响,探讨其诱导凋亡机制.方法:采用MTT比色法测定马鞭草C部位对JAR细胞增殖的影响;流式细胞仪检测其对JAR细胞周期分布和细胞凋亡的影响:RT-PCR检测药物作用前后Bax和Bcl-2 mRNA表达变化.结果:马鞭草C部位抑制绒癌JAR细胞增殖,并呈明显时间和剂量效应关系.流式细胞仪结果显示,与对照组比较,40g/L马鞭草C部位处理48 h后,使JAR细胞G2/M期增加154.3%,S期比例降低41.6%;JAR细胞凋亡率增加6.74倍.不同剂量马鞭草C部位处理JAR细胞48 h后,Bax表达水平增加,Bcl-2表达水平下降,并呈剂量依赖性.结论:马鞭草C部位阻滞绒癌JAR细胞于G2/M期,通过改变Bax和Bcl-2表达,诱导JAR细胞凋亡.

  4. 5-杂氮脱氧胞苷对JEG-3细胞及印迹基因H19效应的初步研究%The expression of imprinted gene H19 and the demethylation effect of 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine in a choriocarcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林杉; 李力; 俞丽丽; 易萍; 李平; 陈星云; 刘苹; 周元国

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究甲基化酶抑制剂5-杂氮脱氧胞苷(5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine,ADC)对人绒毛膜上皮癌细胞株JEG-3细胞的生物学作用,观察JEG-3细胞H19表达变化与滋养细胞增殖、分化和侵袭等行为的相关性,从表观遗传学角度探讨滋养细胞侵袭行为的调控.方法:应用MTY法检测不同浓度5-杂氮脱氧胞苷在不同时相下对JEG-3细胞增殖的影响.体外小室迁移实验观察5-杂氮脱氧胞苷对JEG-3细胞迁移的影响.荧光定量RTPCR检测5-杂氮脱氧胞苷作用下JEG-3细胞H19 mRNA表达的变化.结果:5-杂氮脱氧胞苷对JEG-3细胞增殖起抑制作用,在一定范围内与时间和剂量呈正相关.经100μmol/L 5-杂氮脱氧胞苷作用24h后的JEG-3细胞迁移能力明显受限,迁移细胞数较对照组差异显著(P<0.01).经5-杂氮脱氧胞苷作用后JEG-3细胞中H19 mRNA表达增高,在一定范围内与时间和剂量呈正相关.结论:甲基化酶抑制剂5-杂氮脱氧胞苷可致H19 mR-NA过量表达,并进一步抑制滋养细胞的增殖和迁移能力.H19印迹基因表达上调与滋养细胞增殖抑制和迁移能力降低有关.

  5. 双光子及共聚焦激光扫描显微术研究天花粉蛋白对人绒癌细胞的作用机制%Studying the Effect of Trichosanthin on Choriocarcinoma Cells with both Two-photon and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春阳; 贡宜萱; 马辉; 安成才; 陈瓞延

    2001-01-01

    天花粉蛋白(trichosanthin,TCS)是从中草药栝楼根中提取的一种核糖体失活蛋白,具有抗肿瘤和抗HIV功能.应用双光子及共聚焦激光扫描显微术结合特异性荧光探针Hoechst 33342、2',7'-二氯荧光黄双乙酸酯(DCFH-DA)、Indo-1和Fluo 3-AM,首次同时观察了TCS诱导人绒癌细胞(JAR细胞)凋亡过程中活性氧自由基(ROS)和细胞内钙离子浓度([Ca2+]i)的变化,实验结果表明TCS引起的[Ca2+]i升高和ROS形成参与了TCS诱导的JAR细胞凋亡,并且ROS形成和[Ca2+]i升高有关.共聚焦激光扫描显微术的研究结果表明,[Ca2+]i升高不是导致ROS形成的主要原因,TCS诱导产生的ROS可能是通过TCS与JAR细胞膜表面受体作用介导的.

  6. Triethylenetetramine modulates polyamine and energy metabolism and inhibits cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvönen, Mervi T; Ucal, Sebahat; Pasanen, Markku; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Weisell, Janne; Khomutov, Maxim; Khomutov, Alex R; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Alhonen, Leena; Keinänen, Tuomo A

    2016-05-15

    Polyamine metabolism is an attractive anticancer drug target, since polyamines are absolutely required for cellular proliferation, and increased levels of polyamines and their biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are associated with cancer. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) is a charge-deficient isosteric analogue of the polyamine spermidine (Spd) and a Cu(II)-chelating compound used for the treatment of Wilson's disease, and it has been implicated as a potential anticancer therapeutic drug. In the present study, we studied the effects of TETA in comparison with two other Cu(II)-chelators, D-penicillamine (PA) and tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), on polyamine metabolism in DU145 prostate carcinoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. TETA induced antizyme, down-regulated ODC and inhibited [(14)C] Spd uptake. Moreover, it completely prevented α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-induced increase in [(14)C] Spd uptake, and inhibited [(14)C] putrescine (Put) uptake and ODC activity in vivo Seven-day treatment of DU145 cells with TETA caused growth cessation by reducing intracellular polyamine levels and suppressing the formation of hypusinated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). TETA or its N-acetylated metabolites also inhibited spermine (Spm), diamine and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases and decreased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Moreover, TETA inhibited the utilization of Put as energy source via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as indicated by decreased production of (14)CO2 from [(14)C] Put. These results indicate that TETA attacks multiple proven anticancer drug targets not attributed to copper chelation, which warrants further studies to reveal its potential in cancer chemoprevention and cure. PMID:27001865

  7. Serum amyloid A in the placenta and its role in trophoblast invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Sandri

    Full Text Available The serum amyloid A (SAA protein is known to function in the acute phase response and immunoregulation. Recently, SAA has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migratory behavior in different cell types. Here, we evaluated whether exogenous SAA could influence trophoblast invasion and differentiation using both the trophoblast-like BeWo cell line and fully differentiated human extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT isolated from term placentae. SAA stimulated BeWo cell invasion, as measured in Matrigel invasion assays, and induced metalloprotease mRNA expression and activity. Given that BeWo cells express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, a known receptor for SAA, we examined the role of TLR4 in SAA-induced invasion using a TLR4 neutralizing antibody. We also tested whether SAA could affect markers of trophoblast syncytialization in BeWo cells. We observed that SAA decreased βhCG secretion and did not influence trophoblast syncytialization. Using EVT cells isolated from human term basal plates, we confirmed that SAA at 1 and 10 µg/mL doubled EVT invasion in a TLR4-dependent manner, but at 20 µg/mL inhibited EVT cells invasiveness. In addition, we observed that SAA was expressed in both BeWo cells and human term placentae, specifically in the syncytiotrophoblast, decidual cells and EVT. In conclusion, SAA was identified as a molecule that functions in the placental microenvironment to regulate metalloprotease activity and trophoblast invasion, which are key processes in placentation and placental homeostasis.

  8. Translocation of positively and negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro placental model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, S.K.; Walczak, A.P.; Louisse, J.; Berg, H.H.J. van den; Bouwmeester, H.; Tromp, P.; Fokkink, R.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain insight in translocation of nanoparticles across the placental barrier, translocation was studied for one positively and two negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) of similar size in an in vitro model. The model consisted of BeWo b30 cells, derived from a human choriocarcino

  9. Kinetics of silica nanoparticles in the human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Mose, Tina; Maroun, Lisa Leth;

    2015-01-01

    .56 × 10(-6) cm/s. Using confocal microscopy, there was visual confirmation of particle accumulation in both BeWo cells and in perfused placental tissue. Despite the low transfer of silica NPs to the foetal compartment, questions regarding biocompatibility could limit the application of unmodified silica...

  10. Outcome of patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: Results of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataergin S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prognostic factors in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors have been mainly derived from the analysis of stage I tumors. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate some prognostic factors and the outcome of patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors according to risk groups treated between 1993 and 2002. Settings and Design: Patients were retrospectively classified as good, intermediate and poor risk groups according to International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group. Materials and Methods: Biopsy specimens of 58 patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors were analyzed by means of tumor histopathology, primary localization site of the tumor, relapse sites, initial serum tumor marker levels, the presence of persistent serum tumor marker elevation and the patients′ outcome. Statistical Analysis :0 Kruskall Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine the differences between the groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and log rank test was used to compare the survival probabilities of groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the prognostic factors in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated as 85% and 75% in stage II; 44% and 29% in stage III cases, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of patients were classified in good risk, 9% in intermediate risk and 27% in poor risk groups. Five-year overall survival rates were 97%, 75% and 7% ( P < 0.001 and disease-free survival rates were 83%, 34% and 7% ( P < 0.001 in good, intermediate and poor risk groups, respectively. Analysis of the prognostic factors revealed that the localization site of the primary tumor ( P < 0.001, the initial stage of disease ( P < 0.001, the initial serum AFP level (p: 0.001, the initial β -HCG level (p: 0.0048, the presence of yolk sac and choriocarcinoma components in tumor (p: 0.003 and p: 0

  11. Walker Prize Lecture, 1977. Choriocarcinoma: can we afford to cure cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshawe, K. D.

    1978-01-01

    The way the management of patients with trophoblastic tumours has depended on the acquisition of new knowledge and new drugs is demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the ability to detect early disease by biochemical markers and on the ability to define on a multifactorial basis the resistance potential of the tumours. This provides a basis for stratification of treatment and the use of prophylactic chemotherapy to prevent cerebral metastases in certain patients. Although chemotherapy is often intensive and prolonged, there has so far been little evidence of long-term effects and many women have had normal pregnancies subsequently, but the limitations of present data are discussed. The difficulties of matching available resources to society's needs in the cancer field make it necessary to consider whether such treatment is unjustifiably expensive. It is shown that for these tumours early diagnosis not only proves effective in therapeutic terms but provides substantial financial savings. It is suggested that screening programmes for cancer cannot be accepted or rejected on principle. In judging them on their individual merits it is appropriate to anticipate interaction between earlier diagnosis and more effective drug treatment. PMID:626471

  12. Walker Prize Lecture, 1977. Choriocarcinoma: can we afford to cure cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshawe, K D

    1978-01-01

    The way the management of patients with trophoblastic tumours has depended on the acquisition of new knowledge and new drugs is demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the ability to detect early disease by biochemical markers and on the ability to define on a multifactorial basis the resistance potential of the tumours. This provides a basis for stratification of treatment and the use of prophylactic chemotherapy to prevent cerebral metastases in certain patients. Although chemotherapy is often intensive and prolonged, there has so far been little evidence of long-term effects and many women have had normal pregnancies subsequently, but the limitations of present data are discussed. The difficulties of matching available resources to society's needs in the cancer field make it necessary to consider whether such treatment is unjustifiably expensive. It is shown that for these tumours early diagnosis not only proves effective in therapeutic terms but provides substantial financial savings. It is suggested that screening programmes for cancer cannot be accepted or rejected on principle. In judging them on their individual merits it is appropriate to anticipate interaction between earlier diagnosis and more effective drug treatment.

  13. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage caused by an intraplacental choriocarcinoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Havsteen, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    of a severely anemic infant. A fetomaternal hemorrhage resulted in a hemoglobin concentration in the infant of only 2,1 g/dL. Neither mother nor child showed signs of metastatic disease. The macroscopic examination showed a hydropic placenta weighing more than 1 kilogram. Microscopy showed an intraplacental...

  14. Residual tumor after the salvage surgery is the major risk factors for primary treatment failure in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: A retrospective study of single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong Sup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors are rare, and knowledge of their prognostic factors is limited, with little available randomized data. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and to determine the association of their prognostic factors to primary treatment failure. Methods The medical records of 57 patients with stages I to IV malignant ovarian germ cell tumor were retrospectively reviewed, and their clinicopathologic and treatment-related data were collected and analyzed. Results The median age at the diagnosis was 23.3 years (range: 8-65 years, and the median follow-up period was 108 months (range: 48-205 months. The histological types of the tumors were immature teratoma (n = 24, dysgerminoma (n = 20, endodermal sinus tumor (n = 8, mixed germ cell tumor (n = 4, and choriocarcinoma (n = 1. 66.7% of the patients had stage I disease; 5.2%, stage II; 26.3%, stage III; and 1.8%, stage IV. After the initial surgery, 49 patients (86% received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The five-year survival rate was 96.5%. There were six primary treatment failures, with two of the patients dying of the disease, and the median time to the recurrence was 8 months. The histological diagnosis (P P = 0.0052, elevation of beta-hCG (P = 0.0134, operation methods (P = 0.0006, and residual tumor after the salvage surgery (P P = 0.0011, Hazard ratio = 29.046, 95% Confidence interval 3.832-220.181. Conclusion Most malignant ovarian germ cell tumors have excellent prognoses with primary treatment, and good reproductive outcomes can be expected. Because primary treatment failure is associated with the residual disease after the salvage surgery, knowledge of the presence or absence of this risk factor may be helpful in risk stratification and individualization of adjuvant therapy in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Further large-scale prospective studies to confirm these results

  15. Effects of Nutrition Relevant Mixtures of Phytoestrogens on Steroidogenesis, Aromatase, Estrogen, and Androgen Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Engell-Kofoed, Anders Elleby; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine;

    2010-01-01

    aromatase activity. Furthermore, exposure of the H295R cells to isoflavonoids caused a decrease in testosterone production, and various mixtures of PEs significantly stimulated MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell growth and induced aromatase activity in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. The estrogenic effect...

  16. Effects of Choline on DNA Methylation and Macronutrient Metabolic Gene Expression in In Vitro Models of Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyin Jiang; Esther Greenwald; Chauntelle Jack-Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose ...

  17. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  18. 缺氧对胎盘滋养层细胞细胞周期和凋亡的影响%Effects of hypoxia on cell cycle and apoptosis of cultured trophoblastic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海君; 张园; 高玲玲; 高超; 崔毓桂; 刘嘉茵

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察缺氧时滋养层细胞细胞周期及凋亡变化.方法 体外培养胎盘绒毛膜癌滋养层细胞株(BeWo细胞),二氯化钴(CoCl2)处理模拟化学缺氧.噻唑蓝法测定不同浓度(0、125、250、500μmol/L)CoCl2作用不同时相(6、12、24 h)后细胞活力;流式细胞术检测250 μmol/L CoCl2处理细胞不同时间(6、12、24 h)后细胞周期和凋亡改变.结果 125 μmol/L CoCl2对细胞活力无明显影响(P>0.05);250μmol/L CoCl2作用时细胞活力呈下降趋势(P>0.05);500μmol/L CoCl2处理6、12、24 h后细胞活力均有明显下降(P<0.01).250 μmol/L CoCl2诱导构建滋养层细胞缺氧模型.250μmol/L CoCl2作用12、24 h后,G2/M期细胞比例增多(分别为0.24±0.13和0.31±0.01)(P<0.05或P<0.01).250 μmol/L CoCl2作用细胞24 h后细胞凋亡呈增加趋势(P>0.05).结论 成功构建了滋养层细胞体外缺氧培养模型.缺氧诱导滋养层细胞周期向G2/M期进展,增加细胞凋亡.%To observe the changes of the cell cycle and apoptosis induced by hypoxia in Be Wo cell line in vitro. Methods The choriocarcinoma trophoblast cell line Be Wo cells were treated with cobalt chloride (C0CI2) to mimic a hypoxia culture model in vitro. After exposured to CoCl2 of different concentrations (0,125,250,500 jumol/L) for 6,12 and 24 h, respectively, the cell viability was examined by MTT assay. After exposured to 250 jumol/L C0CI2 for 6,12,24 h,the cell cycle and apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry. Results There was no significant difference in cell vitality cultured with CoQ2 of 125 jumol/L(P>0. 05). After treated with 250 μmol/L CoCI2, the cell vitality displayed a downward trend(P>0, 05). While co-cultured with 500 ponol/L CoCl2 for 6,12 and 24 h, the cell viability decreased significantly(P0. 05). Conclusion A suitable cell hypoxia model in vitro has been successfully established in trophoblast cells. Hypoxia promotes trophoblast cell cycle into G2/M phase and the apoptosis in

  19. Deoxynivalenol transport across the human placental barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Vikström, Anna C; Turner, Paul; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2011-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly detected mycotoxin contaminant of cereal crops and cereal based food products in temperate regions of the world. DON causes adverse health effects in animals, passes through to the foetus and causes foetal abnormalities in animals. Biomonitoring for DON has revealed frequent human exposure. This study reports on DON transfer across the human placenta. Firstly, in vitro studies with the BeWo b30 clone were used as a rapid screening model showing transfer of DON through a stable confluent cell monolayer. Five term placentas were then used to study DON transfer with the ex vivo dual perfusion model. The concentration of DON on the foetal side after 4h was about 21% of that on the maternal side at t=0. These results support the data from the BeWo monolayer model in respect to the transport rate of DON, and are consistent with our hypothesis of foetal exposure to DON during pregnancy.

  20. Studying placental transfer of highly purified non-dioxin-like PCBs in two models of the placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia Carreira, S; Cartwright, L; Mathiesen, L;

    2011-01-01

    procedure for establishing an in vitro model of the human placental barrier. Using this model, we sought to investigate placental transport kinetics of two NDL-PCB congeners. Firstly, we compared the BeWo cell line of the American Type Culture Collection with the BeWo b30 clone and determined parameters...... for monolayer formation. Secondly, we performed placental perfusions to validate the in vitro model. To that end, the transport of radiolabelled PCB52 and 180 was investigated in both models. We were not able to grow the ATCC cell line to confluency, but determined monolayer formation using BeWo b30...... agreement. Both NDL-PCBs crossed the placental barrier within 2.5 h. We found PCB180 to transfer more rapidly and PCB52 to associate more with placental tissue. Since transport and association patterns were similar in vitro and ex vivo, we conclude that the protocol provided here forms the basis for a good...

  1. T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Cells - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign ... Is MS? Definition of MS T Cells T Cells Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this ...

  2. Cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  3. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  4. Cell Biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  5. Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Albenne, Cécile; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter covers our present knowledge of cell wall proteomics highlighting the distinctive features of cell walls and cell wall proteins in relation to problems encountered for protein extraction, separation and identification. It provides clues to design strategies for efficient cell wall proteomic studies. It gives an overview of the kinds of proteins that have yet been identified: the expected proteins vs the identified proteins. Finally, the new vision of the cell wall proteome, and t...

  6. Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Madhukar Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in ...

  7. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  8. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  9. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  10. IL-10 reduces levels of apoptosis in Toxoplasma gondii-infected trophoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To analyze the effects of IL-10 on the HLA-G expression and the apoptosis of trophoblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii. METHODS: T. gondii-infected or uninfected human trophoblasts and immortalized human placental BeWo cells were cultured with or without human IL-10. Uninfected and infected cells without IL-10 cells served as controls. HLA-G expression was measured by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis associated moleculars were measured by real-time PCR and Western bolt. RESULTS: HLA-G expression was increased in the infected trophoblasts and BeWo cells compared to uninfected cells. Treatment of infected cells with IL-10 decreased HLA-G expression compared to infected cells while no change in treatment of uninfected cells compared with uninfected cells. Levels of apoptosis and apoptosis associated caspase-3 and caspase-8 decreased and c-FLIP levels increased in treated infected cells with IL-10 compared to infected cells and no difference in IL-10 treated uninfected cells compared to uninfected cells. CONCLUSIONS: IL-10 regulates HLA-G expression in T. gondii-infected trophoblasts. IL-10 treatment of infected trophoblasts reduced levels of apoptosis. This may contribute to the improvement in pregnancy outcomes when women infected with T. gondii treated with IL-10.

  11. Solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuquel, A.; Roussel, M.

    The physical and electronic characteristics of solar cells are discussed in terms of space applications. The principles underlying the photovoltaic effect are reviewed, including an analytic model for predicting the performance of individual cells and arrays of cells. Attention is given to the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation, micrometeors, thermal and mechanical stresses, pollution and degassing encountered in space. The responses of different types of solar cells to the various performance-degrading agents are examined, with emphasis on techniques for quality assurance in the manufacture and mounting of Si cells.

  12. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S.; Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cel...

  13. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  14. Internalization of Trichosanthin via Different Endocytic Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; SUI Senfang

    2005-01-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS) is a plant toxin with ribosome-inactivating activity. TCS can be internalized by the host cells and then attacks the ribosomes resulting in cell death. However, the manner for endocytic uptake of TCS is not well understood. The present work investigates the endocytosis pathway of TCS in human choriocarcinoma cells. The different endocytic mechanisms are interfered by potassium depletion, cholesterol-extraction/addition, or treatments of various drugs. The experiments detect their effects on the TCS-uptake. The results show that a large portion of the TCS can be internalized by clathrin-dependent, as well as by clathrin-independent but cholesterol-dependent endocytosis in human choriocarcinoma cells.

  15. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  16. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  17. Cell suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)

  18. Malignant ovarian tumours in childhood in Britain, 1962-78.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; Morris, H. B.; Draper, G J

    1983-01-01

    The files of the Childhood Cancer Research Group and of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers were scrutinized for all the ovarian neoplasms registered in England, Scotland and Wales in children under age 15 years throughout the period 1962-78. Among 172 cases confirmed as malignant ovarian tumours, 145 (84%) were tumours of germ cell origin (54 dysgerminomas, 36 malignant teratomas, 26 endodermal sinus tumours, 4 embryonal carcinomas, 2 pure choriocarcinomas, 20 mixed germ cell neoplasms, 3...

  19. Reprogrammed Pluripotent Stem Cells from Somatic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Do, Jeong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, can differentiate into all cell types. So, these cells can be a biological resource for regenerative medicine. However, ES cells known as standard pluripotent cells have problem to be used for cell therapy because of ethical issue of the origin and immune response on the graft. Hence, recently reprogrammed pluripotent cells have been suggested as an alternative source for regenerative medicine. Somatic cells can acquire the ES cell-li...

  20. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  1. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Miyazaki, Jun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Nishizawa, Haruki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Kurahashi, Hiroki [Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Wang@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3

  2. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3

  3. [Cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipro, Simon; Groh, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Cell or tissue cultures (both terms are interchangeable) represent a complex process by which eukaryotic cells are maintained in vitro outside their natural environment. They have a broad usage covering not only scientific field but also diagnostic one since they represent the most important way of monoclonal antibodies production which are used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Cell cultures are also used as a "cultivation medium" in virology and for establishing proliferating cells in cytodiagnostics. They are well-established and easy-to-handle models in the area of research, e.g. as a precious source of nucleic acids or proteins. This paper briefly summarizes their importance and methods as well as the pitfalls of the cultivation and new trends in this field. PMID:24624984

  4. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  5. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  6. Pathological features and origin of primary pineal mixed germ cell tumors%原发性松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤病理特点及其起源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖罡; 方陆雄; 邱炳辉; 漆松涛

    2011-01-01

    choriocarcinoma component, 7 showed yolk sac tumor component, and 3 showed rhabdomyoma component. Germinoma components were found on the tumor margin in 7 specimens, and intermingled germinoma and other components were found in 10 specimens. Conclusion Pineal mixed germ cell tumor originates from the residue germ cells around the pineal gland, and most likely evolves from single primordial germ cells.

  7. Cell sorting by deterministic cell rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sungyoung; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    This communication presents the concept of “deterministic cell rolling”, which leverages transient cell-surface molecular interactions that mediate cell rolling to sort cells with high purity and efficiency in a single step.

  8. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  9. Nuclear factor I acts as a transcription factor on the MMTV promoter but competes with steroid hormone receptors for DNA binding.

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemeier, U; Rogge, L.; Winnacker, E L; Beato, M

    1990-01-01

    Several steroid hormones induce transcription of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, through an interaction of their respective receptors with the hormone responsive elements (HREs) in the long terminal repeat (LTR) region. The molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation is not known, but binding of nuclear factor I (NFI) to a site adjacent to the HRE appears to be required for efficient transcription of the MMTV promoter. In JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells the MMTV promo...

  10. Mapping of domains in human laminin using monoclonal antibodies: localization of the neurite-promoting site

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were made against a truncated form of human laminin isolated from placenta. 12 antibodies were isolated and characterized. All antibodies stained basement membranes in placenta and immunoprecipitated laminin from media of cultured choriocarcinoma cells. Three antibodies, 3E5, 4C7, and 4E10, partially blocked the neurite-promoting activity of laminin. Addition of a second antibody, goat anti-mouse IgG, caused more complete blocking of the activity. Two of the blocking ant...

  11. Solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.

    1980-11-01

    The history, state of the art, and future prospects of solar cells are reviewed. Solar cells are already competitive in a wide range of low-power applications, and during the 1980's they are expected to become cheaper to run than diesel or gasoline generators, the present mainstay of isolated communities. At this stage they will become attractive for water pumping, irrigation, and rural electrification, particularly in developing countries. With further cost reduction, they may be used to augment grid supplies in domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial premises. Cost reduction to the stage where photovoltaics becomes economic for large-scale power generation in central stations depends on a technological breakthrough in the development of thin-film cells. DOE aims to reach this goal by 1990, so that by the end of the century about 20% of the estimated annual additions to their electrical generating capacity will be photovoltaic.

  12. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  13. Cell Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  14. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  15. Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are involved in diabetes mellitus-induced defects in the development of mouse placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sha-sha; Jin, Ya; Li, He; Wu, Xia; Ma, Zheng-lai; cheng, Xin; Tang, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that diabetes mellitus impairs placental development, but the mechanism by which the disease operates to impair development remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in placental development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes of morphological structure of placenta. The alteration of differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells rather than cell proliferation/apoptosis is responsible for the phenotypes found in mouse placenta. Meanwhile, excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling were observed in the placenta of mice suffering from PGDM. Using BeWo cells, we also demonstrated that excess ROS was produced and Nrf2 signalling molecules were activated in settings characterized by a high concentration of glucose. More interestingly, differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells were altered when endogenous Nrf2 expression is manipulated by transfecting Nrf2-wt or Nrf2-shRNA. In addition, PGDM interferes with autophagy in both mouse placenta and BeWo cells, implying that autophagy is also involved, directly or indirectly, in PGDM-induced placental phenotypes. Therefore, we revealed that dysfunctional oxidative stress-activated Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are probably responsible for PGDM-induced defects in the placental development of mice. The mechanism was through the interference with differentiation-related gene expression in trophoblast cells. PMID:27383629

  16. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  17. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  18. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neurons Oligodendrocyte Parthenogenesis Passage Pluripotent Polar body Preimplantation Proliferation Regenerative medicine Reproductive cloning Signals Somatic cell Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) Somatic (adult) stem cell Stem cells Stromal cells Subculturing Surface markers ...

  19. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  20. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  1. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  2. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0

  3. Cell Docking, Movement and Cell-Cell Interactions of Heterogeneous Cell Suspensions in a Cell Manipulation Microdevice

    OpenAIRE

    Long-Sun Huang; Yu-Hung Wang; Yu-Wei Chung; Fei-Lung Lai; Shiaw-Min Hwang

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel cell manipulation microdevice for cell docking, culturing, cell-cell contact and interaction by microfluidic manipulation of heterogeneous cell suspensions. Heterogeneous cell suspensions include disparate blood cells of natural killer cells and leukemia cancer cells for immune cell transplantation therapy. However, NK cell alloreactivity from different healthy donors present various recovery response levels. Little is still known about the interactions and cyt...

  4. Reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Do, Jeong Tae

    2011-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, can differentiate into all cell types. So, these cells can be a biological resource for regenerative medicine. However, ES cells known as standard pluripotent cells have problem to be used for cell therapy because of ethical issue of the origin and immune response on the graft. Hence, recently reprogrammed pluripotent cells have been suggested as an alternative source for regenerative medicine. Somatic cells can acquire the ES cell-like pluripotency by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by cell fusion with pluripotent cells. Retroviral-mediated introduction of four factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can successfully reprogram somatic cells into ES cell-like pluripotent stem cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These cells closely resemble ES cells in gene expression pattern, cell biologic and phenotypic characteristics. However, to reach the eventual goal of clinical application, it is necessary to overcome the major drawbacks such as low reprogramming efficiency and genomic alterations due to viral integration. In this review, we discuss the current reprogramming techniques and mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming induced by transcription factor transduction. PMID:24298328

  5. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  6. The biological function of hyperglycosylated hCG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurence A Cole; Stephen A Butler

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) is a variant of hCG made by cytotrophoblast cell.Here we examine the role of hyperglycosylated hCG in placenta growth and invasion.Methods:JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells and term cytotrophoblast monolayer culture were prepared.The effect of supplemental hyperglycosylated hCG and hCG was investigated. Growth of these cells was examined by increase incell number.Invasion was investigated using Matrigel basement membrane cells.The proportion of cell invadingMatrigel was determined. Results:Term cytotrophoblast cell andJEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells grew to5427±834 cells (109%) and7114±553 cells(142%).With the supplementation of hyperglycosylated hCG, they grew significantly wider to7633±177 cells(142%) and10315±1477 cells(206%).With the supplementation of hCG they diminished to4227±769 cells(78%) and5620±657 cells(79%).Term cytotrophoblast cell andJEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells penetratedMatigel membranes to(40.0±10.0)% and(46.0±9.8)%.Hyperglycosylated hCG significantly enhanced penetration to(76.0±13.0)% and(84.0±6.6)%. hCG diminished penetration to(32.0±9.1)% and(32.0±4.5)%.Conclusions:Hyperglycosylated hCG enhances both cytotrophoblast growth and cytotrophoblast cell invasion. hCG minimally suppresses growth and invasion.

  7. Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture

  8. Sickle Cell Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Around the Web Google Custom Search – sickle cell Sickle Cell Anemia - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health January 18, 1970 Sickle cell disease (also called sickle cell anemia) is an inherited blood disorder that affects red ...

  9. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. 混合性生殖细胞瘤的64层螺旋CT诊断及病理表现%Diagnosis of mixed germ cell tumor by 64-slice spiral CT and pathological manifestations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱刚明; 谭琦碹; 钟胜; 李兆勇; 付东

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨64层螺旋CT对混合性生殖细胞瘤的诊断价值.方法:回顾性分析7例经病理证实的混合性生殖细胞瘤的CT平扫及两期增强表现、病理标本及切片特征.结果:7例病灶3例位于卵巢,3例位于前纵隔.1例位于睾丸;其中3例边界清楚;各病灶密度不均匀,内见囊变、坏死区,1例可见脂肪及钙化:增强扫描静脉期较动脉期强化明显,均呈不均匀强化.病理结果2例卵黄囊瘤与成熟畸胎瘸混合型.2例卵黄囊瘤与未成熟畸胎瘤混合型.1例卵黄囊瘤、胚胎性癌、畸胎瘤混合型,1例绒癌与无性细胞癌混合型,1例精原细胞瘤、胚胎性癌、滋养细胞成分混合型.结论:64层螺旋CT对混合性生殖细胞瘤的诊断虽无特异性,但在一定程度上为肿瘤良恶性判断、临床分期提供十分重要的依据.%Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of mixed germ cell tumor by 64 -slice spiral CT. Methods: The plain CT and two-phase enhanced CT scanning and pathological specimens of 7 cases of the tumor confirmed by pathology were retrospectively studied. Results: 3 cases were found in ovarian and 3 cases in anterior mediastinum and 1 case in testis. 3 lesions were clear boundary, with fat and calcification in 1 lesion. All the lesions were uneven density and the cystic or necrotic area could be found. Venous phase enhancement was significantly higher than other phase, showed inhomogc-neous enhance. Pathological findings: induded 2 cases of yolk sac tumor and mature teratoma mixed. 2 cases of yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma mixed, 1 case of yolk sac tumor embryonal carcinoma and teratoma mixed. 1 case of chorio-carcinoma and asexual cell carcinoma mixed, and 1 case of seminoma embryonal carcinoma and trophoblastic ingredients mixed. Conclusion: Although there is no specific by 64-slice spiral CT. To a certain degree.it can determine the benign or malignant tumor and give the important prop for clinical staging.

  11. What are Stem Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadshah Farhat; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; M. Rezaie

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem ...

  12. Pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem cells 10 years ago ignited an explosion of public interest in stem cells, yet this achievement depended on prior decades of research on mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. In turn, the recent derivation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells depended on the prior studies on mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew indefinitely in vitro while ma...

  13. DNA-cell conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  14. Synthesis, antitumor evaluation and 3D-QSAR studies of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Ke, Zhong-Lu; Xi, Li-Min; Yan, Qi-Dong; Yang, Wei-Qiang; Zhu, Li-Qing; Lin, Fei-Lei; Lv, Wei-Ke; Wu, Han-Gui; Wang, John; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-10-01

    A series of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives have been synthesized and their structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compared to some reported structures of 1,6-dihydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine, these compounds can't be considered as having homoaromaticity. Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated against MCF-7, Bewo and HL-60 cells in vitro. Two compounds were highly effective against MCF-7, Bewo and HL-60 cells with IC50 values in 0.63-13.12μM. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were carried out on 51 [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives with antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cell. Models with good predictive abilities were generated with the cross validated q(2) values for CoMFA and CoMSIA being 0.716 and 0.723, respectively. Conventional r(2) values were 0.985 and 0.976, respectively. The results provide the tool for guiding the design and synthesis of novel and more potent tetrazine derivatives. PMID:27597251

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell-cell Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-Huai

    2004-01-01

    Cell-cell recognition is the key for multicellular organisms to survive. This recognition critically depends on protein-protein interactions from opposing cell surfaces. Recent structural investigations reveal unique features of these cell surface receptors and how they interact. These interactions are specific, but usually relatively weak, with more hydrophilic forces involved in binding. The receptors appear to have specialized ways to present their key interacting elements for ligand-binding from the cell surface. Cell-cell contacts are multivalent. A large group of cell surface molecules are engaged in interactions. Characteristic weak interactions make possible for each individual molecule pair within the group to constantly associate-dissociate-reassociate, such that the cell-cell recognition becomes a dynamic process. The immunological synapse is a good example for immune receptors to be orchestrated in performing immunological function in a collective fashion.

  16. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  17. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; S. Wang; Wang, Y.; Wang, X-N.

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  18. Monitoring cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, W

    2001-05-01

    This appendix provides two protocols for monitoring cell growth. Counting cells using a hemacytometer is tedious but it allows one to effectively distinguish live cells from dead cells (using Trypan Blue exclusion). In addition, this procedure is less subject to errors due to cell clumping or heterogeneity of cell size. The use of an electronic cell counter is quicker and easier than counting cells using a hemacytometer. However, an electronic cell counter as currently constructed does not distinguish live from dead cells in a reliable fashion and is subject to error due to the presence of cell clumps. Overall, the electronic cell counter is best reserved for repetitive and rapid counting of fresh peripheral blood cells and should be used with caution when counting cell populations derived from tissues. PMID:18432653

  19. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  20. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  1. Synthesis, antitumor evaluation and molecular docking studies of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Jiang, Jun-Rong; Pan, Wan-Gui; Yang, Xiao-le; Wu, Jian-Yong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, John; Shou, Qi-Yang; Wu, Han-Gui

    2016-07-01

    A series of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities. These compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activities against MCF-7, Bewo and HL-60 cells and c-Met kinase inhibitory activities. Three compounds were highly effective against MCF-7, Bewo and HL-60 cells with IC50 values in 1.09-2.24μM. Molecular docking was further performed to study the inhibitor-c-Met kinase interactions, and the results show that compound 4j was potently bound to the c-Met kinase with three hydrogen bonds. The further research on acute toxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of compound 4j to ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were carried out, and found 4j with a certain toxicity but good efficacy in vivo. Based on the preliminary results, it is deduced that compound 4j with potent c-Met kinase inhibitory activity may be a potential anticancer agent. PMID:27184766

  2. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  3. CELL RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    REVIEWSInducible resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in B cells…………………………………ROTHSTEIN Thomas L (245)Executionary pathway for apoptosis: lessons from mutant mice………………………………………WOO Minna, Razqallah Hakem, Tak W Mak (267)The SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase: Signaling mechanisms and biological functions…………………………………QU Cheng Kui (279)REGULAR ARTICLESTemperature dependent expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis…………………………KONG Wei Hua, Zheng GU, Jining LU, Jiake TSO (289)Transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity…………………………………MA Ying Hua, Jia Hua HU, Xiao Gang ZHOU, Ruo Wang ZENG, Zhen Tong MEI, Jian FEI, Li He GUO (303)Genetic aberration in primary hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between p53 gene mutation and loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 16q21-q23 and 9p21-p23………………………………………WANG Gang, Chang Hui HUANG, Yan ZHAO, Ling CAI, Ying WANG, Shi Jin XIU, Zheng Wen JIANG, Shuang YANG, Xin Tai ZHAO, Wei HUANG, Jian Ren GU (311)Identification and genetic mapping of four novel genes that regulate leaf deve- lopment in Arabidopsis………………………………………………SUN Yue, Wei ZHANG, Feng Ling LI, Ying Li GUO, Tian Lei LIU, Hai HUANG (325)NOTICE FOR CONTRIBUTORS…………………………………(337)CONTENTS of Vol. 10, 2000…………………………………………………(338)

  4. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  5. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  6. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement » ... are affected by sickle cell disease. More WEBINAR ...

  7. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Español The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin Sβ 0 thalassemia ...

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  9. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  10. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  11. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  13. Immobilization of cells via activated cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markt, M.; Kas, J.; Valentova, O.; Demnerova, K.; Vodrazka, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum were activated by periodate oxidation of vicinal diol groups in cell wall polysaccharides. The aldehyde groups thus generated allow the yeast cells to be covalently bound to modified bead cellulose or macroporous glycidyl methacrylate supports, or to enzymes such as glucose oxidase and catalase. 6 references.

  14. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  15. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  16. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    OpenAIRE

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-...

  17. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  18. Stem Cell Separation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Beili; Murthy, Shashi K

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell so...

  19. Cell control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This extensive report provides an essential overview of cells and their use as factory automation building blocks. The following issues are discussed in depth: Cell integration Cell software and standards Future technologies applied to cells Plus Cell control applications including: - rotary parts manufacturing - diesel engine component development - general cell control development at the General Electric Corporation - a vendor list.

  20. Fusion with stem cell makes the hepatocellular carcinoma cells similar to liver tumor-initiating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ran; Chen, Shuxun; Li, Changxian; Ng, Kevin Tak Pan; Kong, Chi-Wing; Cheng, Jinping; Cheng, Shuk Han; Li, Ronald A.; Lo, Chung Mau; Man, Kwan; Sun, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Cell fusion is a fast and highly efficient technique for cells to acquire new properties. The fusion of somatic cells with stem cells can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Our research on the fusion of stem cells and cancer cells demonstrates that the fused cells can exhibit stemness and cancer cell-like characteristics. Thus, tumor-initiating cell-like cells are generated. Methods We employed laser-induced single-cell fusion technique to fuse the hepatocellular carci...

  1. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  2. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). → Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. → Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. → In situ CD133+ cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. → CD133+ and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133+ cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  4. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  5. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... or blocks blood and oxygen reaching nearby tissues. Sickle cell disease ... the whites of the eyes) Anemia (the decreased ability of the blood to carry ...

  6. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  7. Ganglion cell like cells, diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Shankar Ammanagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous swelling found on the left anterior axillary fold of a 41-year-old man. Gross examination of specimen excised from the dermis showed a well-circumscribed nodule histologically composed of spindle cells with interspersed ganglion cell like cells. On hematoxylin and eosine (H and E staining it was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, fully differentiated tumors that contain mature schwann cells, ganglion cells, fibrous tissue, and nerve fibers. They are commonly found along the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and sometimes in the adrenal medulla. However primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor. Immunohistochemical workup revealed a fibroblastic origin and hence the case was diagnosed as fibromatosis with ganglion cell like fibroblasts. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of ganglioneuromas can occur in other cutaneous lesions and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be offered only on the basis of H and E.

  8. Cell fusion of bone marrow cells and somatic cell reprogramming by embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Sabrina; Pedram, Mehrdad; Stultz, Ryan; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for many diseases, including leukemia, autoimmune diseases, and a number of immunodeficiencies. Recently, it was claimed that bone marrow cells transdifferentiate, a much desired property as bone marrow cells are abundant and therefore could be used in regenerative medicine to treat incurable chronic diseases. Using a Cre/loxP system, we studied cell fusion after bone marrow transplantation. Fused cells were chiefly Gr-1+, a myeloid cell mar...

  9. Hepatic stem cell niches

    OpenAIRE

    Kordes, Claus; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell niches are special microenvironments that maintain stem cells and control their behavior to ensure tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The liver has a high regenerative capacity that involves stem/progenitor cells when the proliferation of hepatocytes is impaired. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of potential hepatic stem cell niches. There is evidence that hepatic progenitor cells can originate from niches in the canals...

  10. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  11. Stem cell mechanobiology

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Lee; Knight, Martin M.; Jonathan J Campbell; Bader, Dan L.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of proliferation, self-maintenance and differentiation towards specific cell phenotypes. These processes are controlled by a variety of cues including physicochemical factors associated with the specific mechanical environment in which the cells reside. The control of stem cell biology through mechanical factors remains poorly understood and is the focus of the developing field of mechanobiology. This review provides an insight into the c...

  12. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Ma; Liang Li; Wenxiu Zhao; Xiang Ji; Fangfang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other type...

  13. Limbal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Merle; Sangwan Virender; Rao Srinivas; Basti Surendra; Sridhar Mittanamalli; Bansal Aashish; Dua Harminder

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This ...

  14. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M. S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the poten...

  15. The leukemic stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Craig T.

    2007-01-01

    Malignant stem cells have recently been described as the source of several types of human cancer. These unique cell types are typically rare and possess properties that are distinct from most other tumor cells. The properties of leukemic stem cells indicate that current chemotherapy drugs will not be effective. The use of current cytotoxic agents is not effective in leukemia because the agents target both the leukemic and normal stem cell populations. Consequently, new strategies are required...

  16. Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Wieczorek; Jolanta Niewiarowska

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory gains increasingly greater significance in the world of medicine. Numerous findings of scientific research in vivo and in vitro indicate that it is the population of undifferentiated, self-renewing cells which is responsible for recurrence of cancer and metastasis. Similarly to normal stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSC) function in the environment of the other cells of the organism, called the niche, where they receive signals for differentiation and proliferation proc...

  17. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-01

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle ...

  18. Mechanically facilitated cell-cell electrofusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroszeski, M. J.; Gilbert, R.; Fallon, P.G.; Heller, R

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods were developed to enable mechanically facilitated cell-cell electrofusion to be performed. The apparatus and methods mechanically place cells in contact before fusion. The key component of this fusion system was a newly developed fusion chamber. The chamber was composed of two functionally identical electrodes that were housed in a multi-layer structure. The layers functioned as support for the electrodes. They also allowed adjustment of the distance between opposing ele...

  19. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-11-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548

  20. Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease, go to the Health Topics Sickle Cell Anemia article. Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease ( ... the most severe form of sickle cell disease, sickle cell anemia, Tiffany has lived with the symptoms and complications ...

  1. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease, go to the Health Topics Sickle Cell Anemia article. Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease ( ... the most severe form of sickle cell disease, sickle cell anemia, Tiffany has lived with the symptoms and complications ...

  2. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  3. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  4. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  5. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  6. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  7. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  8. Assessment of pancreas cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  9. Resident Peritoneal NK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzaga, Rosemary; Matzinger, Polly; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a new population of NK cells that reside in the normal, un-inflamed peritoneal cavity. Phenotypically, they share some similarities with the small population of CD49b negative, CD27 positive immature splenic NK cells, and liver NK cells but differ in their expression of CD62L, TRAIL and EOMES. Functionally, the peritoneal NK cells resemble the immature splenic NK cells in their production of IFN-γ, GM-CSF and TNF-α and in the killing of YAC-1 target cells. We also found that ...

  10. Multipotent adult progenitor cell and stem cell plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Jahagirdar, Balkrishna N; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their biological function. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that self-renews to maintain the stem cell pool and at the single-cell level differentiates into more than one mature, functional cell. In addition, when transplanted, a stem cell should be capable of replacing a damaged organ or tissue for the lifetime of the recipient. Some would argue that stem cells should also be capable of functionally integrating into nondamaged tissues. Stem cells are critical...

  11. Epidermal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the outermost layer of the human skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. There are many origins of stem cells in the skin and skin appendages. These stem cells are localized in different part of the pilosebaseous units and also express many different genes. Epidermal stem cells in the pilosebaseous units not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and hair regeneration, but also contribute to repair of the epidermis after injury. In recent years, human induced pluripotent skin stem cells are produced from the epidermal cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and melanocytes. These cells can be transdifferentiated to embriyonic stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. These cells provide a means to create valuable tools for basic research and may also produce a source of patient-matched cells for regenerative therapies. In this review, we aimed an overview of epidermal stem cells for better understanding their functions in the skin. Skin will be main organ for using the epidermal cells for regenerative medicine in near future.

  12. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  13. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  14. Toward 'SMART' stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically acceptable stem cells? In this editorial review, I will briefly discuss these superficially simple but actually rather complex issues that surround this fascinating cell type. The goal of this special issue on stem cells in Gene Therapy is to review some fundamental and critical aspects of current stem cell research that have translational potential. PMID:18046429

  15. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  16. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  17. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  18. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  19. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...

  20. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  1. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are ... organs, and can accumulate to form tumors. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is arare type of NHL, ...

  2. What Are Islet Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Be Part of the Cure Commitment to Stem Cell Research Exercise + Drug Therapy Tibi Creates Garment to Benefit ... Video Be Part of the Cure Commitment to Stem Cell Research Exercise + Drug Therapy Tibi Creates Garment to Benefit ...

  3. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  4. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for avascular necrosis of the hip Surgery for eye problems Treatment for overuse or abuse of narcotic pain medicines Wound care for leg ulcers Bone marrow or stem cell transplants can cure sickle cell anemia, but this treatment ...

  5. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  6. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  7. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  8. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid;

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  9. Nanoelectrochemistry of mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Peng; Laforge, François O.; Abeyweera, Thushara P.; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Carpino, James; Mirkin, Michael V.

    2008-01-01

    There is a significant current interest in development of new techniques for direct characterization of the intracellular redox state and high-resolution imaging of living cells. We used nanometer-sized amperometric probes in combination with the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to carry out spatially resolved electrochemical experiments in cultured human breast cells. With the tip radius ≈1,000 times smaller than that of a cell, an electrochemical probe can penetrate a cell and tra...

  10. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-01-01

    International audience Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such a...

  11. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  12. Prostate cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate glandular formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative AR− status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade ther...

  13. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, Sharon R.; Blair Marshall; Lyuba Varticovski

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation p...

  14. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  15. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However, as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities, including aneuploidies throughout their lives, the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect bluepri...

  16. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  17. Antitumor Immunity Produced by the Liver Kupffer Cells, NK Cells, NKT Cells, and CD8+ CD122+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhji Seki; Hiroyuki Nakashima; Masahiro Nakashima; Manabu Kinoshita

    2011-01-01

    Mouse and human livers contain innate immune leukocytes, NK cells, NKT cells, and macrophage-lineage Kupffer cells. Various bacterial components, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and an NKT cell ligand ( α -galactocylceramide), activate liver Kupffer cells, which produce IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF. IL-12 activates hepatic NK cells and NKT cells to produce IFN- γ , which further activates hepatic T cells, in turn activating phagocytosis and cytokine production by Kupffer cells in a p...

  18. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  19. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  20. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  1. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  2. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  3. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  4. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  5. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  6. astrocyte and astrocytoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, J.

    2008-01-01

    -transforming gene (PTTG), was found to be upregulated by the CaR in the H-500 cells, whereas calcium had no effect on PTTG expression in the U-87 astrocytoma cell line, but other proproliferative agents did upregulate PTTG in the U-87 cells. This makes PTTG a potential marker of malignancy and a therapeutic target...

  7. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  8. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  10. STEM CELLS: Differentiated cells in a back-up role

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tushar J.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Two independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act as adult stem cells generating various cell types of the tissue, including a pool of stem cells.

  11. MAPK uncouples cell cycle progression from cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization in cycling cells

    OpenAIRE

    Margadant, Coert; Cremers, Lobke; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Boonstra, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cytoskeletal tension supports growth-factor-induced proliferation, and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in growth factor-stimulated cells prevents the re-expression of cyclin D and cell cycle re-entry from quiescence. In contrast to cells that enter the cell cycle from G0, cycling cells continuously express cyclin D, and are subject to major cell shape changes during the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the cell cycle requirements for cytoskeletal tension and cell sprea...

  12. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quanwen Liu; Yi Shen; Jiarong Chen; Jie Ding; Zihua Tang; Cui Zhang; Jianling Chen; Liang Li; Ping Chen; Jinfu Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bund...

  13. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  14. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  15. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  16. Internalization of NK cells into tumor cells requires ezrin and leads to programmed cell-in-cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Zhen Guo; Peng Xia; Tingting Liu; Jufang Wang; Shan Li; Lihua Sun; Jianxin Lu; Qian Wen; Mingqian Zhou; Li Ma; Xia Ding; Xiaoning Wang; Xuebiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key players in the orchestration of immune response and elimination of defective cells. We have previously reported that natural killer (NK) cells enter target tumor cells, leading to either target cell death or self-destruction within tumor cells. However, it has remained elusive as to the fate of NK cells after internaliza-tion and whether the heterotypic cell-in-cell process is different from that of the homotypic cell-in-cell event recently named entosis. Here, we show that NK cells undergo a cell-in-cell process with the ultimate fate of apoptosis within tumor cells and reveal that the internalization process requires the actin cytoskeletal regulator, ezrin. To visualize how NK cells enter into tumor cells, we carried out real-time dual color imaging analyses of NK cell internalization into tumor cells. Surprisingly, most NK cells commit to programmed cell death after their entry into tumor cells, which is distinctively different from entosis observed in the homotypic cell-in-cell process. The apoptotic cell death of the internalized NK cells was evident by activation of caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, NK cell death after internalization is attenuated by the caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, confirming apoptosis as the mode of NK cell death within tumor cells. To determine protein factors essential for the entry of NK cells into tumor cells, we car-ried out siRNA-based knockdown analysis and discovered a critical role of ezrin in NK cell internalization. Impor-tantly, PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin promotes the NK cell internalization process. Our findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism by which ezrin governs NK cell internalization into tumor cells.

  17. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  18. Parameterization of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.

    1992-10-01

    The aggregation (sorting) of the individual solar cells into an array is commonly based on a single operating point on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve. An alternative approach for cell performance prediction and cell screening is provided by modeling the cell using an equivalent electrical circuit, in which the parameters involved are related to the physical phenomena in the device. These analytical models may be represented by a double exponential I-V characteristic with seven parameters, by a double exponential model with five parameters, or by a single exponential equation with four or five parameters. In this article we address issues concerning methodologies for the determination of solar cell parameters based on measured data points of the I-V characteristic, and introduce a procedure for screening of solar cells for arrays. We show that common curve fitting techniques, e.g., least squares, may produce many combinations of parameter values while maintaining a good fit between the fitted and measured I-V characteristics of the cell. Therefore, techniques relying on curve fitting criteria alone cannot be directly used for cell parameterization. We propose a consistent procedure which takes into account the entire set of parameter values for a batch of cells. This procedure is based on a definition of a mean cell representing the batch, and takes into account the relative contribution of each parameter to the overall goodness of fit. The procedure is demonstrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells for Space Station Freedom.

  19. T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The role of allergen-specific CD4+ effector type 2 helper (Th2) cells in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders is an established fact. Th2 cells produce interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which induce immunoglobulin E production by B cells, and IL-5 that allows recruitment of eosinophils. Two main mechanisms control the Th2-mediated allergic inflammation: immune deviation (or Th1 redirection) and immune regulation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells exhibit a CD4+ phenotype and include Foxp3-positive thymic and induced Tregs, as well as Foxp3-negative IL-10-producing cells. Both immune deviation and immune regulation evoked by the maternal and newborn microbial environment probably operate in preventing allergen-specific Th2 responses. However, microbe-related protection from allergy seems to mainly depend on epigenetically controlled acetylation of the IFNG promoter of CD4+ T cells. Even Th17 and Th9 cells, as well as invariant NKT cells, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, but their role is certainly more limited. Recently, innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2) have been found to be able to produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to stimulation with IL-25 and IL-33 produced by non-immune cells. Together with Th2 cells, ILC2 may contribute to the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation. PMID:24925396

  20. Cell adhesion in regulation of asymmetric stem cell division

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells inevitably communicate with their cellular neighbors within the tissues they sustain. Indeed, such communication, particularly with components of the stem cell niche, is essential for many aspects of stem cell behavior, including the maintenance of stem cell identity and asymmetric cell division. Cell adhesion mediates this communication by placing stem cells in close proximity to the signaling source and by providing a polarity cue that orients stem cells. Here, I review the...

  1. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  2. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L;

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  3. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  4. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  5. Peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padam Narayan Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma or the so-called "giant cell epulis" is the most common oral giant cell lesion. It normally presents as a soft tissue purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in a background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells. This lesion probably does not represent a true neoplasm, but rather may be reactive in nature, believed to be stimulated by local irritation or trauma, but the cause is not certainly known. This article reports a case of peripheral giant cell granuloma arising at the maxillary anterior region in a 22-year-old female patient. The lesion was completely excised to the periosteum level and there is no residual or recurrent swelling or bony defect apparent in the area of biopsy after a follow-up period of 6 months.

  6. T Cells Going Innate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyda, Midas; Elkhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Falk, Christine S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors (NKRs) play a crucial role in the homeostasis of antigen-experienced T cells. Indeed, prolonged antigen stimulation may induce changes in the receptor repertoire of T cells to a profile that features NKRs. Chronic antigen exposure, at the same time, has been shown to trigger the loss of costimulatory CD28 molecules with recently reported intensified antigen thresholds of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells. In transplantation, NKRs have been shown to assist allograft rejection in a CD28-independent fashion. We discuss here a role for CD28-negative T cells that have acquired the competency of the NKR machinery, potentially promoting allorecognition either through T cell receptor (TCR) crossreactivity or independently from TCR recognition. Collectively, NKRs can bring about innate-like T cells by providing alternative costimulatory pathways that gain relevance in chronic inflammation, potentially leading to resistance to CD28-targeting immunosuppressants. PMID:27402226

  7. [A case of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor responding to MEA therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yasuharu; Minami, Takafumi; Itami, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hayashi, Taiji; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tokumi; Uemura, Hirotugu

    2013-10-01

    We experienced a case of testicular cancer that was successfully treated by salvage chemotherapy comprised of methotrexate, actinomycin D and etoposide (MEA). A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of stage III B2 (JUA classification) testicular cancer. The patient had multiple lung metastases, and underwent a left orchiectomy. A histopathological examination revealed a choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, mature teratoma, and a yolk sac tumor. Tumor marker levels were elevated ; human chorionic gonadotropin β was 46 mIU/ml and alpha fetoprotein was 437 ng/ml. Although he was treated post-operatively with two courses of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, four courses of high-dose carboplatin, etoposide and iphosphamide (VIP) therapy, and two courses of CPT-11+ cisplatin therapy, tumor maker levels remained elevated and lung metastases were stable. Accordingly, he received three courses of MEA therapy. MEA therapy is regimen used to treat gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. After MEA therapy, levels of the tumor markers normalized. He then underwent a partial resection of lung and enucleation of lung metastasis by the video assisted thoracoscopic surgery method. Histopathological examination of the lung metastasis revealed only necrotic tissue. Tumor recurrence has not been observed in the 14 months since the MEA therapy. PMID:24262714

  8. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC ... found here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of NINDS ...

  9. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  10. Nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin(+) cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin(+) cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin(+) cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin(+) stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin(+) cells-but not in endothelial cells only- increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  11. PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Deniz Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  12. Introduction to Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Jesse K.; Russell, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type. There are two major classes of stem cells: pluripotent that can become any cell in the adult body, and multipotent that are restricted to becoming a more limited population of cells. Cell sources, characteristics, differentiation and therapeutic applications are discussed. Stem cel...

  13. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  14. B cells help alloreactive T cells differentiate into memory T cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yue-Harn; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Chandramoorthy, Harish Chinna Konda; Hoffman, Rosemary; Chalasani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    B cells are recognized as effector cells in allograft rejection that are dependent upon T cell help to produce alloantibodies causing graft injury. It is not known if B cells can also help T cells differentiate into memory cells in the alloimmune response. We found that in B cell-deficient hosts, differentiation of alloreactive T cells into effectors was intact whereas their development into memory T cells was impaired. To test if B cell help for T cells was required for their continued diffe...

  15. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  16. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  17. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  18. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna;

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  19. Myoepithelial cells in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Balachander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  20. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the action of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), as an inhibitor of repair of x radioinduced injuries were extended from synchronous Chinese hamster cells to synchronous human HeLa cells. These studies showed a similar mode of action in both cell types lending support to the notion that conclusions may be extracted from such observations that are of fairly general applicability to mammalian cells. Radiation studies with NEM are being extended to hypoxic cells to inquire if NEM is effective relative to oxygen-independent damage. Observations relative to survival, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand elongation resulting from the addition products to DNA when cells were exposed to near uv in the presence of psoralen were extended. (U.S.)

  1. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  2. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  3. Traction in smooth muscle cells varies with cell spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Wang, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cell shape regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been suggested that the regulation of cell function by the cell shape is a result of the tension in the cytoskeleton and the distortion of the cell. Here we explore the association between cell-generated mechanical forces and the cell morphology. We hypothesized that the cell contractile force is associated with the degree of cell spreading, in particular with the cell length. We measured traction fields of single human airway smooth muscle cells plated on a polyacrylamide gel, in which fluorescent microbeads were embedded to serve as markers of gel deformation. The traction exerted by the cells at the cell-substrate interface was determined from the measured deformation of the gel. The traction was measured before and after treatment with the contractile agonist histamine, or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The relative increase in traction induced by histamine was negatively correlated with the baseline traction. On the contrary, the relative decrease in traction due to isoproterenol was independent of the baseline traction, but it was associated with cell shape: traction decreased more in elongated than in round cells. Maximum cell width, mean cell width, and projected area of the cell were the parameters most tightly coupled to both baseline and histamine-induced traction in this study. Wide and well-spread cells exerted larger traction than slim cells. These results suggest that cell contractility is controlled by cell spreading.

  4. Microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a promising technology for sustainable production of alternative energy and waste treatment. A microbial fuel cell transformation chemical energy in the chemical bonds in organic compounds to electrical energy through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. It has been known for many years that it is possible to generate electricity directly by using bacteria to break down organic substrates. Key words: microbial fuel cells (MFC), biosensor, wastewater treatment

  5. Epidermal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Köse

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the human skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. There are many origins of stem cells in the skin and skin appendages. These stem cells are localized in different part of the pilosebaseous units and also express many different genes. Epidermal stem cells in the pilosebaseous units not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and ...

  6. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  7. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  8. Cell therapy of pseudarthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos Filho, Ricardo; Lermontov, Simone; Borojevic, Radovan; Schott, Paulo Cezar; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; José Mauro GRANJEIRO

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficiency of cell therapy for pseudarthrosis. Implant of the bone marrow aspirate was compared to mononuclear cells purified extemporaneously using the Sepax® equipment. Methods Six patients with nonunion of the tibia or femur were treated. Four received a percutaneous infusion of autologous bone marrow aspirated from the iliac crest, and two received autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells separated from the aspirate with the Sepax®. The primary fixation ...

  9. Chiaroscuro hematopoietic stem cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, P.; Habibian, M. (PhD); Dooner, M; Zhong, S.; Reilly, J; Peters, S.; De Becker, P; Grimaldi, C.; Carlson, J; REDDY, P; Nilsson, S.; Stewart, F. M.

    1998-01-01

    These observations suggest several immediate clinical strategies. In gene therapy, approaches could be targeted to obtain cycling of hematopoietic stem cells and gene-carrying retrovirus vector integration followed by engraftment at an appropriate time interval which favors engraftment. The same type of approach can be utilized for stem cell expansion approaches. Alternatively marrow or peripheral stem cell engraftment can be obtained with minimal to no toxicity in allochimeric strategies in ...

  10. Stem cell myths

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, Tim; Liu, Ying; Parker, Graham C.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2007-01-01

    Stem cells, although difficult to define, hold great promise as tools for understanding development and as therapeutic agents. However, as with any new field, uncritical enthusiasm can outstrip reality. In this review, we have listed nine common myths that we believe affect our approach to evaluating stem cells for therapy. We suggest that careful consideration needs to be given to each of these issues when evaluating a particular cell for its use in therapy. Data need to be collected and rep...

  11. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Deter...

  12. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  13. Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Timothy C Wang

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as the unique subpopulation in the tumors that possess the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal as well as metastatic potential. Accumulating evidence in recent years strongly indicate the existence of cancer stem cells in solid tumors of a wide variety of organs. In this review, we will discuss the possible existence of a gastric cancer stem cell. Our recent data suggest that a subpopulation with a defined marker shows spheroid colony format...

  14. APUD cells in teratomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, F. T.; Louwerens, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The origin of the endocrine cells in the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract is still a matter of debate. In the original concept of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system, all APUD cells were considered to be derived from the neural crest. More recently it has been proposed that the APUD cell types of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts originate from neuroendocrine-programmed ectoblast. Still other investigators have reported observations that favo...

  15. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Tobias; Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the ...

  16. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have two features: the ability to differentiate along different lineages and the ability of self-renewal. Two major types of stem cells have been described, namely, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and are associated with tumorigenesis, and the use of human ESCs involves ethical and legal considerations. The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells is less problematic with regard to these issues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, such as umbilical cord, endometrial polyps, menses blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, etc. This is because the ease of harvest and quantity obtained make these sources most practical for experimental and possible clinical applications. Recently, MSCs have been found in new sources, such as menstrual blood and endometrium. There are likely more sources of MSCs waiting to be discovered, and MSCs may be a good candidate for future experimental or clinical applications. One of the major challenges is to elucidate the mechanisms of differentiation, mobilization, and homing of MSCs, which are highly complex. The multipotent properties of MSCs make them an attractive choice for possible development of clinical applications. Future studies should explore the role of MSCs in differentiation, transplantation, and immune response in various diseases. PMID:21396235

  19. Red cell enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniker, N V

    1975-03-01

    As compared to other cells of the body, the mammalian red cell has one of the simplest structural organizations. As a result, this cell has been extensively used in studies involving the structure, function, and integrity of cell membranes as well as cytoplasmic events. Additionally, the metabolic activities of the red blood cell are also relatively simple. During the past quarter century or so, an ocean of knowledge has been gathered on various aspects of red cell metabolism and function. The fields of enzymes, hemoglobin, membrane, and metabolic products comprise the major portion of this knowledge. These advances have made valuable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. Despite these favorable aspects of this simple, anucleated cell, it must be conceded that our knowledge about the red cell is far from complete. We are still in the dark concerning the mechanism involved in several aspects of its membrane, hemoglobin, enzymes, and a large number of other constituents. For example, a large number of enzymes with known catalytic activity but with unknown function have eluded investigators despite active pursuit. This review will be a consolidation of our present knowledge of human red cell enzymes, with particular reference to their usefulness in the diagnosis and therapy of disease. Owing to the multitude of publications by prominent investigators on each of the approximately 50 enzymes discussed in this review, it was impossible to cite a majority of them.

  20. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  1. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor...... cells through experimental studies and mathematical modelling. These studies all revolve around the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterisation method. EIS is performed by applying a sinusoidal current or voltage signal to the fuel cell and calculating the impedance from the response...

  2. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  3. Multiple granular cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J K; Kuo, T T; Griffiths, C M; Itharat, S

    1980-10-01

    Eleven cases of granular cell tumor were reviewed. In two of the cases multiple sites of involvement were seen. The tumor occurred in the oral cavity in both of these cases and each was initially wrongly diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The most common site was the subcutaneous tissue (nine patients) and the tongue was involved in three cases. In one patient the parotid gland was involved. Eight of the patients were females and three were males; seven were black and four were white. The importance of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor is stressed, as is the need for a simple wide surgical excision. PMID:7421377

  4. Live-cell luciferase assay of drug resistant cells

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    To date, multiplexing cell-based assay is essential for high-throughput screening of molecular targets. Measuring multiple parameters of a single sample increases consistency and decrease time and cost of assay. Functional assay of living cell is useful as a first step of multiplexing assay, because live-cell assay allows following second assay using cell lysate or stained cell. However, live-cell assay of drug resistant cells that are highly activated of drug efflux mechanisms is sometimes u...

  5. [Dendritic cells and interaction with other cell types. Immune tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerder, S

    2001-07-01

    T cell tolerance to self antigen is mainly established in the thymus were self-reactive T cells are deleted. Interdigitating dendritic cells and medulary epithelial cells are directly involved in the deletion process. Some self-reactive T cells escape, however this thymic censorship and enter the peripheral pool of naive T cells. Multiple mechanisms are also at play in the periphery to control this potentially armfull T cells, this include deletion and immune deviation.

  6. A focus on parietal cells as a renewing cell population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; M; Karam

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the acidsecreting parietal cells undergo continuous renewal has been ignored by many gastroenterologists and cell biologists. In the past, it was thought that these cells were static. However, by using 3Hthymidine radioautography in combination with electron microscopy, it was possible to demonstrate that parietal cells belong to a continuously renewing epithelial cell lineage. In the gastric glands, stem cells anchored in the isthmus region are responsible for the production of parietal cells...

  7. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress

    OpenAIRE

    GIRLOVANU, MIHAI; Susman, Sergiu; Soritau, Olga; RUS-CIUCA, DAN; MELINCOVICI, CARMEN; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; Carmen Mihaela MIHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods t...

  8. Liver epithelial cells inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Jeng, Chi-Juei; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Sheen, I-Shyan; Li, Shih-Yun; Hung, Zih-Hang; Hsiau, Hsin-I; Yu, Ming-Che; Chang, Chiung-Fang

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide malignancy with poor prognosis. Liver progenitors or stem cells could be a potential therapy for HCC treatment since they migrate toward tumors. Rat liver epithelial (RLE) cells have both progenitor and stem cell-like properties. Therefore, our study elucidated the therapeutic effect of RLE cells in rat hepatoma cells. RLE cells were isolated from 10-day old rats and characterized for stem cell marker expression. RLE cells and rat hepatoma cells (H4-IIE-C3 cells) were co-cultured and divided into four groups with different ratios of RLE and hepatoma cells. Group A had only rat hepatoma cells as a control group. The ratios of rat hepatoma and RLE cells in group B, C and D were 5:1, 1:1 and 1:5, respectively. Effective inhibition of cell proliferation and migration was found in group D when compared to group A. There was a significant decrease in Bcl2 expression and increase in late apoptosis of rat hepatoma cells when adding more RLE cells. RLE cells reduced cell proliferation and migration of rat hepatoma cells. These results suggested that RLE cells could be used as a potential cell therapy. PMID:26647726

  9. Polarised cells, polarised views: Asymmetric cell division in hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ePham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognised that alterations in cell shape and polarity play important roles in coordinating lymphocyte functions. In the last decade a new aspect of lymphocyte polarity, termed Asymmetric Cell Division (ACD, has attracted much attention. ACD has previously been shown to dictate or influence many aspects of development in model organisms such as the worm and the fly, and to be disrupted in disease. Recent observations that ACD also occurs in lymphocytes led to exciting speculations that ACD might influence lymphocyte differentiation and function, and leukaemia. However, dissecting the role that ACD might play in these activities is not straightforward, and the evidence to date for a functional role in lymphocyte fate determination has been controversial. In this review, we discuss the evidence to date for ACD in lymphocytes, and how it might influence lymphocyte fate. We also discuss current gaps in our knowledge, and suggest approaches to definitively test the physiological role of ACD in lymphocytes.

  10. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  11. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways. PMID:27590152

  12. The new stem cell biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem ce...

  13. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H;

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  14. Tracking Down Mutations Cell by Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosik, Kenneth S

    2016-03-16

    Using somatic cell nuclear transfer, Hazen et al. (2016) examined clonally expanded single neurons for mutations and found ∼100 mutations from a variety of classes. Post-mitotic mutations in individual neurons represent an exploratory direction for finding fundamental origins of neurodegeneration. PMID:26985720

  15. Transition of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous. A fraction of these cells constitute multipotent cells that can self-renew and mainly give rise to mesodermal lineage cells such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cell

  16. Induction of embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to get hematopoietic cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells and to study development mechanisms of hematopoietic cells, the method of inducing embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells was explored by differenciating mouse ES cells and human embryonic cells in three stages. The differentiated cells were identified by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and Wright's staining. The results showed that embryoid bodies (EBs) could form when ES cells were cultured in the medium with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). However, cytokines, such as stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (TPO), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythropoietin (EPO) and granular colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), were not helpful for forming EBs. SCF, TPO and embryonic cell conditional medium were useful for the differentiation of mouse EBs to hematopoietic progenitors. Eighty-six percent of these cells were CD34+ after 6-d culture. Hematopoietic progenitors differentiated to B lymphocytes when they were cocultured with primary bone marrow stroma cells in the DMEM medium with SCF and IL-6. 14 d later, most of the cells were CD34-CD38+. Wright's staining and immunohistochemistry showed that 80% of these cells were plasma-like morphologically and immunoglubolin positive. The study of hematopoietic cells from human embryonic cells showed that human embryonic cell differentiation was very similar to that of mouse ES cells. They could form EBs in the first stage and the CD34 positive cells account for about 48.5% in the second stage.

  17. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  18. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  19. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  20. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  1. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  2. Printed paper photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, Arved; Trnovec, Bystrik; Zillger, Tino; Ali, Moazzam; Wetzold, Nora [Inistitute for Print and Media Technology, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Mingebach, Markus; Wagenpfahl, Alexander; Deibel, Carsten [Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Dyakonov, Vladimir [Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Polymer/fullerene solar cells are printed on paper using a combination of gravure and flexographic printing techniques. The printed paper photovoltaic cells are free from expensive electrodes made with indium-tin oxide, silver, or gold. Oxidized zinc film is used as the electron-collecting layer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Ghrelin and cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Wenjiao An; Weizhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a gastric hormone that has been found to have a wide variety of biological functions. This review summarizes our current understanding of the effects of ghrelin on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells.

  4. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  5. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  6. T-cell costimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses....

  7. Cell Maintenance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Living human cells require attachment to a suitable surface and special culture conditions in order to grow. These requirements are modified and amplified when cells are taken into a weightless environment. Special handling and maintenance systems are required for routine laboratory procedures conducted in the Orbiter and in the Spacelab. Methods were developed to maintain cells in special incubators designed for the Orbiter middeck, however, electrophoresis and other experiments require cells to be harvested off of the culture substrate before they can be processed or used. The cell transport assembly (CTA) was flown on STS-8, and results show that improvements are required to maintain adequate numbers of cells in this device longer than 48 hours. The life sciences middeck centrifuge probably can be used, but modifications will be required to transfer cells from the CTA and keep the cells sterile. Automated systems such as the Skylab SO-15 flight hardware and crew operated systems are being evaluated for use on the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station research modules.

  8. Tumor cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  9. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Stafman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed.

  10. Patterning Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of cell differentiation and assembly remains a fundamental question in developmental biology. Now, a report from the Chen laboratory (Ruiz and Chen, 2008) describes an approach that represents a major step toward a more profound understanding of the geometric-force control of stem cell differentiation.

  11. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  12. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  13. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  14. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  15. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  16. Physics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2013-07-01

    One of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interface. This includes pulling forces generated by contractile polymer bundles and networks, and pushing forces generated by the polymerization of polymer networks. These forces are transmitted to the substrate mainly by focal adhesions, which are large, yet highly dynamic adhesion clusters. Tissue cells use these forces to sense the physical properties of their environment and to communicate with each other. The effect of forces is intricately linked to the material properties of cells and their physical environment. Here a review is given of recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments.

  17. Fifty cell test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, J. D.; Kolba, V. M.; Miller, W. E.; Gay, E. C.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the design of a facility capable of the simultaneous testing of up to 50 high-temperature (400 to 500/sup 0/C) lithium alloy/iron sulfide cells; this facility is located in the Chemical Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The emphasis will be on the lifetime testing of cells fabricated by ANL and industrial contractors to acquire statistical data on the performance of cells of various designs. A computer-based data-acquisition system processes the cell performance data generated from the cells on test. The terminals and part of the data-acquisition equipment are housed in an air-conditioned enclosure adjacent to the testing facility; the computer is located remotely.

  18. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process....... It facilitates the understanding of the task and structure of cell controllers and uses this knowledge directly in the implementation of the system. By applying generic models CCE facilitates reuse of software components and maintenance of applications. In many enterprises, software makes up an increasing part...

  19. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  20. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiangfeng; (黎向锋); LI; Yaqin; (李雅芹); CAI; Jun; (蔡军); ZHANG; Deyuan; (张德远)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  1. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  2. Nanoelectrochemistry of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Laforge, François O; Abeyweera, Thushara P; Rotenberg, Susan A; Carpino, James; Mirkin, Michael V

    2008-01-15

    There is a significant current interest in development of new techniques for direct characterization of the intracellular redox state and high-resolution imaging of living cells. We used nanometer-sized amperometric probes in combination with the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to carry out spatially resolved electrochemical experiments in cultured human breast cells. With the tip radius approximately 1,000 times smaller than that of a cell, an electrochemical probe can penetrate a cell and travel inside it without apparent damage to the membrane. The data demonstrate the possibility of measuring the rate of transmembrane charge transport and membrane potential and probing redox properties at the subcellular level. The same experimental setup was used for nanoscale electrochemical imaging of the cell surface. PMID:18178616

  3. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  4. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; McCatty, Stephen A.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  6. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  7. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  8. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  9. Langerhans' cells, veiled cells, and interdigitating cells in the mouse recognized by a monoclonal antibody

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An mAb, NLDC-145, is described that specifically reacts with a group of nonlymphoid dendritic cells including Langerhans cells (LC), veiled cells (VC), and interdigitating cells (IDC). The antibody does not react with precursor cells in bone marrow and blood. Macrophages are not stained by the antibody, but a subpopulation of Ia+ peritoneal exudate cells is recognized. Possible relationships of the various nonlymphoid dendritic cell (NLDC) types are discussed.

  10. From Adult Bone Marrow Cells to Other Cell Lineages:Transdifferentiation or Cells Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation or local injection of bone marrow cells can induce unexpected changes of their fate. The results of these experiments showed that after transplantation or injecton, some of tissue specific somatic cells such as hepatocytes, skeleton, cardiac muscle cells and brain cells expressed the donor cell-specific genes, such as Y chromosome. There are two hypotheses that can explain this phenomenon. One is bone marrow stem cell transdifferentiation and the other is spontaneous cell fusion.

  11. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Bruno; Cristina Grange; Marta Tapparo; Chiara Pasquino; Renato Romagnoli; Ennia Dametto; Antonio Amoroso; Ciro Tetta; Giovanni Camussi

    2016-01-01

    Human liver stem cells (HLSCs) are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs), and dendritic cells (DCs) in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell co...

  12. Diffusion inside living human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, N.; Jeon, J. -H.; Loft, Steffen;

    2012-01-01

    cells. For these cells the exact diffusional pattern of a particular granule depends on the physiological state of the cell and on the localization of the granule within the cytoplasm. Granules located close to the actin rich periphery of the cell move less than those located towards to the center...... of the cell or within the nucleus. Also, granules in cells which are stressed by intense laser illumination or which have attached to a surface for a long period of time move in a more restricted fashion than those within healthy cells. For granules diffusing in healthy cells, in regions away from the cell...

  13. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  14. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  15. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  17. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  18. Preeclampsia, migración celular y canales iónicos Preeclampsia, cellular migration and ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana M. del Mónaco

    2008-10-01

    the cells in many reabsorbing epithelia; it is aldosterone, vasopressin, insulin and catecholamine-inducible, modulated by estrogens and progesterone and blocked by amiloride and its analogs. Multiple proteases are involved in the proteolytic processing and activation of ENaC subunits and aldosterone alters the protease-protease inhibitors balance. ENaC is also expressed in human placenta; although its function is not well known, the Na+ conductive properties may participate in electrolyte and extracellular volume homeostasis. The activity of ENaC channels and other ion channels and transporters is regulated by the state of actin filaments; on the other hand, changes in volume influence the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, there is an interaction between ENaC and components of the apical membrane cytoskeleton. In addition to their role in cellular homeostasis and electrical properties, Na+ currents through ENaC and other sodium channels are involved in cell migration, well documented in normal and cancer cells. In this work we presented evidences supporting the hypothesis that ENaC channels are required for the migration of BeWo cells, a human hormone-synthesizing trophoblastic cell line that express the three subunits of the ENaC channels. BeWo cell line has also been used as a model to investigate the placental transport mechanisms.

  19. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Josalyn L Cho; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of c...

  20. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Josalyn L Cho; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of c...

  1. Defective alloantigen-presenting capacity of 'Langerhans cell histiocytosis cells'.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, R C; Morris, J F; Pritchard, J.; Chu, T C

    1992-01-01

    The functional activity of skin cells derived from an infant who died of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was examined. Involved and non-involved skin was obtained at postmortem examination within three hours of death; normal epidermal Langerhans cells and 'LCH cells' were separated by means of dispase digestion. The functional activity of different populations of CD1a positive cells was assessed using the conventional six day allogeneic mixed cell reaction. Compared with Lange...

  2. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into insulin- secreting cells

    OpenAIRE

    S Mollamohammadi; Massumi, M.; H Jafary; Baharvand, H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Type I diabetes mellitus is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. A new potential method for curing the disease is transplantation of differentiated insulin- secreting cells from human embryonic stem cells. Methods: Human embryonic stem cell lines (Royan H1) were used to produce embryoid bodies. Differentiation carried out by growth factor-mediated selection of nestin positive cells. In final stage, these cells were expanded in the presence of bFGF, ...

  3. The Cell Surface Proteome of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Niehage; Charlotte Steenblock; Theresia Pursche; Martin Bornhäuser; Denis Corbeil; Bernard Hoflack

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multipotent human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are considered as promising biological tools for regenerative medicine. Their antibody-based isolation relies on the identification of reliable cell surface markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To obtain a comprehensive view of the cell surface proteome of bone marrow-derived hMSCs, we have developed an analytical pipeline relying on cell surface biotinylation of intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-bio...

  4. A novel cell subset:Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports introduce a novel cell subset of DCs with antigenic phenotypes shared by both NK cells and B cells, but without surface markers of pDCs and T cells, appearing to be a chimera of NK cells and DCs, namely interferon-producing killer dendritic cells(IKDCs).IKDCs not only secret type I and type II interferons to recognize and kill tumor cells effectively, but also express MHC-II molecules to present antigens.Thus, IKDCs are considered as important immunosurveilance cells for tumors, providing a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. Embryonic stem cells: prospects for developmental biology and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Anna M; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2005-04-01

    Stem cells represent natural units of embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, in particular, possess a nearly unlimited self-renewal capacity and developmental potential to differentiate into virtually any cell type of an organism. Mouse ES cells, which are established as permanent cell lines from early embryos, can be regarded as a versatile biological system that has led to major advances in cell and developmental biology. Human ES cell lines, which have recently been derived, may additionally serve as an unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine. Before therapeutic applications can be realized, important problems must be resolved. Ethical issues surround the derivation of human ES cells from in vitro fertilized blastocysts. Current techniques for directed differentiation into somatic cell populations remain inefficient and yield heterogeneous cell populations. Transplanted ES cell progeny may not function normally in organs, might retain tumorigenic potential, and could be rejected immunologically. The number of human ES cell lines available for research may also be insufficient to adequately determine their therapeutic potential. Recent molecular and cellular advances with mouse ES cells, however, portend the successful use of these cells in therapeutics. This review therefore focuses both on mouse and human ES cells with respect to in vitro propagation and differentiation as well as their use in basic cell and developmental biology and toxicology and presents prospects for human ES cells in tissue regeneration and transplantation.

  6. A novel cell subset: Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiongKun; XING FeiYue

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports introduce a novel cell subset of DCs with antigenic phenotypes shared by both NK cells and B cells, but without surface markers of pDCs and T cells, appearing to be a chimera of NK cells and DCs, namely interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs). IKDCs not only secret type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ interferons to recognize and kill tumor cells effectively, but also express MHC-Ⅱ molecules to present antigens. Thus, IKDCs are considered as important immunosurveilance cells for tumors, providing a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  7. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  8. Stem Cells and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cell research has thrived over the last years due to their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Scientific breakthroughs in the field are immediately translated from the scientific journals to the mass media, which is not surprising as the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of stem cells is crucial for the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. In the Molecular Oncology Unit at Ciemat we work to unravel the role of cancer stem cells in tumour development, and to find new antitumor therapies. (Author)

  9. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  10. Limbal Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kringlegarden, Hilde Grane

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted today that stem cells in the adult corneal epithelium is located to the limbus. No specific marker of limbal epithelial cells (LESCs) has been identified, yet many have been suggested, including ΔNp63α, ABCG2, vimentin and notch 1. Negative markers include amongst others the differentiation markers Ck3 and Ck12. The lack of an identified specific marker elucidates the need for establishment of more exact molecular markers of LESCs. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) may ...

  11. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  12. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  13. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  14. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-01

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  15. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  16. CD81 is dispensable for hepatitis C virus cell-to-cell transmission in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveldt, Jeroen; Evans, Matthew J; Bitzegeio, Julia; Koutsoudakis, George; Owsianka, Ania M; Angus, Allan G N; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K H; Pietschmann, Thomas; Rice, Charles M; Patel, Arvind H

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects cells by the direct uptake of cell-free virus following virus engagement with specific cell receptors such as CD81. Recent data have shown that HCV is also capable of direct cell-to-cell transmission, although the role of CD81 in this process is disputed. Here, we generated cell culture infectious strain JFH1 HCV (HCVcc) genomes carrying an alanine substitution of E2 residues W529 or D535 that are critical for binding to CD81 and infectivity. Co-cultivation of these cells with naïve cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) resulted in a small number of cells co-expressing both EGFP and HCV NS5A, showing that the HCVcc mutants are capable of cell-to-cell spread. In contrast, no cell-to-cell transmission from JFH1(DeltaE1E2)-transfected cells occurred, indicating that the HCV glycoproteins are essential for this process. The frequency of cell-to-cell transmission of JFH1(W529A) was unaffected by the presence of neutralizing antibodies that inhibit E2-CD81 interactions. By using cell lines that expressed little or no CD81 and that were refractive to infection with cell-free virus, we showed that the occurrence of viral cell-to-cell transmission is not influenced by the levels of CD81 on either donor or recipient cells. Thus, our results show that CD81 plays no role in the cell-to-cell spread of HCVcc and that this mode of transmission is shielded from neutralizing antibodies. These data suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting the entry of cell-free HCV may not be sufficient in controlling an ongoing chronic infection, but need to be complemented by additional strategies aimed at disrupting direct cell-to-cell viral transmission. PMID:19088272

  17. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  18. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  19. Kinetics of adrenal medullary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstad, A A

    1993-01-01

    The adrenal medulla of mammals has a heterogeneous population of cells. In adults most are epithelial cells containing a particular type of cytoplasmic granule. Based on a variety of cytochemical and ultrastructural studies it is now accepted that 2 different adrenal medullary chromaffin cell types can be distinguished, i.e. noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) synthesising and storing cells. Other cell types present in the adrenal medulla include neuronal elements comprising either cell bod...

  20. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  1. Pancreatic Stem Cells Remain Unresolved

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet β cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient β cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including β cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripo...

  2. Mast cells in bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in immunity towards bacterial infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which mast cells contribute to the host response are only partially understood. Previous studies have examined how mast cells react to purified bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate how mast cells react to live bacteria we co-cultured mast cells and the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus equi (S. equi) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)...

  3. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  4. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  5. Dazl Promotes Germ Cell Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Yu; Ping Ji; Jinping Cao; Shu Zhu; Yao Li; Lin Zheng; Xuejin Chen; Lixin Feng

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that through the formation of embryoid bodies (Ebs) germ cells can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we describe a transgene expression approach to derive germ cells directly from ES cells in vitro without EB formation. Through the ectopic expression of Deleted in Azoospermia-Like (Dazl), a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein,both motile tailed-sperm and oocytes were induced from mouse ES (mES) cells in culture. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Dazl led to suppression of Nanog but induced germ cell nuclear antigen in mES cells. Dazl knockdown resulted in reduction in the expression of germ cell markers including Stella, MVH and Prdm1. Our study indicates that Dazl is a master gene controlling germ cell differentiation and that ectopic expression of Dazl promotes the dynamic differentiation of mouse ES cells into gametes in vitro.

  6. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated...

  7. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  8. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah;

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...... responses to regulate processes including branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation. Malignant transformation of the breast is also associated with significant matrix remodeling and a progressive stiffening of the stroma that can enhance mammary epithelial cell growth, perturb breast tissue...

  9. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M;

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  10. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  11. The Giant Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  12. Familial germ cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Cyriac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile.

  13. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-ling YAN

    2014-01-01

    A case report and literature review. We present a boy with a multisystemic presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and severe pulmonary lesion.Skin lesion helped to suspect and confirm diagnosis by scalpbiopsy. Chemotherapy was important for favorable result.

  15. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, H H

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is regarded as a reactive proliferation of the dendritic Langerhans cell population stimulated by chronic tobacco-derived plant proteins due to incomplete combustion but can also occur in childhood as a tumor-like systemic disease. Currently, both these forms cannot be morphologically distinguished. In the lungs a nodular proliferation of Langerhans cells occurs in the bronchial mucosa and also peripherally in the alveolar septa with an accompanying infiltration by eosinophilic granulocytes and destruction of the bronchial wall. Langerhans cells can be selectively detected with antibodies against CD1a and langerin. In the reactive isolated pulmonary form, abstinence from tobacco smoking in most patients leads to regression of infiltration and improvement of symptoms. In high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) the small star-like scars can still be detected even after complete cessation of tobacco smoking. PMID:26289803

  16. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...

  17. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickledex; Hgb S test ... This test is done to tell if a person has abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle ... and no symptoms, or only mild ones. This test does not tell the difference between these two ...

  18. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  20. RSW Cell Centered Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New cell centered grids are generated to complement the node-centered ones uploaded. Six tarballs containing the coarse, medium, and fine mixed-element and pure...

  1. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  2. Plasma Cell Cheilitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thami Gurvinder P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plasma cell cheilitis with good response to glucocorticoids, is described for its rarity and probable aetiological correlation with habit of use of nasal snuff is discussed.

  3. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  4. Mast cells and company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Friederike; Daëron, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb's classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells be considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  5. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author)

  6. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  7. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  8. Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed

  9. Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevedentseva, E. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China); Hong, S.-F.; Huang, K.-J. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Life Sciences (China); Chiang, I.-T.; Lee, C.-Y. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China); Tseng, Y.-T. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Life Sciences (China); Cheng, C.-L., E-mail: clcheng@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China)

    2013-08-15

    Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed.

  10. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlovanu, Mihai; Susman, Sergiu; Soritau, Olga; Rus-Ciuca, Dan; Melincovici, Carmen; Constantin, Anne-Marie; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods to prevent teratoma formation or the ethical and religious issues regarding especially the embryonic stem cell research. The direct differentiation of stem cells into specialized cells: cardiac myocytes, neural cells, pancreatic islets cells, may represent an option in treating incurable diseases such as: neurodegenerative diseases, type I diabetes, hematologic or cardiac diseases. Nevertheless, stem cell-based therapies, based on stem cell transplantation, remain mainly at the experimental stages and their major limitation is the development of teratoma and cancer after transplantation. The induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a prime candidate for future cell therapy research because of their significant self-renewal and differentiation potential and the lack of ethical issues. This article presents an overview of the biological advances in the study of stem cells and the current progress made in the field of regenerative medicine.

  11. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  12. Transgelin-2 in B-Cells Controls T-Cell Activation by Stabilizing T Cell - B Cell Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Myoung-Won; Kim, Hye-Ran; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Jun, Chang-Duk; Park, Zee-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The immunological synapse (IS), a dynamic and organized junction between T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), is critical for initiating adaptive immunity. The actin cytoskeleton plays a major role in T-cell reorganization during IS formation, and we previously reported that transgelin-2, an actin-binding protein expressed in T-cells, stabilizes cortical F-actin, promoting T-cell activation in response to antigen stimulation. Transgelin-2 is also highly expressed in B-cells, although no specific function has been reported. In this study, we found that deficiency in transgelin-2 (TAGLN2-/-) in B-cells had little effect on B-cell development and activation, as measured by the expression of CD69, MHC class II molecules, and CD80/86. Nevertheless, in B-cells, transgelin-2 accumulated in the IS during the interaction with T-cells. These results led us to hypothesize that transgelin-2 may also be involved in IS stability in B-cells, thereby influencing T-cell function. Notably, we found that transgelin-2 deficiency in B-cells reduced T-cell activation, as determined by the release of IL-2 and interferon-γ and the expression of CD69. Furthermore, the reduced T-cell activation was correlated with reduced B-cell–T-cell conjugate formation. Collectively, these results suggest that actin stability in B-cells during IS formation is critical for the initiation of adaptive T-cell immunity. PMID:27232882

  13. Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Thomas; Salini C. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. It is characterized by increased glucose utilization by tissues mediated by a tumor resulting in hypoglycemia. NICTH is usually seen in large mesenchymal tumors including tumors involving the GI tract. Here we will discuss a case, its pathophysiology, and recent advances in the management of NICTH. Our patient was diagnosed with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. He continued to be hypoglycemic ...

  14. Plasma cell leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gertz, Moria A.; Buadi, Francis K.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but can also include hepatomegaly and sple...

  15. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhaniya Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  16. Parietal cell vagotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, V H; Coupland, G A

    1975-07-12

    In a series of 100 consecutive patients who had parietal cell vagotomy performed, no drainage procedure was performed in 56 while 44 were drained. Dumping was significantly less in those who were not drained. All patients were tested for adequacy of vagotomy and for function of the nerve of Latarget at operation. Four patients have had further operations, two for proven recurrent ulcers. Parietal cell vagotomy has given excellent clinical results in this group of patients.

  17. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  18. NK Cells and Trophoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Parham, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In placental mammals, viviparity—the production of living young within the mother's body—evolved under the auspices of the immune system. Elements of immunity were incorporated, giving pregnancy a mildly inflammatory character. Formation of the placenta, the organ that feeds the fetus, involves a cooperation between maternal natural killer (NK) cells and fetal trophoblast cells that remodels the blood supply. Recent research reveals that this process and human reproductive success are influen...

  19. Syndecans and cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Chen, L; Woods, A

    2001-01-01

    Now that transmembrane signaling through primary cell-matrix receptors, integrins, is being elucidated, attention is turning to how integrin-ligand interactions can be modulated. Syndecans are transmembrane proteoglycans implicated as coreceptors in a variety of physiological processes, including...... cell adhesion, migration, response to growth factors, development, and tumorigenesis. This review will describe this family of proteoglycans in terms of their structures and functions and their signaling in conjunction with integrins, and indicate areas for future research....

  20. Familial germ cell tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Sanju Cyriac; Rejeev Rajendranath; A. Robert Louis; Sagar, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presenc...

  1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna, D. R.; G Pushpalatha; Sushma Galgali; Prashanthy,

    2011-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of rare disorders histologically characterized by the proliferation of Langerhans cells. Multiple organs and systems may be involved by the disease. Typically, there is bone involvement and, less frequently, lesions may be found in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, skin, and mucosa. Oral soft tissue lesions without bone involvement are rare. We present a case of oral lesions associated with LCH in a young woman.

  2. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Suri Harpreet S; Yi Eunhee S; Nowakowski Gregorz S; Vassallo Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a relatively uncommon lung disease that generally, but not invariably, occurs in cigarette smokers. The pathologic hallmark of PLCH is the accumulation of Langerhans and other inflammatory cells in small airways, resulting in the formation of nodular inflammatory lesions. While the overwhelming majority of patients are smokers, mechanisms by which smoking induces this disease are not known, but likely involve a combination of events r...

  3. The Cell Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefler, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream processor development is mostly targeted at compatibility and continuity. Thus, the processor market is dominated by x86 compatible CPUs since more than two decades now. Several new concepts tried to gain some market share, but it was not possible to overtake the old compatibility driven concepts. A group of three corporates tries another way to come into the market with a new idea, the cell design. The cell processor is a new try to leverage the increasing amount...

  4. The intestinal stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Nick; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to each of these events. While the intestinal epithelium represents the most vigorously renewing adult tissue in mammals, the stem cells that fuel this self-renewal process have been identified only rec...

  5. Intracranial germ cell tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutz, J; Rausin, L.; Weerts, E; Tebache, M; Born, J; Hoyoux, C

    2010-01-01

    Germ cell tumours represent about 3 to 8% of pediatric brain tumours. Occurrence of diabetes insipidus is common in the case of suprasellar germ cell tumors. The diagnosis may be advanced by MRI owing to the location and relatively univocal characteristics of the lesion signal. The existence of a bifocal mass developed in both suprasellar region and pineal zone is highly suggestive of a germinoma. The most important notion is to recognize that at the time of diabetes insipidus diagnosis in a ...

  6. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippili Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are found in the olfactory bulb and olfactory nasal mucosa. They resemble Schwann cells on light and electron microscopy, however, immunohistochemical staining can distinguish between the two. There are less than 30 cases of olfactory groove schwannomas reported in the literature while there is only one reported case of OEC tumor. We report an OEC tumor in a 42-year-old male and discuss the pathology and origin of this rare tumor.

  7. Cell Processing Engineering for Regenerative Medicine : Noninvasive Cell Quality Estimation and Automatic Cell Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mutsumi

    2016-01-01

    The cell processing engineering including automatic cell processing and noninvasive cell quality estimation of adherent mammalian cells for regenerative medicine was reviewed. Automatic cell processing necessary for the industrialization of regenerative medicine was introduced. The cell quality such as cell heterogeneity should be noninvasively estimated before transplantation to patient, because cultured cells are usually not homogeneous but heterogeneous and most protocols of regenerative medicine are autologous system. The differentiation level could be estimated by two-dimensional cell morphology analysis using a conventional phase-contrast microscope. The phase-shifting laser microscope (PLM) could determine laser phase shift at all pixel in a view, which is caused by the transmitted laser through cell, and might be more noninvasive and more useful than the atomic force microscope and digital holographic microscope. The noninvasive determination of the laser phase shift of a cell using a PLM was carried out to determine the three-dimensional cell morphology and estimate the cell cycle phase of each adhesive cell and the mean proliferation activity of a cell population. The noninvasive discrimination of cancer cells from normal cells by measuring the phase shift was performed based on the difference in cytoskeleton density. Chemical analysis of the culture supernatant was also useful to estimate the differentiation level of a cell population. A probe beam, an infrared beam, and Raman spectroscopy are useful for diagnosing the viability, apoptosis, and differentiation of each adhesive cell. PMID:25373455

  8. Mast cells and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Folkerts, Gert; Redegeld, Frank

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune response to the inhalation of toxic particles and gases. Although tobacco smoking is the primary cause of this inhalation injury, many other environmental and occupational exposures contribute to the pathology of COPD. The immune inflammatory changes associated with COPD are linked to a tissue-repair and -remodeling process that increases mucus production and causes emphysematous destruction of the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. The common form of emphysema observed in smokers begins in the respiratory bronchioles near the thickened and narrowed small bronchioles that become the major site of obstruction in COPD. The inflamed airways of COPD patients contain several inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and dendritic cells. The relative contribution of mast cells to airway injury and remodeling is not well documented. In this review, an overview is given on the possible role of mast cells and their mediators in the pathogenesis of COPD. Activation of mast cells and mast cell signaling in response to exposure to cigarette smoke is further discussed. PMID:21463700

  9. Fuel cell generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber

  10. Fuel cell; Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    More than 100 sets of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) have been installed by now, and accumulated operation performance exceeding 40 thousand hours, which is regarded as a development target, has been achieved. Further, there are also PAFCs that have achieved continuous operation performance exceeding 9,000 hours, thus being most approachable to practical use. On the other hand, developments of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), which operate at high temperatures, have high power generation efficiencies due to the capability of operating associatively with gas turbines or vapor turbines, and may use coal gasified gases as fuels, are carried out for an aim of realizing the practical use at the begging of the 21st century. Further, in recent years, researches and developments of the polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have been accelerated mainly in vehicle business for the purpose of using PEFC as power sources for movable bodies, and researches and development for accelerative development of cell stacks and power generation systems are executed. In this paper, situations of the researches and developments in respect to the above-mentioned four kinds of fuel cells are summarily introduced. (NEDO)

  11. Turing patterns inside cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián E Strier

    Full Text Available Concentration gradients inside cells are involved in key processes such as cell division and morphogenesis. Here we show that a model of the enzymatic step catalized by phosphofructokinase (PFK, a step which is responsible for the appearance of homogeneous oscillations in the glycolytic pathway, displays Turing patterns with an intrinsic length-scale that is smaller than a typical cell size. All the parameter values are fully consistent with classic experiments on glycolytic oscillations and equal diffusion coefficients are assumed for ATP and ADP. We identify the enzyme concentration and the glycolytic flux as the possible regulators of the pattern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first closed example of Turing pattern formation in a model of a vital step of the cell metabolism, with a built-in mechanism for changing the diffusion length of the reactants, and with parameter values that are compatible with experiments. Turing patterns inside cells could provide a check-point that combines mechanical and biochemical information to trigger events during the cell division process.

  12. >Effect of progesterone hormon on cell viability and stem cell activation in dental pulp cells

    OpenAIRE

    Segah Altuntaş; Muhammed Ali Kara; Deniz Selin Aksoy; Zehra Dilşad Çoban; Şefik Güran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The vitality of the dentin structure, both during health and after injury, depends on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes that regulate the cell’s behavior. Dental pulp tissue has condensed stem cell activity. Dental pulp stem cells are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Several publications hav...

  13. On the cell biology of pit cells, the liver-specific NK cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Zhong Luo; David Vermijlen; Bülent Ahishali; Vasilis Triantis; Georgia Plakoutsi; Filip Braet; Karin Vanderkerken; Eddie Wisse

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Natural killer (NK) cells are functionally defined by their ability to kill certain tumor cells and virusinfected cells without prior sensitization[1]. NK cells comprise about 10% to 15% of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and most of these cells in human and rat have the morphology of large granular lymphocytes ( LGL )[2]. However, recent studies have demonstrated that small agranular lymphocytes, lacking CD3 expression, have cytolytic activity comparable to NK cells[3].

  14. Involvement of Plant Stem Cells or Stem Cell-Like Cells in Dedifferentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fangwei; Feng, Zhenhua; Liu, Hailiang; Zhu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to pro...

  15. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  16. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  17. Stabilization Of Apoptotic Cells: Generation Of Zombie Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Sánchez Alcázar

    2015-08-01

    Stabilization of apoptotic cells can be used for reliable detection and quantification of apoptosis in cultured cells and may allow a safer administration of apoptotic cells in clinical applications. Furthermore, it opens new avenues in the functional reconstruction of apoptotic cells for longer preservation.

  18. CellTracks cytometer for detection of circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, A.G.J.; Kooi, van der A.; Groot, de M.R.; Vermes, I.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with carcinomas, tumor cells are shed into the circulation. The number of the circulating tumor cells is low and technology is needed that has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to enumerate and characterize these cells. The CellTracks system was developed to provide an

  19. Recognition and Regulation of T Cells by NK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallmer, Katharina; Oxenius, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of T cell responses by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) is increasingly documented and studied. Direct or indirect crosstalk between ILCs and T cells early during and after T cell activation can affect their differentiation, polarization, and survival. Natural killer (NK) cells that belong to the ILC1 group were initially described for their function in recognizing and eliminating “altered self” and as source of early inflammatory cytokines, most notably type II interferon. Using signals conveyed by various germ-line encoded activating and inhibitory receptors, NK cells are geared to sense sudden cellular changes that can be caused by infection events, malignant transformation, or cellular stress responses. T cells, when activated by TCR engagement (signal 1), costimulation (signal 2), and cytokines (signal 3), commit to a number of cellular alterations, including entry into rapid cell cycling, metabolic changes, and acquisition of effector functions. These abrupt changes may alert NK cells, and T cells might thereby expose themselves as NK cell targets. Here, we review how activated T cells can be recognized and regulated by NK cells and what consequences such regulation bears for T cell immunity in the context of vaccination, infection, or autoimmunity. Conversely, we will discuss mechanisms by which activated T cells protect themselves against NK cell attack and outline the significance of this safeguard mechanism. PMID:27446081

  20. Sponge cell culture? A molecular identification method for sponge cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociated sponge cells are easily confused with unicellular organisms. This has been an obstacle in the development of sponge-cell lines. We developed a molecular detection method to identify cells of the sponge Dysidea avara in dissociated cell cultures. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene from a Dysidea