..., by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited. (b... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is...
Miller, Donald E.
As a background paper for the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference held in November, 1966, this paper focuses first on narcotic control in general, and second, on the reasons for insisting on marijuana control. Brief descriptions are given of the currently existing narcotics acts at federal and state…
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...
... of well-being by reducing tension, anxiety, and aggression. These effects are helpful in a therapeutic setting but contribute to the drugs ’ abuse. Narcotic/opioid use comes with a variety of ...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37... other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs illegal... with respect to the possession, sale, consumption, or use of narcotic or other drugs. ...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the penalties...
Shannon, Thomas A.
California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug…
the odd exception, but in general the police seem to have a pretty sensible attitude towards addictive narcotics at least. I never hear any... Ciudad Universitaria. Guzman Maldonado said that he has been involved in drug traffic since 1967 when he entered Prepara- tory School No. 5 in Coapa
... or marihuana. 162.65 Section 162.65 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of regular...
activities, especially the scope of their drug sales and distribution activities. The Interpol agents also confiscated two pickup trucks, one Izuzu l...Barnett Va- lenzuela, and Eduardo Esquer Alvarado, 35-years old, resident of 79 Educacion Street of this city. Barnett Valenzuela owns the drugs and... especially of the urban lower classes, of a broad and concrete discussion on the problems of the use and abuse of alco- hol, hallucinogens and narcotics
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and...
northern region down to Bangkok as can be seen by the decrease in narcotics prices in parts of the country like Chiang Mai . We must praise the Border...the deputy rector of Chiang Mai University. I think that this project will proceed without any difficulty. CSO: 5300 17 THAILAND UNIVERSITY...ANTINARCOTICS CENTER--A new antinarcotics centre has been set up in Chiang Mai to deal with the suppression of drug trafficking in the north, the
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If a...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances...
...; listed chemical. 598.309 Section 598.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. The terms narcotic drug, controlled substance, and listed chemical have the meanings given those terms...
Gandhi, Sonu; Suman, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena; Suri, C. Raman
Introduction: Immunosensor for illicit drugs have gained immense interest and have found several applications for drug abuse monitoring. This technology has offered a low cost detection of narcotics; thereby, providing a confirmatory platform to compliment the existing analytical methods. Methods: In this minireview, we define the basic concept of transducer for immunosensor development that utilizes antibodies and low molecular mass hapten (opiate) molecules. Results: This article emphasizes on recent advances in immunoanalytical techniques for monitoring of opiate drugs. Our results demonstrate that high quality antibodies can be used for immunosensor development against target analyte with greater sensitivity, specificity and precision than other available analytical methods. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the fundamentals of different transducer technologies and its applications for immunosensor development currently being developed in our laboratory using rapid screening via immunochromatographic kit, label free optical detection via enzyme, fluorescence, gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes based immunosensing for sensitive and specific monitoring of opiates. PMID:26929925
Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel
A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or...
The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined information on explosives and narcotics detection technologies that are available or under development. This report discusses (1) funding for those technologies, (2) characteristics and limitations of avai...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate issued...
Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with narcotic drugs had been performed in Varna region for 25 years (1991-2015. Material and Methods: The number of patients received hospital treatment after poisonings with narcotic substances was 677, which represented 3.9% of all acute exogenous intoxications. Results: Narcotic poisonings were more common in men – 546 (80.6%, than in women – 131 (19.4 %. The ratio male/ female was 4.17:1. The largest number of intoxications were in the age group up to 24 years – 1123 (66%, and only 2.65% of patients were over 45 years. Death was registered in 6 (0.9% patients.
Full Text Available Aim: Today use of different banned substances such as narcotic, psychoactive and energetic drugs are social problem that has created worry in different levels of human societies. The aim of present study was examined the prevalence of use of narcotic and psychoactive drugs among high school and university students also identifying of risk factors associated with the use of this materials. Method: The population of this descriptive survey study was all students of high school and university of Khodabandeh city. By cluster random sampling 580 students of high school and university selected and questionnaires distributed among them. After eliminating incomplete questionnaires 480 students remained as research sample. Results: In consideration of selected sample the most important reasons of using of narcotics are: enjoying and curiosity, exposed to bad environment like addicted friends and families, joblessness, economic problems, lack of information and loss of affection. Conclusion: The analysis of the results indicated the high prevalence of narcotic and drugs use and necessity of codification of preventive programs for these people.
James H. Mills
Full Text Available After the Second World War the United Nations (UN assumed the role of the League of Nations in formulating and operating the international regulatory framework for narcotic drugs. It gathered masses of information from across countries and continents while acting as both a forum and an agent for the emergence of agreed approaches to a heterodox array of substances. This article will examine the story of the inclusion of cannabis in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. It will argue that in the years after 1945, it was officials at the UN and the WHO that played crucial roles in shaping opinions of the drug and in securing its place in the Convention.
Combat of Traffickers 64 PANAMA Briefs Drug Trafficker’s Arrest 65 Drug Control Statistics 65 Three From U.S. 65 PERU Briefs State Drug Law 66...in Viru, Peru , was identified as Gabriel Eduardo Romero. The Cali police said that Romero had a record as a drug trafficker and that he is widely...Narino Battalion. Counsel for the defense alleged that Vega Perez suffers from diabetes and will there- by receive better medical treatment. The
cent of those ar- rested for drug offences had no religious back- ground. He therefore called on ’ the Malaysian Inter-Re- , ligions...illicit drugs, it would mean that 15 out of every 1,000 Malaysians have drug- tainted fingers (based on a population figure of 12 mil- lion).. An idea...a certain de- gree of misunderstanding concerning crime and ad-’ diets . Addicts have, been ac- cused of being violent as a result of their drug
Hazarika, Pompi; Jickells, Sue M; Wolff, Kim; Russell, David A
An immunoassay based technique is used for the detection of psychoactive substances in the sweat deposited within fingermarks of a narcotic drug user. Magnetic particles functionalized with antimorphine and antibenzoylecgonine antibodies were used for the detection of a metabolite of heroin (morphine) and a metabolite of cocaine (benzoylecgonine), respectively. The drug metabolites were detected individually as well as simultaneously from a single fingermark. The images of the fingermarks obtained using brightfield and fluorescence microscopy were of high evidential quality with resolution to enable identification of an individual in addition to providing information on drug usage.
Worth 25,000 Kyats Seized in Rangoon (MYANMA ALIN, 18 Oct 76) 10 Marihuana Burned in Okto (MYANMA ALIN, 2 Oct 76) 11 MALAYSIA American... Marihuana , Cocaine Pushers, Addicts Arrested (EL TIEMPO, 23 Sep 76) 29 Briefs Drug Ring Smashed 31 Drug Hauls and Arrests 31 Drug Traffickers Arrested...lead of the Labor Governments in New South Wales and South Australia in moves to legalise marihuana ," he said. A submission by the Australian
138] CONTENTS (Continued) Page MALAYSIA Briefs 12,800 Drug Offenders Since 1970 11 Drug Traffickers Sentenced to Death 11 Soldier Jailed for...1330 GMT 16 Feb 77 BK] CSO: 5300 10 MALAYSIA BRIEFS 12,800 DRUG OFFENDERS SINCE 1970—Kuala Lumpur, Sun.—About 12,800 people have been arrested...health be captured. 91 "Ester" is dark, obese and of medium height with long, straight hair. She is about 45 years old and has an eye disease
concealing drugs have included both unsophisticated and ingeni- ous methods, such as transport in cans of tomato juice, pickled chiles and even in...Police] of Agua Prieta upset the drug traffickers by seizing a power- ful light plane used to carry marihuana to the United States. Ernesto Avila...Arizona nar- cotics agents. The Stationer II light plane, registration No N7280N, was found abandoned at the Agua Prieta airport. Alfredo Vazquez
investigate the non- medical use of drugs, spent several hours with a mem- ber of the Beatles, his wife and a Toronto music concert promoter and smoked...obsessive feeling of guilt? The drug therapist, like the cancer 69 specialist, customarily fails; for them this is hard because people do not forgive...products throughout the national territory: opium (1.856 kg), morphine (1.266 kg, 34 ampoules), heroin (103.481 kg), cocaine (2.16 kg), cannabis
were aged between 17 and 35. He said that between 1970 and last year, 379 Malaysians were arrested for drug offenses overseas. Datuk Haji Ngah said...drug processing centre at the Malaysian -Thai border. He warned that the country’s development would be affected and the people would suffer if the...Thai actor with three kilogrammes of No 3 heroin and a .38 revolver on Charoen Krung Road near the Capitol cinema . They were identified as Pol Cpl
19 Apr 77) 18 Bangkok Court Sentences Four Drug Traffickers (BANGKOK POST, 23 Apr 77) 20 Briefs Chiang Mai Heroin Factory 21 Thailand...BRIEFS CHIANG MAI HEROIN FACTORY— Chiang Mai —Border patrol police seized a heroin factory at Ban Huai Chae, Tambon Muang Kong of Chiang Dao District...drug enforcement officers stationed in Bangkok. [Text] [Bangkok NATION REVIEW in English 25 Apr 77 p 1 BK] TWO HEROIN RAIDS— Chiang Mai —Five men
they also cultivate the land, so as to find in nature, through work therapy , the release and sublima- tion they sought in drugs. "These 6 months of...The sierra of Sinaloa pro- duces, nevertheless, an amount of money three times greater than the fertile valley of Culiacan, where horticulture has... children of 10 in much the same way as among adults. He said, "Drug addiction in Morelos is under attack by the Secretariats of Public Education /SEP7
COSTA RICA INDICTMENT OF DRUG TRAFFICKERS San Jose LA NACION in Spanish 24 Aug 76 pp 10a, 11a PA [Text] Third Arraigning Judge Maria Luisa Castillo has...been distributing drugs in Las Lomas de Chapultepec . The prisoners will today be turned over to the Directorate General of Pre- Trial Investigations...Guerra, Mary Iraida Rengifo Castillo , Zaida Maria Porras de Marcano and Mercedes Teodora Perez Zambrano were arrested on 5 August. Ten jars containing
the crime on the morning of 10 February, she guar - antees: "I had never before seen the individuals who killed my husband." She also claims that she...Confiscated goods included 126 kilograms of gum , 101 tons of mari- huana, 26 kilograms of processed drugs and 20 airplanes. Also 693 national drug...represented a value of some DM4 million—DM10-15 million calculated at black market prices. The powder was 5 kg of pure cocaine, of higher quality than
A six-man party led by the deputy OCPD [Officer in Charge of Police Department], acting ASP [Assistant Superintendent of Police] Tang Yau Hie also...just prepared from opium when police moved in. The stoves were still burning and some drugs were recovered from the pans. Kulim OCPD Deputy Supt
of Koh’s Johore-registered Datsun where the drugs were found after Mr Lim Chye Huat, who was holding a watching brief for Messrs United Keng Soon...prime minister that Article 21 be imposed against two Chinese Haw heroin traffickers, Lin Taisiang and Mrs Ma Chin -muai, who were caught with k.l kgs
Quiroz Carrillo, 20; Virginia Mora Alejo; Elida Alcorta de Torres, wife of Torres Solis, alias "El Pajaro;" Virginia Mora; Alicia and Dora Mora...INMATES-Raul Mendoza Diaz and the director of Federal Health, Dr Fernando Herrera Negrete, will engage in a campaign to detect drug addiction among
8217Vast’ Drug Network (HERALD, 25 Nov 76) l7 CHILE Marihuana Grower, Trafficker Arrested (LA TERCERA DE LA HORA, 10 Nov 76) 18 COLOMBIA...17 CHILE MARIHUANA. GROWER, TRAFFICKER ARRESTED Santiago LA TERCERA DE IA HORA in Spanish 10 Nov 76 p 27 [Text] Between 250,000 and 300,000...mountainous Aguas Negras region in the jurisdiction of Solano, where seven per- sons were arrested and a very complete laboratory was seized, together
including "marihuana" paper, and a stapler. On 18 September. 28 Luis, who said that he was a receptionist at Comodoro Hotel ( Duque de Caxias Avenue...people. Two hours later the five men from Sinaloa were arrested at the Elba Hotel. They were identified as Efrain Zazueta Beltran, Pedro Salazar Ramirez...national ring of drug traffickers known as the "French Connection" entered the state penitentiary today to begin serving their terms. They are: Pedro
Mr F. Potts, said the State’s industry was of economic and national strategic importance. He said Australia would soon become one of the world’s...have their headquarters in those highly industrialized nations. These statements made by Pedro Ojeda Paullada (currently Secretary of Labor and...involved in the drug traffic. She lives on Tepanco Street, Parque San Andres District, Coyoacan where the marihuana was found. Jovita Ramirez Garcia
Trafficker Arrested k^ MEXICO Addiction Among Mexican Youths Discussed (ismael Mercado Andrews; EL DIA, 31 Oct 76) k6 Police Uncover Heroin Ring...were arrested. These men were released 2 days later at the order of the 2d Municipal Criminal Judge, Dario Leon Perez. This decision has been the...ILUSTRADO) 31 Oct 76 pp 2, 3 [Article by Ismael Mercado Andrews] [Text] Guido Belsasso, director of the Mexican Center for Drug Dependency
the command of Maj Camilo Gomez Bonilla arrested eight persons engaged in the cocaine and cocaine:paste traffic. The persons taken into custody... Pablo Morales Santanice, coordinator of the campaign against drug 117 trafficking in Durango, acknowledged the incident and said that...Dionisio Ocotepec, where a laboratory was destroyed. In the town of San Pablo Guila, another clandestine laboratory was found. And a Ford Maverick car
May 77) 97 NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA Shocking Statistics, Warning to Families (ETTELA’AT, 12 May 77) 100 Cache of Opium Discovered in Oil ...until we could no longer hear the sound of the pickup truck’s engine. Before he left, he said to us: ’Don’t talk too much or we may ’ fry ’ you at...backpacks and food. Once in the area, they pick fruits in the forests: oranges, mangoes, limes, avocados . It is a veritable drug paradise because
information about the true identity of Curtis Rüssel when he was arrested in June of 1975 with two other persons on the banks of the Rio Bravo by...Juarez EL FROWTERIZO in Spanish 19 Oct 76 p 3-A] 8587 HEROIN, MARIHUANA, COCAINE SEIZED--San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, l8 Oct. A light plane...Victoria and Rimac districts. [Text] [Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 1 Nov 76 p 32] 8143 SEVEN TRAFFICKERS SENTENCED—Seven drug traffickers were
of a powerful drug ring operating in the country. The police will continue investigating. [Quito EL COMERCIO in Spanish 4 Feb 77 p 10 PA...as a result of the police raid. [Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 3 Feb 77 p 34 PA] COCAINE-PROCESSING LABORATORY—Arequipa, Peru, 31 Jan—The police have...grinding mills and an unspecified quantity of semi-processed plants. [Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 1 Feb 77 p 29 PA] COCAINE PASTE HAUL—Lima, 1 Feb
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: NAS is a combination of signs and symptoms that due to physical and mental dependency, develops in neonates born from drug addicted mothers. The onset of NAS varies in accordance with the type, amount, frequency and duration of substance used. Because of diverse and unclear pattern of substance abuse in Iranian addicted pregnant mothers in comparison with western countries, this multi-center study has been designed to evaluate NAS in neonates born from drug addicted mothers. Material and method: A cross sectional study was carried out on newborns of narcotic addicted mothers during the first six months of 2008. The newborn’s status and clinical signs were checked by physical examination and scored by the Finnegan scoring system. Results: In this study 100 neonates born from narcotic addicted mothers were examined; the most used narcotic was crack (36%. 60% of neonates showed signs of NAS. The most prevalent signs of NAS were increased muscle tonicity (60%/7, irritability (59%/6 and increased moro reflex (51%/8. Neonates born from crack abusers, in comparison with other drugs, were significantly at risk of NAS (100% vs.87%, p
This report discusses (1) the roles, responsibilities, and authority of : agencies that establish policy, provide funds or oversee funding requests, : and develop explosives and narcotics detection technologies; : (2) mechanisms used to coordinate th...
Emboden, W A
Comparisons are made between ancient ritual uses of the flowers of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) in Maya and Egyptian civilizations. Recurrent motifs encountered in the art of both of these ancient civilizations suggests that the role fo the water lily was that of a narcotic (psychodysleptic) used to mediate ecstasis among a priestly caste. Relevant literature is reviewed as are chemical data. Elements in the complex belief systems of these two civilizations need to be reinterpreted in view of the use of two water lilies as ritual narcotics. The species implicated are Nymphaea caerulea Sav., in Egypt, and N. ampla DC., among the Maya.
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret
Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…
Full Text Available the article substantiates the need to develop a basic methodology for investigating crimes related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs due to the fact that these crimes are inextricably linked, interdependent and can not be carried out separately from each other in principle. The existing separate private methods develop recommendations for the investigation of specific types of crimes, for example, only smuggling of these funds or their sale and they are not connected with each other. In this regard, it is not possible to trace the whole cycle of criminal activity from the introduction of controlled means to illicit trafficking prior to their sale. Therefore, the basic methodology for investigating such crimes will allow us to trace the whole chain of criminal acts and to reveal all the circumstances that affect the full and objective investigation of such crimes.
Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are extremely rare and associated with various conditions. Up to now Most cases had correlations with major trauma, repetitive minor trauma, seizure, parathyroid or renal dysfunction, anti-epileptic medications, seizure, etc. A 28-year-old addict man referred to us with a 10-year history of narcotic drug abuse and history of 8 months bilateral groin pain. He admitted with displaced bilateral femoral neck fracture. Because of long duration of this condition and osteonecrosis revealed on bone scan, one-staged bilateral hip hemiarthroplasty was done. A good function was noted after surgery to 4-month follow up. Up to now, have not be founded in the literature that a case of bilateral femoral neck fracture associated with narcotic drug abuse. Because of negative effects of opium or smoking on bone tissues, a simple bone pain should aware us about the risk of stress or fatigue fracture.
Akram S Raesian; Mahmood Golzari; Ahmad Borjali
Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition) select...
Akman, Ferdi; Kaçal, Mustafa Recep; Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Aslı; Turhan, Mehmet Fatih; Durak, Rıdvan
The total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ), total molecular (σt,m), atomic (σt,a) and electronic (σt,e) cross sections, effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density (NE) were computed in the wide energy region from 1 keV to 100 GeV for the selected narcotic drugs such as morphine, heroin, cocaine, ecstasy and cannabis. The changes of μ/ρ, σt,m, σt,a, σt,e, Zeff and NE with photon energy for total photon interaction shows the dominance of different interaction process in different energy regions. The variations of μ/ρ, σt,m, σt,a, σt,e, Zeff and NE depend on the atom number, photon energy and chemical composition of narcotic drugs. Also, these parameters change with number of elements, the range of atomic numbers in narcotic drugs and total molecular weight. These data can be useful in the field of forensic sciences and medical diagnostic.
Forman, Robert F
The Internet is not only a vital medium for communication, entertainment, and commerce, but it is also an outlet for illicit drug sales. Although the U.S. Controlled Substances Act regulates access to certain drugs by requiring prescriptions, unique characteristics of the Internet create significant challenges for the enforcement of U.S. drug policies. In the late 1990s "no prescription Web sites" (NPWs) began to emerge, which allow persons to purchase drugs, such as opiates, without a prescription. Given the likely role of NPWs in increasing prescription drug abuse, health care professionals must develop and disseminate strategies for helping patients who are affected by these Web sites.
Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C
Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai‘i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai‘i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) in eleven Drug Take Back events throughout the state. Most participants heard of the events via newspaper and television marketing. The most common methods of medication disposal are via trash or down household drains. Over 8,000 lbs of unused/unwanted medications was collected, identified and logged from 2011 through 2012. The majority of returned drugs were non-controlled substances (90%). Commonly returned medications included prescription cardiac medications such as simvastatin and lisinopril, non-prescription analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and dietary supplements such as vitamins and iron. Commonly returned controlled substance medications included narcotics such as hydrocodone/acetaminophen combinations and oxycodone, and sedative hypnotics such as zolpidem and lorazepam. PMID:24470984
Ma, Carolyn S; Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C
Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai'i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai'i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) in eleven Drug Take Back events throughout the state. Most participants heard of the events via newspaper and television marketing. The most common methods of medication disposal are via trash or down household drains. Over 8,000 lbs of unused/unwanted medications was collected, identified and logged from 2011 through 2012. The majority of returned drugs were non-controlled substances (90%). Commonly returned medications included prescription cardiac medications such as simvastatin and lisinopril, non-prescription analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and dietary supplements such as vitamins and iron. Commonly returned controlled substance medications included narcotics such as hydrocodone/acetaminophen combinations and oxycodone, and sedative hypnotics such as zolpidem and lorazepam.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the extent to which nurses are able to correctly identify drugs as narcotics and to ascertain their perception of the addiction potential of opiates when used for pain management. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 86 nurses who attended palliative care workshops in India. Findings: Only morphine (95%, heroin (71% and codeine (75% were correctly identified as narcotics by the majority of participants. Imipramine (34%, diazepam (20% and phenobarbitone (39% were wrongly classified as narcotics by many nurses. Dextropropoxyphene (11%, pentazocine (21%, buprenorphine (15% were correctly classified as narcotics by fewer than half the participants. Only 14% knew that that the frequency of psychological dependence due to use of morphine for cancer pain was less than 1%.
Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use
... other medical problems does not itself lead to dependence. Store narcotics safely and securely in your home. ... help with constipation, drink more fluids, get more exercise, eat foods with extra fiber, and use stool ...
Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...
Akram S Raesian
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition selected by available sampling and assigned to two experimental (n=10 and witness (n=10 groups randomly. Experimental group was trained for 8 sessions under training of hope therapy and witness group was not under any training. The experimental peple were evaluated by Snyder Hope scale and Beck depression questionnaire and morphine test before beginning of therapy. After it and after the completition of the two months follow-up period. For analyzing of data chi square test, Z test, and ANCOVA were applied. Results: The results showed that hope therapy education could create considerable reduction in degree of depression symptoms of women suffering from addiction. In addition, results of chi square test indicated significant difference between the number of relapsed women in experimental and witness groups. Conclusion: in general, results of this survey show that hope therapy education is effective in reduction of degree of depression symptoms and prediction of relapse in cure-seeker women suffering from addiction.
Full Text Available Drug delivery through skin is often obstructed by low permeability of skin towards most drugs; however, such problem would be solved by application of skin penetration enhancers in the formulations. In the present study, a drug in adhesive patch with buprenorphine as active ingredient was prepared. Drug-in-adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems with different chemical penetration enhancers were designed. For this purpose a response-surface experimental design was used. Response surface methodology based on a three-level, three-variable Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the interactive effects of dependent variables such as: the rate of skin permeation and adhesion properties including peel strength and tack value. The parameters such as drug release and adhesion were used as independent variables. Levulinic acid, lauryl alcohol and Tween 80 were used as penetration enhancers. In order to prepare samples, buprenorphine with constant concentration was incorporated into acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive with carboxylic functionality and this mixture was added to chemical penetration enhancer with different concentrations. The results show that the cumulative amount of drug release in presence of Tween 80 is 462.9 ± 0.006 μg so it is higher than cumulative amount of drug release in presence of levulinic acid (357.9 ± 0.005 μg and lauryl alcohol (269.5 ± 0.001 μg. Results of adhesion properties such as peel strength and tack reveal that using levulinic acid and lauryl alcohol will increase peel strength while Tween 80 will decrease it. Besides, the results show that all these permeation enhancers have increased tack values.
Bassiouny, Mohamed A
Consumption of illicit drugs and the abusive intake of acidic carbonated beverages (particularly soda) often are associated with similar types of damage to the human dentition, the most common of which is dental erosion. The dentitions of individuals who are addicted to methamphetamines or crack cocaine can be misdiagnosed as dental caries rather than generalized dental erosion, a condition that also is associated with chronic excessive consumption of soda. Failing to identify the causative etiology could lead to a wrongful diagnosis that could in turn adversely affect treatment planning and misdirect a specified prevention protocol. This article seeks to identify the unique clinical features of each one of these conditions, highlight the resemblances between them, and recognize the unambiguous differences in their fundamental characteristics. Three representative cases-involving a methamphetamine user, a crack cocaine addict, and an avid consumer of diet soda-are presented. In each case, the patient has admitted to the cause of their poor oral health. The dental, oral, and paraoral manifestations of each case are documented and differentiated from one another, and the factors that contributed to the associated disease process are discussed.
Ma, Carolyn S; Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C
Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai‘i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai‘i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) ...
... FLORES, Fausto Isidro). 4. MEZA FLORES DRUG TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATION, Mexico [SDNTK]. Dated: January 17... Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration... providing goods or services in support of, the international narcotics trafficking activities of a person...
... ORGANIZATION/DRUG TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATION (a.k.a. ``JOUMAA MLO/DTO''); Beirut, Lebanon; Maicao, Colombia... Investigation, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary... support of, the international narcotics trafficking activities of a person designated pursuant to the...
Full Text Available The consumption of narcotics is one of the problems the international world is confronted withnowadays; its direct or indirect effects lead to the conclusion that it represents a worrying phenomenon meantto be taken into account by the international programs of co-operation. In contrast with the mature population,the younger population is much more receptive to the new, much more attracted by new experiments and,consequently, by risks. The narcotics flagellum is one of the most complex, profound and dramaticphenomena met with in the contemporary world. Narcotization is the morbid habit of repeatedly taking andusing ever higher doses of more or less toxic substances able to generate a psychological and physicaladdiction to them. Unhappily due to the lack of information, people think that the illegal substances only –heroine, marijuana, cocaine, etc. – are considered drugs. Not long ago there appeared the so-called “mixes ofethno-botanical plants” that are perfectly legal, and many consumers have replaced narcotics - as marijuana,for example - with plant mixes. According to explanations given by the Ethno-botanical ExplanatoryDictionary, ethno-biology is a branch that studies the mutual relationship between man and plant. InRomania, ethno-botanical plants are sold under the generic names of “aroma therapeutic” or “ethnobotanical”plants. The numerous researches meant to decode the molecular and biochemical structure of theseherbs, the researchers found that consumers are described as facing hallucinogenic effects caused by somesynthetic substances - cannabinoids - added by manufacturers.
Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit
de Abajo, Francisco J; Gil, Miguel J; García Poza, Patricia; Bryant, Verónica; Oliva, Belén; Timoner, Julia; García-Rodríguez, Luis A
The purpose of this study is to estimate the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs), non-narcotic analgesics (paracetamol and metamizole), and symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) overall and in different subgroups of patients. We performed a nested case-control study using a Primary Care Database (Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria), over the study period, 2001-2007. We included patients aged 40-90 years, with nonfatal AMI and randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and calendar year. Exposure to drugs was assessed within a 30-day window before the index date. We did not find an association with nonfatal AMI in patients at low-intermediate background cardiovascular risk (odds ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.12), whereas there was a moderate significant association among those at high risk (1.28; 1.06-1.54) or when tNSAIDs were used for longer than 365 days (1.43; 1.12-1.82). The greatest risk occurred when these two conditions were combined (1.80; 1.26-2.58). The risk varied across individual tNSAIDs, with ibuprofen (0.95; 0.78-1.16) in the lower and aceclofenac (1.59; 1.15-2.19) in the upper part of the range. Low-dose aspirin did not modify the risk profile showed by any of the individual tNSAIDs examined. Paracetamol (0.84; 0.74-0.95), metamizole (1.06; 0.87-1.29) and SYSADOAs (0.68; 0.47-0.99) were not associated with an increased risk overall or in any subgroup of patients. The risk of nonfatal AMI varied with individual tNSAIDs, duration of treatment and background cardiovascular risk. Paracetamol, metamizole and SYSADOAs did not increase the risk in any of the conditions examined. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ACI Were Initiated. ...........................................................................................................15 Figure 3. Coffee ...Crop Reduction Components)...................................................................................25 Table 6. Colombian Coffee Prices in U.S...drug trafficking. Due to the covert nature of narcotics transactions, scholars are limited to estimations based on coca, poppy, and cannabis
Bayouth, Lilly; Safcsak, Karen; Cheatham, Michael L; Smith, Chadwick P; Birrer, Kara L; Promes, John T
Pain control after traumatic rib fracture is essential to avoid respiratory complications and prolonged hospitalization. Narcotics are commonly used, but adjunctive medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial. Twenty-one patients with traumatic rib fractures treated with both narcotics and intravenous ibuprofen (IVIb) (Treatment) were retrospectively compared with 21 age- and rib fracture-matched patients who received narcotics alone (Control). Pain medication requirements over the first 7 hospital days were evaluated. Mean daily IVIb dose was 2070 ± 880 mg. Daily intravenous morphine-equivalent requirement was 19 ± 16 vs 32 ± 24 mg (P pain scores were lower in the Treatment group (P rib fractures significantly decreases narcotic requirement and results in clinically significant decreases in hospital length of stay. IVIb therapy should be initiated in patients with traumatic rib fractures to improve patient comfort and reduce narcotic requirement.
... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... cases where the drug is being used as prescribed for a patient by a licensed physician. ...
RICE, JULIUS T.
A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS USAGE IS PRESENTED. THE TERM DRUG DEPENDENCE IS BEING SUBSTITUTED FOR DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG HABITUATION. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS ANTIDOTES FOR OPIATES ARE DESCRIBED. THE EFFECTS OF LSD AND MARIJUANA ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PROCESSES ARE DESCRIBED. THE USE OF LSD FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES IS DISCUSSED.…
Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)
A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.
Drug Abuse in the New York City Schools. A Report of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (August 30-September 1, 1978).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.
The January 1977 hearing by the U.S. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control mandated three days of further hearings in 1978. The focus was upon New York city schools, but reflected many similar situations in other urban school systems according to the committee's judgement. The committee also found that alcohol and marihuana usage…
... or transmitted in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN 0-203-83886-6 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 978-1-85743-501-6 (hbk) ISBN 978-0-203-83886-0 (ebk) Editor Europa New Projects: Cathy Hartley The publishers make no representation, express or implied, with regard to ...
composition of the region limit agricultural output and the availability of successful crops. Energy resources, precious metals, and gemstones are...narcotics industry. Afghanistan should consider oil, natural gas, coal, minerals, and gemstones as viable industrial options. Marketing of these
Parmeter, J.E.; Custer, C.A.
This project was supported by LDRD funding for the development and preliminary testing of a portable narcotics detection system. The system developed combines a commercial trace detector known as an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator originally designed by Department 5848 for the collection of explosives molecules. The detector and preconcentrator were combined along with all necessary accessories onto a push cart, thus yielding a fully portable detection unit. Preliminary testing with both explosives and narcotics molecules shown that the system is operational, and that it can successfully detect drugs as marijuana, methamphetamine (speed), and cocaine based on their characteristics IMS signatures.
Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva
Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.
... the President to impose sanctions against significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their... controlled by significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the..., Rio Grande, Zacatecas 98400, Mexico; Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Rio Grande, Zacatecas, Mexico; DOB...
Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh
Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and excluded 25 according to exclusion criteria. A total of 130 narcotic users and 130 stimulant users were recruited randomly in several phases from January 2013 to October 2013. All participants were referred to Substance Dependency Treatment Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Data collection process was accomplished by means of clinical interview based on DSM-V criteria for substance use disorders, Iranian version of addiction severity index (ASI), and Millon clinical multi-axial inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression, the. There was a significant correlation between stimulant use and histrionic personality disorder (P personality disorders (P histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders (P personality disorders (P personality disorders, and narcotic and stimulants consumption (P personality disorder and narcotics (P personality disorders and types of used drugs were in accordance with the previous studies results. It is necessary to design appropriate treatment plans for medical treatment of those with personality disorders.
Helzer, J E; Robins, L N; Davis, D H
Previous studies of predictors of narcotic abuse have been retrospective and based on samples of long-term addicts obtained from legal or medical channels. There are several methodological problems in this approach. The present study is an attempt to test certain alleged predictors of narcotic use in a cohort of 898 Vietnam veterans. The design overcomes several of the methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Eight variables which have been reported as predictors of drug use or addiction in the drug literature were inquired about during a personal interview which included the premilitary life of each subject. The antecedent variables were socioeconomic background, inner city residence, psychiatric illness, broken home, race, employment history, education and antisocial history. Using information obtained from interviews and military records, we then tested the predictive value of each of these antecedents by comparing narcotic used and addiction in Vietman and use after Vietnam in men differing with respect to each antecedent. Results indicate that some of the variables were very poor, and others very good predictors of the various levels of narcotic involvement. The predictive value and overall importance of each of the variables we tested are discussed.
Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Berglind, Daniel; Rasmussen, Finn
Previous studies have shown that birth order is an important predictor of later life health as well as socioeconomic attainment. In this study, we examine the relationship between birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. We study the relationship between birth order and hospitalization related to alcohol and narcotics use before and after the age of 20 using Swedish register data for cohorts born 1987-1994. We apply Cox proportional hazard models and use sibling fixed effects, eliminating confounding by factors shared by the siblings. Before age 20 we find that later born siblings are hospitalized for alcohol use at a higher rate than first-borns, and there is a monotonic increase in the hazard of hospitalization with increasing birth order. Second-borns are hospitalized at a rate 47% higher than first-borns, and third-borns at a rate 65% higher. Similar patterns are observed for hospitalization for narcotics use. After age 20 the pattern is similar, but the association is weaker. These patterns are consistent across various sibling group sizes. Later born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for both alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. These birth order effects are substantial in size, and larger than the estimated sex differences for the risk of hospitalization related to alcohol and drug use before age 20, and previous estimates for socioeconomic status differences in alcohol and drug abuse. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.
... more) drugs or between a drug and a food or beverage. Taking a drug while having certain medical conditions ... interaction : A reaction between a drug and a food or beverage. Drug-condition interaction : A reaction that occurs when ...
Saki, K; Bahmani, M; Rafieianb-Kopaei, M D; Asadollahi, K; Emaneini, M; Taherikalani, M
The first step for identification of medicinal plants and their therapeutic effects is to determine their use by local people, traditional medicine books and personal experiences. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used as analgesic, sedative or narcotic agents by local residents of Dehloran, Iran. Interviews conducted with 53 informants (38 male and 15 female) revealed that a total of 32 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families are used in Dehloran as narcotic, sedative and analgesic agents. The most utilized plant families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae. Approximately 74% of the utilized plants was attributed to herbs, followed by trees (13%) and shrubs (13%). Sixty-six percent of the medicinal plants used in the study area were perennial and the rest were annual or biannual. The most widely used plant parts were flowers (34%) followed by leaves (24%) and fruits (14%). Thirty-nine percent of the medicinal plants were used as sedatives, 39% as analgesics, and 24% as narcotics. Recommended plants in this study can be good candidates for further clinical and laboratory trials on diseases that are associated with pain, suffering, stress and depression. They also can be used to develop new sedative, narcotic and analgesic drugs.
Sisco, Edward; Dake, Jeffrey
Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) has been used to detect the presence of non-narcotic adulterants in beverages. The non-narcotic adulterants that were examined in this work incorporated a number low molecular weight alcohols, acetone, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. Analysis of the adulterants was completed by pipetting 1 µL deposits onto glass microcapillaries along with an appropriate dopant species followed by introduction into the DART gas stream. It was found that detection of these compounds in the complex matrices of common beverages (soda, energy drinks, etc.) was simplified through the use of a dopant species to allow for adduct formation with the desired compound(s) of interest. Other parameters that were investigated included DART gas stream temperature, in source collision induced dissociation, ion polarity, and DART needle voltage. Sensitivities of the technique were found to range from 0.001 % volume fraction to 0.1 % volume fraction, comparable to traditional analyses completed using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS). Once a method was established using aqueous solutions, , fifteen beverages were spiked with each of the nine adulterants, to simulate real world detection, and in nearly all cases the adulterant could be detected either in pure form, or complexed with the added dopant species. This technique provides a rapid way to directly analyze beverages believed to be contaminated with non-narcotic adulterants at sensitivities similar to or exceeding those of traditional confirmatory analyses.
Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh
Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...
Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.
Mohammad Arief Amrullah
Full Text Available Narcotics crimes that are part of organized crime are essentially one of crimes against development and crimes against social welfare that are central to national and international concerns and concerns. It is very reasonable, given the scope and dimensions so vast, that its activities contain features as organized crime, white-collar crime, corporate crime, and transnational crime. In fact, by means of technology can be one form of cyber crime. Based on such characteristics, the impacts and casualties are also very wide for the development and welfare of the community. It can even weaken national resilience.
Aleksey Nikolaevich Klevakin
Full Text Available The article considers the market of narcotics as a part of the formal and informal economy. By narcotics, the author means psychoactive substances and plants containing them, which are banned, subject to control or non-prohibited, but have a psychophysical effect on human body. Drug-related psychoactive substances are classified according to the prohibition criterion and restrictions on a turnover with reference to the illegal (criminal or shadow economy. The author considers the illegal drug market as a latent self-organizing system of socio-economic relations of criminal and shadow nature. Such market is oriented towards the turnover of potentially illegal or dangerous psychoactive substances, which are prohibited or restricted for use in non-medical purposes. The analysis of the state and development of the drug situation on the territory of the entities of the Ural Federal District confirms the relevance of the problem of drug abuse. In recent years, the primary incidence of drug addiction and harmful drug use among the adolescents aged 15–17 have grown. Synthetic narcotics and psychotropic substances of high narcogenicity dominate in the current drug market. Over the past 5 years, the average cost of a single dose of drug remains virtually unchanged. This reflects the conditional balance of purchasing power and competition in the drug market. The disparity in the volume of seized cannabis drugs and the number of cannabinoid users observed by medical institutions suggests a high level of latency in this category of drug users. To assess the degree of negative impact of the drug market, the author proposes to use a method of calculating the socioeconomic costs of the consequences of drug addiction. The methodology is supplemented with tools for determining the number of psychoactive substances consumers on the basis of the mass of these substances withdrawn from illicit trafficking, using the concentration and recalculation coefficients
Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.
This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.
On the basis of analysis of 1,879 samples of narcotics confiscated in Jutland and Funen during the period 1981-1988, the individual types of drugs are described as regards occurrence and quality. Cannabis and heroin were found in the illegal market during the entire period. Amphetamine was rarely observed prior to 1985 but comprised half of the illegal drugs examined in 1988. Cocaine was encountered in only 1% of the samples. Designer drugs were not seen. Heroin occurred relatively most frequently in Aarhus, Odense and Esbjerg while amphetamine and cannabis were found in all parts of Jutland and Funen. The samples of heroin and amphetamine varied greatly as regards strength and the types and quantities of cutting agents. The majority of the samples were adulterated and/or diluted with substances such as caffeine and phenazone and the sugars, glucose and lactose.
Terenius, L [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
The receptors, i.e., specific binding molecules, for narcotic analgesics in the guinea-pig ileum and rat brain have been compared. The relative affinities of a number of narcotics for the two receptors were very similar and discrimination between stereoisomeric agents was identical. The dissociation constants for dihydromorphine binding were 0.78 nM for the ileum and 1.4 nM for the brain receptor, respectively. There was a good correspondance between receptor affinities on the ileum preparation and the literature data on biologic activity on the isolated ileum. Codeine, diphenoxylate, difenoxine and loperamide, which are used clinically for the treatment of diarrhoea showed no selectivity against the ileum receptor. The two latter drugs had a very high receptor affinity and their lack of narcotic activity after oral administration is probably attributable to lack of penetration of the CNS. Receptor binding in both ileum and brain preparations was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, Triton X-100, trypsin and phospholipase C. There were small quantitative differences in sensitivity to these agents but it is difficult to assess whether this is because of real differences between the receptor molecules or attributable to secondary effects. As previously described for the brain receptor, the ileum receptor appeared to be present in a fraction enriched in plasma membranes.
... an amphetamine, narcotic, or any habit-forming drug, are not medically qualified to operate a... of the 1984 Act also grants the Secretary broad power in carrying out motor carrier safety statutes...: Controlled substances on the DEA Schedule I, amphetamines, narcotics, or other habit-forming drugs. Section...
..., narcotic, or any habit-forming drug, are not medically qualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle... grants the Secretary broad power in carrying out motor carrier safety statutes and regulations to..., amphetamines, narcotics, or other habit-forming drugs. Section 391.41(b)(12)(ii) contained an exception for a...
Department of Justice, Washington, DC.
This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…
STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... from— (a) Being under the influence, using or possessing any narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines. Alcoholic... the GSA Regional Administrator, which will have the same force and effect as these regulations; (e...
Rolita, Lydia; Spegman, Adele; Tang, Xiaoqin; Cronstein, Bruce N
To evaluate the changes in types of medications prescribed for pain before and after withdrawal of certain selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors in 2004 and to determine whether there was an association with fall events in elderly adults with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). A nested case-control design using electronic medical records compiled between 2001 and 2009. Electronic medical records for care provided in an integrated health system in rural Pennsylvania over a 9-year period (2001-09), the midpoint of which rofecoxib and valdecoxib were pulled from the market. Thirteen thousand three hundred fifty-four individuals aged 65 to 89 with a diagnosis of OA. The incidence of falls and fractures was examined in relation to analgesics prescribed: narcotics, COX-2 inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The comparison sample of individuals who did not fall was matched 3:1 with those who fell according to age, sex, and comorbidity. Narcotic analgesic prescriptions were associated with a significantly greater risk of falls and fractures. The likelihood of experiencing a fall/fracture was higher in participants prescribed narcotic analgesics than those prescribed a COX-2 inhibitor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.5-4.3) or NSAID (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 3.7-4.5). Use of narcotic analgesics is associated with risk of falls and fractures in elderly adults with OA, an observation that suggests that the current guidelines for the treatment of pain, which include first-line prescription of narcotics, should be reevaluated. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Abstract For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the
Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within the...
surveillance over the activity of the smugglers. The investigations of Col Mahmud Fahmi and Lt Col ’Isam al-Tarsawi showed that the smuggler, Anwar Ibrahim...Mahmud Fahmi , It Col ’Isam al-Tarsawi, Lt Col Tariq Salim and It Col Muhammad Sha’rawi raided "the Jinn’s" house in ’Abidin and seized four large...Yesterday a car dealer and his associate were arraigned in court on charges of transporting 205 kg of hashish. The first accused was Reza
violation means death . Some of the prisoners have openly admitted that they have been subjected to coercion to employ their land for the cultivation of...salesmen for Lebanese smugglers of slow death . According to the same information, the Cypriot salesmen used to travel by small boats to Lebanese...Spanish Horseman ) slowly but surely going to the dogs because of crimes committed by heroin addicts. Every day, to his great annoyance, he
Judicial Police agents Francisco Fernandez Marin and Jesus Godoy Garcia. The arrest of Humberto de los Angeles Gutierrez and dentist Mario Alberto ...National Defense. He replaces Lt Col Alberto Alonso Rodriguez who has been named deputy commander of the 52nd Infantry Battalion in Chihuahua City...to sell in that city. Gaico Veremo Jacama (grower) 42 years of age, rural worker, living in Chibabava. Joao Mahala (smoker) bachelor, 34 years old
Santa Luzia, more accurately, in the district of Centro de Joao Paulo. Five plantations were burned and 247 kilos of marihuana were seized in Aldeia...States. The prisoners are: Olegario Rodriguez Rodriguez, Jose Alberto Ruiz, Pablo Astorga Lozano, Oscar Angulo Picos, Rodolfo Chavez Picos, Miguel...federal agents had also arrested the brothers Mario and Jorge Alberto Sandoval with 250 kilos of marihuana in their possession which they had planned
One Escaped Escaped Crewman Treated for Burns, Leaves Country Briefs Marihuana Plantation Found in Cundinamarca 34 Marihuana ’Factory’ Raid 34...Azcapotzalco Battalion (Jorge Reyes E; EXCELSIOR, 13 Apr 77) 37 Traffickers, Aircraft, Marihuana Seized (Rafael Medina Cruz; EXCELSIOR, 12 Apr 77) 38...Former Federal Agent Denies Charges (EL DIARIO, 7 Apr 77) 39 Federal Agents Burn Marihuana Cache (EL DIARIO, 6 Apr 77) 41 Penitentiary
50,000 and detained a man in Taman Sri Tebrau here yesterday. Johore Baru OCPD Superintendent A. Balaratnam told reporters that a police party led...by deputy OCPD [officer in charge of Police Department] (crime) David Madhavan laid ambush on a house follow- ing a tip-off from the public. They
Daraluman here yesterday evening. A six-man party led by the deputy OCPD [officer in charge of police department], acting ASP [assistant super...pans. Kulim OCPD Deputy Supt Raja Lope Bin Razman said police raided an uninhabited wooden house believed to have been used as a laboratory in Jalan
Mazda Familia car with license plate H-2115 in front of the cooperative barber shop on Latha Street this morning. They seized 5 grams of heroin in 15...pesos on the black market. The police also illegally seized a 1963 Ford stake bed truck and a 1971 Ford truck belonging to the La Sierrita ejido...security service jeeps, disguised in the clothing worn by guards. Investigators claimed that they transferred from the jeep to a brown Ford LTD in the
communists--drew up a list of "strategic export commodities" of the country, but at that time raw opium was but one of several items, next to coffee , tin...Commission stated, "estimates based on a variety of sources suggest tha^ eight to twenty million North Americans have at least tried cannabis . These...round. I suggest that the Government has shelved its cannabis legislation because it has thought it out and sounded it out, only to
prosecutor; Augusto Caro Rojas, court reporter; Rodolfo Carvajal Florez, municipal employee; Orlando Carrascal Claro, inspector; Jesus Antonio Carrillo...Arturo Melo Diaz, judge; Rafael Mendez Buendia, judge; Tirso Mendez Herrera, professor; Rubiela Maria Mendez Mendez , judge; Luis Orlando Mendez ...Misael Roa Fonseca, jail guard; Jose Ignacio Roa Mendez , policeman; Jose Anibal Robles Alvarado, judge; Jorge Rocha Mahecha, govern- ment inspector
of heroin worth $250,000 at Sydney Airport on Saturday. Bernice Carol Devereaux, 23, and John Peter Griffin, 27, both of Tweed Heads, were charged...FRONTERIZO in Spanish 10 Oct 76 p 10-B [Text] The Federal Judicial Police, working under Commander Margarito Mendez Rico, has successfully... Mendez Rico reported that the ringleader of the marihuana traffickers had confessed that in the town of Parral, Chihuahua, he had "secured" another
whom he prefers to identify only as Luiz and Jorge, succeeded in purchasing a few grams of hashish and they all went to the Parque Lage in the Jardim...fact that hundreds of youths are turned down in secondary school and in the factories of the industrial zones of Ecatepec, Santa Clara, Xalostoc and
address Farahnaz Avenue, Mehrabad, age 25; Naser Aarakhani, butcher , age 2k; Mansur Sa’adatbakhsh; Da’ud Amini, age l8; Hoseyn Dastani...a police uniform was not to show off. Also arrested were: Hassan Nezam ’Ali, age 30, a poultry dealer living in Sarcheshmeh, with 3
Avia, must return to the United States today. The two lawyers, through peno- logist Pablo Salah Villamizar, who has jurisdiction over the pilots and...Arevalo, who drew up the opinion, and Dr Leonel Olivar Bonilla . Investigation to Be Broadened The Military Superior Court ordered the investigation...At first, the accused were being defended by attorney Pablo Acosta Reyes, who was replaced by Julio Nunez. The latter maintained the absolute
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.
This paper traces the history of the narcotic clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, comparing its merits to a similar clinic in Shreveport. How do the clinics compare, and why did the Shreveport clinic operate for longer than its New Orleans counterpart? Qualitative analysis of contemporary medical journals and newspapers, as well as archival materials from the Narcotic Division. In addition, the records of Louisiana Governor John M. Parker, the papers of Dr Willis P. Butler in Shreveport, as well as the records of the Orleans Parish Medical Society have been utilized. The narcotic clinic in Shreveport benefited from strong local support, while the New Orleans clinic faced a more vocal opposition. In addition, the Shreveport clinic offered a broad array of services and was a pillar of the community; the New Orleans clinic was newly established and offered fewer services. It was especially the influx of out-of-state addicts that angered many New Orleanians, many of whom witnessed the addicts lined up in the French Quarter. The effectiveness of the narcotic clinics in Louisiana (1919-23) was influenced by local opinion. The New Orleans clinic faced a tougher political climate than its counterpart in Shreveport, and therefore proved less resilient in the face of federal opposition. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
... providing goods or services in support of, the international narcotics trafficking activities of a person... fax-on-demand service at (202) 622-0077. Background The Kingpin Act became law on December 3, 1999..., Zacatecas, Mexico; nationality Mexico; Tax ID No. 06796108238 (Mexico); C.U.R.P. LOHM611211HZSZRG11 (Mexico...
.... jurisdiction, owned or controlled by significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President... Enrique; DOB 25 Mar 1980; POB Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; C.U.R.P. EUEJ800325HSLSSR02 (Mexico) (individual... GUTIERREZ, Julio Cesar, Calle Platon 268, Col. Paso Blanco, Ocotlan, Jalisco, Mexico; DOB 03 Oct 1981; POB...
... significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the Secretary of the...; R.F.C. PAPA751109870 (Mexico); C.U.R.P. PAPA751109HNEDSL04 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK] (Linked To... No. 279, Supermanzana 50, Manzana 14, Lote 17, Residencial San Angel, Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico...
... controlled by significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the... IBARRA, Mayela), Calle Lago de La Doga 5312, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico; DOB 24 Feb 1961; POB Coahuila, Mexico; Passport 99020046985 (Mexico); R.F.C. CAIM610224 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK]. 2...
... significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the Secretary of the..., Colonia Centro, Culiacan, Sinaloa 80000, Mexico; DOB 21 Dec 1941; POB Sinaloa, Mexico; nationality Mexico; citizen Mexico; R.F.C. NUBA411221867 (Mexico); C.U.R.P. NUBA411221HSLXDN05 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK...
... controlled by significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the..., Jalisco, Mexico; Plaza Del Sol Local 28, Zona R, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; Paseo Del Heliotropo 3426, Monraz, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; DOB 09 Aug 1955; POB Jalisco, Mexico; Citizen Mexico; Nationality...
... significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the Secretary of the..., Zapopan, Jalisco C.P. 45238, Mexico; Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico; R.F.C. SRC-080222-274 (Mexico) [SDNTK..., Guadalajara, Jalisco C.P. 44130, Mexico; R.F.C. UNI-031118-2I6 (Mexico) [SDNTK]. In addition, OFAC is...
... controlled by significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the...''), DOB 13 Aug 1961; POB Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; citizen Mexico; nationality Mexico; C.U.R.P. ZAGJ610813HSLMRS05 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK] Entities 2. ZARKA DE MEXICO S.A. DE C.V., Miguel Hidalgo No. 348 Pte...
... framework for the President to impose sanctions against significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their...., Martin L. Guzman 259-3, Colonia Villa de Cortes, Delegacion Benito Juarez, Mexico City, Mexico; Folio Mercantil No. 325909 (Mexico); (ENTITY) [BPI-SDNTK] 2. TATES DESARROLLO, S.A. DE C.V., Mexico City, Mexico...
... significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the Secretary of the...) of the Kingpin Act. 1. PARRA SANCHEZ, Mario; DOB 11 Nov 1970; POB Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; C.U.R.P. PASM701111HSLRNR07 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK] (Linked To: BUENOS AIRES SERVICIOS, S.A. DE C.V.; Linked To...
Nadolska, Krystyna; Goś, Roman
The aim of the study was to assess color perception in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test in individuals addicted to narcotic substances, and to analyze the acquired color vision disorders, depending on the duration of addiction and abstinence. Ninety-five persons were qualified for the study. All the subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (drug addicts) comprised 45 individuals addicted to narcotic substances and nicotine. Group II (smokers) consisted of 30 individuals addicted only to nicotine, and group III (abstinents) included 20 individuals free of addictions. In all the study groups anamnesis, survey, standard ophthalmological examination and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test were performed. In the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test the mean values of total error score (TES) for the purposes of the analysis, expressed in the values of square root (√TES), proved to be significantly higher in group I than in the two other groups (p colors. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test proved useful in the detection and assessment of acquired dyschromatopsy induced by narcotic substances. The observed disorders appeared to be dependent on the duration of addiction and abstinence. Med Pr 2016;67(6):777-785. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Siebert, Karl J
Beverages such as beer, wine, clear fruit juices, teas, and formulated products with similar ingredients are generally expected by consumers to be clear (free of turbidity) and to remain so during the normal shelf life of the product. Hazy products are often regarded as defective and perhaps even potentially harmful. Since consumers are usually more certain of what they perceive visually than of what they taste or smell, the development of haze in a clear product can reduce the likelihood of repeat purchasing of a product and can have serious economic consequences to a producer. Hazes are caused by suspended insoluble particles of colloidal or larger size that can be perceived visually or by instruments. Hazes in clear beverages can arise from a number of causes, but are most often due to protein-polyphenol interaction. The nature of protein-polyphenol interaction and its effect on haze particles, analysis of haze constituents, and stabilization of beverages against haze formation are reviewed.
Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam
Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.
markets, and to restore wheat and other cereal crop production levels. Work began on phase one projects in early 2005 and continued through 2006...Barnett, “UK in Secret Biological War on Drugs,” Observer (London), September 17, 2000; Juanita Darling, “ Fungi May Be the Newest Recruits in War on Drugs
Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal
Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.
Full Text Available It is not unusual that narcotics-dependent patients fulfill their medical requirements in the emergency department (ED. The behavior of these patients varies, and their manifestations and predictors are still not fully studied. We performed this retrospective study by prospectively collecting data on patients with suspected drug dependence who were undiagnosed at first and then treated for some kind of reported pain at the ED. Patients who were confirmed to have narcotics dependence were compared with control patients in a ratio of 1:3 matching for age, gender, disease, and clinical diagnoses. From January 2006 to October 2009, 26 of 223 patients treated for pain were found to be drug dependent (12 males and 14 females. The average dose of narcotics used was higher than the control group [3.23 ± 1.14 vs. 1.12 ± 0.36, p < 0.001, confidence interval (CI: 1.648–2.583]. Numbers of patients making unscheduled returns to the ED within 24 hours were significant [24/26 vs. 8/78, p ≤ 0.001, odds ratio (OR 105.00, 95% CI 20.834–529.175]. In addition, patients showing aggressive attitudes were significant (17/26 vs. 2/78, p < 0.001, OR 71.78, 95% CI 14.206–362.663. In the case group, six of them told the physician that they were allergic to medicines other than the particular one they wanted, and three of the six presented injuries that were reported to be in the same (or repeated place for unscheduled returns, which were not found in the control group. In this study, some behaviors were commonly observed in the at-risk group. These patients were prone to manifest some types of symptoms and behaviors, such as uncontrolled pain with three doses of analgesics, aggressive attitude, returning to the ED within 24 hours with the complaint of the same severe pain, repeating the same injury, claiming allergy to other analgesics, and asking for certain analgesics. All these behaviors should alert the physician to suspect a drug-seeking problem.
5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...
Lewinski, A von
Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.
Presents information on psychotropic drugs for individuals who are not specialists in pharmacology. Discusses: alcohol and barbituates; dependence and withdrawal; central nervous system depressors (anaesthetics, narcotic analgesics, sedatives and hypnotic drugs, tranquilizers), central nervous stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, tobacco, caffeine),…
Full Text Available Abstract Drug abuse has grown over the days with significant development. Narcotics crime actually not only brings individual actors but tends to be a criminal offense syndicate or covert organization over the worlds. In this case the syndicate allegedly not only brings perpetrators of adults but feared the actors who are categorized as a child in accordance with the applicable laws. On the other side children occupy a special place in the law. Basic philosophy of the treatment of juvenile delinquents is for the best interests of the child but the fact that peoples behavior lately is very alarming how society is so easy to judge people suspected as perpetrators of criminal acts. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the ultimum remedium principle as the basis for criminal punishment in the Indonesian criminal system in order to understand how the crisis is influencing drug phenomenon and drugs users lives and the extent of their impact on the settlement of narcotics crime against children as an offender. The outcomes of the research indicate that the Law No. 11 of 2012 regarding the Criminal Justice System for Juvenile Delinquency Rules of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 2014 on Guidelines for Diversion and Law No. 35 of 2009 regarding Narcotics Crime have been given the freedom and legitimacy to the judge to apply the principle of ultimum remedium in handling cases of children in conflict with the law. As it turns out in practice however the ultimum remedium principle is rarely applied and tends to be overlooked in the process of juvenile justice.
Pamilo, M.; Suoranta, H.; Suramo, I.
The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities. Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented. (orig.)
Endocrinological assessment of group of heroin addicts (n=91) was done and those who underwent full detoxification procedure (n=31) were also followed up after treatment. Pre and post detoxification evaluation included estimation of growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leuteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TEST), estradiol (EST), cortisol (CORT), insulin (INS) and Free Thyroxine (FT4). Factors like duration of drug abuse, polydrug addiction, hepatic function status, age of abusers and dose including cumulative dose were also assessed but no significant bearing on the results was elicited. Difference between pre and post detoxification hormonal levels was highly significant in growth hormone, Testosterone, and prolactin values and less significant for FSH, ESTRADIOL, FT4 and TSH. But for a few exceptions, our results compared well with those reported in the literature and compare with reflect the widespread hormonal and endocrinological aberrations noted in heroin addicts. (author)
О. М. Шевчук
Full Text Available The article deals with control authorities of internal Affairs bodies in the sphere of turnover of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and precursors. Established the concept of the legal status of the Management of the fight against illegal circulation of drugs of the Ministry of interior of Ukraine and describes its features. The classification of control authorities of internal Affairs bodies in the sphere of turnover of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and precursors and analyzed for their content.
Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL
The Russian Federation (RF) is committed to implementing a comprehensive drug testing program under its Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for military personnel involved in handling sensitive nuclear materials. This commitment leads to a number of mandatory requirements for the laboratory conducting the confirmation testing to ensure the legitimacy and integrity of the testing process. These requirements are established by the RF Duma to ensure that individuals conducting these tests have adequate training, certifications, and experience to conduct narcotic confirmation tests. This paper describes the facility requirements and personnel qualifications needed for conducting comprehensive drug abuse confirmation testing. Details regarding the personnel training and laboratory experience in the theory and practice of analytical forensic toxicology of drugs of abuse will be presented, as well as the facility requirements for the laboratory conducting such tests. Chain-of-custody, from sample receipt through completion of testing, reporting of results, and continuing until final disposition of specimens will be addressed.
BEKAR, Aydan; KARAKULAK, Çisem
A food and beverage stylist makes food and beverage look appetizing by preaparing them properly in order to get customers’ attention. A food and beverage photographer gets the most impressive image by using different shooting techniques. Food and beverage stylists and phtographers prepare attractive and unusual menus ,brochures, banners and ads for food and beverage enterprises so that products can look better when customers see them. People see the works of food and beverage styling and phot...
Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...... outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. 101.30 Section 101.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) This section applies to any food that...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to the... narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances is grounds for— (1) Denial of an...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to the... narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances is grounds for— (1) Denial of an...
St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.
This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…
Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A
The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available This article refers to the phenomenon of an increasing number of people abusing drugs in the 20th century. In addition to the natural types of narcotics there are many other semi-synthetic and fully synthetic substances made available to the market by chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The use of narcotics and psychoactive substances usually causes adverse and often irreversible health effects. In Department of Laboratory Diagnostics of the Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health in Sosnowiec tests for presence of drugs are among routinely conducted analyses. The presence of drugs has been revealed in 898 cases between the years 2004 and 2008. On top of the list of the most frequently detected narcotics were: amphetamine, cannabis, opiates, methamphetamine and cocaine. At the same time the most popular psychoactive substances are atropine, scopolamine and psilocybin. Additionally, the laboratory analyses indicated in many cases the presence of derivatives of benzodiazepines, trycyclic antidepressants and alcohol. Regional Centre of Acute Intoxication in Sosnowiec, Poland, hospitalized 78 patients due to overdose of drugs, narcotics or psychoactive substances as a result of experimenting with such substances. Half of the hospitalized cases patients have tried to commit suicide; one of the attempts has led to death. According to patients’ history their problems with reaching out for the use of psychoactive substances and narcotics were mainly caused by socio-psychological disorders.
Jantjes, L; Strümpher, J; Kotzé, W J
This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115). Four themes with sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The participants reported on the physical experience of labour and described experiencing a lot of pain for which analgesics were given. They also described how these drugs dulled the pain but made them sleepy and unable to cooperate with the midwives. They described their emotional experiences, which included joy and happiness as well as anxiety, anger and despondence. They also reported that they were not sufficiently informed about labour and child-birth. In the last theme they described the methods they used to help them cope with labour including distracting techniques, leaning on a supportive person or praying. Guidelines to help midwives overcome these problems were developed.
Kokoski, R J; Jain, M
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were compared for morphine detection in an actual narcotic clinic setting. A choice of urines from all those screened by TLC allowed a critical comparison as to actual use or non-use of narcotic drugs, rather than a sampling at random in which the question of possible false positives or negatives cannot be conclusively answered. Although RIA is more sensitive than TLC, its advantage is apparent only in those cases where urine specimens are difficult to obtain frequently regularly or where the use of morphine is suspected by the positive identification of quinine in urine that was morphine-negative by TLC. In a selected group of negative and positive specimens chosen without conscious bias, the two methods gave consistently similar results, indicating that the modified TLC method provided a few or no false positives or negatives if the negatives were from those cases that were not positive anytime up to 3-4 days before urine collection. We conclude that RIA can be of significant value as a supplement to a TLC screening program, without sacrificing the many advantages that TLC has to offer.
Full Text Available The relationship between Australia (an outpost of Anglo-western culture and Indonesia (the world's most populous Muslim nation has always been precarious. Much of the Australian media and political 'mediasphere' have contributed to the destabilisation of this relationship, most particularly as many media professionals reduce complex transcultural and transnational engagement to simple and essentialised cultural dichotomies. This limited vision is evident in the popular media's treatment of two significant politico-cultural issues: regional terrorism and the trade in illicit narcotics. Within a context of the global war on terror and Islamic attacks in Bali, much of the Australian popular media and public have been particularly agitated by the conviction and death sentencing of a group of Australians (the Bali Nine who had attempted to smuggle heroin out of Indonesia. This article examines the interrelationship between drug trafficking and regional security in South East Asia, most specifically as the issues have been conflated through transnational politics and the Australian media. The article concludes that these issues have a common trajectory within the momentum of globalisation and the cultural imaginaries created through the modern mediasphere.
Full Text Available The relationship between Australia (an outpost of Anglo-western culture and Indonesia (the world's most populous Muslim nation has always been precarious. Much of the Australian media and political 'mediasphere' have contributed to the destabilisation of this relationship, most particularly as many media professionals reduce complex transcultural and transnational engagement to simple and essentialised cultural dichotomies. This limited vision is evident in the popular media's treatment of two significant politico-cultural issues: regional terrorism and the trade in illicit narcotics. Within a context of the global war on terror and Islamic attacks in Bali, much of the Australian popular media and public have been particularly agitated by the conviction and death sentencing of a group of Australians (the Bali Nine who had attempted to smuggle heroin out of Indonesia. This article examines the interrelationship between drug trafficking and regional security in South East Asia, most specifically as the issues have been conflated through transnational politics and the Australian media. The article concludes that these issues have a common trajectory within the momentum of globalisation and the cultural imaginaries created through the modern mediasphere.
Shevchuk, O; Rzhevska, O; Korop, O; Pyliuha, L
The purpose of the research is to analyze specific problems of the realization of the right to protect the health of people who take narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances. To achieve this goal, statistics have been analyzed on the number of people using narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (including drug-addicted children) placed on medical records and the number of their applications for medical care. It has been found out that people in this category often face a denial of medical care that causes extremely strong physical and mental suffering. The analysis of the understanding of the legal design of the «right to health care» in the scientific literature, national legislation and international legal documents was made. State institutions and local authorities providing «the right to health care» of people taking narcotic or psychotropic drugs are singled out. The absence of grounds for restricting the right to protect the health of people who take narcotic or psychotropic drugs who are not registered is justified. In the course of the research, it was found out that people who take narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances are more likely than other patients to need medical assistance and, when requesting the right to health care, face a number of problems that require immediate solution: incomplete provision of quality free medical care; unimplementation of rehabilitation programs for such categories of patients; the lack of the right of children who take narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances to make their own decisions at the age of 14 and apply to public health institutions for the treatment of drug addiction; violations of the continuity of SMT programs and their absence in penal institutions for drug dependent people. It was proposed to introduce a number of changes in the relevant normative legal acts.
Laur, D F; Sinkovich, J; Betley, K
Morphine sulfate and methadone hydrochloride exhibit very different half-lives but are described as having an analgesic potency of one. The use of a drug like methadone may provide prolonged and constant analgesia in the perioperative setting. This double-blinded investigation used methadone and morphine intraoperatively and measured pain scores and narcotic requirements in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Thirty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) patients, physical status I through III, between the ages of 18 to 65 years were scheduled for orthopedic surgery and randomly assigned to receive morphine or methadone at 0.30 mg/kg. Fifteen patients received morphine and fifteen patients received methadone. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, height, weight, and ASA status. No statistically significant difference was observed among the two groups between the amount of analgesic requirements postoperatively or in the visual analogue scale pain score.
Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier. (orig.)
Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.
Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A
It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age.
This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.
Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest
Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs--particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver--supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms--along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.
Full Text Available Abstract Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs – particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver – supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms – along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.
Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others
This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…
Spapens, A.C.M.; Müller, T.; Van de Bunt, H.G.
Starting in the 1970s, the Netherlands developed a regulatory regime for narcotic drugs by distinguishing between hashish and marihuana (“soft drugs”) and other drugs (“hard drugs”). The authorities decided to cease prosecuting the possession of consumer quantities of the former type and to allow
... Controlled Substances Act of 1970, as amended (e.g., marijuana or cannabis, depressants, narcotics... use of a drug or use of a legal drug in a manner that deviates from approved medical direction. (b..., sale, or distribution; (3) Diagnosis by a credentialed medical professional (e.g., physician, clinical...
Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Klueva, Oksana; Tomas, David
Passive, standoff detection of chemical, explosive and narcotic threats employing widefield, shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) continues to gain acceptance in defense and security fields. A robust and user-friendly portable platform with such capabilities increases the effectiveness of locating and identifying threats while reducing risks to personnel. In 2013 ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) introduced Aperio, a handheld sensor, using real-time SWIR HSI for wide area surveillance and standoff detection of explosives, chemical threats, and narcotics. That SWIR HSI system employed a liquid-crystal tunable filter for real-time automated detection and display of threats. In these proceedings, we report on a next generation device called VeroVision™, which incorporates an improved optical design that enhances detection performance at greater standoff distances with increased sensitivity and detection speed. A tripod mounted sensor head unit (SHU) with an optional motorized pan-tilt unit (PTU) is available for precision pointing and sensor stabilization. This option supports longer standoff range applications which are often seen at checkpoint vehicle inspection where speed and precision is necessary. Basic software has been extended to include advanced algorithms providing multi-target display functionality, automatic threshold determination, and an automated detection recipe capability for expanding the library as new threats emerge. In these proceedings, we report on the improvements associated with the next generation portable widefield SWIR HSI sensor, VeroVision™. Test data collected during development are presented in this report which supports the targeted applications for use of VeroVision™ for screening residue and bulk levels of explosive and drugs on vehicles and personnel at checkpoints as well as various applications for other secure areas. Additionally, we highlight a forensic application of the technology for assisting forensic
Drug treatment can have a detrimental effect on nutritional status and drugs ... non-prescription medication dispensed due to chronic diseases such ... and cytochrome P450 in the liver, lungs and small intestine and ... Alcoholic beverages.
...; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding areas. 1301.73 Section 1301.73 Food... controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding... unauthorized persons may not enter or leave the area without his knowledge. (c) During the production of...
Warner, Amy E; Schaefer, Melissa K; Patel, Priti R; Drobeniuc, Jan; Xia, Guoliang; Lin, Yulin; Khudyakov, Yury; Vonderwahl, Candace W; Miller, Lisa; Thompson, Nicola D
Drug diversion by health care personnel poses a risk for serious patient harm. Public health identified 2 patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who shared a common link with a hospital. Further investigation implicated a drug-diverting, HCV-infected surgical technician who was subsequently employed at an ambulatory surgical center. Patients at the 2 facilities were offered testing for HCV infection if they were potentially exposed. Serum from the surgical technician and patients testing positive for HCV but without evidence of infection before their surgical procedure was further tested to determine HCV genotype and quasi-species sequences. Parenteral medication handling practices at the 2 facilities were evaluated. The 2 facilities notified 5970 patients of their possible exposure to HCV, 88% of whom were tested and had results reported to the state public health departments. Eighteen patients had HCV highly related to the surgical technician's virus. The surgical technician gained unauthorized access to fentanyl owing to limitations in procedures for securing controlled substances. Public health surveillance identified an outbreak of HCV infection due to an infected health care provider engaged in diversion of injectable narcotics. The investigation highlights the value of public health surveillance in identifying HCV outbreaks and uncovering a method of drug diversion and its impacts on patients. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Warner, Amy E.; Schaefer, Melissa K.; Patel, Priti R.; Drobeniuc, Jan; Xia, Guoliang; Lin, Yulin; Khudyakov, Yury; Vonderwahl, Candace W.; Miller, Lisa; Thompson, Nicola D.
Background Drug diversion by health care personnel poses a risk for serious patient harm. Public health identified 2 patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who shared a common link with a hospital. Further investigation implicated a drug-diverting, HCV-infected surgical technician who was subsequently employed at an ambulatory surgical center. Methods Patients at the 2 facilities were offered testing for HCV infection if they were potentially exposed. Serum from the surgical technician and patients testing positive for HCV but without evidence of infection before their surgical procedure was further tested to determine HCV genotype and quasi-species sequences. Parenteral medication handling practices at the 2 facilities were evaluated. Results The 2 facilities notified 5970 patients of their possible exposure to HCV, 88% of whom were tested and had results reported to the state public health departments. Eighteen patients had HCV highly related to the surgical technician’s virus. The surgical technician gained unauthorized access to fentanyl owing to limitations in procedures for securing controlled substances. Conclusions Public health surveillance identified an outbreak of HCV infection due to an infected health care provider engaged in diversion of injectable narcotics. The investigation highlights the value of public health surveillance in identifying HCV outbreaks and uncovering a method of drug diversion and its impacts on patients. PMID:25442395
This paper offers a brief model of FDA regulation of currently illegal narcotics in the United States. Given that nearly three out of four Americans believe that the drug war has failed, recent calls from prominent liberal and conservative thinkers to legalize drugs, and state â€œcompassionate useâ€ ballot initiatives, future drug legalization is at least conceivable in the United States. Yet, how would the FDA regulate NLDâ€™s under its current st...
Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.
Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R
Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.
Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca
In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...
Higgins, John P; Tuttle, Troy D; Higgins, Christopher L
Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"
I. A. Kaminskaya
Full Text Available Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances still remain indispensable in medicine. One of the top priorities of health care is to ensure the required availability of this group of drugs. The development of an effective system which can ensure crucially important availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents to people who need them for medical purposes must rely on the identification and analysis of the nature and specificity of the problems related to them as well as the ways of solving these problems. ThePurpose of the Study was to explore the constituents of the system ensuring medicinal availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents and to identify the factors hindering the availability of this group of medicinal agents.Materials and Methods. The study involved the systematic review analysis of the scientific publications and guidance documents regulating various aspects of activities involving the turnover of controlled drugs, and the results of surveys and interviews in which medical and pharmaceutical professionals were engaged. The study employed the methods of content analysis, logical and functional analysis, etc.Results and Discussion. The system of narcotic and psychotropic drug (NPD availability for patients who need them is currently going through reforms which have been conditioned by low accessibilty of these drugs when used for medical purposes. Those engaged in the drug supply system including medical and pharmaceutical professionals point out that excessive bureaucratization of the system of NPD supply and availability, complexity of documentation and paperwork reporting thedrug flow, costliness of these activities, and strict liability account for low availability of such drugs. To ensure the rights of the citizens to relieve pain due to diseases or medical interventions, a number of changes in the laws and regulations have been made. They have simplified the requirements for NPD
Rivera Juan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.
With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.
Full Text Available Lauren S Sparber,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Tanya S Vialet,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA; 4Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Inguinal and umbilical hernia repairs are among the most common surgical procedures performed in the US. Optimal perioperative pain control regimens remain challenging and opioid analgesics are commonly used. Preoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID administration has been shown to reduce postoperative narcotic requirements. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intravenous (IV ibuprofen on postoperative pain level and narcotic use in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair.Methods: A single center, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving patients ≥18 years undergoing inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair was performed. Patients were randomized to receive 800 mg of IV ibuprofen or placebo preoperatively. Outcomes assessed included postoperative pain medication required and visual analog scale (VAS pain scores.Results: Forty-eight adult male patients underwent inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair. Patients receiving IV ibuprofen used more oxycodone/acetaminophen (32% vs 13% and IV hydromorphone (12% vs 8.7%, and fewer combinations of pain medications (44% vs 65.2% in the first two postoperative hours compared to placebo (p=0.556. The IV ibuprofen group had more patients pain free (28% vs 8.7%, p=0.087 and lower VAS scores (3.08±2.14 vs 3.95±1.54, p=0.134 at 2 hours postoperatively, compared to the placebo group, however, this was not statistically significant. Similar pain levels at 1, 3, and 7 days, postoperative and similar use of rescue
Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost
Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236
Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost
Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.
Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A
This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
... Food Resources for You Consumers FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages ... addition, the flavorings and nutrients added to these beverages must comply with all applicable FDA safety requirements and they must be identified in the ...
Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B
One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.
Ng, Shu Wen; Ostrowski, Jessica D; Li, Kuo-Ping
Background: The US Food and Drug Administration's updated nutrition labeling requirements will include added sugars starting in July 2018, but no measure currently exists to identify the added sugar content of products and what it represents among purchases. Beverages are one of the first targets for reducing added sugar consumption, and hence are the focus here. Objective: Our goal was to estimate trends in added sugars in nonalcoholic packaged beverage products available in the United States and to estimate amounts of added sugars obtained from these beverages given the purchases of US households overall and by subpopulations. Design: On the basis of nutrition label data from multiple sources, we used a stepwise approach to derive the added sugar content of 160,713 beverage products recorded as purchased by US households in 2007-2012 (345,193 observations from 110,539 unique households). We estimated the amounts of added sugars obtained from packaged beverages US households reported buying in 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012, overall and by subpopulations based on household composition, race/ethnicity, and income. The key outcomes are added sugars in terms of per capita grams per day and the percentage of calories from packaged beverages. Results: Packaged beverages alone account for per capita consumption of 12 g/d of added sugars purchased by US households in 2007-2012, representing 32-48% of calories from packaged beverages. Whereas the absolute amount of added sugars from beverages has not changed meaningfully over time, the relative contribution of added sugars to calories from beverages has increased. Non-Hispanic black households and low-income households obtain both higher absolute and relative amounts of added sugars from beverages than non-Hispanic white households and high-income households (all P beverages at both the product level and the population level in the United States and can be used for comparisons after the revised nutrition labels are
Khaled A. ALASMARI
Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.
Pinsky, C; Dua, A K; LaBella, F S
Narcotic withdrawal was precipitated by administration of naloxone in a low dose at 2 h after the final dose of morphine in a 9-day dependency-inducing schedule. Withdrawal was characterized by leaps, increased nocifensor activity and by cerebral cortical epileptiform activity, the latter not generally reported to be prominent in narcotic withdrawal. Single large doses of morphine did not provoke epileptiform activity at 2 h postinjection but did induce an acute opioid dependency wherein a moderately high dose of naloxone, ineffective in non-dependent rats, provoked upward leaping and electrocortical epileptiform activity. Pretreatment of the 9-day dependent rats with peptidase inhibitors, administered intracerebroventricularly, significantly reduced withdrawal severity including the epileptiform activity. We propose that peptidase inhibitors protect certain species of endogenous opioids and/or other neuropeptides that tend to suppress expression of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome. Furthermore, our findings suggest that epileptiform activity is a nascent form of cerebral activity hitherto largely unnoticed in narcotic withdrawal and that neuropeptides may be involved in certain epileptic states.
Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Michiels, Ellen
and endoplasmic reticulum membrane are known to closely interact with the cell membrane, we hypothesize that narcotics can be further partitioned into these organelle membranes where they can disrupt essential membrane-bound processes. The electron transport chain (ETC) is an example of a crucial mitochondrial...
... therefrom. (g) All in-process inventories should be expressed in terms of end-products and not precursors... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as... opium, crude alkaloids and other derivatives (quantities are expressed as grams of anhydrous base or...
Ahrens, Brian D; Kucherova, Yulia; Butch, Anthony W
Sports drug testing laboratories are required to detect several classes of compounds that are prohibited at all times, which include anabolic agents, peptide hormones, growth factors, beta-2 agonists, hormones and metabolic modulators, and diuretics/masking agents. Other classes of compounds such as stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, and glucocorticoids are also prohibited, but only when an athlete is in competition. A single class of compounds can contain a large number of prohibited substances and all of the compounds should be detected by the testing procedure. Since there are almost 70 stimulants on the prohibited list it can be a challenge to develop a single screening method that will optimally detect all the compounds. We describe a combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing method for detection of all the stimulants and narcotics on the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Urine for LC-MS/MS testing does not require sample pretreatment and is a direct dilute and shoot method. Urine samples for the GC-MS method require a liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride.
Kappa, Stephen F; Green, Elizabeth A; Miller, Nicole L; Herrell, Stanley D; Mitchell, Christopher R; Mir, Hassan R; Resnick, Matthew J
We sought to determine perioperative patterns of narcotic use and the prevalence of postoperative doctor shopping among patients with nephrolithiasis requiring operative management. We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients residing in Tennessee who required ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis at a single institution from January to December 2013. Using the Tennessee CSMD (Controlled Substances Medication Database) patients were categorized by the number of postoperative narcotic providers. Doctor shopping behavior was identified as any patient seeking more than 1 narcotic provider within 3 months of surgery. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with doctor shopping behavior were identified. During the study period 200 eligible patients underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis, of whom 48 (24%) were prescribed narcotics by more than 1 provider after surgery. Compared to those receiving narcotics from a single provider, patients with multiple narcotic providers were younger (48.1 vs 54.2 years, p shopping is common among patients with nephrolithiasis who require operative management. Urologists should be aware of available registry data to decrease the likelihood of redundant narcotic prescribing. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India ... unhealthy foods and beverages are increasing the non-communicable disease burden and risk ... and promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages to Indian children and ...
United States Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series MyPlate MyWins Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Make better beverage choices A healthy eating style includes all foods and beverages. Many beverages ...
Lukacher, G Ia; Makshantseva, N V
The study involved 152 adolescents which had abused narcotic and toxic substances once, occasionally or regularly. Males aged 15 to 16 years displayed highest occurrence rate of the abuse. Drug addiction and toxicomania were established in 6% of subjects. Volatile stuff and tranquilizers were most frequent in use. Microsocial adversities were experienced by all the subjects. Besides, an "altered background" is characteristic of drug addicts and toxicomania patients. The fact of narcotic and toxic substances usage as euphorigenic agents deserves due attention of narcologists, pedagogues, sociologists. Biologically conditioned risk factors conducive to drug addiction and toxicomania should be investigated.
Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.
This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993
Maria del Mar Bibiloni
Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.
An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…
Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.
Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A
This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.
Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with
Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de
Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.
... Intelligence Agency, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Administrator of the Drug..., Israel; Commercial Registry Number 513174466 (Israel) [SDNTK]. Dated: July 9, 2013. Adam J. Szubin...
Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda
In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…
Auten, Ashley A; Beauchamp, Lauren N; Joshua Taylor; Hardinger, Karen L
The interaction between grapefruit-containing beverages and immunosuppressants is not well defined in the literature. This study was conducted to investigate possible sources of grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract in common US-manufactured beverages. The goal was to identify those products that might serve as hidden sources of dietary grapefruit intake, increasing a transplant patient's risk for drug interactions. A careful review of the ingredients of the 3 largest US beverage manufacturer's product lines was conducted through manufacturer correspondence, product labeling examination, and online nutrition database research. Focus was placed on citrus-flavored soft drinks, teas, and juice products and their impact on a patient's immunosuppressant regimens. Twenty-three beverages were identified that contained grapefruit. Five did not contain the word "grapefruit" in the product name. In addition to the confirmed grapefruit-containing products, 17 products were identified as possibly containing grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract. A greater emphasis should be placed upon properly educating patients regarding hidden sources of grapefruit in popular US beverages and the potential for food-drug interactions.
Conclusion: To decrease malaise and addiction in patients with CINCP, Taiwan's physicians need more education on narcotic analgesics, and greater professional cooperation to develop therapeutic guidelines that will improve pain care for patients with CINCP.
Burt Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
This report assesses the experiences of clients who had contact with or received drug abuse treatment from programs of the Addiction Services Agency in New York City and the Narcotics Treatment Administration in Washington, D.C. during the early 1970's. To answer the questions of what happens to former clients once they leave drug treatment…
Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
Developed by the National Institute of Mental Health, this booklet offers a programed instruction course on drugs and their effects. The purpose of the text is to learn about specific drugs which are currently being used and abused by a large group of people in our society. Narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and marihuana are…
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069
Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction is a habit or behavior that is often hard to quit. It is estimated that 190 million persons are substance users around the world. Substance abuse creates tolerance after a while. Shortly after taking the drug, a person will not enjoy as the beginning of its use; that is why the amount of substance used is gradually increased. The purpose of this study was to find the reasons of tendency to narcotics among addicted individuals referred to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT center in Yazd. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic study on 100 addicts referred to methadone maintenance treatment center (MMT in Yazd. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire with acceptable validity and reliability. Data was analyzed using SPSS statistical software and employing descriptive statistics such as percentage, ratio, mean, standard deviation and statistical tests such as t-test and chi- square was performed. Results: 41.9 % of addicts were unemployed, 4.77% married and 5.64% had elementary education. The most common method of substance consumption was inhalation (2.40%. Heroin was the most frequent type of substance used (1/51% The relationship between marital status and type of substance used, and age of onset of drug use was significant. The frequency of substance consumption was significantly different regarding the history of drug use in father, brother and spouses of patients in both sexes. Conclusion: Results of the current study showed that subjects at an early age (adolescence and early adulthood, individuals with low educational status, those with unstable jobs and low income, presence of addicted individuals among first-degree relatives can be the causes leading to addiction in the community.
Zia, Asif Iqbal
This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Addiction is a complex problem with different psychological, social and familial aspects, which strongly threaten the health of million people, and collapse the social and personal life. The aim of this study was to determine the effective methods of narcotic substances and decreasing demands from the viewpoint of Hamadan peopleMaterials & Methods: This research was a sectional-descriptive study. The participants consisted of 1456 individuals that were selected by stratified sampling. The data collected through a questionnaire consists of 3 parts; I. the demographic characteristics II. the questions about decreasing the demands and III. the questions related to the methods of narcotic substances campaign.Results: Outcome showed that 60.78% of the participants believe the best method to decrease demands to narcotic substances is the mass media and 51.92% believe to promote the religious believes and 44.5% to change people’s viewpoint about the narcotic substances. 78.85% agreed with using punishments on narcotics devisers and 40.1% agreed with punishment on users.Conclusion: From the viewpoint of Hamedan people mass media and religious believes effect in attitude of people about narcotic substances abuse and also they believed that punishment of users and opinion devisers were being useful.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0575] Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 510.800 Beverages--Serving Size Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food... comments on the draft CPG to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration...
... worldwide basis with the objective of denying their businesses and agents access to the U.S. financial system and the benefits of trade and transactions involving U.S. companies and individuals. The Kingpin... Intelligence Agency, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Administrator of the Drug...
... on a worldwide basis, with the objective of denying their businesses and agents access to the U.S. financial system and the benefits of trade and transactions involving U.S. companies and individuals. The... Intelligence Agency, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Administrator of the Drug...
rock form (IA) herramienta paraphernalia used to inject drugs (Ar) hierba marihuana (IA) hierba malefica marihuana (IA) hierbero marihuana "pusher...mona^ la monte mora morfeta morfinomano morisqueta mosca mostaza mota motado^ en moto motorolo mover mula nariguetazo ne stle neveria
and effective governance of Afghanistan.”3 This paper examines the nature of the opium problem in Afghanistan and analyzes the current strategy to...Opium is also refined for use in legal prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin.14 However, Australia and France currently produce about...is simply inadequate to carry out an effective counter-narcotics campaign. While some regions of Afghanistan are relatively stable and free of
Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L
The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...
Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori
After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.
Full Text Available The development of alternative substances for pain treatment is necessary for patients who cannot tolerate the side effects of opioids or cannot reach an adequate analgesia with these drugs. The technique using the endo-ocular instillation of drops, 2 ml of solution containing 0.05 mg of octreotide plus 1 ml of water for injectable preparations, thus obtaining a solution containing 0.025 mg / ml of octreotide, was instilled via a precision dropping that provided 0.00119 mg / drop of octreotide. Due to characteristics of pain, we administered the doses ranging from 1 to 3 drops per eye. The absence of side effects and the simplicity of execution have prompted to consider this method with extreme interest, in order to research the drugs and routes of administration which follow more the conditions of tolerability and selectivity of effects.
Elliott, Simon P; Fais, Paolo
GHB has been implicated in many cases of suspected surreptitious administration with the purpose of increasing victim vulnerability to sexual assault. Low amounts of endogenous (or naturally occurring) GHB, which do not reach pharmacologically active levels, have been detected in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Due to the continued requirement to obtain data on the presence of endogenous GHB in various beverage types, GHB concentrations were measured in a series of non-alcoholic beverages. Tonic water and lemon flavoured tonic water beverages were analysed at 0, 24 and 96h after the bottle opening using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) on an Agilent 6890/7000C Triple Quadrupole. GHB was detected in all beverages at very low amounts ranging from 89 to 145ng/mL (0.089-0.145mg/L) and did not demonstrate a general trend of variation for concentration along the tested time span (96h). The presented data provide additional evidence for the endogenous nature of GHB in non-alcoholic beverages at very low concentrations, which are many orders of magnitude lower than those described to produce any pharmacological effect on the subject. However, when considering a case of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault, a low level of GHB detected in a drink may be related both to a surreptitiously GHB administration with subsequent dilution for concealment or to the presence of endogenous GHB. On this basis, a comprehensive analysis of all the available information, including circumstantial data demonstrating possible attempts to conceal GHB administration and an assessment of levels of endogenous GHB in the suspected beverage type, is of the utmost importance for a proper interpretation of the toxicological results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The aim of work is the assessment of legal permissibility for health and social harm reduction programmes resulting from drug use in the context of the polish legislation on narcotic drug use and drug addiction. The thesis outlines harm reduction programmes implemented worldwide, role of penal code in counteracting both narcotic drug supply and demand, attitude of United Nations and European Union to the drug problem including harm reduction programmes, solutions adopted in the selected European Union member states. The main part of the thesis presents the evolution of polish legislation regarding drug use and analysis of legal permissibility for harm reduction programmes in this context. The conclusion inferred is the statement that implementation of the harm reduction programmes requires a certain minimal depenalisation of the drug use by a legislator and the fact that restrictive legal system impedes programme realization. Thus the thesis postulates depenalisation of small drug quantities for personal use.
The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are presented on how fermentation is used to replace, modify or improve current, artificially produced, foods and beverages and how also fermentation can be used for completely novel consumer products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E
The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.
Rakin Marica B.
Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85
Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.
Jackson, David S; Crockett, David F; Wolnik, Karen A
Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) has been identified as the adulterant in a relatively large number of product tamperings that have been investigated by the Forensic Chemistry Center (FCC) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this work, household bleach was added to 23 different beverages at each of three levels. The impact of sodium hypochlorite on these beverages over a 13-day study period was evaluated using the following techniques: diphenylamine spot test for oxidizing agents, potassium iodide-starch test paper for oxidizing agents, pH, iodometric titration for quantitating hypochlorite, ion chromatography for chloride and chlorate quantitation, automated headspace sampling with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for determination of chloroform, and visual and organoleptic observations. This study has shown that hypochlorite is fragile when added to most common beverages and typically breaks down either partially or completely over time. In cases where a beverage is suspected of being adulterated with bleach but tests for hypochlorite are negative, it is still possible to characterize the product to demonstrate that the results are consistent with the addition of bleach. An adulterated product will give a positive test for oxidizing agents using the diphenylamine spot test. It is likely that the pH of the adulterated product will be higher than a control of that product. Ion chromatographic analysis shows elevated chloride and chlorate as compared with a control. And, chloroform may also be detected by GC-FID especially if the beverage that was adulterated contains citric acid.
40 to as much as $8,000, which was the amount agreed upon for the murder of Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla in 1984.53 In 1986 sicarios...criticism concerning its inability to capture the major drug traffickers, particularly Pablo Escobar. This criticism has centered on the armed forces...right hand man to Pablo Escobar), and the seizure of a record 19 tons of cocaine in early May 1990, which caused a drop in the price of coca leaf in
Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M
Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.
departing Colombia via maritime conveyances. Then we use information on routes and vessels used by DTOs to estimate the number of vessels transiting the...Office of Technology Assessment, The Border War On Drugs, OTA-O-336, March 1987. United States Senate Caucus On International Narcotics Control...2013) 0.91 2012 Figure 2 of ONDCP(2014) Table A.2: Fraction of Cocaine that leaves Colombia via Maritime Routes A.2.1 Drug Corridors The
Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Roberto, Christina A; Sam, Rachel; Sarda, Vishnudas; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D
Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth. This descriptive study used Nielsen audience data to select 10 sports organizations with the most 2-17 year old viewers of 2015 televised events. Sponsors of these organizations were identified and assigned to product categories. We identified advertisements promoting food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsorships on television, YouTube, and sports organization Web sites from 2006 to 2016, and the number of YouTube advertisement views. The nutritional quality of advertised products was assessed. Youth watched telecasts associated with these sports organizations over 412 million times. These organizations had 44 food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (18.8% of sponsors), second to automotive sponsors ( n = 46). The National Football League had the most food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors ( n = 10), followed by the National Hockey League ( n = 7) and Little League ( n = 7). We identified 273 advertisements that featured food and/or nonalcoholic beverage products 328 times and product logos 83 times (some advertisements showed multiple products). Seventy-six percent ( n = 132) of foods had unhealthy nutrition scores, and 52.4% ( n = 111) of nonalcoholic beverages were sugar-sweetened. YouTube sponsorship advertisements totaled 195.6 million views. Sports sponsorships are commonly used to market unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, exposing millions of consumers to these advertisements. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis
Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess
Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.
Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.
Meulenberg, C.J.W.; de Groot, A.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.
Exposure to organic solvents may cause narcotic effects. At the cellular level, these narcotic effects have been associated with a reduction in neuronal excitability caused by changes in membrane structure and function. In order to critically test whether changes in membrane geometry contribute to
Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)
The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.
... influence of intoxicating beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs, or marijuana, or the consumption of such beverages or the use of such drugs or marijuana in or on the property is prohibited... such directives shall have the same force and effect as if made a part hereof. (m) Weapons and...
Full Text Available The primary emphasis of this work is on the development of a new waste beverage cans identification method for automated beverage cans sorting systems known as the SVS system. The method described involved window-based subdivision of the image into X-cells, construction of X-candidate template for N-cells, calculation of matching scores of reference templates for the N-cells image, and application of matching score to identify the grade of the object. The SVS system performance for correct beverage cans grade identification is 95.17% with estimated throughput of 21,600 objects per hour with a conveyor belt width of 18˝. The weight of the throughput depends on the size and type of the objects.
Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo
In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.
Review the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages to identify the characteristics we should take into account to make a tax policy proposal. Systematic review of articles in EBSCOhost that include in their abstract and title the words alcohol and elasticity and alcohol and tax, over the last 20 years in academic journals in English. We found 11 references. Although price elasticity is quite similar across countries, it is heterogeneous with regard togender, age, consumption level and type of beverage. Ad-hoc policies proved ineffective due to the substitution effect, and regressive in their impact on populations with lower levels of income and consumption. Tax policies should be applied to all alcoholic beverages based on their volume of alcohol and all measures, such as the minimum price per unit, should be complemented with other policies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.
People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy
Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.
Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...
Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian
Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697
Popkin, Barry M
Total beverage intake patterns have changed greatly over the past half century. The present research was conducted to evaluate historic and current patterns of beverage consumption of adults and children in the U.S. Data were drawn from food balance surveys along with two-day beverage intake averages and were weighted to be nationally representative. A marked slow continuous shift downward in total milk intake with a shift toward an increased proportion of reduced fat milk was determined. The biggest shifts in beverage consumption among children aged 2 to18 were an increase in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (from 87 to 154kcal/d), a smaller increase in juices (+21kcal/d), and a decrease in milk consumption (-91kcal/d). Data among adults aged 19 and older indicated that SSB intake has more than doubled. Water intake was highly variable, with a marked increase in bottled water intake but no clear trend in total water intake. Overall trends by age were presented and indicated that age-related beverage intake, both in ounces and kcal/day, decreased sharply for adults aged 60 and older. Kcal/d values ranged from a low of 283 for those over age 60 to a peak of 533 for those aged 19 to39 to 367 for 2 to 6year olds. The consumer shift toward increased levels of SSBs and alcohol, limited amounts of reduced fat milk along with a continued consumption of whole milk, and increased juice intake represent issues to address from a public health perspective. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J
Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.
Lukyanenko, Victor; Eisele, Gerhard R.; Coates, Cameron W.
Through a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD has been implemented. A key element in the RF MOD PRP is the detection and confirmation of narcotic use in subject military and civilian personnel. This paper describes the process of narcotics screening and testing in the RF MOD and explains the confirmation process once screening has shown a positive result. Issues of laboratory certification, employee certification, employee training, sample chain-of-custody, and equipment needs will be addressed.
Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.
Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...
The explosive growth of opium and heroin production in Afghanistan has had grave implications for global trafficking and organised crime. The European Union pursues a policy to stop the inflow of illicit narcotics closer to their source and this presentation outlines the challenges encountered......-narcotic collaboration. Drastically different national policy choices regarding the penalisation of consumption and drug-demand strategies have furthermore yielded dramatically different social outcomes, further complicating regional efforts. Work on legal harmonisation is, therefore, deemed at best a relatively...
... beverage. 4.14 Section 4.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose...
... beverage. 1004.14 Section 1004.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the...
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.137...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.137 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food, and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.77...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.77 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army’s tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK’s own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.
Hasan Asy’ari, Syamsul Hidayat &
In anticipation of the threat and the dangers of drug abuse and illicit trafficking, Indonesia as a whole has had the law on ratification of the Convention , including the United Nations on combating illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in 1988. Policy is required drug crimes (penal policy). Applicable policies regarding how to commit criminal law legislation in force at the moment and formulated policies that lead to renewal (penal law reform) who formulated the ...
McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S
Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.
Namat Sotodeh Asl
Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is one of the most common disorders that exert a high impact on the life of patients and their families. There are many treatment methods for Addiction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of narcotics anonymous (NA program on personality characters in substance abuse patients.Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental design was performed on 100 patients with substance abuse disorders that they had been randomly selected from those patients who were referred to psychiatric clinics and counseling centers in Esfehan in 2008. Then, the subjects were equally divided into two groups; experimental and control. All the patients carried out Eysenk test prior to any intervention and also a demographic questionnaire were filled out by all the subjects. Then, Eysenk test was performed on all the patients following the intervention. Changing in personality character in the experimental group (before and after the intervention was compared with those of the control group. Results: The findings showed that narcotic program has significant effects on personality characters of experimental group to substance abuse in post test, but these effects are not significant in control group.Conclusion: According to the findings of this work, we suggest the effectiveness of NA program in changing personality characters of the patients with substance abuse
Lim Chung San
Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics like opioids. Methods : Literary investigation on the origin of poppy (Papaver somniferum L and other narcotics was conducted to examine the potential of developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics. Opium is a gum-like mass derived from air-dried white fluid of immature fruit of the poppy. Opium contains approximately 20 types of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and others. Natural opioids and synthetic alkaloid derivatives are the constituents of opioid analgesics and their effects and side-effects depend on the peculiarities of receptors. An extreme caution is required in the selection of proper dosage, proper analgesic types, and indications for successful pain management. Results and Discussion : With the enactment of "Narcotic control protocol", herbs such as cannibis and poppy are no longer available for use by Korean medicine doctors, and these doctors are faced with difficulty in managing severe pain in the clinical environment. A systematic consideration is inevitable for overcoming the limitation on these analgesics.
Seyed Kazem Taheri
Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.
Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.
The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional
Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.
Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…
The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are
Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A
Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.
Malbaša Radomir V.
Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.
Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.
Very few admitted always drinking while with friends (7.3%) or had feeling of guilt about drinking habit (9%) while over 70% agreed to parents` or guardians` awareness of drinking habit. Conclusion: Higher percentage of the respondents consumed more of healthy beverage such as fruit juices and soft drinks than alcoholic ...
Welsh, Jean A; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D
To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown.
Welsh, Jean A.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.
Purpose of review To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Recent findings Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Summary Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown. PMID:23974767
Full Text Available Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4 are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations.
Orwat, John; Samet, Jeffrey H; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Saitz, Richard
Despite the value of 12-step meetings, few studies have examined factors associated with attendance among those living with HIV/AIDS, such as the impact of HIV disease severity and demographics. This study examines predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need on attendance at Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings among those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Secondary analysis of prospective data from the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study, a cohort of 400 adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Factors associated with AA/NA attendance were identified using the Anderson model for vulnerable populations. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with self-reported AA/NA attendance. At study entry, subjects were 75% male, 12% met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, 43% had drug dependence and 56% reported attending one or more AA/NA meetings (past 6 months). In the adjusted model, female gender negatively associated with attendance, as were social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs, while presence of HCV antibody, drug dependence diagnosis, and homelessness associated with higher odds of attendance. Non-substance abuse related barriers to AA/NA group attendance exist for those living with HIV/AIDS, including females and social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs. Positive associations of homelessness, HCV infection and current drug dependence were identified. These findings provide implications for policy makers and treatment professionals who wish to encourage attendance at 12-step meetings for those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or other substance use problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Terryl J. Hartman
Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.
Bates, Cory; Laciak, Robert; Southwick, Andrew; Bishoff, Jay
Prescription narcotic abuse is a significant social problem. Surplus medication following surgery is 1 source of prescription diversion. We assessed prescribing practices, consumption and disposal of prescribed narcotics after urological surgery. Surveys were administered to a 3-month consecutive sample of adult patients who underwent surgery performed by full and adjunct University of Utah Urology faculty. Surveys were performed 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively. With the exception of the investigators, prescribing physicians had no prior knowledge of the study. Data collected included perception of pain control, type and quantity of medication prescribed, quantity of leftover medication, refills needed, disposal instructions and surplus medication disposition. Overall 47% of 586 patients participated in the study. Hydrocodone was prescribed most commonly (63%), followed by oxycodone (35%), and 86% of the patients were satisfied with pain control. Of the dispensed narcotics 58% was consumed and 12% of patients requested refills. A total of 67% of patients had surplus medication from the initial prescription and 92% received no disposal instructions for surplus medication. Of those patients with leftover medication 91% kept the medication at home while 6% threw it in the trash, 2% flushed it down the toilet and less than 1% returned it to a pharmacy. Overprescription of narcotics is common and retained surplus medication presents a readily available source of opioid diversion. It appears that no entity on the prescribing or dispensing ends of prescription opioid delivery is fulfilling the responsibility to accurately educate patients on proper surplus medication disposal. Surgeons should analyze prescribing practices and consider decreasing the quantity of postoperative narcotics prescribed. Copyright Â© 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.
Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID
Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas
Artificial food colors (AFCs) are widely used to color foods and beverages. The amount of AFCs the Food and Drug Administration has certified over the years has increased more than 5-fold since 1950 (12 mg/capita/day) to 2012 (68 mg/capita/day). In the past 38 years, there have been studies of adverse behavioral reactions such as hyperactivity in children to double-blind challenges with AFCs. Studies that used 50 mg or more of AFCs as the challenge showed a greater negative effect on more children than those which used less. The study reported here is the first to quantify the amounts of AFCs in foods (specifically in beverages) commonly consumed by children in the United States. Consumption data for all foods would be helpful in the design of more challenge studies. The data summarized here should help clinicians advise parents about AFCs and beverage consumption.
Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne
Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®
Cohn, L.; Machado, Antonio F.; Bier, Robert; Cohn, Marthe
To provide an effective continuum of the relief of severe carcinomatous pain with minimal side reactions, we initiated treatment with piroxicam (60 to 120 mg per day) and doxepin hydrochloride (25 to 225 mg per day). Of 30 patients presenting with severe pain of cancer of various origins, 7 continued to death with piroxicam and doxepin therapy. An additional 17 were successfully treated for 6 to 66 weeks with therapy reported here but, as disease progressed, required supplemental narcotics. The remaining six abandoned the use of piroxicam due to complications of therapy, which ranged from diarrhea to gastric perforation; serious complications were associated with patients' failure to adhere to a prescribed regimen of sucralfate. Therapy with piroxicam and doxepin proved to be safe and efficacious. PMID:3363962
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine the toxicologically important arsenic species in beverages (beer, wine and apple juice) with minimal sample preparation. Determination of arsenic species was performed by selective hydride generation of arsenic hydrides with cryogenic collection under liquid nitrogen and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry. In all the samples only inorganic arsenic was found, methyl substituted species were below the limit of detection. The method is su...
Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe
Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin
Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone st...
Daveluy, Amélie; Sauvaget, Lucie; Bastien, Angela; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Collin, Cédric; Richard, Nathalie; Haramburu, Françoise
In France, prescription of narcotics must be written on a tamper-resistant prescription form with specific technical particularities. Dosage and daily dose of medicines shall be written out entirely in letters. These prescription forms are also mandatory for buprenorphine, clorazepate, clonazepam, tianeptine, buccal midazolam and zolpidem owing to traffic, abuse or diversion. In 2012, to assess the use of standard and tamper-resistant prescription forms and the acceptability of the generalization of the latter to all medicines, a national opinion survey was performed, with a postal questionnaire, within 3 randomized samples of 1,500 prescribers (physicians, dentists and midwives). Of the 403 participating prescribers (participation rate of 26.8%), 373 were physicians, 14 dentists and 16 midwives. Tamper-resistant prescription forms were used by 76.2% of prescribers, but only by 5.1% in a computerised version, whereas, for standard prescription forms, 61% used computer assisted prescription software. The main reason was the inability of the prescription software to print these forms or to respect the mandatory prescription rules for narcotics. Theft and falsification of prescriptions had ever occurred (working life). Most prescribers (62.5%) were against the generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms. Those in favour were for a generalization to all medicines (65%) and not only to psychotropic agents. Generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms is not a consensual solution to prevent medicines' diversion. Some prescribers alluded to the possibility of dematerialisation and electronic transmission of prescription forms, which could avoid theft, forgery or falsification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata
Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills on the reduction of addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics. Method: The design of this study was experimental design namely: pre and post test with control group. The population included all addicts referring to Sanandaj self-report centers (500 addicts. By random sampling, 60 addicts were selected and completed the attitude questionnaire to narcotics use. Each of experimental groups was under problem-solving and decision-making skills training for ten 90 minute sessions. No training given to control group. Results: After training, two experimental groups significantly had lower levels of positive attitude to narcotics use. No difference was observed between two experimental groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills can reduce the addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics.
Curtis, Glenn E
... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...
Hochstedler, Robert A
US counter-narcotic policies towards Burma have possessed a singular-focus. In other words, they have been based on the traditional bilateral triumvirate strategies of eradication, education, and interdiction...
Full Text Available Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and must remain physically stable for long periods of time. Nowadays, the consumers ask for more than a drink. Thus, in the market, we can find a vast variety of beverages, where emulsion science seems to be the main factor for controlling flavor, color, the presence of constituents of technological or nutritional value, nutraceutical/bioactive components and, also, turbidity. This work intends to make an overview of the recent advances in beverage-emulsions technology. Some examples are given within the very large world of the beverage industry, from cream liqueurs, soft drinks, and functional beverages, to bottled water, fruit drinks, sparkling wine, and beer.
Full Text Available The narcotization prevalence in Russia as whole and its regions is described. In order to provide the adequate models the clusters of regions on the level of their economic development are defined. For every group the regression model of drug addiction social distress is constructed. Modeling results allow to find the features of regions and the most significant factors determining the drug addiction prevalence.
Sorenson, Douglas J.
Strategic reviews of the Irish Food and Beverage Industry have consistently emphasised the need for food and beverage firms to improve their innovation and marketing capabilities, in order to maintain competitiveness in both domestic and overseas markets. In particular, the functional food and beverages market has been singled out as an extremely important emerging market, which Irish firms could benefit from through an increased technological and market orientation. Although h...
Boutroy, M J
Drugs have been in the past and will in the future still be liable to induce apnea in neonates, infants and older children. At these different stages of development, the child may be abnormally vulnerable to respiratory disorders and apnea, and doses of drugs, without any abnormal side effects in adult patients, can be harmful in younger subjects. Drugs responsible for apnea during development are numerous, but more than half of the problems are induced by sedatives and hypnotics, among which phenothiazines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (included transplacentally acquired) and general anesthetics are a few. Other pharmacological families are apnea inducers in the neonatal period and childhood: analgesics and opioid narcotics, agents acting at the levels of neuromuscular function and autonomic ganglia, and cardiovascular agents. The pathogenesis of these apneas depends on the disturbance of any mechanism responsible for the respiratory activity: medullary centers and brain stem structures, afferent influx to CNS, sleep stages, upper airways, lungs and respiratory muscles. At key stages such as birth and infancy, drugs may emphasize the particular sensitivity of the mechanisms responsible for inducing apnea. This might explain unexpected respiratory disorders during development.
Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.
Full Text Available New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influence their color and volatile composition are summarized. Finally, the description of the current situation of beverage packaging materials and new possible, emerging strategies to overcome some of the pending issues are discussed.
Burdon, Catriona A; Johnson, Nathan A; Chapman, Phillip G; Munir Che Muhamed, Ahmad; O'Connor, Helen T
The aim of this study was to measure the effect of environmental conditions and aid-station beverage- cooling practices on the temperature of competitor beverages. Environmental and beverage temperatures were measured at three cycling and two run course aid stations at the 2010 Langkawi, Malaysia (MA), and Port Macquarie, Australia (AU), Ironman triathlon events. To measure the specific effect of radiant temperature, additional fluid-filled (600 ml) drink bottles (n = 12) were cooled overnight (C) and then placed in direct sun (n = 6) or shade (n = 6) near to a cycle aid station at AU. During both events, beverage temperature increased over time (p beverage temperature ranged between 14-26°C and during both events was above the palatable range (15-22°C) for extended periods. At AU, bottles placed in direct sunlight heated faster (6.9 ± 2.3 °C·h-1) than those in the shade (4.8 ±1.1°C·h-1, p = .05). Simple changes to Ironman aid-station practices, including shade and chilling beverages with ice, result in the provision of cooler beverages. Future studies should investigate whether provision of cool beverages at prolonged endurance events influences heat-illness incidence, beverage-consumption patterns, and competitor performance.
Burger, Julian; Kapron, Mary
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens. They are also victims of the drug producers who remove them from their lands or forcibly recruit them into the production process. As indigenous peoples are caught in the violent world of illicit drug production, law enforcement often targets them first, resulting in disproportionate rates of criminalization and incarceration.
Full Text Available This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch’s method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115.
.... Basic model means, with respect to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines, all units... beverages and dispenses the bottled or canned beverages on payment. V means the refrigerated volume (ft3) of...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug that...
Luger, Maria; Winzer, Eva; Schätzer, Manuel; Dämon, Sabine; Moser, Nadine; Blagusz, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Julia; Lechleitner, Monika; Rieder, Anita; Hoppichler, Friedrich
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of free sugar intake and contribute to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of a gradual sugar reduction strategy within the so-called 'beverage checklist' on free sugar content in beverages on sale in Austria. From 2010 until 2017, data on the amount of free sugar of sweetened beverages (sweetened with sugars, fruit juice and artificial sweeteners) with 0.20-0.75l serving sizes in all main supermarkets and from industry was collected. These data were published annually as the beverage checklist, which displays beverages on sale in Austria. The checklist aims to encourage beverage production with a free sugar content of ≤7.4 g/100 ml and no artificial sweeteners. Free sugar content in the total supply decreased significantly [7.53 (2.86) vs. 6.75 (2.79) g/100 ml; 10.4%; P strategy, conducted by a small non-profit organization, showed a reduction in the mean free sugar content by working with the industry to voluntarily reformulate beverages. More beverages with less added sugar were brought to the market, which implies healthier choices. The challenge now is to further engage the industry and also policy makers to achieve a greater reduction in the future.
Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Rangan, Anna
Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage alternatives on long-term health outcomes. We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health outcomes in both children and adults were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50 methodology checklists. Six cohort studies and four RCTs were included in the systematic review with the quality rating ranging from acceptable to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted to fully understand the long-term health implications of beverage substitutions. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sørensen, H J; Jepsen, P W; Haastrup, S
. METHOD: In 1984, 188 persons (122 men and 66 women) with a history of intravenous narcotics addiction were interviewed about their drug-use pattern. A registry-based follow-up continued through 1999 and mortality was assessed. Three 1984-drug-use categories were formed. In category 1, cohort members had...... at lower risk of premature death than people with continued drug use. A residual observed excess mortality in people who had apparently achieved stable abstinence from drug use is consistent with the view of drug addiction as a chronic disease....
Salibian, Ara A; Frey, Jordan D; Thanik, Vishal D; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks are increasingly being utilized in microvascular breast reconstruction. The implications of TAP blocks on specific reconstructive, patient and institutional outcomes remain to be fully elucidated. Patients undergoing abdominally-based microvascular breast reconstruction from 2015-2017 were reviewed. Length of stay, complications, narcotic consumption, donor-site pain and hospital expenses were compared between patients that did and those that did not receive TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine. Outcomes were subsequently compared in patients with elevated body mass index (BMI). Fifty patients (43.9%) received TAP blocks (27 [54.0%] under ultrasound guidance) and 64 patients (56.1%) did not. Patients with TAP blocks had significantly decreased oral and total narcotic consumption (p=0.0001 and pconsumption and postoperative pain compared to patients without TAP blocks. Patients with BMIconsumption or length of stay between the TAP versus no TAP block groups. TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine significantly reduce oral and total postoperative narcotic consumption as well as donor-site pain in all patients after abdominally-based microvascular breast reconstruction without increasing hospital expenses. TAP blocks additionally significantly decrease length of stay in patients with BMI≥25.
Support System for Injury Surveillance”. Data collected by abstraction of medical records by trained personnel using registry form in patients who had hospitalized in 3 hospitals from January to August 2010. Severe head injury classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score 3-9 diagnosed severe head injury, 10-12 moderate head injury and 13-15 mild head injury. Results: Out of 450 injured patients, 36 patients (8% who had severe head injuries. Patient who was suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use had nearly 5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury [adjusted odds ratio (ORa=4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.04-21.75] compared to not suspected. Patient who was referred had a 5.5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury (ORa=5.50; 95% CI=2.28-13.27 compared with not referred. Injured person due to traffic accident than other type of accident had 3-fold increase the risk of severe head injury (ORa=3.43; 95% CI=1.14-10.32. Conclusion: Suspected alcohol or addictive narcotic was the highest risk to severe head injury. Campaign against alcohol and addictive narcotic should be done to prevent head injury severity. (Health Science Indones 2011;34-40
Arshad Yar Khan
Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.
Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.
Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100
Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with
Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.
Fermentation yeast was isolated from a Thai traditional alcoholic beverage called Thai ou, which is drunk through bamboo tubes. The isolated yeast was identified as a strain of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alcoholic beverage made with the isolated yeast designated as S. cerevisiae NP01 from black rice ...
The comparative levels of indigenous and foreign alcoholic beverages in the urine of 24 University students after drinking a cup or shot of the beverages have been reported. The Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy was used for the analysis. From the results, the percentage content of alcohol (%v/v) in burukutu, ...
Doyle, Wayne; Shide, Eric; Thapa, Slesha; Chandrasekaran, Vidya
The popularity and prevalence of energy beverages makes it essential to examine the interactions between the ingredients and their effects on the safety of these beverages. In this study, we used in vitro assays to examine the effects of two energy beverages on mesenchymal, epithelial and neuronal cells. Our results showed that treatment of epithelial and mesenchymal cells with either energy beverage resulted in a dose dependent delay in wound closure, in a scratch wound healing assay. In rat embryonic fibroblasts, treatment with the energy beverages led to decreased lamellipodia formation and decreased proliferation/viability; whereas in MDCK cells, energy beverage treatment resulted in actin disorganization without any effects on cell proliferation. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying delayed wound healing might be different in the two cell types. Interestingly, the delays in both cell types could not be mimicked by treatment of caffeine, taurine and glucose alone or in combinations. Furthermore, treatment of chick forebrain neuronal cultures with energy beverages resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The cellular assays used in this study provide a consistent, qualitative and quantitative system for examining the combinatorial effects of the various ingredients used in energy beverages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singhal, Astha; Joshi, Shilpi
Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. Colchera MA, Popkin BM, Rivera JA, Ng SW. Br Med J 2016;352:h6704. Bloomberg Philanthropies, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública and Carolina Population Center. Observational study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Foods and beverages rich in salt, sugar, calories, and saturated fats, but deficient in micronutrients, have flooded Indian food markets. Indian consumers are showing an increased preference for them. This project will help strengthen Indian policies for regulating advertising and marketing of food and beverage products in ...
Today plant foods and beverages are receiving more scientific attention because of their potential to curb the effect of free radicals in the human system. The present study reports on the antioxidant potentials of some plants foods and beverages consumed in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The study made use of the ferric ...
Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, Johannes J.
Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...
R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller
Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...
Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie
Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.
Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs About SHPPS: SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted ... canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods or beverages. • 4.0% of states and 6.6% of ...
Schwartz, R H; Farrow, J A; Banks, B; Giesel, A E
Altered motor vehicle drivers's licenses or other falsified or counterfeit photo identification cards are widely and illegally used by teenagers to obtain beer and other alcohol beverages. We obtained information on the methods currently used by teenagers to purchase beer and wine by asking nine hundred teenagers, between 16-19 years old to complete a brief, confidential questionnaire. High school students most often obtained alcoholic beverages by requesting someone of legal age to purchase it for them. College students used borrowed, altered, or counterfeit identification (ID) more often than high school students. Photo IDs purchased through mail order from a magazine advertisement were used infrequently and when use was attempted, they were sometimes (25%) unsuccessful. Fifteen percent of high school students, 14% of college freshmen, and 24% of teenage drug abusers were able to purchase beer by the case with borrowed, altered, or fake ID. Suggestions to reduce sales of alcohol-containing beverages to minors include universal "carding" of prospective purchasers, use of two view or hologram photos on a drivers' license, requiring three different ID cards at the point of purchase, and penalties to stores that fail to make a good effort to identify underage customers.
Nataša Fidler Mis
Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.
Huvaere, Kevin; Skibsted, Leif H
Flavonoids, which are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at the parts per million level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions. Additionally, they are safe and possibly contribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for the protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (1) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (2) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitisers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (3) quenching of singlet oxygen from type II photosensitisation; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in type I photosensitisation. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitisers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimised through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerisation of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light-to-heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.
Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.
Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO and the second a sodium group (Na. The CHO group ingested four different drinks with a stepped increase of 3% glucose from 0% to 9% while sodium concentration was 20 mmol/L. The Na group ingested four drinks with a stepped increase of 20 mmol/L from 0 mmol/L to 60 mmol/l while glucose concentration was 6%. All beverages contained 3 g of D2O. Subjects remained seated for two hours after ingestion of the experimental beverage, with blood taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 10 min in the second hour. Results Including 3% glucose in the beverage led to a significantly greater AUC 60 min (19640 ± 1252 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min than all trials. No carbohydrate (18381 ± 1198 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min had a greater AUC 60 min than a 6% (16088 ± 1359 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min and 9% beverage (13134 ± 1115 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min; the 6% beverage had a significantly greater AUC 60 min than the 9% beverage. There was no difference in fluid delivery between the different sodium beverages. Conclusion In conclusion the present study showed that when carbohydrate concentration in an ingested beverage was increased above 6% fluid delivery was compromised. However, increasing the amount of sodium (0–60 mmol/L in a 6% glucose beverage did not lead to increases in fluid delivery.
Reddy, Avanija; Norris, Don F; Momeni, Stephanie S; Waldo, Belinda; Ruby, John D
Dental erosion is the chemical dissolution of tooth structure in the absence of bacteria when the environment is acidic (pH beverage's erosive potential. In addition, citrate chelation of calcium ions may contribute to erosion at higher pH. The authors of this study determined the erosive potential measured by the pH of commercially available beverages in the United States. The authors purchased 379 beverages from stores in Birmingham, Alabama, and categorized them (for example, juices, sodas, flavored waters, teas, and energy drinks) and assessed their pH. They used a pH meter to measure the pH of each beverage in triplicate immediately after it was opened at a temperature of 25°C. The authors recorded the pH data as mean (standard deviation). Most (93%, 354 of 379) beverages had a pH of less than 4.0, and 7% (25 of 379) had a pH of 4.0 or more. Relative beverage erosivity zones based on studies of apatite solubility in acid indicated that 39% (149 of 379) of the beverages tested in this study were considered extremely erosive (pH beverages in the United States found that most are potentially erosive to the dentition. This study's findings provide dental clinicians and auxiliaries with information regarding the erosive potential of commercially available beverages. Specific dietary recommendations for the prevention of dental erosion may now be developed based on the patient's history of beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grafting is an important concept in the study of Pliny the Elder, who is a compiler of written sources. We intend to examine how this grafting works in Pliny's discussion of analgesic and narcotic plants, especially the most famous: opium poppy, henbane, mandrake, and hound's berry. We will study Pliny's use of Greek sources and ask how he took up his predecessors' works while integrating the changes that took place during the centuries in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. This cultural graft remains elusive because we do not have access to all of Pliny's Greek sources. When Pliny speaks about these plants, he sometimes copies out information, adding or removing details, and occasionally makes significant mistakes. The graft was particularly difficult in this case because these analgesic plants were considered so special and poisonous that they were sometimes rejected or even condemned. Nevertheless, we can say that this cultural graft succeeded, despite some obstacles, because Pliny assimilated and adapted these old Greek materials to his own time, society, and project.
Full Text Available Background: The activity level of Narcotics Anonymous group (NA is expanding in many countries, including Iran. Some research has confessed the benefits of 12-step NA approach compared with similar methods. In the present study, the role of regular participation of opioid addicts in the NA group was studied in terms of abstinence rate and compared with routine program of detoxification centers of the person Welfare Organization and Medical Sciences University. Materials and Methods: All addicts who attempted to quit in self-introducer clinical centers of Medical Sciences University and the Welfare Organization of Rafsanjan were suggested to participate and not to participate in NA, based on even and odd numbers, respectively. Among them, two equal 120-person (NA and control groups were selected, then evaluated every three months and followed up for 12 months. Their status was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and morphine tests.Results: The purity rate of NA group with 8.49 months was significantly different with normal addicts in 5.19 months (p=0.001. The recurrence rate at 12 months was significantly lower in the NA group compared with the control group, calculated through independent t-test (p=0.001. Quitting history and addiction duration in the NA group was significantly higher than control group.Conclusion: The findings of the research support a better prognosis for participants of NA group. Further researches are recommended to provide useful clinical information for patients and professionals.
Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shabrang, Moslem; Rezaei, Omid; Rezaei, Farzin
Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy. This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons). Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI). Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test. We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness. People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.
Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.
Breastfeeding, infant formula and cow's milk are basic foods in infant nutrition. However, they are being increasingly replaced either totally or partially by plant-based beverages.The composition of 164 plant-based beverages available in Spain was reviewed based on the nutritional labeling of the package and the manufacturers' webpages. This was compared to the composition of cow's milk and infant formula. In addition, the nutritional disease associated with consumption of plant-based beverages in infants and children was reviewed by means of a literature search in Medline and Embase since 1990 based on the key words "plant-based beverages" or "rice beverages" or "almond beverages" or "soy beverages" and "infant" or "child".The nutritional composition of 54 soy beverages, 24 rice beverages, 22 almond beverages, 31 oat beverages, 6 coconut beverages, 12 miscellaneous beverages and 15 mixed beverages was described. At least 30 cases of nutritional disease in children associated with nearly exclusive consumption of plant-based beverages have been published. A characteristic association has been observed between soy beverage and rickets, rice beverage and kwashiorkor, and almond-based beverage and metabolic alkalosis.The nutritional quality of plant-based beverages is lower than that of cow's milk and infant formula, therefore they are not a nutritional alternative. Predominant or exclusive use of these beverages in infant feeding can lead to serious nutritional risks. In the case of nonexclusive feeding with these beverages, the pediatrician should be aware of the nutritional risks and limitations of these beverages in order to complement their deficiencies with other foods.
Zhong, Yichen; Auchincloss, Amy H; Lee, Brian K; Kanter, Genevieve P
On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar ("regular") and sugar-substitute ("diet") beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents' consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6-31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15-February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities. Survey questions included frequency and volume of bottled water and beverages. Outcomes were daily consumption, and 30-day consumption frequency and volume. Propensity score-weighted difference-in-differences regression was used to control for secular time trend and confounding. Covariates were sociodemographics, BMI, health status, smoking, and alcohol use. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Within the first 2 months of tax implementation, relative to the comparison cities, in Philadelphia the odds of daily consumption of regular soda was 40% lower (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.37, 0.97); energy drink was 64% lower (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.17, 0.76); bottled water was 58% higher (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13, 2.20); and the 30-day regular soda consumption frequency was 38% lower (ratio of consumption frequency=0.62, 95% CI=0.40, 0.98). Early results suggest that the tax influenced daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water. Future studies are needed to evaluate longer-term impact of the tax on sugared beverage consumption and substitutions. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes
Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F
The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Özen, A E; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Pons, A; Tur, J A
Fluid intake, especially water, is essential for human life and also necessary for physical and mental function. The present study aimed to assess beverage consumption across age groups. A systematic review was conducted. Original research in English language publications and available studies (or abstracts in English) from 2000 to 2013 was searched for by using the medical subheading (MeSH) terms: ('beverage' OR 'fluid' [Major]) AND ('consumption' [Mesh] OR 'drinking' [Mesh] OR 'intake' [Mesh]) AND ('child' [Mesh] OR 'adolescent' [Mesh] OR 'adult' [Mesh]). Article selection was restricted to those papers covering healthy populations of all age groups in a nationwide sample, or from a representative sample of the population of a city or cities, which examined the trends or patterns of beverage intake and the determinants of beverage intake. Sixty-five studies were identified with respect to beverage consumption across age groups. The papers were screened by thoroughly reading titles or abstracts. Full-text articles were assessed by three investigators. Total beverage intake varied between 0.6 and 3.5 L day(-1) among all age groups (males more than females). Plain water contributed up to 58%, 75% and 80% of the total beverage intake in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Milk consumption was higher among children; consumption of soft drinks was higher among adolescents; and the consumption of tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages was higher among adults. Plain water is the main water source for all age groups and the consumption of other beverages varies according to age. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Juliana de Cássia Gomes Rocha
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and characterize beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein. Beverages formulated with 0.5 (F1, 2.0 (F2, 4.0 (F3 and 6.0% w/v (F4 whey protein were physicochemically and microbiologically characterized, and sensory evaluated. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein content significantly changed (P0.05 with increased protein content. The F2 formulation showed the highest sensory acceptance. Beverages offer a promising alternative to whey use and enhance the value of the product by the addition of lutein.
Duraković Katarina G.
Full Text Available Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.
Simanungkalit, B.; Irawati, Z.; Siagian, C.M.; Widasari, L.
Lack of macro and micro nutrient elements, that serve as primary factor in regulating a human immune response, might lead to malnutrition and declining the body immune. This phenomenon is commonly found in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV and known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (NAIDS). One of the efforts to improve the nutritional status in immunocompromised patients is delivering high-quality of foods that improve the immune status resulting in lower morbidity and mortality. Sterile, safe, high quality with complete nutritional composition and wholesome ”ready to eat” food products can be supplied. Sterilization process using ionizing radiation in food is one of the means to eliminate pathogenic bacteria as well as preserve among others, without affecting their nutritional content of the final product. Different types of radiation sterilization of ready to eat foods based on traditional recipes can be prepared without adhering the recommended dietary allowance, and patients will be more flexible and comfortable in choosing the serving menu. Such dishes based on high-quality protein and fat from fish, beef and chicken meat irradiated at a dose of 45 kGy in terms of ”pepes gold fish”, ”pepes anchovy”, ”beef semur”, ”beef rendang” and different processed chicken such as yellow seasoning, roasted and sweet, administered for 21 days to resident Therapy and Rehabilitation Unit of the National Narcotics Board (NNB). Activities undertaken in this study include the selection of respondents, consisted of the evaluation willingness to participate, inclusion criteria, and blood test performed in the laboratory of respondents before and after eating the foods. The results showed that various ready to eat foods in vacuum packed in a laminate pouch then irradiated at the dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition could improve the nutritional and immunity status of the selected residents considered as immuno compromised
Tompkins, D. Andrew; Bigelow, George E.; Harrison, Joseph A.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Fudala, Paul J.; Strain, Eric C.
Introduction The Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) is an 11-item clinician-administered scale assessing opioid withdrawal. Though commonly used in clinical practice, it has not been systematically validated. The present study validated the COWS in comparison to the validated Clinical Institute Narcotic Assessment (CINA) scale. Method Opioid-dependent volunteers were enrolled in a residential trial and stabilized on morphine 30 mg given subcutaneously four times daily. Subjects then underwent double-blind, randomized challenges of intramuscularly administered placebo and naloxone (0.4 mg) on separate days, during which the COWS, CINA, and visual analog scale (VAS) assessments were concurrently obtained. Subjects completing both challenges were included (N=46). Correlations between mean peak COWS and CINA scores as well as self-report VAS questions were calculated. Results Mean peak COWS and CINA scores of 7.6 and 24.4, respectively, occurred on average 30 minutes post-injection of naloxone. Mean COWS and CINA scores 30 minutes after placebo injection were 1.3 and 18.9, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for peak COWS and CINA scores during the naloxone challenge session was 0.85 (p<0.001). Peak COWS scores also correlated well with peak VAS self-report scores of bad drug effect (r=0.57, p<0.001) and feeling sick (r=0.57, p<0.001), providing additional evidence of concurrent validity. Placebo was not associated with any significant elevation of COWS, CINA, or VAS scores, indicating discriminant validity. Cronbach’s alpha for the COWS was 0.78, indicating good internal consistency (reliability). Discussion COWS, CINA, and certain VAS items are all valid measurement tools for acute opiate withdrawal. PMID:19647958
Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M
We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.
Zahid, Arwa; Davey, Cynthia
Beverage intake can influence child diet quality in a positive or negative manner depending on the beverage type and amounts consumed. Parenting practices such as role modeling and control of home beverage availability have been associated with child beverage intake, whereas examination of the influence of parental beverage nutrition knowledge has been more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sugar-sweetened and dairy beverage intake among children (9–12 years) and home and parental factors. A questionnaire was administered among a convenience sample of parents (n = 194) to assess beverage nutrition knowledge, beverage intake and home availability of beverages. Children completed a questionnaire to estimate usual beverage intake. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake by children ranged from 0.4 to 48 oz. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships. Parents were mostly female, white, well educated, and employed. Home availability of sugar-sweetened and dairy beverages was positively associated with child sugar-sweetened (OR = 1.48, p = 0.03) and dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.34, p = 0.03), respectively. Parent dairy beverage intake was associated with child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.06, p = 0.01). Parent knowledge about sugar in beverages was related to child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.46, p = 0.02), whereas calcium/dairy knowledge and general beverage nutrition knowledge were not related to child beverage intake. Parenting practices and knowledge may play a role in determining child beverage intake. PMID:28820455
Full Text Available In the aftermath of the “Coral Sea” and “Therese” cases, the article deals with the problem of criminalization of the master of the ship for the crime of illicit traffic based on command responsibility. The first part of the article gives the general framework of the crimes of illicit traffic and smuggling by sea, and an overview of the ship security regulations as provided by the ISPS code. In the second part of the article, the position of the master of the ship with respect to responsibility for illicit traffic is emphasised. It starts by explaining details from both “Coral Sea” and “Therese” cases, where masters were indicted and/or prosecuted based solely on their command responsibility. The author tries to elaborate the problem from a maritime law perspective by explaining the evolution and meaning of different aspects of the three functions of the master of the ship today: nautical, administrative and representation of the shipowner. In order to put the potential responsibility of seafarers for the content of cargo into perspective, the reality of containerized cargo shipping is being explained and documented stage-by-stage. Finally, the basic concepts of criminal law are being explained, where principles of “nullumcrimen, nulla poena sine lege” apply. According to that, there can be no analogy between criminal responsibility of the master of the ship for crimes of illicit traffic (where the principle of proven guilt applies with command responsibility for war crimes.
File, ed. Ghandi , National Security Archives, George Washington University, 6. 141 Ibid., 9. 142 Ibid., 6–8; Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil...February 20, 1995. Taliban File, Ghandi , edited by National Security Archives, George Washington University. Freemantle, Brian. The Fix: Inside the World
Algra, Paul R; Brogdon, Byron G; Marugg, Roque C
The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the role of radiology in a national initiative to intercept illegal narcotics concealed within the bodies of human transporters. Radiologic examination is increasingly important in identifying intracorporeal drug smuggling as improved wrapping techniques undermine the usefulness of blood and urine testing and clinical observation. Detection rates of high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity are achieved by experienced radiologists.
Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G; Majid Saffarinia; Sara Kalantari M
Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting st...
...) The sale or gift of an alcoholic beverage to a person under 21 years of age, except where allowed by... practice or otherwise allowed by Federal or State law. (c) Presence in a park area when under the influence...
...) The sale or gift of an alcoholic beverage to a person under 21 years of age, except where allowed by... by the Presidio Trust when under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance to a degree that...
Ponsioen, Tommie; Werf, Van Der H.M.G.
Several attempts have been made to harmonize guidelines for environmental footprints of food and beverages. For example, the food Sustainable Consumption and Production Roundtable, the Leap partnership, and the Environmental Footprint project, in particular within the Cattle Model Working Group.
Claudia Liana SALANTA
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze and compare the beverage alcohol choice among university students. The study was carried out on a total of 1069 students (men and women from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage consumption, perception and preference. The main reasons associated with alcohol consumption were relaxation and socialization followed by taste and flavour. The most respondents are attracted by flavor and aroma of the favourite beverage. The participants in the study were not heavy social drinkers (only 1.7 % of participants consume alcohol every day. Beer and wine, were the alcoholic beverages ranked in the top of preferences. Our findings can provide information for educators and policymakers in Romania to implement target-orientated interventions against alcohol abuse at universities. The results of this study may also add evidence to university administrators and public health educators elsewhere dealing with students from Romania.
positive role in the consumption probability of soda beverages. The study concluded that an ... contributions to household food and nutrition in general, and especially, for their role in ... marketing and product positioning. To achieve this, the.
Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su
Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The topic on milk and dairy products deals with the livestock resource of the country with respect to the microbiological ...
Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. ... Food marketing to children has in recent years come under scrutiny as one of the putative factors ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage from Cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta ) ... Nigerian Food Journal ... evaluation were conducted on the products to assess the highest preference.
ANZFA) permitted the maximum concentration of methanol in spirit beverages at 8 g/L of ..... German Federal Republic Patent. DE 43 (13)549. Frenkel C, Peters JS, Tieman DM, Tiznado ME, Handa AK (1998). Pectin Methylesterase ...
This digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with impaired driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 2006.
Siddiqui, A.; Sahir, K.H.
Microbiological assay of 780 water samples and 1220 beverage samples (412 branded and 808 unbranded), collected from 490 different schools, both government (98 schools) and private (392 schools), situated in different areas of the city of Karachi, was conducted for bacterial heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli, faecal streptococci, Pseudomonas and Salmonella species. The counts ranged from 0 to 2.5 X 105 cfu/mL and from 0 to 106 cfu/mL in water and beverage samples, respectively. About 36% of water samples and 48% of unbranded beverage samples were contaminated with the indicator and the pathogenic bacteria; all the branded beverage samples were found fit for human consumption from microbiological viewpoint. (author)
Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Gortmaker, Steven L; Kenney, Erica L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin Westfall; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L
Competitive beverages are drinks sold outside of the federally reimbursable school meals program and include beverages sold in vending machines, a la carte lines, school stores, and snack bars. Competitive beverages include sugar-sweetened beverages, which are associated with overweight and obesity. We described competitive beverage availability 9 years after the introduction in 2004 of district-wide nutrition standards for competitive beverages sold in Boston Public Schools. In 2013, we documented types of competitive beverages sold in 115 schools. We collected nutrient data to determine compliance with the standards. We evaluated the extent to which schools met the competitive-beverage standards and calculated the percentage of students who had access to beverages that met or did not meet the standards. Of 115 schools, 89.6% met the competitive beverage nutrition standards; 88.5% of elementary schools and 61.5% of middle schools did not sell competitive beverages. Nutrition standards were met in 79.2% of high schools; 37.5% did not sell any competitive beverages, and 41.7% sold only beverages meeting the standards. Overall, 85.5% of students attended schools meeting the standards. Only 4.0% of students had access to sugar-sweetened beverages. A comprehensive, district-wide competitive beverage policy with implementation support can translate into a sustained healthful environment in public schools.
Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C
: Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape...
Mejia, Danilo; Marshall, Elaine
"This booklet is intended to heighten awareness about the potential of fermented foods and beverages as a viable enterprise that can contribute to small-scale farmers' income, building on, and in full respect of, important social and cultural factors. It also looks at how fermented food and beverages contribute to food security through preservation and improved nutritional quality. It highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with small-scale fermentation activities, as well as m...
Igelige Gerald; David Ebuka Arthur; Adebiyi Adedayo
Caffeine is a well-known stimulant which is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Caffeine has drawn more attention due to its physiological effects beyond that of its stimulatory effect. Consumers are interested in knowing the exact amounts of caffeine existing in beverages. However, limited data exist, especially for store brand beverages. Therefore, it is pertinent to review the various methods that will effectively determine the caffeine contents in different carbonate...
Pomeranz, Jennifer L
Excise taxes on sugary beverages have been proposed as a method to replicate the public health success of tobacco control and to generate revenue. As policymakers increase efforts to pass sugary beverage taxes, they can anticipate that manufacturers will emulate the strategies employed by tobacco companies in their attempts to counteract the impact of such taxes. Policymakers should therefore consider 2 complementary laws-minimum price laws and prohibitions on coupons and discounting-to accomplish the intended price increase.
Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....
The aim of this research was to investigate whether the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy implemented by Coca-Cola Beverages Croatia during the past four years has had a positive impact on the reputation of this company and on the overall business. The researcher intended to explore attitudes of Coca-Cola Beverages employees about CSR and the mentioned community relations model in order to evaluate whether the CSR policy of the company has had an impact on internal stakehol...
Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten
The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....
Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Elizee, Juleen; Dighe, Shatabdi; Elbel, Brian D
Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity. We quantified the number and type of food or beverage brands promoted by music celebrities, assessed the nutritional quality of the products, and examined Teen Choice Award data to assess the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. This was a descriptive study. A list of music celebrities associated with the 2013 and 2014 Billboard Hot 100 Chart, which ranks songs according to sales and radio impressions, was compiled. Data on celebrity endorsements were gathered from official company Web sites, YouTube commercials, an advertising database, and media reports. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed according to the Nutrient Profile Index, whereas nonalcoholic beverages were evaluated based on calories from added sugar. Teen Choice Award nominations were used to measure the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. Of the 590 endorsements made by the 163 celebrities in the sample, consumer goods (eg, fragrances, makeup) represented the largest endorsement category (26%), followed by food and beverage (18%) and retail (11%). Sixty-five celebrities were collectively associated with 57 different food and beverage brands owned by 38 parent companies. Of these 65 celebrities, 53 (81.5%) had ≥1 Teen Choice Award nomination. Forty-nine (71%) of the 69 nonalcoholic beverage references promoted sugar-sweetened beverages. Twenty-one (80.8%) of the 26 endorsed foods were energy dense and nutrient poor. Baauer, will.i.am, Justin Timberlake, Maroon 5, and Britney Spears had the most food and beverage endorsements. This study demonstrates that music celebrities who are popular among adolescents endorse energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Graeme M Walker
Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.
Seow, W K; Thong, K M
Dental erosion is highly prevalent today, and acidic drinks are thought to be an important cause. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the erosive potential of a range of common beverages on extracted human teeth. The beverages were tested for their individual pHs using a pH meter. The clinical effects of the most erosive beverages were determined by the degree of etching and Vickers microhardness of enamel. The results showed that many common beverages have pHs sufficiently low to cause enamel erosion. Lime juice concentrate (pH 2.1) had the lowest pH, followed by Coca-cola and Pepsi (both with pH 2.3) and Lucozade (pH 2.5). The erosive potential of these beverages was demonstrated by the deep etching of the enamel after five minutes. The Vickers Hardness of enamel was reduced by about 50 per cent in the case of lime juice (p case of Coca-cola (p Coca-cola completely reversed the erosive effects on the enamel. Although only a few of the beverages with the lowest pHs were tested, the present study showed that the most acidic drinks had the greatest erosive effects on enamel. While saliva was protective against erosion, relatively large volumes were required to neutralize the acidity.
Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G
Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
.... There are very few transportation links through the area that gives Tajikistan limited access to neighboring countries, Security problems resulting from the increasing flow of narcotics illegally...
Schwartz, Marlene B; Schneider, Glenn E; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J
Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95% CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95% CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95% CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly
Sinha, Amar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Roy, Tushar; Agrawal, Ashish; Sarkar, P.S.; Shukla, Mayank
The problem of illicit trafficking of explosives, narcotics or fissile materials represents a real challenge to civil security. Neutron based detection systems are being actively explored worldwide as a confirmatory tool for applications in the detection of explosives either hidden inside a vehicle or a cargo container or buried inside soil. The development of a system and its experimental testing is a tedious process and to develop such a system each experimental condition needs to be theoretically simulated. Monte Carlo based methods are used to find an optimized design for such detection system. In order to design such systems, it is necessary to optimize source and detector system for each specific application. The present paper deals with such optimization studies using Monte Carlo technique for tagged neutron based system for explosives and narcotics detection hidden in a cargo and landmine detection using backscatter neutrons. We will also discuss some simulation studies on detection of fissile material and photo-neutron source design for applications on cargo scanning. (author)
Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende
Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.
Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E
States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cryotherapy has been used to enhance recovery after orthopaedic surgery. Several cooling devices are available but few can guarantee a fixed temperature during a prolonged time and therefore have been criticized. The arrival of new advanced cryotherapy devices made it possible to test the effect of prolonged cooling on rehabilitation after joint replacement. The hypotheses of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) were that advanced cryotherapy devices compared with cold packs result in (1) better postoperative pain control resulting in a lower consumption of narcotics; (2) better early ROM; and (3) less postoperative bleeding and swelling. A priori sample size calculation had determined that to detect a difference of 2 points on the VAS, a sample size of 50 subjects per group at followup would be required, given a study power of 80%. One hundred sixteen patients were included and randomly allocated to receive advanced cryotherapy (n=58) or use of cold packs (n=58). The primary outcomes for the study were to evaluate pain with the VAS and analgesics consumption. Secondary outcomes were postoperative ROM, swelling, and blood loss. One hundred (50 in each group) patients had complete data available for analysis. No statistically significant differences in VAS, need for analgesics, nor in secondary outcomes were observed, except for substantially reduced flexion at 6 weeks in the advanced cryotherapy group (114° versus 120°). Advanced cryotherapy with a continuous temperature for a prolonged period does not deliver expected results of superior early recovery after knee arthroplasty. Greater sample sizes are required to fully determine significant differences between the two techniques for these study parameters. Immobilization of the knee in extension during the prolonged cryotherapy session resulted in lower active flexion at 6 weeks after surgery for the advanced cryotherapy group. Advanced cryotherapy should not be used in fast track knee arthroplasty if the
Docimo, Salvatore; Mathew, Abraham; Shope, Alexander J; Winder, Joshua S; Haluck, Randy S; Pauli, Eric M
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a less invasive therapy for achalasia with a shorter hospitalization but with similar short- and long-term outcomes as a laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM). Previous literature comparing POEM to LHM has focused primarily on postoperative outcome parameters such as complications, dysphagia scores and gastro-esophageal reflux severity. This study specifically compares postoperative pain following POEM to pain following LHM, the current gold-standard operation. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing POEM or LHM for achalasia was performed from 2006 to 2015. Data collection included demographics, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS) and pain scores (arrival to the recovery room, 1 h postoperative, average first 24 h and upon discharge). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test and Chi-square test. Forty-four POEM patients and 122 LHM patients were identified. The average age (52.2 ± 20.75 vs 50.9 ± 17.89 years, p = 0.306) and BMI (28.1 ± 7.62 vs 27.6 ± 7.07 kg/m 2 , p = 0.824) did not differ between the POEM and LHM groups, respectively; however, the American Society of Anesthesiology scores were higher in the POEM patients (2.43 ± 0.62 vs 2.11 ± 0.71, p = 0.011). There were no differences in rates of smoking, diabetes, cardiac disease or pulmonary disease. The average pain scores upon arrival to the recovery room and 1 h postoperatively were lower in the POEM group (2.3 ± 3.014 vs 3.61 ± 3 0.418, p = 0.025 and 2.2 ± 2.579 vs 3.46 ± 3.063, p = 0.034, respectively). There was no difference in the average pain score over the first 24 h (2.7 ± 2.067 vs 3.29 ± 1.980, p = 0.472) or at the time of discharge (1.6 ± 2.420 vs 2.09 ± 2.157, p = 0.0657) between the POEM and LHM groups. After standardizing opioid administration against 10 mg of oral morphine, the POEM group used significantly less narcotics that the LHM group (35.8 vs 101.8 mg, p < 0
Ana Patricia Silva
Full Text Available One of the challenges of studying food consumption behavior is to identify the drivers of choice for a food product. This is particularly important to design and develop new foods for which no previous information is available. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Bissap is an herbaceous plant and an important source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, which confer a number of potential health benefits to derived products. The consumption of Bissap in beverage form is widespread in Africa and Asia, but not yet in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main drivers of consumer acceptance of a traditional African beverage made from Bissap to which they had not been previously exposed. First, three focus groups (n = 22 were performed in Portugal to characterize the sensory profile of four Bissap beverages, to reveal perceptions and attitudes towards Bissap beverages, and to identify potential choice attributes. Subsequently, a full-profile conjoint analysis (n = 99 was performed, where consumers evaluated 37 Bissap beverage profiles, aiming to estimate choice attribute importance and to identify relevant market segments. Focus group findings showed that consumers would choose Bissap because they perceived as a healthy choice, and due to its novelty. The conjoint study showed an ideal profile for a Bissap beverage costing €0.99/L, <18 kcal/100 mL, packaged in Tetra-pack, light red color, and containing labeling information about antioxidants and Bissap. Four clusters of consumers were identified: price sensitive, body concerned, packaging attracted, and demanding, highlighting the most influential choice attributes: price, calories, and packaging. Findings provide useful guidance for new product development of an African product in the European lifestyle. Results might be useful from a nutraceutical point of view and to the food/beverages industry.
Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.
Derrick, Sara M.; Hock, Ellen
This study compared infants born to narcotic addicted mothers with infants born to nonaddicted mothers and described the potential of an intervention program. Infants of five addicted women were matched with infants of five nonaddicted women on the basis of age and socioeconomic class of the mothers and on the basis of gestational ages, birth…
Two recent court decisions in South America have reflected a growing backlash in the region against the so-called, U.S.-led "war on drugs". In Argentina, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled unanimously on 25 August 2009 that the second paragraph of Article 14 of the country's drug control legislation, which punishes the possession of drugs for personal consumption, was unconstitutional. In Colombia, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled on 8 July 2009 that the possession of illegal drugs for personal use was not a criminal offence.
Movafagh, Abolfazl; Haeri, Ali; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Hassani-Moghadam, Hossein
Illicit drug abuse has crossed social, economic, and geographical borders, and remains one of the major health problems that modern society is facing worldwide. The role of multiple drug abuse as a basic for chromosome damage has been overlooked and it is important to determine its possible adverse health effects. This study aimed to compare the frequency of chromosomal damages between drug addicts and free drug controls. Cytogenetic study was obtained from 146 illicit drug-users and 200 free drug controls. Subjects were grouped into three categories depending on main drug of dependence. Cytogenetic studies on cultured lymphocytes showed an increase the frequency of chromosomal damages among addicts including opiate (5.89%), heroin (7.65%), and crystal (4.9%) when compared with drug free controls (1.45%). The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was breaks, gaps, marker, and acentric, respectively. Our findings are also important as they are among the first to suggest here, illicit drug addiction continue to be significant public health problems in Iran.
Kelly, Caitlin K.
Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R
There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Narcotics is a highly addictive drug that acts as a stimulant or depresant for the central nervous system. The prevalence of various diseases found to be higher in the group of drug users then those who not use drugs such as endocarditis, hepatitis and HIV. Further evidence that the drug effects the oral health which includes the effect of the hard tissues by increased incidence of caries and periodontitis and the effect of the soft tissues in the form of leukoplakia and oral mucosal fibrosis, reduced production, especially the parotid salivary glands in amphetamine and cannabis users. In addition to the drug is a predisposing of oral infections such as candidiasis and gingivitis. Reduced volume of saliva on abusers may result in reduced immune function of saliva in maintaining oral health. Consequently the drug abusers increased number of bacteria and fungi in the oral cavity, including anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans, especially in cases of abuse of cannabis. Gingival plaque formation and the growing colonies of anaerobic bacteria may increase the occurrence of gingivitis in the drug abusers. Lack of awareness of drug abusers in oral hygiene causing the gingivitis develops into periodontitis followed by alveolar bone loss.
... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA property...
Fernanda Dias Figueiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum, with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the testes and epididymis. The alcoholic beverages promoted significant testosterone level and fertilization index diminution, and morphological alterations in the spermatozoa. The beer group presented decreased implantation sites and a high frequency of dominant lethal. The number of reabsorptions in the wine group was increased. The fermented beverages presented higher potential to induce visceral malformations, while the cachaça caused fetal skeletal malformations. The cachaça treated group presented a negative impact on semen quality and fertilization potential. The treatment with different alcoholic beverages, during spermatogenesis, demonstrated contrasting degrees of induction of toxic effects, interfering in a general aspect in male reproductive performance, fetal viability during intrauterine life, and birth defects. From the data, it is possible to infer that the distillated beverage caused more harmful effects to reproduction in this study.
Y. E. Razvodovsky
Full Text Available Objective. Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Method. Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970–2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat. Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates. Results. Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia.
Bragg, Marie A; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Elbel, Brian
Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children. We reviewed the literature about sports-related food marketing, including food and beverage companies' use of sports sponsorships, athlete endorsements, and sports video games. This review demonstrates that sports sponsorships with food and beverage companies often promote energy-dense, nutrient-poor products and while many of these promotions do not explicitly target youth, sports-related marketing affects food perceptions and preferences among youth. Furthermore, endorsement of unhealthy products by professional athletes sends mixed messages; although athletes may promote physical activity, they simultaneously encourage consumption of unhealthy products that can lead to negative health outcomes. We argue that more athletes and sports organizations should stop promoting unhealthy foods and beverages and work with health experts to encourage healthy eating habits among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Camelo-Méndez, G A; Vanegas-Espinoza, P E; Escudero-Gilete, M L; Heredia, F J; Paredes-López, O; Del Villar-Martínez, A A
In food industry, roselle beverages and their subproducts could be functional ingredients since they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with improved performance due to their important anthocyanins content. The aim of this study was to analyze anthocyanin content and antioxidant properties of aqueous infusions elaborated with color contrasting Hibiscus materials and design a mathematical model in order to predict color-composition relationship. Color measurements of beverages from roselle (Negra, Sudan and Rosa) were made by transmission spectrophotometry, anthocyanins quantification was determined by HPLC, and antioxidant potential was evaluated by in vitro methods (ABTS and FRAP assays). Beverages prepared with particle size minor of 250 μm presented until 4- and 2- times more anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity respectively, in comparison to beverages prepared with powders with particle size major of 750 μm. Positive correlations among pigments composition and color parameters were found (p Hibiscus beverages with high anthocyanin content. The obtained models could be an important tool to be used in food industry for pigment characterization or functional compounds with potential health benefits.
Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison
Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milanović Spasenija D.
Full Text Available This paper investigates manufacturing of fermented beverages from two types of milk (1 % w/w and 2.2 % w/w fat by applying of Kombucha, which contains several yeasts and bacterial strains. The starter was the inoculum produced from previous Kombucha fermentation. The applied starter concentrations were: 10 % v/v, 15 % v/v and 20 % v/v. Also, the traditional yoghurt starter was used to produce the control samples. All fermentations were performed at 42oC and the changes in the pH were monitored. The fermentation process was about three times faster in the control yoghurt than in the Kombucha samples. Influence of Kombucha inoculum concentration on the rate of fermentation appeared not to be significant. All fermentations were stopped when the pH reached 4.4. After the production, the quality of the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha was determined and compared with the quality of the control yoghurt samples. It was concluded that the difference in fat contents in milks affects the difference in quantities of other components in the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha. Sensory characteristics of the beverages manufactured from the partially skimmed milk are much better than those of the fermented beverages produced from the low fat milk.
Narain, Ankur S; Hijji, Fady Y; Haws, Brittany E; Kudaravalli, Krishna T; Yom, Kelly H; Markowitz, Jonathan; Singh, Kern
OBJECTIVE Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, more patients with a high body mass index (BMI) will require surgical treatment for degenerative spinal disease. In previous investigations of lumbar spine pathology, obesity has been associated with worsened postoperative outcomes and increased costs. However, few studies have examined the association between BMI and postoperative outcomes following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes, postoperative narcotics consumption, complications, and hospital costs among BMI stratifications for patients who have undergone primary 1- to 2-level ACDF procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained surgical database of patients who had undergone primary 1- to 2-level ACDF for degenerative spinal pathology between 2008 and 2015. Patients were stratified by BMI as follows: normal weight (costs. Regression analyses were controlled for preoperative demographic and procedural characteristics. RESULTS Two hundred seventy-seven patients were included in the analysis, of whom 20.9% (n = 58) were normal weight, 37.5% (n = 104) were overweight, 24.9% (n = 69) were obese I, and 16.6% (n = 46) were obese II-III. A higher BMI was associated with an older age (p = 0.049) and increased comorbidity burden (p = 0.001). No differences in sex, smoking status, insurance type, diagnosis, presence of neuropathy, or preoperative VAS pain scores were found among the BMI cohorts (p > 0.05). No significant differences were found among these cohorts as regards operative time, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and number of operative levels (p > 0.05). Additionally, no significant differences in postoperative narcotics consumption, VAS score improvement, complication rates, arthrodesis rates, reoperation rates, or total direct costs existed across BMI stratifications (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a
Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D
Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chin, T W; Loeb, M; Fong, I W
Absorption of ketoconazole is impaired in patients with achlorhydria. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a palatable acidic beverage (Coca-Cola Classic, pH 2.5) in improving the absorption of ketoconazole in the presence of drug-induced achlorhydria. A prospective, randomized, three-way crossover design with a 1-week wash-out period between each treatment was employed. Nine healthy nonsmoking, nonobese volunteers between 22 and 41 years old were studied. Each subject was randomized to receive three treatments: (A) ketoconazole 200-mg tablet with water (control), (B) omeprazole (60 mg) followed by ketoconazole (200 mg) taken with water, and (C) omeprazole (60 mg) followed by ketoconazole (200 mg) taken with 240 ml of Coca-Cola Classic. The pH values of gastric aspirates were checked after omeprazole was administered to confirm attainment of a pH of > 6. Multiple serum samples were obtained for measurements of ketoconazole concentrations by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean area under the ketoconazole concentration-time curve from zero to infinity for the control treatment (17.9 +/- 13.1 mg.h/liter) was significantly greater than that for treatment B (3.5 +/- 5.1 mg.h/liter; 16.6% +/- 15.0% of control). The mean peak concentration was highest for the control treatment (4.1 +/- 1.9 micrograms/ml), for which the mean peak concentration showed a significant increase over that for treatment B. The absorption of ketoconazole was reduced in the presence of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria. However, drug absorption was significantly increased, to approximately 65% of the mean for the control treatment, when the drug was taken with an acidic beverage, such as Coca-Cola.
Meden F. Isaac-Lam
Full Text Available Alcohol or ethanol is considered the most widely used recreational drug worldwide, and its production, consumption, and sale are strictly regulated by laws. Alcohol content of alcoholic beverages (wine, beers, and spirits is about 3–50% v/v. Analytical methods to determine the alcohol content must be reliable, precise, and accurate. In this study, the amount of ethanol in several alcoholic beverages was determined using a 45 MHz low-field benchtop NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Internal standard and standard addition analytical methods were utilized to quantify ethanol. For both methods, acetic acid or acetonitrile was used as internal standard to quantify alcohol content by using the peak area corresponding to the methyl peaks of ethanol, acetic acid, or acetonitrile. Results showed that internal standard method gave values of percent alcohol that are in close agreement with the indicated label as confirmed by running the samples in a 400 MHz high-field NMR spectrometer using acetic acid as internal standard. This study demonstrates the utility of a benchtop NMR spectrometer that can provide an alternative technique to analyze percent alcohol in alcoholic products.
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Cacciari, E.; Zanoni, G.
This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD
Cacciari, E; Zanoni, G [Passavant Impianti, Novate Milanese (Italy)
This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD.
Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane
Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.
Schneider, Glenn E.; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J.
Importance Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. Objective To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. Design, Setting, and Partipicants This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor’s product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. Exposures The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Main Outcomes and Measures Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Results Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (−19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, −369 fl oz; 95% CI, −469 to −269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (−15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (−0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, −342 fl oz
Ghanbari, Reza; Sumner, Susan
Drug addiction has been associated with an increased risk for cancer, psychological complications, heart, liver, and lung disease, as well as infection. While genes have been identified that can mark individuals at risk for substance abuse, the initiation step of addiction is attributed to persistent metabolic disruptions occurring following the first instance of narcotic drug use. Advances in analytical technologies can enable the detection of thousands of signals in body fluids and excreta that can be used to define biochemical profiles of addiction. Today, these approaches hold promise for determining how exposure to drugs, in the absence or presence of other environmentally relevant factors, can impact human metabolism. We posit that these can lead to candidate biomarkers of drug dependence, treatment, withdrawal, or relapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis
Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.
Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.
Clifton Peter M
Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross
As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...
De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc
Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colangelo, C.H.; Huguet, M.R.; Palacios, M.A.; Oliveira, A.A.
The objective of the present work is the estimation of the Polonium-210 content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, an autochton plant of South America, tea leaves, their infusion and ground coffee were analyzed as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to annual consumption of the beverages described, resulted in values from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for Polonium-210 in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq kg -1 . Doses due to the use of tobacco were not assessed since an appropriate metabolic model was not found. (author)
Jensen, M.K.; Andersen, A.T.; Sørensen, T.I.A.
Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages.......Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages....
Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of
Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Background Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. Objective This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Design Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed using a detailed coding instrument. Key measures Beverage incidents (i.e. beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks and coffee. Characters were coded with regards to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general or adult audience. Statistical analyses Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Results Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0–25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSB. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across age groups. Almost half of young adults’ (49.2%) or adults’ (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Conclusions Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSB) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of food or beverages by vendor. 100.78...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.78 Sale of food or beverages by vendor. The sale of any food or beverage by... contribution, provided that the charge is at least equal to the cost of such food or beverage to the vendor, to...
for pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Although interactions with diazepam may be predictable in specific circumstances, when diazepam is used with: analgesics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics/sedatives, barbiturates, hypnotics, MAO inhibitors, narcotics, sedative anihistamines, phenothiazines and other antidepressants, careful consideration is needed.
Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.
A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299
Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.
The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were
Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.
The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were
Vermeulen, M.A.R.; Richir, M.C.; Garretsen, M.K.; van Schie, A.; Ghatei, M.A.; Holst, J.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Diamant, M.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Ligthart-Melis, G.C.
Objective: To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant
Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Richir, Milan C.; Garretsen, Martijn K.; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A.; Holst, Jens J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Uitdehaag, Bernard M. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E. Marelise W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.
To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and
Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David
Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of food and beverages by vendor. 100.138...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.138 Sale of food and beverages by vendor. The sale of any food or beverage..., is not an expenditure, provided that the charge is at least equal to the cost of such food or...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees... Service Establishments Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food and Beverage Service § 779.388 Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees. (a) A special exemption is provided in section 13...
... CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.8 Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings. Consumption of food and beverages in Library buildings is prohibited except at point of purchase or other authorized eating places. Under no circumstances may food or beverages be carried to the bookstacks or other...
THE PREVENTION, ERADICATION, MISUSE, AND ILLICIT NAR-COTICS CIRCULATION SOCIALIZATION PROGRAM FOR STU-DENTS IN BANDUNG CITY (SOSIALISASI PROGRAM PENCEGAHAN, PEMBERANTAS, PENYALAHGUNAAN, DAN PEREDARAN GELAP NARKOTIKA BAGI PELAJAR DI KOTA BANDUNG
arkita Vierza Bella
Full Text Available Abstract. The Prevention, Eradication, Misuse, and Illicit Narcotics Circulation Socializa-tion Program was a program held by the Indonesia’s National Narcotics Agency (BNN of West Java Province to grow a sense against narcotics and to create a narcotics-free environment. Alt-hough this program has been implemented, the use of narcotics continues to increase every year, especially among students. This research aimed to discover the correlations between the Preven-tion, Eradication, Misuse, and Illicit Narcotics Circulation socialization program from Indone-sia’s National Narcotics Agency (BNN of West Java Province in terms of the socialization mes-sage, the credibility of the instructor, and the socialization method with the students’ attitude in Bandung against the danger of narcotics. This research used the correlational method through Rank Spearman (rs hypothesis test with the descriptive and inferential analysis technique. The result of this research showed that there is a strong relation between the Prevention, Eradication, Misuse, and Illicit Narcotics Circulation (P4GN socialization program from Indonesia’s National Narcotics Agency (BNN of West Java Province and the students’ attitude in Bandung against the danger of narcotics. Abstrak. Sosialisasi Program Pencegahan, Pemberantasan, Penyalahgunaan, dan Peredaran Gelap Narkotika (P4GN merupakan sosialisasi yang dilakukan oleh Badan Nasional Narkotika Provinsi Jawa Barat guna menumbuhkan sikap menolak narkoba dan menciptakan ling-kungan bebas narkoba, walaupun sosialisasi ini telah dilakukan tetapi penggunaan narkotika terus saja meningkat setiap tahunnya khususnya di kalangan pelajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sosialisasi program Pencegahan, Pemberantasan, Penyalahgunaan, dan Peredaran Gelap Narkotika (P4GN Badan Nasional Narkotika Provinsi Jawa Barat dilihat dari segi pesan penyuluhan, kredibilitas penyuluh, dan metode penyuluhan dengan sikap
Malhotra, S; Dixit, R K; Garg, S K
The effect of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of carbamazepine was studied. In a two-way cross-over design with a 1 week washout period, 10 healthy volunteers were randomized to received 200 mg carbamazepine orally with 300 ml of Coca-Cola or water. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after drug administration. Plasma carbamazepine levels were higher with Coca-Cola as compared to water. The AUC0-infinity and Cmax of carbamazepine were significantly enhanced after Coca-Cola while tmax was achieved earlier with Coca-Cola. The results of the study indicate that concomitant administration of Coca-Cola enhances the rate and extent of absorption of carbamazepine.
Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro
Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.
Furlanello, Francesco; Bentivegna, Stefano; Cappato, Riccardo; De Ambroggi, Luigi
Cardiac arrhythmias are among the most important causes of non-eligibility to sports activities, and may be due to different causes (cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, coronary abnormalities, valvular diseases, primary electrical disorders, abuse of illicit drugs). The list of illicit drugs banned by the International Olympic Committee and yearly updated by the World Anti-Doping Agency includes the following classes: stimulants, narcotics, anabolic agents (androgenic steroids and others such as beta-2 stimulants), peptide hormones, mimetics and analogues, diuretics, agents with an antiestrogenic activity, masking agents. Almost all illicit drugs may cause, through a direct or indirect arrhythmogenic effect, in the short, medium or long term, a wide range of cardiac arrhythmias (focal or reentry type, supraventricular and/or ventricular), lethal or not, even in healthy subjects with no previous history of cardiac diseases. Therefore, given the widespread abuse of illicit drugs among athletes, in the management of arrhythmic athletes the cardiologist should always take into consideration the possibility that the arrhythmias be due to the assumption of illicit drugs (sometimes more than one type), especially if no signs of cardiac diseases are present. On the other hand, in the presence of latent underlying arrhythmogenic heart disease including some inherited cardiomyopathies at risk of sudden cardiac death, illicit drugs could induce severe cardiac arrhythmic effects.
Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge
Employment in eating and beverage establishments has grown tremendously in Louisiana. In 1940, United States Census figures showed that 18,400 were employed in the industry, and by 1969, the number had increased to 31,000. The situation in Louisiana may not be typical of other states because of a sharp increase in catering services to offshore oil…
Full Text Available There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4–5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization.
Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.
Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 ev...
Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H
The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).
DiNunzio, James E.
Describes the equipment, procedures, and results for the determination of caffeine in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography. The method is simple, fast, accurate, and, because sample preparation is minimal, it is well suited for use in a teaching laboratory. (JN)
Full Text Available The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beverages was light brown and dark brown. An ester smell was occasionally detected. The fermented plant beverages had sour flavor that developed during fermentation and a little sweetness from residual sugar. The taste was related to the amounts of organic acid and sugar as measured in the ranges of 0.98-7.13% (pH 2.63-3.72 and 0.21-4.20%, respectively. The levels of alcohols measured as ethanol were between 0.03-3.32% and methanol in a range of 0.019 0.084%. Methanol production was dependent on both the fermentation process and the plant used. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were not detected in any sample, whereas other microbes were detected in some samples as were total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold in amounts that differed depending on the fermentation time and also the level of sanitation of the production process.
Van Duzer, Carol; And Others
The Workplace Literacy Curriculum for Food and Beverage was developed for English-as-a-Second-Language classes for workers in participating hotels in Arlington County, Virginia, through a national workplace literacy grant with the cooperation of the Arlington County Chamber of Commerce. It is based on an analysis of tasks and interactions at the…
Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from...
The effects of three different types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and gin) on the absorption of chloroquine in the stomach and intestine of rats were determined. The in situ loop method and in situ re-circulation technique were used to determine the absorption of chloroquine [CQ] in the stomach and intestine ...
Smit, Conrad F.; Mathus-Vliegen, Lisbeth M. H.; Devriese, Pieter P.; van Leeuwen, Justin A. M. J.; Semin, Astrid
Ambulatory 24-hour double-probe pH monitoring seems to be the best test to measure reflux. Artifacts caused by intake of acid foods and beverages have to be excluded, necessitating a time-consuming manual review of the 24-hour data. Dietary restrictions used to bypass these artifacts would interfere
KAMILLA SOARES MENDONÇA
Full Text Available The Technical Regulation on Identity and Quality of Whey-based Drinks establish few parameters to dairy beverages, which may impair standardized product providing to the consumer. The ingathering of the physicochemical characteristics provides information that allow the standardization of the product and provide safety to the consumer, whereas the rheological characterization in important for the processing. Samples of five commercial brands of strawberry flavored dairy beverages, with ten to fourteen days of manufacture, from three different batches were analyzed in triplicate in order to study the percentage of protein, fat, pH, titratable acidity, total dry extract, fixed mineral residue and lactose. It was performed a colorimetric determination and verification of the presence of starch .The rheological tests were carried out in a rotational rheometer and the data was adjusted by Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The statistical analysis was executed by an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test with 5% significance. The analysis showed that the percentages of lipids of three brands were below the required by legislation. Furthermore, the presence of starch in the composition was detected for all analyzed beverages. Both for the physicochemical and rheological parameters the brands of dairy beverage examined differed between themselves in several parameters. These results indicated the need to establish well-defined identity and quality standards aiming at product quality control and consumer safety improvement.
Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.
This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…
Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina
Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.
Raganati, Francesca; Procentese, Alessandra; Montagnaro, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio
The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to identify an alternative disposal process for the industry of high-sugar-content beverages (HSCBs) and (2) to contribute to the study of butanol production from non-edible feedstocks. HSCBs were used as a renewable feedstock to produce butanol by
Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the effects of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) alone or in combination with refrigeration at 6C were evaluated for six (6) weeks duration. Results shows that the total viable bacterial count increased from 0.9 ± 0.01 log10 cfu/ml to ...
P. C. PANCHARIYA
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..
It was found that Burn®, XL energy drink® and Red Bull® had the highest amount of caffeine. It was however noted that though most of the non-alcoholic beverages had high caffeine content they had no label claim. Key Words: Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC), Ultra violet visible (UV/VIS), ...
Full Text Available Sports beverages assumed as one the principle factor on players' performance, and impact on their indicators, noticeably. Gatorade beverage is one of this primary beverages that in present study focused on its impact on elite female badminton players' performance in Iran. In the present survey has been considered in 2 groups of Gatorade and control that included 79 participants. The data has been got based on 24 hours’ recall questionnaire on three different days in every week. As well, skin folds’ brachial triceps index was applied for body fat percent assessment. To quantity VO2max, Shuttle runs sub-maximal test was used. Also, for controlling fluid intake in every two groups based on players’ body weight,150 ml per every 70 kg weight for every 15 minutes was recommended. Besides, for control of blood volume changes related to plasma blood glucose, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, and potassium was measured during three time periods of zero, 30 minutes after the start and 90 minutes after the start. To end, to measure performance, standardized tests measure the indicators: aerobic power, speed, flexibilityy, agility, muscular strength, and endurance were used. The results showed that supply adequate water and fluids in during of sport, play a critical role in gaining the high level of female badminton players’ performance. In truth, the players who supply enough water shown better performance as compared with those who provide Gatorade beverage.
Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.
Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten
This article explores how large international companies in the breakfast cereal, snack, and beverage industries address the issue of obesity, and how their strategies are governed by various forms of self-regulation. In a first step, we study websites of ten companies and identify five different...
Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge,
Kelly, B; King, L; Baur, L; Rayner, M; Lobstein, T; Monteiro, C; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C
Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Costa, Ana I. A.
- Introduction - Consumer-led new product development: the concept and process in the food and beverage industry - Consumer-led food product development for the ageing: the case of home meal replacements - Conclusions and future trends - Acknowledgements - References...
Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...
Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...
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Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A
This review is based on a presentation that was made at a meeting concerning hydration. It summarizes the epidemiological evidence for selected beverages in relation to cardiovascular and/or metabolic health. The review focuses on tea, cocoa, milk, orange juice, alcohol, and beverages sweetened with sugars. These beverage types were chosen because of their widespread consumption, with tea, cocoa, orange juice, and milk being of potential benefit while alcohol and sugars may be detrimental. There is reasonably consistent evidence of reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with high consumption of tea, with the tea flavonoids appearing to be responsible for these benefits. There is also a growing evidence base for cocoa flavanols to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The bulk of the evidence supporting these conclusions is epidemiological and needs to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Milk is associated with reduced risk of CVD, particularly in relation to blood pressure, with certain milk tripeptides being implicated in having effects to reduce angiotensin action. Further work is needed to confirm these potentially beneficial effects. There is some evidence of potentially beneficial effects of orange juice on aspects of cardiovascular function, but this is by no means convincing, and further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials, together with the elucidation of whether any benefits are linked to the citrus flavanones or simply to the vitamin C content. While there is some evidence that red wine may convey some health benefits, there is also clear evidence that alcoholic beverages can have undesirable effects on blood pressure and increase the risk of CVD. It is possible that low to moderate intakes of alcoholic beverages may be beneficial. There is some evidence that beverages sweetened with sugars may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain, and there is also an indication from longitudinal cohort
Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA
Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.
Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido
A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.
Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D
Since 2006-2007, education agencies (e.g., school districts) participating in U.S. federal meal programs are required to have wellness policies. To date, this is the only federal policy that addresses foods and beverages sold outside of school meals (in competitive venues). To examine the extent to which federally required components of school wellness policies are associated with availability of foods and beverages in competitive venues. Questionnaire data were collected in 2007-2008 through 2010-2011 school years from 892 middle and 1019 high schools in nationally representative samples. School administrators reported the extent to which schools had required wellness policy components (goals, nutrition guidelines, implementation plan/person responsible, stakeholder involvement) and healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages available in competitive venues. Analyses were conducted in 2012. About one third of students (31.8%) were in schools with all four wellness policy components. Predominantly white schools had higher wellness policy scores than other schools. After controlling for school characteristics, higher wellness policy scores were associated with higher availability of low-fat and whole-grain foods and lower availability of regular-fat/sugared foods in middle and high schools. In middle schools, higher scores also were associated with lower availability of 2%/whole milk. High schools with higher scores also had lower sugar-sweetened beverage availability and higher availability of 1%/nonfat milk, fruits/vegetables, and salad bars. Because they are associated with lower availability of less-healthy and higher availability of healthier foods and beverages in competitive venues, federally required components of school wellness policies should be encouraged in all schools. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milanović Spasenija D.
Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009
Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C
Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emond, Jennifer A; Smith, Marietta E; Mathur, Suman J; Sargent, James D; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane
Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. Fifty-one children's food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children's yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. Television advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children's foods and beverages. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O
Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.
Immohr, Laura Isabell; Hedfeld, Claas; Lang, Artur; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam
Manipulation of liquid oral drugs by mixing them into foodstuff is a common procedure for taste-masking of OTC pharmaceuticals when administered to children. However, the taste-masking capability of such application media is not systematically evaluated, and recommendations for suitable media are hardly published. In this study, a sensor array of commercially available and self-developed electronic tongue sensors was employed to assess the taste-masking efficiency of eight different beverages (tap water, apple juice, carrot juice, fennel tea, fruit tea, milk, cocoa, and Alete meal to drink) on the OTC pharmaceuticals Ambroxol-ratiopharm®, Cetirizin AL, and Laxoberal® by multivariate data analysis. The Euclidean distances between each pure application medium and its corresponding drug mixture were used as an indicator for the taste-masking efficiency and correlated to the physico-chemical properties of the beverages. Thus, the pH value, the viscosity, as well as the fat and sugar content of the beverages were included, whereas only the viscosity appeared to be insignificant in all cases. The sugar content as well as the fat content and pH value emerged to be a significant variable in taste-masking efficiency for some of the tested drug products. It was shown that the applied electronic tongue sensors were capable to demonstrate the impact of the physico-chemical properties of the application media on their taste-masking capacity regardless of their non-selectivity towards these characteristics.
a regular feature both of agricultural production –often under under government regulation if not instigation–, as well as recreational drug use of the well-heeled sections of society throughout the region but especially in Iran, Afghanistan, and in that part of the British Raj that comprises the territory...
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is designed to prepare them for the more detailed units in this series, including those on food and beverage control, production, and provision. The document begins with advice on how to use the unit. Three sections cover the following topics: (1)…
Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš
Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters
Siddhanta, Soumik; Wróbel, Maciej S.; Barman, Ishan
A quick, cost-effective method for detection of drugs of abuse in biological fluids would be of great value in healthcare, law enforcement, and home testing applications. The alarming rise in narcotics abuse has led to considerable focus on developing potent and versatile analytical tools that can address this societal problem. While laboratory testing plays a key role in the current detection of drug misuse and the evaluation of patients with drug induced intoxication, these typically require expensive reagents and trained personnel, and may take hours to complete. Thus, a significant unmet need is to engineer a facile method that can rapidly detect drugs with little sample preparation, especially the bound fraction that is typically dominant in the blood stream. Here we report an approach that combines the exquisite sensitivity of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a facile protein tethering mechanism to reliably detect four different classes of drugs, barbiturate, benzodiazepine, amphetamine and benzoylecgonine. The proposed approach harnesses the reliable and specific attachment of proteins to both drugs and nanoparticle to facilitate the enhancement of spectral markers that are sensitive to the presence of the drugs. In conjunction with chemometric tools, we have shown the ability to quantify these drugs lower than levels achievable by existing clinical immunoassays. Through molecular docking simulations, we also probe the mechanistic underpinnings of the protein tethering approach, opening the door to detection of a broad class of narcotics in biological fluids within a few minutes as well as for groundwater analysis and toxin detection.
Crisp, Catrina C; Khan, Madiha; Lambers, Donna L; Westermann, Lauren B; Mazloomdoost, Donna M; Yeung, Jennifer J; Kleeman, Steven D; Pauls, Rachel N
This study aimed to determine the effect of intravenous acetaminophen versus placebo on postoperative pain, satisfaction with pain control, and narcotic use after vaginal reconstructive surgery. This was an institutional review board-approved, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Women scheduled for reconstructive surgery including vaginal hysterectomy and vaginal vault suspension were enrolled. Subjects received 1000 mg of intravenous acetaminophen or 100 mL placebo every 6 hours for 24 hours. Pain and satisfaction with pain control were assessed using visual analog scales and a numeric rating scale. Visual analog scales were collected at 18 and 24 hours postoperatively and at discharge. A sample size calculation determined 90 subjects would be required to detect a 30% reduction in postoperative narcotic use with 80% power and significance level of 0.05. One hundred subjects were enrolled. There were no differences in demographics or surgical data and no difference in narcotic consumption at multiple evaluation points. At 18 hours postoperative, median pain scores at rest were 27.0 (interquartile range, 35.0) for acetaminophen and 35.0 (interquartile range, 44.5) for placebo, finding no difference (P = 0.465). Furthermore, pain with activity and numeric rating scale-assessed pain scales were similar (P = 0.328; P = 0.597). Although satisfaction with pain control was high overall (91.5), no difference was noted. Patients undergoing vaginal reconstructive surgery receiving perioperative intravenous acetaminophen did not experience a decrease in narcotic requirements or postoperative pain when compared with placebo. Reassuringly, pain scores were low and satisfaction with pain control was high for all subjects. The general use of this medication is not supported in these surgical patients.
Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L
Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. © 2013.
Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.
Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722
... physician) is prohibited. The introduction or possession of alcoholic beverages or any narcotic drug... soliciting and vending of all kinds, displaying or distributing commercial advertising, or collecting private... activities. (10) Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Photographs for advertising or...
.... Food and beverages will be available for purchase by participants during the workshop breaks. If you....regulations.gov . It may be viewed at the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001...
Full Text Available ... Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...
... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...
Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.
Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…
Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sultanaliev, T A; Tursynbaev, S E; Ivakin, V M
The article deals with the problems concerning aetiology and pathogenesis of damages to blood vessels in patients practicing parenteral administration of surrogates of narcotic substances. In order to clinically and experimentally study the pattern of morphological alterations in the area of narcotic substances administration and to work out an appropriate classification of the forms and stages of development of the pathological process, the authors analysed the clinical course of vascular lesions and complications thereof in a total of 244 drug abusers having parenterally administered surrogates of narcotic substances and undergoing treatment at the Department of Vascular Surgery of the Municipal Clinical Hospital of the city of Almaty. Additionally, experimental studies were carried out on 16 rabbits with the induced model of parenteral administration of surrogates of narcotic substances, thus making it possible to study the degree of their effect and to confirm the theory of a chemical impact of the homemade drugs on the vascular wall. The findings of the carried out studies enabled us to single out the following clinical stages of vascular lesions: stage I - the initial stage of cicatricial-and-ulcerous lesions formation, stage II - formation of cutaneous-and-vascular fistulas, stage III - the stage of complications characterized by development of health-hazardous vascular lesions, i. e., arterial and venous thromboses of the major vessels, as well as arrosive bleedings. It was noted that more than 50% of patients were admitted to the clinic presenting with the third stage of vascular lesions. The experimental part of the study included 64 experiments on 16 rabbits (one experiment per each paw of the animal). The laboratory animals were subdivided into three groups. The first experimental group consisted of the rabbits with a mechanically inflicted injury to the vessels. The second and third experimental groups were composed of the rabbits having received
Full Text Available Immobilized yeast invertase was applied for treatment of alcoholic beverages with the aim of transformation of higher alcohols into alkylfructosides. Gas-liquid chromatography of treated water-alcoholic medium containing 3.0 mg/l isoamyl alcohol and 4% saccharose by immobilized invertase had shown the convertion of 40% isoamyl alcohol, which amounts to 1.8 mg/l absolute alcohol. Other parameters remained at the previous level. The high level of enzyme activity was observed when the initial concentration of sucrose in the reaction mixture attained 4.0-12.5%. Tasting of treated samples indicated the improvement of quality and degustational properties of beverages, they had softer and more harmonious taste and aroma in comparison with control sample and finished Vodka, which completed the cycle of technological processing.
Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Persky, Joseph J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Objectives. We assessed the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes on net employment. Methods. We used a macroeconomic simulation model to assess the employment impact of a 20% SSB tax accounting for changes in SSB demand, substitution to non-SSBs, income effects, and government expenditures of tax revenues for Illinois and California in 2012. Results. We found increased employment of 4406 jobs in Illinois and 6654 jobs in California, representing a respective 0.06% and 0.03% change in employment. Declines in employment within the beverage industry occurred but were offset by new employment in nonbeverage industry and government sectors. Conclusions. SSB taxes do not have a negative impact on state-level employment, and industry claims of regional job losses are overstated and may mislead lawmakers and constituents. PMID:24524492
Resnik, David B
Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair.
Perscheid, M.; Zuern, F.
It has long been known that the quality of beverages is influenced by light. Such light-induced changes are dependent on the kind of container, since its light permeability determines the energy and intensity of radiation which causes the change. In previous investigations we studied the influence of light on wine. We found a positive correlation between the transmission spectrum of the bottle glass and the degree of change in the wine. A theoretic discussion is given on the influence of light on fruit juices, furthermore, experiments are suggested, which in our opinion are suitable to investigate the influence of light on beverages. We propose the use of a special xenon gas-discharge lamp as radiation source to obtain fast and reproducible results. (orig.) [de
Mugula, J K; Lyimo, M H; Kessy, F L
Powder for an instant, non-alcoholic beverage formulation was manufactured by sundrying and ovendrying of a popular dessert ('silk') banana variety. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of traditional sundrying on mats and ovendrying methods on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted in losses of Vitamin A, C and total sugar contents by 74, 91 and 63%, while ovendrying losses were 73, 90 and 62%, respectively. Nutrient losses during storage for three months in transparent polythene bags reached 93, 93 and 70% in sundried samples and 84, 99 and 55% in ovendried samples, respectively. The moisture content of sundried and ovendried samples increased by 12 and 17%, respectively, during storage. The increase in microbial load in this period was higher in sundried samples.
Markov Siniša L.
Full Text Available Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the proces of biotransformation of sugared tea with a tea fungus. Kombucha is also frequently called "tea fungus" in the literature, although there is actually no fungus involved in the fermentation. The tea fungus is a symbiotic association of native yeasts and Acetobacteriaceae species fermenting sugared (5-10% black tea (0.2-0.5% into a kombucha beverage. After about 7-10 days incubation at room temperature, kombucha is ready. Growth patterns of tea fungus microorganisms during the biotransformation process of kombucha are not well documented. Tea fungus produces many substances, which with the supply of tea nutrients, give the drink its unusual flavour and healthy properties.
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....
Colangelo, C.H.; Huquet, M.R.; Palacios, M.A.; Oliveira, A.A.
The objective of the present work is the estimation of the 210 Po content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, tea leaves, their infusions and ground coffee were analyzed, as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to the annual consumption of the beverages described were found to be from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for 210 Po in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq*kg -1 to 80 Bq*kg -1 . Lung doses due to the use of tobacco vary from 75 μSv*y -1 to 600 μSv*y -1 . (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs
Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko
Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening
Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Henderson, Kathryn E; Tripp, Amanda S
Sugar-sweetened beverages are a target for reduction in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about sugar-sweetened beverages purchased with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This paper describes purchases of non-alcoholic refreshment beverages among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and SNAP. Grocery store scanner data from a regional supermarket chain were used to assess refreshment beverage purchases of 39,172 households in January-June 2011. The sample consisted of families with a history of WIC participation in 2009-2011; about half also participated in SNAP. Beverage spending and volume purchased were compared for WIC sampled households either using SNAP benefits (SNAP) or not (WIC-only). Analyses were completed in 2012. Refreshment beverages were a significant contributor to expenditure on groceries by SNAP and WIC households. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 58% of refreshment beverage purchases made by SNAP households and 48% of purchases by WIC-only households. Soft drinks were purchased most by all households. Fruit-based beverages were mainly 100% juice for WIC-only households and sugary fruit drinks for SNAP households. SNAP benefits paid for 72% of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases made by SNAP households. Nationwide, SNAP was estimated to pay at least $1.7 to $2.1 billion annually for sugar-sweetened beverages purchased in grocery stores. Considerable amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages are purchased by households participating in WIC and SNAP. The SNAP program pays for most of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among SNAP households. The upcoming SNAP reauthorization could be a good time to reconsider the program priorities to align public funds with public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido
Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences
Mirian Cátia Vieira Basílio
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a disponibilidade e o acesso à bebida alcoólica num bairro da cidade de Vitória/ES. Os dados foram obtidos através de pesquisa de campo na região selecionada utilizando a observação simples e a entrevista através da aplicação de questionários numa amostra de 10% dos estabelecimentos encontrados. Os pontos de venda funcionam 7 dias por semana; 68,8% vendem a credito e a um preço médio de R$ 0,41 (a dose de cachaça. 93,8% dos entrevistados não solicitam documento de identidade ao cliente antes de lhe vender bebidas. A relação entre número de moradias e número de pontos de venda foi de 3:1. A alta concentração de estabelecimentos que vendem bebidas alcoólicas no bairro aponta para a necessidade de pensar o entorno (regiões vizinhas da mesma. Estas regiões envolvem áreas marginalizadas onde ocorre tráfico de drogas, fazendo da região estudada uma área importante para o comércio, pela facilidade de acesso aos outros bairros adjacentes da cidade.The objective of this study is to analyse the availability and access to alcoholic beverages in a neighbour-hood in the city of Vitória/ES. Data was obtained by means of field research using simple observation method and the application of questionnaires in a sample of 10% of the establishments encountered in the region. These establishments are open seven days a week; 68,8% of these markets sell on credit and at a medium price of R$ 0,41 (one dose of "cachaça". 93,8% of the sellers who were interviewed doesn't check the identity cards of their clients before selling them the alcoholic beverages. The relation between the number of houses and establishments was 3:1. The high concentration of establishments which sell alcoholic beverages in the neighbourhood brings up the necessity to think about the neighbouring regions. These regions include marginalized areas where there is drug trafficking, making the studied region an important commercial
Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; H.O. Sherif; S.I. Hawash
Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been con...
Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue
Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry
Temple, Jennifer L
Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murphy, James Peter
Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...
Almeida, Rita; David, Fátima; Abreu, Rute
This research aims to analyse policies inherent to the Corporate Social Responsibility Management System (CSRMS) of a company that produce diet and light beverage, iced teas, juice drinks and bottled waters. This management system is based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as “concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (EC, Green paper – Promotin...